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At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exist countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained.
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By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings.
United States gravity control propulsion research
American interest in "gravity control propulsion research" intensified during the early 1950s. Literature from that period used the terms anti-gravity, anti-gravitation, baricentric, counterbary, electrogravitics (eGrav), G-projects, gravitics, gravity control, and gravity propulsion.   Their publicized goals were to discover and develop technologies and theories for the manipulation of gravity or gravity-like fields for propulsion.  Although general relativity theory appeared to prohibit anti-gravity propulsion, several programs were funded to develop it through gravitation research from 1955 to 1974. The names of many contributors to general relativity and those of the golden age of general relativity have appeared among documents about the institutions that had served as the theoretical research components of those programs.    The existence and 1950s emergence of the gravity control propulsion research have not been a subject of controversy for aerospace writers, critics, and conspiracy theory advocates, but their rationale, effectiveness, and longevity have been the objects of contested views.
“Alfred” And The Aztec Incident
On a perfectly still and serene evening in the Aztec Desert, New Mexico, on 25 th March 1948, a blazing disc-shaped object screamed out of the sky before embedding itself in the sandy ground. The United States military was soon on the scene.
They would quickly set about transporting the wreckage to the White Sands Air Force base. The craft was a series of rings that seemingly rotated around a “central cabin”. The material was of a strength unknown to the military, yet at the same time it was as “light as aluminum!” The whole thing – as is the case with other UFO reports – appeared to be from one, whole piece of material.
It would take almost two weeks to fully move the ruined craft. As well as the remains of the vehicle were the bodies of the sixteen alien beings.
Another UFO investigator, Glen Campbell, would also pick up on the Aztec Incident. The source for many of Campbell’s reports was a man named Alfred. Not only was he present at the aforementioned incident, but he spent considerable time in the company of high ranking scientists. According to Alfred, his official job was a technical photographer at a nuclear test base.
He would speak to Campbell about a particular conversation between himself and German physicist (and Operation Paperclip transplant), Otto Krause. If true, it could be one of the most important conversations in history.
Before we look at the details of that exchange, check out the video below. It looks at the Aztec Incident in a little more detail.
A-12 Oxcart & SR-71 Blackbird
A-12 Oxcarts in a row, circa 1963.
Launched in 1957, Project Oxcart produced two of the fastest, highest-flying aircraft in U.S. history, the one-seat Archangel-12 and the two-seat SR-71 Blackbird. The A-12 had two jet engines, a long fuselage and a distinctive cobra-like appearance.
The first completed A-12 arrived at Area 51 in February 1962, after being disassembled in Burbank and transported to Nevada in a specially designed trailer that cost almost $100,000 (more than $830,000 today). To keep the A-12’s existence secret, the CIA briefed the head of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), who made sure air-traffic controllers were told to submit written reports of unusually fast, high-flying planes, rather than mention such sightings over the radio. Still, reports of UFO sightings around Area 51 would reach new heights in the mid-s, writes Annie Jacobsen in Area 51: An Uncensored History of America’s Top Secret Military Base, starting just after the A-12 made its official first flight over Area 51 in April 1962.
Declared fully operational in 1965, after attaining a sustained speed of Mach 3.2 (just over 2,200 m.p.h.) at 90,000 feet of altitude, the A-12 began flying missions over Vietnam and North Korea in 1967. The following year, it was retired in favor of its Air Force successor, the SR-71 Blackbird.
A U.S. Air Force SR-71A, also known as the "Blackbird", is put through it&apos&aposs paces during a test flight over Beale Air Force Base in California. The aircraft is a strategic reconnaissance plane by Lockheed and is the world&apos&aposs fastest and highest flying operational aircraft.
Longer and heavier than the A-12, the SR-71 paired supersonic speed with a low radar profile, due to its sleek tapered design and black radar-absorbing paint. On July 28, 1976, pilots flew an SR-71 at a record speed of Mach 3.3, or 2,193 mph. At 400 feet per second, this was literally faster than a speeding rifle bullet. Retired in 1990, after more than three decades of service, the SR-71 remains the world’s fastest aircraft.
Early history before the 20th century
Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature. These may include comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily seen with the naked eye, planetary conjunctions, or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. An example is Halley's Comet, which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 BC and possibly as early as 467 BC. Such sightings throughout history often were treated as supernatural portents, angels, or other religious omens.  Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports  though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images. 
- was a Roman writer who is believed to have lived in the middle of the fourth century AD. The only work associated with his name is the Liber de prodigiis (Book of Prodigies), completely extracted from an epitome, or abridgment, written by Livy De prodigiis was constructed as an account of the wonders and portents that occurred in Rome between 249 and 12 BCE. An aspect of Obsequens' work that has inspired much interest in some circles is that references are made to things moving through the sky. These have been interpreted as reports of UFOs, but may just as well describe meteors, and, since Obsequens, probably, writes in the 4th century, that is, some 400 years after the events he describes, they hardly qualify as eye-witness accounts. 
- On April 14, 1561, residents of Nuremberg described the appearance of a large black triangular object. According to witnesses, there were also hundreds of spheres, cylinders and other odd-shaped objects that moved erratically overhead. 
- The 1566 celestial phenomenon over Basel was a series of mass sightings of celestial phenomena above Basel, Switzerland. Celestial phenomena were said to have "fought" together in the form of numerous red and black balls in the sky. In the 15th and 16th centuries, many leaflets wrote of "miracles" and "sky spectacles".
- On January 25, 1878, the Denison Daily News printed an article in which John Martin, a local farmer, had reported seeing a large, dark, circular object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed". Martin, according to the newspaper account, said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer from his perspective, one of the first uses of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO. 
- In April 1897, thousands of people reported seeing "airships" in various parts of the United States. Many signed affidavits. Scores of people even reported talking to the pilots. Thomas Edison was asked his opinion, and said, "You can take it from me that it is a pure fake." 
20th century and after
- The three earliest known pilot UFO sightings, of 1,305 similar sightings catalogued by NARCAP, took place in 1916 and 1926. On January 31, 1916, a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights, resembling lighted windows on a railway carriage, that rose and disappeared. In January 1926 a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita, Kansas, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. In late September 1926 an airmail pilot over Nevada said he had been forced to land by a huge, wingless, cylindrical object. 
- On August 5, 1926, while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region, Russian explorer Nicholas Roerich reported that members of his expedition saw "something big and shiny reflecting the sun, like a huge oval moving at great speed. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface, one side of which was brilliant from the sun."  Another description by Roerich was of a "shiny body flying from north to south. Field glasses are at hand. It is a huge body. One side glows in the sun. It is oval in shape. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest." 
- In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II, "foo fighters" (metallic spheres, balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. Elmo's fire, the planet Venus, hallucinations from oxygen deprivation, or German secret weapons. 
