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Ulrich von Zatzikhoven

Ulrich von Zatzikhoven

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Ulrich von Zatzikhoven

Ulrich von Zatzikhoven était un écrivain médiéval allemand. Il a écrit sur le cycle arthurien, notamment avec son œuvre la plus connue, Lanzelet.

Son nom et son origine géographique (Zezikon) ne nous sont connus que par son œuvre Lanzelet qu'il a rédigée probablement bien après 1193.

On accepte en général l'idée que Zatzikhoven est Uolricus de Cecinchoven, un prêtre de Lommis dans le canton de Thurgau cité dans un document en 1214, à savoir une liste de souscripteurs lors d'un don de la famille de Toggenburg au couvent St Peterzell le 29 mars 1214 [ 1 ] .

La seule œuvre connue d'Ulrich von Zatzikhoven est le roman en vers Lanzelet qui est l'adaptation en allemand d'un livre français du cycle arthurien. Le Lancelot de Zatzikhoven est complètement différent de celui de Chrétien de Troyes.

Ulrich cite daz welsche buoch von Lanzelete (V. 9341) comme modèle. L'œuvre serait arrivée en Allemagne dans les bagages du seigneur anglo-normand Hugues de Morville, un des otages échangés contre Richard cœur de lion. Le roi d'Angleterre resta prisonnier de l'empereur Henri VI du 21 décembre 1192 au 4 février 1194 . Ulrich aurait pu prendre connaissance du texte à cette époque [ 2 ] .

Sword and Buckler Fencing in Ulrich von Zatzikhoven

I don’t know of any mermen fencing so how about these marginalia monsters? Fighting with clubs instead of swords was popular as a way of managing danger, some of the legislators trying to take control of duelling proposed to allow clubs but ban sharp weapons (Ariella Elema, “Tradition, Innovation, Re-Enactment: Hans Talhoffer’s Unusual Weapons.” Acta Periodica Duellatorum 7.1 (2019) https://doi.org/10.2478/apd-2019-0001). From Besançon BM MS.551 Miracles de Notre Dame folio 87r c/o Manuscript Miniatures

For at least 15 or 20 years, people who attend the right events and drink with the right people have known that much of the fencing jargon in later fencing manuals first appears in French chivalric literature of the 12th and 13th century. In 2015 Olivier Dupuis published an article in Acta Periodica Duellatorum so the evidence is available to everyone. But he overlooked one important source, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven’s Lanzelet. This was written in German but inspired by a “welsh (Romance-language) book” brought to Austria by one of the hostages for Richard the Lion-Heart named Hugh de Morville. Ulrich was so impressed by it that he translated it into German. We don’t have any one manuscript in French or Norman or Occitan which tells the exact same story. Translating a romance could be a creative process in the middle ages, and ancient and medieval writers loved to disguise fiction as “a translation of a manuscript in a foreign language which I discovered.” But in terms of content Lanzelet is very much a romance of the late 12th century, with strong parallels to Welsh and Irish stories. Fencing appears in three or four stories in this romance.

The first story comes from Lancelot’s education by his guardians in the Otherworld. There were no soldiers or horsemen there and he was still a child so he learned other skills:

At the youth’s request the lady did a wise thing, for he seemed to her a lively boy: she sent for mermen (merwunder) and had them teach him to fence (lêren schirmen: 279). In this exercise he would never give up before he had to. He had also to play prisoners’ base, to jump extraordinary distances, to wrestle strenuously (starclîche ringen: 284), to hurl stones, both big and little, a good distance, to throw darts (he was never wearied by any of his instruction), to still-hunt, to hawk, to chase with the full pack, and to shoot with the bow. The men who came from the sea gave him skill. In all ways was he wise and manly, but about knightly horsemanship (ritterschaft) he knew nothing whatsoever, for he never mounted a horse, and he was ignorant of armour (harnasch). And so he grew to be fifteen years old in that land.

– lines 275-301 of the Bibliotheca Augusta transcription based on W. Spiewok’s edition from 1997. I have adapted the translation in Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, Lanzelet: A Romance of Lancelot, tr. Kenneth G. T. Webster, ann. Roger Sherman Loomis (Columbia University Press: New York, 1951) pp. 28-29

Ulrich makes fun of his hero when he first gets on a horse and takes a spear in his hand.

The second story comes from one of Lancelot’s indiscretions with his host’s daughter or wife (this time it is his daughter, there are signs that she was his wife in an earlier version of the story like in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight). They take great pleasure in each other for the night, but dawn is coming:

As this hero lay couched so softly, the unwished day appeared and the sweet night was over. Then their resolute host pounded angrily at the door. The guests were terrified because he carried two sharp knives (scharpfiu mezzer), pointed and very long, and two bucklers (buggelaere). His heart was troubled. The knives were double-edged. He spoke (it would have been better if he had not done so): “I am going either to lose my life or to present the morning gift, for which no one will ever thank me it is sadness and sorrow and everlasting rue, for you have forfeited your loyalty and your honour. Never since I was born have I treated a man better than you: what has that profited me? I was so disposed then: but now, all lie still, as you value your lives, and tell me who has the woman, my child, the faithless baggage?”

The girl concealed herself under her lover, the youthful champion, and would gladly have lain dead there. Her father, perceiving it, ran thither swiftly and savagely threatened them. “Whoever robs me of my honour,” he said, “will not enjoy it much! I will challenge you to a game (ein spil ich iu teilen wil: 1148). Take this shield (nemet disen schirm) in your hand and stay here by this wall (1150), and I will go to the other side and I will give you your choice. One of us must throw first. Whoever hits the mark, he wins the game the other bears the loss.”

The youth approved the plan: “Since I am on the defensive, it seems to me proper that you should throw before I do. May God give you bad luck, my hateful opponent! Please God you miss me!”

Then he relied on his own skill, and kept a sharp eye on his father-in-law, always holding his shield (schirm) in front of him. For this game no board was needed! (si spilten noetlîch âne bret: 1167) … The host played first and hurled his knife with full force through the young warrior’s sleeve into the wall. He fleshed him a little, so that he made the blood flow. Then the wounded one considered how he could make up for his injury. Instead of throwing and hurling, he rushed upon the wretch and gave him a frightful stab with his knife, so that he fell on the floor and never spoke again.