- In 1946, more than 2,000 reports were collected, primarily by the Swedish military, of unidentified aerial objects over the Scandinavian nations, along with isolated reports from France, Portugal, Italy and Greece. The objects were referred to as "Russian hail" (and later as "ghost rockets") because it was thought the mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2rockets. Although most were thought to be such natural phenomena as meteors, more than 200 were tracked on radar by the Swedish military and deemed to be "real physical objects". In a 1948 top secret document, Swedish authorities advised the USAF Europe that some of their investigators believed these craft to be extraterrestrial in origin. 
Notable cases, incidents
- According to records released on August 5, 2010, British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. Reports given to Churchill asserted that the incident involved a Royal Air Force (RAF) reconnaissance aircraft returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of World War II. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly intercepted by a strange metallic object which matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. The aircraft's crew were reported to have photographed the object, which they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft, before moving off.  According to the documents, details of the coverup emerged when a man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident and described how his grandfather, who had served with the RAF in the war, was present when Churchill and U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter.  The files come from more than 5,000 pages of UFO reports, letters and drawings from members of the public, as well as questions raised in Parliament. They are available to download from The National Archives website. 
- In the April 1957 West Freugh incident in Scotland, named after the principal military base involved, two unidentified objects flying high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform maneuvers beyond the capability of any known craft. Also significant is their alleged size, which—based on the radar returns—was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft.
- In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980, U.S. military personnel witnessed UFOs near the air base at Woodbridge, Suffolk, over a period of three nights. On one night the deputy base commander, Colonel Charles I. Halt, and other personnel followed one or more UFOs that were moving in and above the forest for several hours. Col. Halt made an audio recording while this was happening and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. After retirement from the military, he said he had deliberately downplayed the event (officially termed 'Unexplained Lights') to avoid damaging his career. Other base personnel are said to have observed one of the UFOs, which had landed in the forest, and even gone up to and touched it.
France: The most notable cases of UFO sightings in France include the Valensole UFO incident in 1965 and the Trans-en-Provence Case in 1981.
- A UFO sighting in Florence, October 28, 1954, followed by a fall of angel hair. 
- In 1973, an Alitalia airplane left Rome for Naples sighted a mysterious round object. Two Italian Air Force planes from Ciampino confirmed the sighting.  In the same year there was another sighting at Caselle airport near Turin. 
- In 1978, two young hikers, while walking on Monte Musinè near Turin, saw a bright light one of them temporarily disappeared and, after a while, was found in a state of shock and with a noticeable scald on one leg. After regaining consciousness, he reported having seen an elongated vehicle and that some strangely shaped beings descended from it. Both the young hikers suffered from conjunctivitis for some time. 
- A close encounter reported in September 1978 in Torrita di Siena in the Province of Siena. A young motorist saw in front of him a bright object, two beings of small stature who wore suits and helmets, the two approached the car, and after watching it carefully went back and rose again to the UFO. A boy who lived with his family in a country house not far from there said he had seen at the same time "a kind of small reddish sun". 
- Yet in 1978, there has been also the story of Pier Fortunato Zanfretta, the best known and most controversial case of an Italian alleged alien abduction. Zanfretta said (also with truth serum injected) to have been kidnapped by reptilian-like creatures on the night of 6 December and 7 December while he was performing his job at Marzano, in the municipality of Torriglia in the Province of Genoa  52 testimonies of the case from other people were collected. 
- In 2021, a woman from Capolona, a small town in the province of Arezzo, claims to have seen in the sky a "strange light object", on the night of January 25. The moment was recorded in video with her phone.  The Italian Alien Research Association (Aria) is investigating the case.
- On February 28, 1904, there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles (483 km) west of San Francisco, reported by Lieutenant Frank Schofield, later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Schofield wrote of three bright red meteors—one egg shaped and the other two round—that approached beneath the cloud layer, then "soared" above the clouds, departing after two to three minutes. The largest had an apparent size of about six Suns, he said. 
- The Roswell UFO incident (1947) involved New Mexico civilians, local law enforcement officers, and the U.S. military, the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site.
- The Mantell UFO incident January 7, 1948
- The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident.
- In the Kecksburg UFO incident, Pennsylvania (1965), residents reported seeing a bell-shaped object crash in the area. Police officers, and possibly military personnel, were sent to investigate.
- The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky (1993) was based on this event, but greatly embellished the original account.
- The "Phoenix Lights" March 13, 1997
- The 2004 USS Nimitz UFO incident and 2014 USS Theodore Roosevelt UFO incidents
The USAF's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1% of all unknown reports  came from amateur and professional astronomers or other telescope users (such as missile trackers or surveyors). In 1952, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, then a consultant to Blue Book, conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). In the 1970s, astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the AIAA and American Astronomical Society (AAS). About 5% of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings.
Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who admitted to six UFO sightings, including three green fireballs, supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific". Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz, who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. LaPaz reported two personal sightings, one of a green fireball, the other of an anomalous disc-like object. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft. 
Retired professor of astronomy Andrew Fraknoi criticized the hypothesis that UFOs are extraterrestrial spacecraft, and responded to the "onslaught of credulous coverage" in books, films and entertainment by teaching his students to apply critical thinking to such claims, advising them that "being a good scientist is not unlike being a good detective". According to Fraknoi, UFO reports "might at first seem mysterious", but "the more you investigate, the more likely you are to find that there is LESS to these stories than meets the eye". 
In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for CUFOS found that 24% responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?" 
- The Maury Island incident , over the space of two decades, made various claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets. He claimed photographs of the far side of the Moon taken by the Soviet lunar probe Luna 3 in 1959 were fake, and that there were cities, trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the Moon. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham.
- Ed Walters, a building contractor, in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. These sightings became famous, and are collectively referred to as the Gulf Breeze UFO incident. Three years later, in 1990, after the Walters family had moved, the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. Most investigators, like the forensic photo expert William G. Hyzer,  now consider the sightings to be a hoax.
The term "UFO" (or "UFOB") was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF) to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object". Accordingly, the term was initially restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and "technical aspects" (see Air Force Regulation 200-2).
During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were often referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs". The term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but later in popular use. UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concerns about national security, and, more recently, in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons.   Nevertheless, various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat, and nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit (e.g., 1951 Flying Saucer Working Party, 1953 CIA Robertson Panel, USAF Project Blue Book, Condon Committee).
The Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO as "An unidentified flying object a 'flying saucer'". The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe. 
As an acronym, "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book, then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. He wrote, "Obviously the term 'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO (pronounced yoo-foe) for short."  Other phrases that were used officially and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", and "unidentifiable object".   
The phrase "flying saucer" gained widespread attention after the Northern Hemisphere summer of 1947. On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier in the United States. Arnold timed the sighting and estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph (1,931 km/h). At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs".   UFOs were commonly referred to colloquially, as a "Bogey" by Western military personnel and pilots during the cold war. The term "bogey" was originally used to report anomalies in radar blips, to indicate possible hostile forces that might be roaming in the area. 
In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft,  and because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" (UAP) or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena (NARCAP).  "Anomalous aerial vehicle" (AAV) or "unidentified aerial system" (UAS) are also sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets. 