Throwing spears was very important in early Medieval warfare, but not fashionable in 12th century courtly circles, so our editor and translator wonders if throwing the knives is an archaism … but our poet enjoyed the gambling imagery in this scene. Throwing knives might have reminded him of dice, like the wooden bucklers reminded him of backgammon or chess boards.

A French translation of Aristotle’s Politics presented in 1376 shows many of the same sports which Ulrich von Zatzikhoven lists: fencing with small shields, throwing darts, hurling stones, and wrestling. From Brussels, KBR Ms. 11201-02 Aristotle’s Politica & Economica

In the third story, a squire is describing a forthcoming tourney:

Then they asked the courtly youth to inform them when the tournament (turnei) was to be. He replied: “Mark what I say. Three weeks from next Monday the tourney is arranged on the Judgement Field by the new town of Dyoflê (2670). I will tell you about this meadow. A man can find a mate there for whatever he wants to do, in earnest or in play (beidiu ze ernst und ze spil: 2674) fighting (vehten), horse-racing, jumping, foot-racing, fencing (schirmen), wrestling (ringen), playing at draughts (zabeln), and bowling (kugelspil) plenty of zither, fiddle, and harp playing and merchandise of every kind from all over the world- that sort of thing you can find there any day better than elsewhere. Therefore the tourney is held at that place. Every sort of courtly activity (hübscheit) will be there, and the field is broad and level. Many a good knight will come for the sake of praise and in the hope of luck. Since I have found my lord Walwein I am well content. I am vexed that it took me so long to recognize him, for there was never knight born so steadfast in honour or so prone to good deeds.”

Line 4039 says that a particular lady was so well behaved and carefully spoken that nobody could accuse her of anything that she needed to hide: good fortune (gelücke) was her schirmschilt “fencing shield.”

For now, I want to leave you with two things to think about. We see a lot of familiar terms, including schirmen “to fence with the buckler,” schirm “defense, shield,” play “to fence,” earnest / play as two types of fencing, and buggelaere “buckler.” This had already been borrowed into German by around 1193 if it was not invented in German in the first place (schirm- seems to have a Germanic root). Fencing jargon is part of a wider world of craft and trade jargon you can’t understand every word by just studying fencing manuals, any more than you can understand a word in a medieval language by studying just that language. Medieval people generally knew several languages, words passed fluidly between them, and we just don’t have enough examples of use in any one language from any one period to solve the really tricky problems.

In addition, this very early source says some things about the context of fencing. It is something which brings joy, like other play, and which a boy can learn from skilled teachers before he is ready to learn horsemanship and armed combat. Could that have to do with the way that fencing is often a very different kind of movement than the shield-splintering, spark-striking, mail-rending movement of armoured combat in the same poem? Or the worries of city fathers about boys and young men wandering around with swords and bucklers, spending time in low company, getting into fights and intimidating their elders and betters? Or why the Merkverse attributed to Johannes Liechtenauer is so keen to link fencing with other ritterlich activities, and why Fiore wants his aristocratic patron to know that he will teach the sword in one hand but not the buckler? Somewhere between duelling, play, and civic associations are the answers to some big questions about what these arts were created for and how the ones in surviving manuals relate to what most young men or soldiers did in their free time.

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2020-08-30: Corrected small typos in the citations and added a link to Jacob and Willhelm Grimm’s dictionary entry for wälsch “Romance, French, Italian …” (it has the same etymology as Walloon and Welsh)

Edit 2020-09-08: On Facebook, Roland Warzecha points out that the verb schirmen does not really appear in I.33 or the German Fechtbücher, even though its common in other kinds of texts describing people who have friendly fights or teach how to fight from the 12th century onwards (Unsere Hauptquelle in der Dimicator Schola, das Manuskript Royal Armouries Record 0033 (oder, wie zuvor, MS I.33), benutzt zwar einige deutsche Fachbegriffe in seinem ansonsten lateinischen Text, stellt aber keinen offensichtlichen Bezug z. B. zum “Schirmen” her. Selbst dieser eine deutsche Begriff, der etymologisch mit den Wörtern für “fechten” in romanischen Sprachen verwandt ist (frz. escrime, ital. scherma, span. esgrima etc.), kommt im Fechtbuch als solcher nicht vor). So when we use what seems like a neutral term like “fencing” or collect evidence of people with swords and buckler or called “le Skirmisour,” we might be including people who the authors of our manuals would tell us were doing something different than what they did.

Edit 2021-03-13: A merman with sword and buckler is depicted on a 15th century pewter charm holder from the Netherlands: van Beuningen, H. J. E., and A. M. Koldeweij, Heilig en Profaan [1]. Cothen: Stichting Middeleeuwse religieuze en profane insignes, 1993. No. 601 (c/o Billy & Charlie)

Further Reading: Oliver Dupuis, “The Roots of Fencing from the Twelfth to the Fourteenth Centuries in the French Language Area,” Acta Periodica Duellatorum 3.1 (2015) pp. 37-62 doi: 10.1515/apd-2015-0002

Der Text beginnt mit einem Prolog, der die zentralen Elemente von Lanzelets Aufstieg (manheit, name und künneschaft) benennt und nahtlos die Erzählung der Elternvorgeschichte anschließt. König Pant, Lanzelets Vater, herrscht tyrannisch, weil gleichmacherisch (er woltes algelîche wegen (V. 54)) und beratungsresistent (V. 58/59) über Genewis. Er stirbt bei einem Aufstand seiner Untertanen, der fliehenden Mutter wird der Sohn entzogen, um auf einer von Frauen bewohnten Insel erzogen zu werden. In ihm wächst der Wunsch die Welt kennenzulernen, woraufhin er sich rüstet und aufbricht. Es folgt des tumben Tors Begegnung mit dem Zwerg, der an Erecs Initialaventiure erinnert. Burgherr Johfrit de Liez ist es schließlich, der den jungen Lanzelet in den Ritterkünsten unterweist.