While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft  however, the term ETV (ExtraTerrestrial Vehicle) is sometimes used to separate this explanation of UFOs from totally earthbound explanations. 
Critics argue that all UFO evidence is anecdotal  and can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. Defenders of UFO research counter that knowledge of observational data, other than what is reported in the popular media, is limited in the scientific community and further study is needed.   Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most commonly aircraft, balloons including sky lanterns, satellites, and astronomical objects such as meteors, bright stars and planets. A small percentage are hoaxes. [note 1] Fewer than 10% of reported sightings remain unexplained after proper investigation and therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. According to Steven Novella, proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) suggest these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, however the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are simply other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Novella says that instead of accepting the null hypothesis, UFO enthusiasts tend to engage in special pleading by offering outlandish, untested explanations for the validity of the ETH, which violate Occam's razor. 
Ufology is not generally considered credible in mainstream science.  There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted, with the general conclusion that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.       
The study of UFOs has received little support in mainstream scientific literature. Official studies ended in the U.S. in December 1969, following the statement by the government scientist Edward Condon that further study of UFOs could not be justified on grounds of scientific advancement.   The Condon Report and its conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists, of which Condon was a member. On the other hand, a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) disagreed with Condon's conclusion, noting that at least thirty percent of the cases studied remained unexplained and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study.
Like Hynek, Jacques Vallée, a scientist and prominent UFO researcher, has pointed to what he believes is the scientific deficiency of most UFO research, including government studies. He complains of the mythology and cultism often associated with the phenomenon but alleges that several hundred professional scientists—a group both he and Hynek have termed "the invisible college"—continue to study UFOs in private. 
UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture,  and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. 
Sturrock panel categorization
Besides anecdotal visual sightings, reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence, including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book, the Condon Committee, the French GEPAN/SEPRA, and Uruguay's current Air Force study).
A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock panel, with specific examples of many of the categories listed below.   
- Radar contact and tracking, sometimes from multiple sites. These have included military personnel and control tower operators, simultaneous visual sightings, and aircraft intercepts. One such example was the mass sightings of large, silent, low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium, tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence).  Another famous case from 1986 was the Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident over Alaska investigated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
- Photographic evidence, including still photos, movie film, and video.
- Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs, including ground impressions, burned or desiccated soil, burned and broken foliage, magnetic anomalies [specify] , increased radiation levels, and metallic traces. (See, e. g. Height 611 UFO incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro, New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases.) A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest incident in England. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN, then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots.
- Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis, skin burns and rashes, corneal burns, and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning, such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980.
- Animal/cattle mutilation cases, which some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon.
- Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth, germination effects on seeds, and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) (EM) effects. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran, recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents, was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs. 
- Apparent remote radiation detection, some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, also reported by Project Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt in his book.
- Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves, such as 1957, Ubatuba, Brazil, magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. The 1964 Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces, analyzed by NASA.  A more recent example involves a teardrop-shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in a television episode of UFO Hunters but was later found to be waste metal residue from a milling machine. , possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff. 
A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analyses of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI).
One example is the response to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia, which the government and the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) described as "man-made". Thomas Djamaluddin, research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at LAPAN stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. Scientists have put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience." 
UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation.   These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years, such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party, Project Condign, the U.S. CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel, the U.S. military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951, and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14).
Some public government reports have acknowledged the possibility of the physical reality of UFOs, but have stopped short of proposing extraterrestrial origins, though not dismissing the possibility entirely. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the 2009 Uruguayan Air Force study conclusion (see below).
Claims by military, government, and aviation personnel
Since 2001 there have been calls for greater openness on the part of the government by various persons. In May 2001, a press conference was held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., by an organization called the Disclosure Project, featuring twenty persons including retired Air Force and FAA personnel, intelligence officers and an air traffic controller.        They all gave a brief account of what they knew or had witnessed, and said they would be willing to testify under oath to a Congressional committee. According to a 2002 report in the Oregon Daily Emerald, Disclosure Project founder Steven M. Greer has gathered 120 hours of testimony from various government officials on the topic of UFOs, including astronaut Gordon Cooper and a Brigadier General. 
In 2007, former Arizona governor Fife Symington came forward and belatedly claimed he had seen "a massive, delta-shaped craft silently navigate over Squaw Peak, a mountain range in Phoenix, Arizona" in 1997. 
On September 27, 2010, a group of six former USAF officers and one former enlisted Air Force man held a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., on the theme "U.S. Nuclear Weapons Have Been Compromised by Unidentified Aerial Objects."  They told how they had witnessed UFOs hovering near missile sites and even disarming the missiles.
From April 29 to May 3, 2013, the Paradigm Research Group held the "Citizen Hearing on Disclosure" at the National Press Club. The group paid former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel and former Representatives Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, Roscoe Bartlett, Merrill Cook, Darlene Hooley, and Lynn Woolsey $20,000 each to hear testimony from a panel of researchers which included witnesses from military, agency, and political backgrounds.  
Apollo 14 astronaut Dr. Edgar Mitchell claimed he knew of senior government employees who had been involved in "close encounters", and because of this, he has no doubt that aliens have visited Earth. 
In May 2019, The New York Times reported that American Navy fighter jets had several encounters with unexplained objects while conducting exercises off the eastern seaboard of the United States from the summer of 2014 to March 2015. The Times published a cockpit instrument video of an object moving at high speed near the ocean surface as it appeared to rotate. Pilots observed that the objects were capable of high acceleration, deceleration and maneuverability. In two separate incidents, a pilot reported his cockpit instruments locked onto and tracked objects but he was unable to see them through his helmet camera. In another encounter, an object described as a sphere encasing a cube passed between two jets as they flew about 100 feet apart.  The Pentagon officially released these videos on April 27, 2020.  The United States Navy has said there have been "a number of reports of unauthorized and/or unidentified aircraft entering various military-controlled ranges and designated air space in recent years". 
In March 2021, news media announced a comprehensive report is to be compiled of UFO events accumulated by the United States over the years. 
On April 12, 2021 the Pentagon confirmed the authenticity of pictures and videos gathered by the Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force, purportedly showing "pyramid shaped objects" hovering above the USS Russell in 2019, off the coast of California, with spokeswoman Susan Gough saying “I can confirm that the referenced photos and videos were taken by Navy personnel. The UAPTF has included these incidents in their ongoing examinations."      In May 2021, military pilots recalled their related encounters, along with camera and radar support, including one pilot's account noting that such incidents occurred "every day for at least a couple of years", according to an interview broadcast on the news program, 60 Minutes (16 May 2021).   Science writer and skeptic Mick West suggested the image was the result of an optical effect called a bokeh which can make out of focus light sources appear triangular or pyramidal due to the shape of the aperture of some lenses.  
UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally "covering up" the existence of aliens by removing physical evidence of their presence or even collaborating with extraterrestrial beings. There are many versions of this story some are exclusive, while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories.
In the U.S., an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80% of Americans believed the U.S. government was withholding such information.   Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell, Senator Barry Goldwater, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director), Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head), the 1999 French COMETA study by various French generals and aerospace experts, and Yves Sillard (former director of CNES, new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN). 
It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact (see also ancient astronauts).
The void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) in the mid-20th century and, more recently, the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON)  and the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS).  The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. 
Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions but argued that the inexplicable core cases call for continued scientific study. Examples are the Sturrock panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report.
Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence.
Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. Typical categories include:
- Saucer, toy-top, or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion.
- Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern, usually reported at night.
- Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way, but are very different phenomena).
- Other: chevrons, (equilateral) triangles, crescent, boomerangs, spheres (usually reported to be shining, glowing at night), domes, diamonds, shapeless black masses, eggs, pyramids and cylinders, classic "lights".
Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system, created by J. Allen Hynek, and the Vallée system, created by Jacques Vallée. [ citation needed ]
Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance, subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his 1977 UFO movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind).
Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types, each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type.
UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that varied widely in scope and scientific rigor. Governments or independent academics in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, Peru, France, Belgium, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, Spain, and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real, physical objects, extraterrestrial in origin, or of concern to national defense.
Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947), Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969, the secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951), the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14  by the Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Brazilian Air Force's 1977 Operação Prato (Operation Saucer). France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) since 1977 the government of Uruguay has had a similar investigation since 1989.
Assessment of the reality of sightings
Studies show that after careful investigation, the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena. The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are:
- Astronomical objects (bright stars, planets, meteors, re-entering man-made spacecraft, artificial satellites, and the Moon)
- Aircraft (aerial advertising and other aircraft, missilelaunches)
- Balloons (toy balloons, weather balloons, large research balloons)
- Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds, unusual clouds, kites, flares)
- Light phenomena mirages, Fata Morgana, ball lightning, moon dogs, searchlights and other ground lights, etc.
A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the USAF included these categories as well as a "psychological" one.
An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found, as did other investigations, that less than one percent of cases he investigated were hoaxes and most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception. 
On October 31, 2008, the National Archives of Brazil began receiving from the Aeronautical Documentation and History Center part of the documentation of the Brazilian Air Force regarding the investigation of the appearance of UFOs in Brazil. Currently, this collection gathers cases between 1952 and 2016. 
Canada (commencing circa 1950)
In Canada, the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports, sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel, Alberta, it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour UFO incident in Nova Scotia. 
Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Storey (1952–1954), supported by the Defence Research Board.
U.S. investigations into UFOs include:
- According to UFO researcher Timothy Good, he received a letter from the Army's director of counter-intelligence confirming the existence of the Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit. Good claims the letter shows that the IPU was established by the U.S. Army sometime in the 1940s and disestablished sometime during the late 1950s. 
- Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the USAF from 1947 until 1969
- The secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951)
- Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish, UK, U.S., and Greek militaries (1946–1947)
- The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53)
- The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953)
- The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954)
- The Brookings Report (1960), commissioned by NASA
- The public Condon Committee (1966–1968)
- The private, internal RAND Corporation study (1968) 
- The private Sturrock panel (1998)
- The secret Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program which was funded from 2007 to 2012. 
- The Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force, a continuing program within the United States Office of Naval Intelligence which was acknowledged in 2017.
Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U.S. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs. These agencies include the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), FBI,  CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and U.S. Navy, in addition to the Air Force. [note 2]
The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians, who in the U.S formed research groups such as NICAP (active 1956–1980), Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) (active 1952–1988), MUFON (active 1969–), and CUFOS (active 1973–).
USAAF & FBI response to the 1947 sightings
Following the large U.S. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947, on July 9, 1947, United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) intelligence, in cooperation with the FBI,  began a formal investigation into selected sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized, such as Kenneth Arnold's. The USAAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether "such a phenomenon could, in fact, occur". The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon," or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled."  Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate, the air force investigation decided that, "This 'flying saucer' situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around." 
A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion. It reported that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious," and there were disc-shaped objects, metallic in appearance, as big as man-made aircraft. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability", general lack of noise, absence of a trail, occasional formation flying, and "evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar", suggesting a controlled craft. It was therefore recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation. [note 3]
Projects Sign (1947-1949), Grudge (1948-1951), Blue Book (1951-1970)
Project Sign's final report, published in early 1949, stated that while some UFOs appeared to represent actual aircraft, there was not enough data to determine their origin. 
The Air Force's Project Sign was created at the end of 1947, and was one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. In August 1948, Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect, but the Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it, such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. Allen Hynek and Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book. 
Another highly classified U.S. study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 in response to orders from the National Security Council (NSC). This study concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read:
the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention . Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U.S. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles.
The matter was considered so urgent that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. It also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists, now known as the Robertson Panel to analyze the problem of UFOs. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953. 
Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge, the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951, placing Ruppelt in charge. J. Allen Hynek, a trained astronomer who served as a scientific advisor for Project Blue Book, was initially skeptical of UFO reports, but eventually came to the conclusion that many of them could not be satisfactorily explained and was highly critical of what he described as "the cavalier disregard by Project Blue Book of the principles of scientific investigation".  Leaving government work, he founded the privately funded CUFOS, to whose work he devoted the rest of his life. Other private groups studying the phenomenon include the MUFON, a grassroots organization whose investigator's handbooks go into great detail on the documentation of alleged UFO sightings.
USAF Regulation 200-2 (1953-4)
Air Force Regulation 200-2,  issued in 1953 and 1954, defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved". The regulation went on to say that "it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object," but added: "For those objects which are not explainable, only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release, due to many unknowns involved." 
Blue Book and the Condon Committee (1968-1970)
A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF and published as the Condon Report arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968.  Blue Book closed down in 1970, using the Condon Committee's negative conclusion as a rationale, thus ending official Air Force UFO investigations. However, a 1969 USAF document, known as the Bolender memo, along with later government documents, revealed that non-public U.S. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. The Bolender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security . are not part of the Blue Book system," indicating that more serious UFO incidents already were handled outside the public Blue Book investigation. The memo then added, "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose." [note 4] In addition, in the late 1960s a chapter on UFOs in the Space Sciences course at the U.S. Air Force Academy gave serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. When word of the curriculum became public, the Air Force in 1970 issued a statement to the effect that the book was outdated and cadets instead were being informed of the Condon Report's negative conclusion. 
Controversy surrounded the report, both before and after its release. It has been observed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists, particularly at the powerful AIAA . [which] recommended moderate, but continuous scientific work on UFOs."  In an address to the AAAS, James E. McDonald said he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem and criticized the Condon Report and earlier studies by the USAF as scientifically deficient. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions  and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court".  J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer who worked as a USAF consultant from 1948, sharply criticized the Condon Committee Report and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for continuing to investigate UFO reports.
Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book, a USAF investigation that preceded Condon's. 
White House statement of November 2011
In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited this planet and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response:
The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race. no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye.
The response further noted that efforts, like SETI and NASA's Kepler space telescope and Mars Science Laboratory, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."  