Lanzelet trifft auf die Ritter Kuraus und Orphilet, mit denen er gemeinsam zur Burg des gestrengen Galagandreiz zieht. Es kommt zur Liebesnacht zwischen Lanzelet und dessen Tochter, anschließend zum unhöfischen Zweikampf zwischen Lanzelet und Galagandreiz, in dem der Gastgeber den Tod findet. Lanzelet heiratet die Tochter des Galagandreiz und wird damit zum Landesherrn, der verschwenderisch mit seinen Mitteln umgeht (V. 1250).

Lanzelet bricht heimlich zu neuen Taten auf. Er wird gefangen genommen und im Kerker des Burgherrn Linier von Limors inhaftiert. In einer Kampfprobe besiegt Lanzelet einen Riesen, Löwen und Linier selbst, worauf er Ade, die Nichte Liniers heiratet und wiederum Landesherr wird. Die Episode bietet Allusionen an die Beschreibung von Enites Pferd aus dem "Erec" (V. 1452ff.) und stellt den Helden zum zweiten Mal als unbekümmerten Kämpfer dar, der sorgenfrei durch sein Leben schreitet (so schon in Orphilets Bewertung V. 1341, sodann in V. 1686).

Er bricht erneut zu neuen Taten auf und kämpft mit Walwein, einem Artusritter. Der Kampf wird unentschieden beendet, Lanzelet siegt in der Folge beim Turnier in Djofle auch über die Ritter der Artusrunde, lehnt aber eine Einladung von König Artus an dessen Hof ab. Er reitet stattdessen nach Burg Schatel-le-mort, wo er den Zauberer Mabuz, den Sohn der Wasserfee, die ihn einst seiner Mutter entführte, trifft. Mabuz verkehrt Lanzelets Tapferkeit in Feigheit, Ade verlässt ihn, er bleibt als Feigling bei Mabuz, auf dessen Geheiß er den Nachbarn Iweret, den erklärten Feind der Wasserfee, tötet. Lanzelet heiratet dessen Tochter Iblis.

Eine Botin der Wasserfee erscheint und überbringt Lanzelet die Kunde seiner Herkunft und seines Namens. Zugleich erhält er ein Wunderzelt, das an Gottfrieds Minnegrotte gemahnt. Lanzelet der milde (V. 4759), nun seiner Herkunft gewiss und damit des Artushofes würdig, sucht den Hof seines Onkels Artus auf. Es kommt zum Kampf mit dem König Valerin, der mit dessen Unterwerfungsgelöbnis endet. Ein Fest wird am Artushof gefeiert. Lanzelet gerät in die Hand der Königin von Pluris, die ihn zu einer bigamistischen Ehe zwingt. Parallel zu Lanzelets Minnehaft, die ihn wîlent trûric, wîlent frô (V. 5645) macht, findet am Artushof eine Mantelprobe statt, die die Verfehlungen aller Damen bei Hof offenlegt (darin dem Ambraser Mantelfragment gleich). Nur Iblis besteht die Probe und erweist sich als ideale Dame. Nachdem am Ende der Mantelprobe von der Botin der Meerfee Lanzelets Aufenthaltsort bekannt gegeben worden ist, befreien Walwein, Karjet, Erec und Tristant ihn aus der Hand der Königin von Pluris.

Die Frau von König Artus, Ginover wird von König Valerin entführt und auf die uneinnehmbare Burg Verworrener Tann gebracht. Der Zauberer Malduc bietet seine Dienste an. Er knüpft daran allerdings die Bedingung, dass Erec und Walwein an ihn ausgeliefert werden, da sie sich des bislang ungesühnten Mordes an Malducs Verwandten schuldig gemacht haben. Valerins Burg wird erobert, er wird getötet und Ginover wird befreit. Erec und Walwein sind im Kerker auf Malducs Burg und sind dort mit dem Tode bedroht. Lanzelet befreit sie dort mit Hilfe seiner hundert Ritter, die von einem ex machina auftauchenden Riesen (V. 7535) in Malducs Burg gehoben werden. Malduc findet bei der Entsetzung der Artusritter den Tod. Ein Freudenfest am Hofe Königs Artus folgt. Auftritt der aufgrund eines Minnevergehens in einen Drachen verzauberten Dame Elidia, die durch einen Kuss Lanzelets befreit wird und fortan Minnerichterin am Artushof ist. Lanzelet kehrt auf den Thron von Genewis zurück und sieht dort seine Mutter wieder.

Lanzelet kehrt an den Artushof zurück und übernimmt die Herrschaft im Land seiner Frau Iblis. Es gibt Krönungsfeierlichkeiten in Dodone, wo Lanzelet als umsichtiger und (anders als sein Vater und Gegenbild Pant gerechter) König herrscht. Nach einem langen, glücklichen Leben endet die Geschichte von Lanzelet und Iblis an ihrem gemeinsamen Todestag. Der Text endet mit einem gedoppelten Epilog, in dem der Erzähler auf das Ende der Geschichte eine Fortsetzung folgen lässt (V. 9350/9351) und seine Quelle, das welsche buoch (V. 9341) aus der Hand Hucs de Morville, Geisel im Zuge der Gefangensetzung von Richard Löwenherz in Bayern, benennt. Der Text gibt sich damit als detailgetreue Wiedergabe einer – verlorenen – französischen Vorlage aus, was ihn auch für die romanistische Mediävistik zu einem beliebten Forschungsgegenstand gemacht hat.

Nachdem der Text lange Zeit als minderwertige Artusliteratur geringgeschätzt wurde, hat sich die neuere Forschung seit Ruh vermehrt des 'Lanzelet' angenommen Zellmanns These vom didaktischen Roman steht dabei der Einschätzung MacLellands gegenüber, die die Dichtung als reines Unterhaltungswerk begreift und ihr keine didaktische Funktion zubilligt.

Der Versroman wird durch den Moment, in dem Lanzelet seinen Namen erfährt, geteilt. Diese Zäsur erfolgt in ungefähr der Mitte des Textes (Vers 4706). Der erste Teil besteht aus drei großen Episoden, die Lanzelets Kindheit, Adoleszenz und Mannwerdung schildern. Durch Initialbuchstaben sind im Manuskript einzelne Textabschnitte gekennzeichnet, die jeweils den Episoden (Aventiuren) in etwa entsprechen.