Uruguay (commencing 1989)
The Uruguayan Air Force has conducted UFO investigations since 1989 and reportedly analyzed 2,100 cases of which they regard approximately 2% as lacking explanation. 
On March 2007, the French space agency CNES published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online. 
French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–), within CNES (French space agency), the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. About 22% of the 6,000 cases studied remain unexplained.  The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral, stating on their FAQ page that their mission is fact-finding for the scientific community, not rendering an opinion. They add they can neither prove nor disprove the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH), but their Steering Committee's clear position is that they cannot discard the possibility that some fraction of the very strange 22% of unexplained cases might be due to distant and advanced civilizations.  Possibly their bias may be indicated by their use of the terms "PAN" (French) or "UAP" (English equivalent) for "Unidentified Aerospace Phenomenon" (whereas "UAP" is normally used by English organizations stands for "Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon", a more neutral term). In addition, the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one.   
In 2008, Michel Scheller, president of the Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France (3AF), created the Sigma Commission. Its purpose was to investigate UFO phenomenon worldwide.  A progress report published in May 2010 stated that the central hypothesis proposed by the COMETA report is perfectly credible.  In December 2012, the final report of the Sigma Commission was submitted to Scheller. Following the submission of the final report, the Sigma2 Commission is to be formed with a mandate to continue the scientific investigation of UFO phenomenon.  
According to some Italian ufologists, the first documented case of a UFO sighting in Italy dates back to April 11, 1933, to Varese. Documents of the time show that an alleged UFO crashed or landed near Vergiate. Following this, Benito Mussolini created a secret group to look at it, called Cabinet RS/33.  
Alleged UFO sightings gradually increased since the war, peaking in 1978 and 2005. The total number of sightings since 1947 are 18,500, of which 90% are identifiable. 
In 2000, Italian ufologist Roberto Pinotti published material regarding the so-called "Fascist UFO Files", which dealt with an alleged flying saucer that was supposed to have crashed near Milan in 1933 (some 14 years before the Roswell, New Mexico, crash), and of the subsequent investigation by a never mentioned before Cabinet RS/33, that allegedly was authorized by Benito Mussolini, and headed by the Nobel scientist Guglielmo Marconi. A spaceship was allegedly stored in the hangars of the SIAI Marchetti in Vergiate near Milan. 
United Kingdom (1951-2009)
The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in June 1951, which remained secret for over fifty years. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena, optical illusions, psychological misperceptions/aberrations, or hoaxes. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken, unless and until some material evidence becomes available." 
Eight file collections on UFO sightings, dating from 1978 to 1987, were first released on May 14, 2008, to The National Archives by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).  Although kept secret from the public for many years, most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to the British government and officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.  These files include, but are not limited to, UFOs over Liverpool and Waterloo Bridge in London. 
On October 20, 2008, more UFO files were released. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching London Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit. The pilots believed a collision was imminent. UFO expert David Clarke says this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across. 
A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the Ministry of Defence between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. The resulting report, titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region", was publicly released in 2006, but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities, despite thousands of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena reports. There are no SIGINT, ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP, seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region], are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin, or that they represent any hostile intent." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to ball lightning are responsible for "the majority, if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings, especially reports of black triangle UFOs. 
On December 1, 2009, the Ministry of Defence quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the MoD on that date. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release, stating
in over fifty years, no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. Furthermore, responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence."
The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50,000 a year. The MoD said it would continue to release UFO files to the public through The National Archives. 
UFOs have constituted a widespread international cultural phenomenon since the 1950s. Gallup Polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. In 1973, a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs, whereas only 92 percent had heard of U.S. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House.   A 1996 Gallup Poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed the U.S. government was covering up information regarding UFOs. A 2002 Roper Poll for the Sci-Fi Channel found similar results, but with more people believing UFOs are extraterrestrial craft. In that latest poll, 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. Again, about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life.  
Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction, for example the United Planets Cruiser C57D in Forbidden Planet (1956), the Jupiter 2 in Lost in Space, and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek.
Opinion: Here’s a believable explanation of those UFO videos released by the Navy
A frame from the U.S. Navy’s video of an unidentified aerial phenomena (UAP), confirmed in September.
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Cue “The X-Files” music and put on your tinfoil hats. We’re going for a ride.
Last month the U.S. Navy confirmed that three videos of unidentified aerial phenomena (UAP) taken by airplane pilots a few years ago are indeed authentic. (Notice we’re not saying “unidentified flying object,” or UFO.) This means the videos went through the U.S. military, so it can be assumed they have not been computer-generated or altered.
Three clips dubbed “FLIR1,” “Gimbal” and “Go Fast” show two encounters between Navy aircraft and UAP. The object was tracked by the aircraft’s Raytheon US:RTN AN/ASQ-228 Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infrared (ATFLIR) Pod, and in all three videos, it performed maneuvers that cannot be executed using current aviation technology.
Commander David Fravor, who flew one of the fighters in the video (“Gimbal”), describes the object as “Tic Tac”-shaped, 40-feet long, with no wings, exhaust or discernible propulsion. After some maneuvering, the object ended up hovering above the water. Moments later, it rapidly ascended to 12,000 feet and finally accelerated away at a speed the commander suggested was “well above supersonic.”
When asked if a human pilot could survive such an acceleration in a modern aircraft, Fravor responded with a resounding “no.” Acceleration of that magnitude would wreak havoc on the human body: broken bones, shifting of organs, burst blood vessels and even death would occur as the body was crushed with G-forces it could not withstand.
But let’s consider for a second that the mysterious object in question was manned by a human pilot. In that case, the vehicle would have to be equipped with the technology capable of reducing the inertial mass of the object by generating gravity waves to reduce G-forces during acceleration.
Perhaps this could be achieved if the outer shell of the craft were turned into a cavity wall filled with gas, which would vibrate thanks to microwave emitters. This description was taken from a patent the U.S. Navy applied for in 2016, which says such a peculiar craft could move with great ease through air, space or water by being enclosed in a vacuum plasma bubble or sheath.
That could be the UAP that Fravor saw during his documented flight. Gravity manipulating tech at play could explain how the craft was able to effortlessly perform certain maneuvers such as suddenly turning sideways without losing altitude (aka knife-edge flight) in the FLIR1 video, or rapidly changing in-flight direction without visible inertia.
While the patent for the mysterious craft was approved last year, there is no indication that it was built or tested. Then again, it’s hard to imagine that a military aircraft equipped with this kind of technology would get any publicity.
If it indeed was this craft in the video, it was built and tested prior to the patent application. However, it could be that the cat got out of the bag. That could be why the Navy reluctantly acknowledged the authenticity of the footage, while also outlining that it wasn’t cleared for public release.
So far, the pieces of the puzzle seem to be falling into place. Then again, at about the 1:17 mark in the video above, one pilot says: “There’s a whole fleet of them. Look on the ASA.” ASA is most likely AESA, the APG-79 radar’s “search while track” feature that enables it to follow multiple targets without degradation to its search capability. Having one experimental craft exposed during a mission is a likely event, but what about a whole fleet?
We have two possibilities: First, there was more than one mysterious aircraft at the location, but it’s unlikely any of them was our patented vehicle.
Another explanation could be that because of the vacuum sheath or another type of stealth technology surrounding the UAP, radar erroneously reported multiple bogies, where in fact there was only one.
That would also explain why the pilot had a hard time locking on to the target in “FLIR1” and “Go Fast” videos. The speed must have played a role as well. Clinicians have a saying: Common things are common. If it looks like a duck, swims like a duck and quacks like a duck, then it probably is a duck.
So what do you think is more likely? A Navy experimental aircraft, inadvertently uncovered by pilots, or an alien UFO? My bet is on the latest Navy patent, but I’m open to suggestions. Please share them in the comment section below. You can take your tinfoil hat off now.
US Navy Disclosing Secret Space Program Technologies through Patents System
The US Navy has arranged for one of its scientists to openly apply for patents of advanced technologies that are allegedly under experimental development, but according to multiple insiders have been covertly developed and used in secret space programs for decades. In four patent applications lodged since 2015, the applicant, Dr. Salvator Cezar Pais, who filed on behalf of the Secretary of the Navy as the Assignee, has proposed revolutionary inventions that use principles such as electromagnetic propulsion rather than more conventional liquid fuel propulsion.
In one application, Philip J. Bonzell, a Primary Patent Examiner for the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) believed the proposed invention of “A Craft Using an inertial Mass Reduction Device” was so outlandish and scientifically unfeasible that he rejected it on November 28, 2017.
The rejection led to an immediate appeal by a Navy attorney who provided a supporting letter dated December 15, 2017, by Dr. James Sheehy, the Chief Technology Officer for the Naval Aviation Enterprise. Sheehy pointed out that Pais was employed by the Navy, and was currently working on proving the feasibility of the revolutionary propulsion system for a hybrid aerospace undersea craft described in the application.
Illustration of a craft using an Inertial Mass Reduction Device
Sheehy furthermore asserted that China was seriously researching similar technologies and the Navy would face high costs if the patent weren’t granted:
2…. Dr. Pais is currently funded by NAWCAD [Naval Air War Center Aircraft Division] to design a test article instrumentation to demonstrate the experimental feasibility of achieving high electromagnetic (EM) field-energy and flux values… He is currently one year into the project and has already begun a series of experiments to design and demonstrate advanced High energy Density / High Power propulsion systems.
3… If successful the realization of this result demonstrates that this patent documents the future state of the possible and moves propulsion technology beyond gas dynamic systems to field-induced propulsion based hybrid aerospace-undersea craft…
5. Based on these initial findings I would assert this will become a reality. China is already investing significantly in this area and I would prefer we hold the patent as opposed to paying forever more to use this revolutionary technology.
Bonzell decided to reverse his decision and granted the patent on December 4, 2018. Other patents awarded to Pais involved the creation of a “High Frequency Gravitational Wave Generator”(2019), a “Piezoelectricity-induced Room Temperature Superconductor” (2019) and an “Electromagnetic Field Generator and method to generate an Electromagnetic Field” (2018).
In the four patents granted to Dr. Pais, on behalf of the Department of the Navy, there is little data on his background. In a detailed article titled, “Docs Show Navy Got ‘UFO’ Patent Granted By Warning Of Similar Chinese Tech Advances”, the authors, Brett Tingly and Tyler Rogoway, delved into Pais’ background and found the following:
Little information can be found about Salvatore Cezar Pais he has virtually no web presence. What is known is that he received a PhD in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from Case Western Reserve University in 1999 and that he currently works as an aerospace engineer for NAWCAD at Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland – the Navy’s top aircraft test base. Pais has published several articles and presented papers at American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics conferences over the years describing his work in electromagnetic propulsion, revolutionary room temperature superconductors, and topics like his PhD dissertation: “Bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions for both co-flow and cross-flow configurations.”
One of the key observations of Tingly and Rogoway was that none of the patent applications were marked for classification, even though that was an option the Navy could easily have chosen if they wanted to maintain secrecy for national security purposes. Instead, the Pais applications ignored the option to keep the technologies secret as evidenced by his application for “A Craft Using an Inertia Mass Reduction Device” where the “Request Not Publish” option is unchecked.
If such a propulsion technology was so revolutionary and if the Navy indeed wanted to keep this technology out of others’ hands, it’s curious that they would choose to make the patent public. Maybe the Navy is signaling to its adversaries that it, too, is aware of this revolutionary capability and to whom it belongs.
Given what we know about secret space programs developed by the US Navy and Air Force respectively, electromagnetic propulsion systems have been used for decades in several crafts that operate both in space and underwater. The reason why Dr. Pais chose not to mark the patent applications secret was that senior Navy officials have decided the time had come for the disclosure of advanced electromagnetic propulsion technologies that were already in operation, rather than merely innovative proposals for future development as suggested in the patent application.
By arranging for one of its scientists to not only publicly apply for patents on revolutionary propulsion technologies, but to actually intervene when the application was turned down marks an extraordinary turn of events. The US Navy is moving forward with the disclosure process and is using the US patents system as the mechanism for the general public and scientific community awakening to the revolutionary potential of propulsion and energy storage systems using electromagnetic principles.
What adds further credence to this conclusion is the role of the Navy in leaking graphic videos of US Navy jets encountering Tic Tc shaped UFOs over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in 2004 and 2014, and of the tradition breaking practice of allowing fighter pilots to give interviews of the encounters.
Tingly and Rogoway further speculated about the remarkable similarity between the craft in Dr. Pais’ patent applications and the Tic Tac sightings:
Normally, I would agree with others that these patents are likely just the Navy ensuring that when or if this technology does become available, the U.S. will be able to control it. However, these are not normal times. Thanks to To the Stars Academy (TTSA), the Department of Defense, and the media at large, not only are we now being told that Navy pilots have witnessed aircraft behaving exactly like the craft these patents describe, but some of the pilots’ visual descriptions of those anomalous aircraft even seem to be uncannily similar to the drawings of the aircraft as depicted in Pais’ patents.
The similarities between the technologies described in Pais’ patent applications and the Tic Tac UFO sightings clearly encourages speculation that the technologies proposed by Pais have already been developed, and that is what the Navy pilots have been witnessing. It’s worth repeating that Sheehy acknowledged in his appeal letter supporting Pais that the Chinese were already investing in such revolutionary technologies.
Indeed, Tingly and Rogoway speculated that Navy might be playing catch up to Chinese SSP who may be further along in the development of such technologies:
As striking as the similarity between the claimed capabilities of the hybrid craft and those of the objects described by Navy personnel, it’s still unknown whether these patents are related to the ongoing UFO revelations…. Perhaps the few pieces of footage that have trickled out over the last several years that some claim to show advanced craft could be the Navy’s way of subtly hinting that this concept actually works and is being tested in the field by either the U.S. or the Chinese. The fact that Sheehy would lean so heavily on the Chinese threat in the last bullet point of his appeal letter to the USPTO seems to suggest that the Navy may already be playing catch-up to a terrestrial foe.