Dem ersten Abenteuer (Galagandreiz-Episode) ist die Vorgeschichte mit Lanzelets Vater vorangestellt, ohne sie jedoch in Inhalt und Umfang gleichwertig zu den anderen Episoden auszugestalten. In den drei folgenden Episoden sind jeweils mehrere Aspekte deutlich abgehandelt: ein zu besiegender Herrscher, eine junge Frau, eine Kampfsituation, eine Entwicklung Lanzelets. Die Episoden schildern prototypisch die ehrhafte Mannwerdung als aufeinander aufbauende Lebensabschnitte.

Dreimal wird hier [im Lanzelet] dasselbe Thema variiert: Lanzelet kämpft wegen eines Mädchens oder um ein Mädchen mit dessen Onkel oder Vater. Die Kämpfe werden von Mal zu Mal schwieriger und die Gefahren größer. Auf die Begegnung mit dem Messerwerfer Galagandreiz folgt der dreifache Kampf auf Limors und am Ende steht die komplexe Situation mit Mabuz und Iweret. […] Die Rückseite sozusagen der sich steigernden Krafttaten ist eine sich steigernde Gefährdung und Hilflosigkeit. In Moreiz läßt er sich harmlos verführen und gerät dadurch in eine prekäre Situation. Auf Limors wird er überwältigt und gefangengesetzt, auf Schatel le mort ist er aufgrund eines Zaubers völlig hilflos. [1]

Dabei verändert sich die Rolle der Frau:

  • Galagandreiz’ namenlose Tochter verliebt sich nicht in Lanzelet, sie wählt ihn erst als Liebespartner, nachdem die anderen beiden Ritter ihr Minne-Ansinnen als zu riskant ablehnten. Körperliche Liebe um ihrer selbst willen. (Lüsternheit)
  • Ade verliebt sich auf keusche Weise in Lanzelet, als sie ihn vor der Burg kämpfen sieht sie hilft, gibt ihn aber vorschnell auf. Körperliche Liebe als Zeichen einer Liebesbeziehung. (pragmatische Ehefrau)
  • Iblis erst ist die perfekte Partnerin. Sie verliebt sich auch beim ersten Anblick von Lanzelet in ihn jedoch ist er nicht einmal körperlich präsent, denn sie sieht ihn das erste Mal im Traum. Die Beziehung mit Iblis beginnt völlig körperlos im Traum, und eine körperliche Liebe wird nicht mehr formuliert. (hohe Minne)

Solche Steigerungen in Dreier-Stufen finden sich mehrfach. Dabei stellt die dritte Station zumeist das zu erreichende Ideal dar.

  • Einladung an Artus’ Hof zu kommen:
    • Die erste schlägt Lanzelet nach der Tötung Galagandreiz’ aus Orphilet hatte ihm dies empfohlen.
    • Die nächste Einladung überbringt Walwein nach Lanzelets Sieg über Linier.
    • Schließlich lädt Artus nach dem Turnier bei Djofle Lanzelet selbst ein diesen hält nur noch sein ihm nicht bekannter Name davon ab.
    • Riese
    • Löwen
    • Linier selbst.
    • gegen Galagandreiz: wird zum Kampf gefordert Sieg durch List
    • gegen Linier: geht in den Kampf, um aus dem Kerker zu kommen Lanzelet macht einen mitleiderregenden Eindruck (Linier wollte eigentlich nicht kämpfen, sondern muss dazu erst überredet werden) Kampf ohne List
    • gegen Iweret: Lanzelet fordert den Kampf offen nach einem Ritual und besteht darin wie ein Mann.
    • am ersten Tag kämpft Lanzelet allein
    • am zweiten in der Gruppe des Grafen Ritschart und
    • am dritten vereinigen sich die Ritterscharen des Grafen und eines ungenannten Fürsten, und er kämpft für diese große Gruppe.

    Das ritterliche Ideal kann erst im Kampf mit Iweret und der anschließenden Beziehung mit Iblis erfüllt werden.

    Im zweiten Teil wird Lanzelet Teil des Artushofs. Nach einer Weile reist er jedoch ab, um eine in Vers 421ff erlittene Schmach zu rächen. Der Ort (Plûrîs) wurde im Laufe des ersten Teils mehrfach erwähnt. Lanzelet muss nun wieder „durch die Stufe der Demütigung und Gefangenschaft gehen, bevor er die höchste Stufe erreichen kann“ [2] . Die Geißelung des Zwerges, der durch diese Aktion erst eine Handlung zwischen Lanzelet und der Plûrîs-Herrin in Gang bringt, und Lanzelets frühere Nicht-Rache dessen entspricht der Demütigung, die in der Gefangennahme auf Limors und der Lethargie in Schatel le mort ihre Entsprechung findet. Dieses Mal ist allerdings kein „väterlicher“ Beschützer zu bezwingen, wie es im ersten Teil noch üblich war. Stattdessen besiegt Lanzelet hundert Krieger. Die Herrin findet solchen Gefallen an ihm, dass sie ihn nicht wieder fortlassen will (sie nimmt ihn in „Minnehaft“, Kurt Ruh, [3] ). Nach einem Jahr gelingt es Lanzelet mittels einer List und durch die Hilfe der befreundeten Artusritter zu entkommen.

    Während die namenlose Tochter einfach aus dem Text verschwand, wurde Ades Verschwinden aus dem Text extra betont, als sie ihn verließ. Als Lanzelet Iblis verließ, sollte dies nur temporär sein. Der einst Verlassene und nun temporäre Verlasser wird durch die Herrin von Plûrîs festgesetzt. Ein reguläres Verlassen ist hier unmöglich, Lanzelet bleibt nur die Flucht. In der Tradition des Artusromans ist die Affektregulierung und Triebkonditionierung vom Artushof stets ausgelagert. Am Artushof kann nur eine Beziehung wie die mit Iblis existieren, zu der sich Lanzelet zurücksehnt, was seine Vollkommenheit bestätigt.

    Das Prinzip der triuwe, deren Mangel den ersten Teil dominierte (z. B. Pants beendete Gewaltherrschaft, Iwerets Erbraub an der Meerfee, Ades rasche Abwendung von Lanzelet), bestimmt auch den zweiten Teil (z. B. Lanzelet bleibt in Plûrîs insofern treu, als er stets zu Iblis zurückstrebt, Iblis passt als einziger der Mantel, Lanzelet hält Artus und seinen Mitrittern die Treue und steht ihnen bei) und kulminiert schließlich in der Episode mit dem Drachen. Die Geschichte des aus Treulosigkeit in einen Drachen verwandelten Mädchens fasst noch einmal den Kernproblemkreis zusammen, stellt Haug fest [4] .