I deeply doubt that the Navy is playing catch-up to what the Chinese have secret developed. Tingly and Rogoway do not appear to be aware of the many insiders who have come forward with their startling testimonies about U.S. reverse engineering programs involving captured flying saucer technologies that go back as far back as the 1940s.
The recent developments in the cases of Bob Lazar and Admiral Thomas Wilson who respectively described reverse engineering programs of captured alien technologies dating from the 1980s and 1990s, indicates how much public awareness has grown in understanding such programs.
Nor do Tingly and Rogoway appear aware of the Navy and Air Force having developed parallel secret space programs using advanced electromagnetic technologies as a result of their reverse engineering efforts. My latest book, the US Air Force Secret Space Program: Shifting Extraterrestrial Alliances and Space Force, provides historical documents and testimonies outlining the origins of the parallel programs, and the aerospace technologies that were covertly developed.
There is a great cause for optimism that Dr. Pais’ patents are part of an officially sanctioned disclosure process by the US Navy wanting previously suppressed technologies to be released into the public arena. The revolutionary potential of electromagnetic technologies for the aerospace industry is enormous. We are on the verge of witnessing the kind of rapid advances in the aerospace industry when it comes to energy storage and propulsion, which has become a norm in the telecommunications industry, thanks to microprocessor storage capacities doubling every two years.
Sekret History: A critical review of the mysterious Tic-Tac UFO
The Tic-Tac is currently the most important case report in the history of UFO research, meaning, we must be very careful about concluding on limited data when trying to assign possible origin. When we recently looked closely at both the Nimitz (2004) and Roosevelt (2014/15) case reports, one thing stuck out over most other elements of the cases, the strange apathy of interest from the general mainstream. In can be suggested that this arguably stems from unwarranted speculation, people ready and willing to assign origin towards terrestrial secret military planes and/or Space Aliens which are, in their own way, a precursor to shutting down interest.
(As with the stealth bomber, peoples interest cools once they know it is just some military technology and not something exotic or mysterious)
Most notably, the same unwarranted argument comes up in both the conspiracy outliers of Ufology as it does with the centralist perspective in our western society.
But what do we really know about the Tic-Tac?
Over the past 18 months we have of talked to the people who were actually there during the Nimitz encounter and looked back at the history to gain a better understanding as to what the seemingly unidentifiable object might be.
One: Social Media and the Tic-Tac
To begin with, we examined the comments sections from YouTube, Twitter and Facebook with regard to anything AATIP, AAWSAP, Roosevelt, Nimitz or UAP. Most notably, we found a wide variety of differing opinions and comments, however in particular, a fair few showed an overwhelming eagerness and readiness to specifically assign the Tic-Tac as a black military operation craft rather than ‘Alien’, despite no sourced link or evidence provided.
The artist managed to get the ‘little legs’ under the craft correct. Political Cartoons: U.S. Navy admits holding secret tic tac UFO video. The Mercury News.
Political Cartoons: U.S. Navy admits holding secret tic tac UFO video. The Mercury News.
So what could be driving such premature conclusive thinking?
Bill Nye, the celebrity American scientist commented on CNN. His opinion on the Navy UFOs echoed what we were seeing across social media.
“…it’s probably one part of the military not telling the other part of the military what they’re up to, for a good reason”
– Bill Nye, CNN, 02/06/2019
Astrophysicist Neil Degrasse Tyson was another voice which attempted to denounce the Tic-Tac encounter in 2017, this time suggesting there was nothing to the videos, inferring that the Alien hypothesis should be discarded.
“….call me when you have a dinner invite from an alien”
– Neil Degrasse Tyson, CNN, 20/12/2020
Additionally, it seems like every week we have some new twitter user or tabloid story claiming that they invented the technology behind the Tic-Tac (without evidence of course).
A few weeks back we had a report in the Daily Star, suggesting the Tic-Tac was an American military craft. Mike Turber claimed to have worked in the USAF (but hasn’t provided any documentation of his credentials or of his Tic-Tac claims- as far as I know), and also stated the white UFO craft was actually created by the US military as a submarine.
“It (the tic-tac object) was travelling at 550mph. As far as I know, it was a Los Angeles-class submarine”
– Mike Turber, Daily Star , 27.01.2020
A criticism here, would be the lack of supporting evidence or data to back up Mike’s claim.
And in yet another Daily Star Tic-Tac article, the one single source is UFO researcher, Diana Tessman, who claims to know the origin of the Tic-Tac.
“My answer to the entire UFO puzzle is that it is us from the future rather than ETs and as far as the tic-tacs go I don’t think it can be anything of this Earth or of this time period that’s kind of the conclusion reached by experts”
– Diana Tessman, Daily Star, 28/02/2020
Again, the criticism comes from a lack of supporting testimony, data and documentation. (My opinion would be that experts wouldn’t be drawn into any conclusion, at least not with the limited data available).
Various internet conspiracy theorists, such as Dark Journalist, have also tried to link the Tic-Tac to American military technology, unsuccessfully.
Other equally bizarre claims suggested that the Tic-Tac technology originated from the University of Dundee, of all places. Again, we are faced with zero documentation or witness testimony for any of these claims, which is important when trying to verify what the truth is. The issue is when the tabloids speak, people listen, and certainly don’t question.
Evidence of secret UAP military technology?
Another interesting side note that we must also consider at this point, is that the CIA have in recent years took to social media to claim all those early UFO sightings belonged to them (the Blackbird and Stealth bomber probably did account for some sightings). However, the CIA ‘explain-away’ culture is disingenuously effective, ‘nothing to look into here, it was just us’,increases public apathy.
Another interesting concept came from the 2013 film ‘Mirage Men’, and the claims of former government agents (Richard Doty, et al). They stated that extraterrestrial visitation was a cover for the United States secret advanced military technology that they wanted to keep secret.
Then there was the testimony of Edward Fouche (alledged Area 51 worked), who has ingrained into Ufology folklore that the TR-3B flying triangle is a secret military technology, backdated from old ET crashes (he did have slides and a presentation).
TR-3B is an hypothesised secret military craft.
Additionally, Tom Delonge is sold on the same concept, with advanced UAP technology craft becoming a running theme throughout the Sekret Machines novels. Not to mention the questionable TR-3B Paris video from YouTube which Tom showed on Joe Rogan.
How credible are the TR-3B claims, hhhmm, who knows, surely we don’t have conclusive data to make an effective claim.
How much is counter intelligence?
That being said, should we completely rule out that this UAP technology is in the hands of the military and SAP?
Have they managed to back-engineer crashed flying saucer technology over the last 50 years in deep black programs?
And, even if they have managed to do so, is that conclusive evidence that the fleet of Tic-Tacs belong to such deeply classified programs?