    Ulrich von Bek

    Ulrich von Bek and his descendants are a somewhat unusual family in Moorcock's works, as they function both as an aspect of his Eternal Champion and as a companion to him. The family is considered to be the current Keeper of the Holy Grail.

    The character of (Countess) Rose von Bek appears in several of the below-mentioned novels and short stories, but she was only a von Bek by marriage, retaining the surname and title after her divorce.

    Additionally, the members of the Begg (originally, van Beek) family are stated to be English cousins of the Continental von Beks.

    Family motto Edit

    The von Bek family motto is Do you the Devil's work, a nod to the relationship that the family developed with Satan in The War Hound and the World's Pain.

    A von Bek features in the following novels and short stories:

    • The War Hound and the World's Pain (1981)
    • "Flux" (1979, short story, retroactively rewritten as a von Bek)
    • The Brothel in Rosenstrasse (1982)
    • The City in the Autumn Stars (1986, Manfred von Bek)
    • The Dragon in the Sword (1987, with Erekosë)
    • The Sundered Worlds, a.k.a. The Blood-Red Game (1965, retroactively rewritten as a von Bek)
    • "The Pleasure Garden of Felipe Sagittarius" (1965, short story, retroactively rewritten as a Von Bek)
    • "The White Wolf's Song," a.k.a. "The Black Blade's Summoning" (1994, short story, with Elric)
    • Blood: A Southern Fantasy (1995, Rudy von Bek)
    • "The Affair of the Seven Virgins" (1994, short story appearing in Fabulous Harbors, with Sexton Begg)
    • "Crimson Eyes" (1994, short story appearing in Fabulous Harbors, with Sexton Begg)
    • "No Ordinary Christian" (1995, short story appearing in Fabulous Harbors, with Poppy Begg)
    • The War Amongst the Angels (1997)
    • "The Cairene Purse" (2002, short story)
    • The Dreamthief's Daughter (2001, with Elric)
    • The Skrayling Tree (2003, with Elric)
    • The White Wolf's Son (2005, with Elric)

    Moorcock has rewritten several of his past novels and short stories so that characters who previously had other names are now von Beks. Thus retroactively, von Bek has become one of the most important Multiverse participants.

    Ulrich von Liechtenstein: The Poet Knight

    Like many others who have watched Heath Ledger’s film A Knight’s Tale I assumed the character of Ulrich von Lichtenstein was a made up person, invented to tell the story of a lowly peasant claiming to be a knight, so that he could fulfil his dream of jousting. It wasn’t until I was researching the history of tournaments in connection with my favourite person, Anthony Woodville, that I came across the real-life Ulrich. During his lifetime, he was not just the knight you expect him to be, but also a poet, high ranking commander, steward, and provincial judge.[1]

    Ulrich von Lichtenstein was born into a low status but prosperous minor noble family in Styria, now modern-day Austria around 1200. His first connections with the knightly world came during his teenage years, when he became a page to the son of a Duke. He held this role until he himself was knighted by Duke Leopold VI of Austria in his early 20s.[2] After this position was bestowed upon him, it was clear that he would have certain skills and expectations to hold. However, during the thirteenth century, there was relative peace across Europe, meaning that many knights were idle and were having to find new ways to entertain themselves and to practise their skills.[3]

    Two men on horseback, wearing lavish armour, facing each other at a jousting tournament. Colour lithograph, by Th. und C. Senefelder, 1817, after H. Östendorfer, 1541. Credit: Wellcome Collection. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

    In the century before Ulrich’s knighthood, the lance had first emerged as a weapon to be used by cavalrymen, meaning that tournaments were beginning to be used to help train and exercise these new talents required to use it.[4] When they were originally formed, tournaments, or tourneys as they were mainly called, were not like the solely jousting tournaments we now understand today. They were melees, disorganised ‘peaceful’ versions of battles, designed to prepare soldiers for the real experience of war. These events also included hostage taking and could become highly political, as well as being obviously dangerous and disruptive to any town they took place at. Jousting did take place but was only a side-line activity in the days leading up to the grand melee.

    It was not until the 1220s, around the time Ulrich began participating in jousting tours, that jousting became an accepted part of a knights training in its own right.[5] Melees were still an accepted part of tournaments until the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, but the 1220s saw an acknowledgment of the art of jousting as an art form. Ulrich von Lichtenstein played a large part in this himself as he became one of the many travelling knights who would tour across Europe following the tournaments. It also became agreeable to organisers of these events who began to see the advantages of jousting tourneys rather than melees. By devoting whole days to jousting, there would be less disruption and less competitors, but also the same areas could be reused more easily as there would be less destruction to the fields used.[6] These smaller scale tournaments were able to still be used as training for war, but also focused on providing entertainment for the elites with pageantry and individual skill.[7]

    Unknown Artist, Knights Jousting, Photo credit: Preston Park Museum & Grounds

    During Ulrich’s lifetime, there was an increasing association with Arthurian legend, partly fuelled by Ulrich himself. Many of these new tournaments were known as Round Tables and Ulrich’s version of this in 1240 is an interesting example. During this jousting tour, he dressed as King Arthur and challenged knights to joust him, proclaiming that if any were found worthy enough, they would become one of his Knights of the Round Table.[8] This eventually finished with a single event where a pavilion was erected to represent the Round Table, where the knights were then allowed 5 days of jousting to defend the table.[9] This event, alongside many others were recorded in Ulrich’s poetry, written in the 1250s, some 20-30 years after they supposedly took place.

    Whilst his poetry must have had some exaggeration on the pageantry side of his tournament career, there must be some basis of fact underneath the over emphasis, no matter how small they may be. Ruth Harvey suggests that the tales he told in these poems were a mixture of fact and fiction which “are jumbled together in a single kaleidoscopic medley”.[10] This is probably best seen in Ulrich’s description of a helmet crest he wore in 1226, which was made from gilded metal and was laced with a fan of peacock feathers.[11] Whilst we may never know if he did actually wear something like that during his jousts, it is true that from the early history of tournaments, emblems, whether worn on the body or head etc, and banners were used to show off a knights status and to make them identifiable, and had even been changed from an exclusively military purpose, to being used in civilian life too.[12]

    What is certain from his writings is that Ulrich had a love and respect for women. Unusually for writers of his time, he wrote about the problems and terrible experiences women, such as drunken husbands, being beaten and men attempting to ruin the reputation and chastity of women.[13] Of course this is written from a male perspective, but it does show a respect for women and their strength in the situations they were often forced to endure.[14] His love of women first started with the unrequited love he had for a married, older and higher ranking noblewoman, that started in his teens. The wins he had during his career were dedicated to her, but it is uncertain how much she reciprocated his feelings beyond feeling flattered.

    Heath Ledger and Shannyn Sossamon in A Knight’s Tale (2001)

    The exploits of the tournaments he fought in her name and their acquaintance is detailed in his Frauenbuch or The Service of Ladies. Still despite his best attempts at wooing this woman with his jousting prowess, it took something more drastic to catch her attention. He had an operation to fix a cleft lip, hoping it would improve his chances.[15] In some ways it did as she was flattered and invited him to a horse ride with her friends, but it backfired when he was too shy to speak to her. Feeling insulted, she banned him from using her colours in tournaments.[16] He eventually got the message when he was thrown into a lake by her but did not give up his feelings.[17]

    In some ways, it turns out that despite some artistic license, Heath Ledger’s Ulrich von Lichtenstein was not so different from the real one. He certainly loved to parade himself in full pageantry on the jousting field, as well as having a love for women, especially one in particular, no matter how out of reach she really was. Despite exaggerations in his poetry detailing his career with a lance, the danger was all but real, just as is shown in A Knight’s Tale. The real Ulrich lost a finger during a tournament in 1222 and in 1226, an opponent’s lance pierced through his chain mail, cutting his chest, and causing his white outfit to turn red with blood.[18]

    [4] Saul, N., Chivalry in Medieval England (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2011), p. 15.

    [5] Crouch, D., Tournament (London: Hambledon and London, 2005), p. 116.

    [6] Crouch, D., Tournament, p. 116 and 119.

    [7] Keen, M., Chivalry (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984), p. 92 Crouch, D., Tournament, p. 119.

    [8] Crouch, D., Tournament, p. 118 Keen, M., Chivalry, p. 92.

    [9] J. Bumke, Courtly Culture: Literature and Society in the High Middle Ages, translated by T. Dunlop, cited in Crouch, D., Tournament, p. 118.

    [10] Ruth Harvey, Moriz von Craun and the Chivalric World (1961) cited in Keen, M., Chivalry, p. 92.

    [11] Ulrich von Lichtenstein, Service of Ladies, translated by J. W. Thomas cited in Crouch, D., Tournament, p. 147.

    [12] Saul, N., Chivalry in Medieval England, pp. 54-55.

    [13] Bein, T., ‘1275, January 16: Truth and Fiction’, in Wellbury, D. (ed), A New History of German Literature (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2004), p. 135

    [14] Bein, T., ‘1275, January 16: Truth and Fiction’, p. 135.

    [18] Ulrich von Lichtenstein, Service of Ladies, translated by J. W. Thomas cited in Crouch, D., Tournament, pp. 100-101.

    Ulrich von Zatzikhoven -->

    Ulrich von Zatzikhoven était un ຜrivain mຝiéval allemand. Il a ຜrit sur le cycle arthurien, notamment avec son œuvre la plus connue, Lanzelet.

    Son nom et son origine géographique (Zezikon) ne nous sont connus que par son œuvre Lanzelet qu&aposil a rຝigພ probablement bien après 1193.

    On accepte en général l&aposidພ que Zatzikhoven est Uolricus de Cecinchoven, un prêtre de Lommis dans le canton de Thurgau cité dans un document en 1214, à savoir une liste de souscripteurs lors d&aposun don de la famille de Toggenburg au couvent St Peterzell le 29 mars 1214 [ 1 ] .

    La seule œuvre connue d&aposUlrich von Zatzikhoven est le roman en vers Lanzelet qui est l&aposadaptation en allemand d&aposun livre fran๺is du cycle arthurien. Le Lancelot de Zatzikhoven est complètement différent de celui de Chrétien de Troyes.

    Ulrich cite daz welsche buoch von Lanzelete (V. 9341) comme modèle. L&aposœuvre serait arrivພ en Allemagne dans les bagages du seigneur anglo-normand Hugues de Morville, un des otages ຜhangés contre Richard cœur de lion. Le roi d&aposAngleterre resta prisonnier de l&aposempereur Henri VI du 21 dmbre 1192 au 4 février 1194 . Ulrich aurait pu prendre connaissance du texte à cette époque [ 2 ] .

    Ulrich Wilhelm Graf Schwerin von Schwanenfeld

    Schwerin was born the son of the diplomat Ulrich Graf von Schwerin . Up to the age of twelve he lived with his parents and sisters almost exclusively abroad. Only then did his father receive an intra-German assignment as a Prussian envoy in Dresden . The parents' house was politically very interested due to the father's occupation and the close relationship of the mother Freda von Bethmann Hollweg with the fifth Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (he was her cousin). The milieu was conservative, the upbringing was Christian and strict.

    The von Schwerin family has been named after the city ​​of Schwerin since the 12th century , where they served as ministerials at Schwerin Castle in the Middle Ages . A direct ancestor, Otto Reichsfreiherr von Schwerin , Upper President of the Mark Brandenburg under the Great Elector , bought the Wolfshagen goods complex in the Uckermark in 1670 . Schwerin's great-grandfather added the adjoining Gut Göhren (now part of Woldegk ) in Mecklenburg-Strelitz to this property . Schwerin's father was born there.

    School and vocational training

    House tutors taught Schwerin until he moved to Dresden . There he attended a public school for the first time. Because of the five sisters, the tone in the parental home was very "civil", the only son was spoiled. Perhaps as a counterbalance and to avoid the turmoil of the revolution in Dresden, he was sent to a boarding school, the Roßleben monastery school in Thuringia , at Easter 1919 . For Schwerin these were groundbreaking years and the beginning of important, lifelong friendships. Schwerin would have loved to become a diplomat like his father. However, a childless brother of his father made him the sole heir of the family businesses and adopted him in 1924. Schwerin therefore completed a practical apprenticeship in agriculture and forestry from 1921–1923 and then studied agriculture in Munich , Berlin and Breslau . He became a member of the Munich Society's student union . Shortly after his diploma and before the start of a planned doctorate, the uncle died in 1926. Schwerin had to take over the inheritance immediately.


    The legacy was the agricultural and forestry operations Göhren in Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Sartowitz , which was located in the former West Prussia and since 1919 in the Polish Pomeranian . Sartowitz had come into the family through Schwerin's grandmother, a née von Schwanenfeld. In 1930 Schwerin added the addition "von Schwanenfeld" to its name. The property was economically endangered by debts and inheritance taxes. Sartowitz was also burdened with liquidation demands from the resurrected Polish state on the basis of the Peace Treaty of Versailles and the Polish agrarian reform. Economically, the situation was exacerbated by the global economic crisis from 1929, which meant the ruin for many East German goods. Schwerin managed to fend off Sartowitz's liquidation. Through careful and conscientious management, Schwerin was able to consolidate and largely maintain property in Germany and Poland. In 1928, in the midst of the Sartowitz crisis, Schwerin married Marianne Sahm, daughter of the Danzig Senate President Heinrich Sahm . Five sons were born to the couple. Two of the sons died in childhood the others are the publisher Christoph Andreas Graf von Schwerin , the historian and police chief a. D. Detlef Graf von Schwerin as well as the farmer and forest manager and former president of Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe Wilhelm Graf Schwerin .

    Political experiences until 1938

    Schwerin gained practical political experience in the conflict between the German minority and the Polish state. The vast majority of Germans in the former Prussian provinces of West Prussia and Posen , who came to Poland through Versailles , “opted” for Germany . Mainly the Germans, who were bound by property, remained in the corridor. The minority organized to defend their rights enshrined in the League of Nations . The Federal Foreign Office in Berlin and the League of Nations in Geneva were the main points of contact. For many years Schwerin was the mouthpiece of the minority leadership in Poland, which could not travel unhindered, at the ministries in Berlin. Within the German minority, there were clashes between the established leadership and the Nazi-defeated Young German Party . As a student, Schwerin had his first negative experiences with the National Socialists in 1923 as an eyewitness to the Hitler putsch . From 1930 he accompanied the rise of the NSDAP increasingly critically, even if he was a member of the NSDAP for pragmatic reasons. Hitler's behavior after the Potempa murder in August 1932 was a turning point for him. Schwerin commented on the murders of June 30, 1934 during the Röhm putsch with the words "whoever doesn't get it now . ".

    Active in the resistance 1938–1944

    It was a long way from rejecting the Nazi regime to active resistance . Schwerin did not go it alone, but together with friends, such as his Roßleber school friend Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg , his cousins Fritz-Dietlof Graf von der Schulenburg and Albrecht von Kessel, and with Eduard Brücklmeier . These were young officials from the internal administration and the foreign office. A group of friends was formed which, as a result of the Sudeten crisis in September 1938, was given the opportunity for the first time to work together to prepare for a planned coup .

    They looked for and found the connection through the Abwehr officer Hans Oster to General Erwin von Witzleben , who as commander of Defense Area III in Berlin held a key military position. These two officers determined Schwerin's future path when he was drafted as a lieutenant in the reserve at the beginning of the war. Schwerin took part in the invasion of Poland and then joined the staff of the Colonel General, later Field Marshal von Witzleben, on the Western Front in October 1939. Schwerin remained on the staff as the Marshal's orderly officer until mid-1942. After a few months in Utrecht , he was transferred to Berlin to the Brandenburg Division in February 1943 and from May 1944 to an office of the Quartermaster General. Until his departure in 1942, Witzleben played an important role in the deliberations of the Berlin resistance circles as Commander-in-Chief West and therefore an active troop commander, and then because of his high rank. Schwerin kept in touch with the Field Marshal and strengthened his critical view of the regime. He will also have informed him about the mass murders in the Sartowitz Forest in autumn 1939. By being transferred to Berlin, Schwerin had arrived at the center of resistance activities, which led to a new phase after the Battle of Stalingrad .

    Through his friend Peter Yorck, he was constantly informed about the results of his work in Kreisau , without belonging to this group. Immediately after Stauffenberg's arrival in Berlin in September 1943, he became friends with him. The former chief of staff, Ludwig Beck , who represented the recognized headquarters of the military resistance, made Schwerin his personal assistant in autumn 1943. In the planning for the transitional government after the overthrow, the three friends Schwerin, Yorck and Schulenburg were included as state secretaries for the designated head of state Beck, the Reich Chancellor Goerdeler and the interior minister Leber . They were part of the younger generation who, in conjunction with Stauffenberg, actively prepared the coup . Conceptually, Schwerin and his friends relied on the results of the work of the Kreisau Circle and kept in close contact with the Social Democrats Leuschner and Leber.

    The 20 July 1944 experienced Schwerin in the center of the coup, in the premises of the commander of the Reserve Army in the War Office (now the German Resistance Memorial in Stauffenbergstrasse) in Berlin. He was arrested there shortly before midnight after the failure of the coup, along with Yorck, Schulenburg and others.

    Imprisonment, trial and death

    Schwerin's detention stations were the Gestapo house prison at Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse 8 , the cell building of the Ravensbrück concentration camp and, in turn, Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse. In the fourth trial against the members of the coup on August 21, 1944, the People's Court , chaired by its President Roland Freisler, sentenced him to death and confiscation of the property. During a questioning, Schwerin named as the motive for his resistance activity "the many murders that have happened at home and abroad" before he was shouted down by Freisler and described as a "shabby rascal" .

    On September 8, 1944, Count Schwerin was killed with a wire noose in Plötzensee along with the five other convicts Georg Alexander Hansen , Ulrich von Hassell , Paul Lejeune-Jung , Josef Wirmer and Günther Smend .

    His body was cremated in the Wilmersdorf crematorium along with those of the other five people executed on September 8, 1944 . Their ashes were handed over to the First Public Prosecutor Pippert in the Reich Ministry of Justice the following day in a collecting container . In 1978 the widow erected a cenotaph with epitaph at the Waldfriedhof in Berlin-Dahlem in Dept. 10A-11 , which is maintained as an honorary grave for the State of Berlin .

    There are 168 census records available for the last name Von Ulrich. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Von Ulrich census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

    There are 63 immigration records available for the last name Von Ulrich. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

    There are 4,000 military records available for the last name Von Ulrich. For the veterans among your Von Ulrich ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

    There are 168 census records available for the last name Von Ulrich. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Von Ulrich census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

    There are 63 immigration records available for the last name Von Ulrich. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

    There are 4,000 military records available for the last name Von Ulrich. For the veterans among your Von Ulrich ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

    SA-Obergruppenfüher Curt von Ulrich

    Post by WAR LORD » 27 Mar 2021, 18:22

    Ulrich Curt von – SA-Gruppenfüher - HELP

    Re: Ulrich Curt von – SA-Gruppenfüher - HELP

    Post by Br. James » 27 Mar 2021, 19:10

    SA-Obergruppenführer Curt von Ulrich's NSDAP Membership Number was 23471. I trust this is helpful to you.

    Re: Ulrich Curt von – SA-Gruppenfüher - HELP

    Post by Erich2019 » 28 Mar 2021, 05:37

    Re: SA-Obergruppenfüher Curt von Ulrich

    Post by WAR LORD » 28 Mar 2021, 13:07

    The picture was sent to me by a collector who wanted me to verify that the man was wearing the Golden HJ Honour Badge with Oak leaves in Gold - I did not have him on my Roll. However i believe that it is. But as "Belt and Brassers" I always ask for Basic confirmation.

    The neck order and breast are reasonably easily recognised. Interestingly he wears the 1929 day badge. The ribbon bar is another question.

    Re: SA-Obergruppenfüher Curt von Ulrich

    Post by Michael Miller » 29 Mar 2021, 21:50

    Doesn't look like the Goldenes Hitler-Jugend Ehrenzeichen mit Eichenlaub to me.
    Looks like a basic Goldenes Hitler-Jugend Ehrenzeichen.

    Regarding his specific HJ involvement, I have this:
    05.12.1926-10.10.1928 SA-Gauführer Hessen (Provinz Hessen-Nassau und Freistaat Hessen). He simultaneously led the SS and HJ in the region.
    01.07.1932-02.07.1934 Generalinspekteur der SA, SS und HJ (Inspector General of the SA, SS, and HJ).

    His full biography will appear in the eventual Leaders of the Storm Troops, Volume 3 by myself and Andreas Schulz. It'll be a while, though still working on a revised/expanded first volume, with Fonthill as publisher.

    Friedrich Carl Ulrich von Levetzow

    Friedrich Carl Ulrich von Levetzow (13. října 1782 Lelkendorf - 18. června 1815 Waterloo), byl německý šlechtic a britský důstojník.

    Narodil se 13. října 1782 jako první syn Friedricha von Levetzowa a jeho ženy Sophie Heleny Philippiny, rozené von Jeetze. Jeho rodina patřila k větvi rodu von Levetzow v pruských službách. Friedrich von Levetzow měl ještě mladší bratry Alexandra Carla Ludwiga a Ludwiga Carla Albrechta a sestry Sophii Luisu Friederiku a Luisu Wilhelminu Albertinu. Friedrich po smrti svého otce v roce 1801 zdědil rodinné meklenburské panství Lelkendorf, Döllnitβ a Könnigde a panství Hohenwulsch v Sasku-Anhaltsku, staré panství rodu von Jeetze a věno jeho matky Sofie. Sasko-anhaltské panství však v roce 1803 Friedrich prodal svému švagrovi a jmenovci Friedrichu Carlu Ludwigu von Rohrovi. Friedrich von Levetzow byl katedrálním kanovníkem magdeburským a mindenským, což byly důležité pruské správní úřady vztahující se k organizaci evangelické církve v Pruském království. Bohužel o oba své úřady Friedrich přišel v roce 1807 poté, co Napoleon I. přičlenil obě města k nově vytvořenému Vestfálskému království svého bratra Jérôma Bonaparta. Ztráta obou úřadů učinila z Friedricha von Levetzowa zapřisáhlého nepřítele Napoleona i Francie.  Dne 9. 6. 1807 se Friedrich von Levetzow oženil s bývalou ženou svého bratrance Otty von Levetzowa Amálií. Podle pozdějších slov Amálie se jednalo o velice šťastné manželství. Dne 9. 4. 1808 se Friedrichovi a Amálii narodila dcera  Bertha (Bertha Ulrike Helen von Levetzow). V létě roku 1811 odešel Friedrich von Levetzow do Velké Británie, aby na její straně mohl bojovat proti Napoleonovi. Dne 22. září 1811 získal hodnost korneta v řadách britsko-hannoverského 1. dragounského pluku Královské německé legie (The King's German Legion).  Od ledna 1812 slouží v tomto pluku na španělském bojišti a 13. 3. 1812 je povýšen do hodnosti poručíka. V řadách 1. dragounského pluku Královské německé legie se vyznamenal v bitvách u Salamanky, Garcii Hernandezu, Majalu, Vittorie, Tarbes a Toulouse. Domů se vrátil až v létě 1814, ale již na jaře 1815 odešel opět bojovat proti Napoleonovi, který se vrátil ze svého vyhnanství na Elbě. Válka roku 1815 se však Friedrichu von Levetzowovi stala osudnou. Dne 18. 6. 1815 v závěrečné fázi bitvy u Waterloo padne v boji s francouzskými kyrysníky. Jeho meklenburské panství, kromě vsí Döllnitβ a Könnigde, zdědil bratr Alexandr von Levetzow. Jeho žena Amálie jako vdova po britském důstojníku získá roční rentu v hodnotě 40 liber, vyplácenou z osobních financí britského krále Jiřího III.

    Mgr. Jiří Šlajsna - Ulrika von Levetzow. Anděl ve třpytu par. Stálá expozice Oblastního muzea a galerie v Mostě

    Watch the video: 200 Frederick Barbarossa vs 200 Ulrich Von Jungingen. AoE II: Definitive Edition (August 2022).