Gimbal and Go Fast
Interestingly, we also found in our research, that the objects in the ‘Gimbal’ and ‘Go Fast’ gun camera footage videos (‘Flying Disc’ and ‘Foo-Fighter Sphere’) were noted as being less attributed to ‘black opps’ in the comments section and throughout the wider social media at large, in general they received less speculative posts about their origin (….plenty of Alien jokes).
The Gimbal ‘Flying Disc’ is different to the ‘Tic-Tac’, the Pilot who recorded the video has yet to come forward.
The famous Tic-Tac UFO caught on gun camera footage by Pilot Chad Underwood in 2004.
Such limited association between Gimbal, Go Fast and black opps programs could be the result of a few historic factors.
For one, they (Gimbal, Go Fast) are more difficult to explain-away due to their long standing reported cases in Ufology throughout history, going back to even 1945 and beyond. Foo Fighters (spheres, orbs) and the ensuing 1950s flying saucer wave are recognised as not being from any military at the time. (Or maybe we just didn’t have a wide enough sample of social media comments to gain a clearer picture).
So what is actually different about the Gimbal – Flying Disc (with a fleet cubes, not radar reflectors), and the Go Fast – Sphere, from say the infamous white oval Tic-Tacs?
What makes people so sure the Tic-Tac is from a special access program (SAP) operating as a deep black military craft, whilst, the Disc, Cubes and Spheres are not?
Any mention of a flying disc/flying saucer is associated with the 1940s and 1950s, essentially the social narrative is conditioned as….‘extraterrestrials’…they are part of our pop culture and unofficial history.
Additionally, the mainstream accepts that we as a species didn’t have this alleged ‘UAP (5 observables) technology’ operational in the early 1940s and 50s. So in a way, that already established link between the Gimbal flying disc and 1950s Flying Disc/Saucer could explain why people shy away from concluding that these objects are SAP. Maybe. But this is speculation.
Is the Tic-Tac from a special access program?
Do we have to ask the question here?
Could the claims be actually right?
Could the Tic-Tac really be an advanced craft from some special access black clandestine program? A breakaway civilisation? (Richard Dolan).
We need to look more closely at the Tic-Tac itself for clues.
Two: Recent History of the Tic-Tac
Made famous through the USS Nimitz case (2004), the term ‘Tic-Tac’ was coined by Chad Underwood, the Navy fighter pilot who shot the infamous ‘FLIR1’ gun camera footage (The FLIR1, Go Fast and Gimbal are now all labelled real and unidentified by the DOD). Not clouds, or radar glitches or misidentified seagulls.
Side note: Some of the Nimitz witnesses confirmed to Popular Mechanics that there is a longer video of FLIR1 gun camera footage first released by To The Stars Academy.
The Tic-Tac was first reported in the New York Times in 2017, and observed during a week long encounter in the early-mid November of 2004. Initially, visual contact was made by four officially sourced Navy fighter pilots (Cmdr. Fravor, Lt. Slaight, Lt. Annonymous Female wing pilot and Lt. Underwood).
– Watch Cmdr. Fravor on Joe Rogan discussing the Nimitz case
– Read the official USS Nimitz case report for details (credit George Knapp).
– Watch the Nimitz Encounter by Dave Beaty
The Tic-Tacs appearance and behaviourRoughly 40 ft long, white, no discernible rotors, exhaust, plumes or signatures. The object has two ‘legs’ or ‘antennas’ underneath the craft. The Tic-Tac was not aerodynamic in function, seemingly not using chemical thrust propulsion. When Cmdr. Fravor engaged the object, it mirrored him in behaviour.
Additionally, the object was able to transverse the horizon in seconds and move erratically similar to a ping-pong ball being bounced off close walls. The object(s), 5-10 fleet were recorded on Radar appearing from 80’000ft (and above) 20’000, the objects could drop from 28’000ft to sea level 50ft in 0.78 seconds. Radar operator Kevin Day for the Princeton (Nimitz nuclear strike group) states there were multiple Tic-Tacs dropping from the sky, almost as if it was ‘raining UFOs’.
Artist impression of the Tic-Tac.
Another interesting point, the object was able to know the CAP sign of the next location for fighter pilot David Fravor and appeared there in seconds. Does this amount to pre-cognition or an advanced ability to read the military systems computer system that held the CAP location?
To date, we have data which places the Tic-Tacs down the west coast of America, heading towards Mexico and a few remote islands. A strong association with upper atmosphere 80’000ft and above is reported and also over water (Pacific ocean, of the west coast of America). Remember when Luis Elizondo (fmr. AATIP Director) and Sean Cahill (Fmr. Chief master-at-arms for Princeton) travelled to Guadalupe in ‘Unidentified: Inside America’s UFO investigation’.
“Allegedly, the Tic Tacs disappeared from radar near Campamento Militar Isla Guadalupe, Guadalupe Island, in Baja California, Mexico…”
– Danny Silva, curtesy of SilvaRecord, 2018
“To The Stars Academy has interviewed many of my former shipmates who were involved and they have followed up ‘connected’ leads in Catalina Island (where the TIC TACs were detected on SPY radar)”
– Kevin Day, curtesy of SilvaRecord, 2018
Speaking to Kevin Day over social media last year in response to the Unidentified’s blog article ‘What is the radar data’s significance’, he made the following statement.
“… as far as i know (was not in CIC 24/7) all of the TIC TACs faded from radar above this island .. intrigued .. I wrote down the LAT/LONG in my log book .. a small, seemingly insignificant attention to detail at the time .. but a potentially huge dealio today as we work at getting closer to the truth..”
– Kevin Day to Andreas, Via Social Media, 2019
Three: The Testimony of Advanced UAP Technology
To get an idea of just how advanced and far beyond us this UAP technology actually is, we must explore what the testimony is telling us, therefore it becomes important to highlight some of the historic Pilot and Princeton Operator quotes since December 2017.
“This is important, now we are looking at something that can stay stationary over a geographic point, against 120 knots of wind, can rotate around and accelerate above supersonic”
– Commander David Fravor, Super Hornet F/A-18F Pilot, Squadron Black Aces, Tic-Tac case (Unidentified, Episode 4, History Channel).
“I’m fascinated that over 60 people have seen these things and it’s become the accepted norm”
– Commander David Fravor, Super Hornet F/A-18F Pilot, Squadron Black Aces, Tic-Tac case (Unidentified, Episode 4, History Channel).
“It accelerated like nothing I’ve ever seen”
– Commander David Fravor, Super Hornet F/A-18F Pilot, Squadron Black Aces, Tic-Tac case (2 Navy Airmen and an Object That ‘Accelerated like nothing I’ve ever seen’, New York Times, 16.12.2017).
“The objects appeared suddenly at 80,000 feet, and then hurtled toward the sea, eventually stopping at 20,000 feet and hovering. Then they either dropped out of radar range or shot straight back up”
– Commander David Fravor, Super Hornet F/A-18F Pilot, Squadron Black Aces, Tic-Tac case (2 Navy Airmen and an Object That ‘Accelerated like nothing I’ve ever seen’, New York Times, 16.12.2017).
“We were at least 40 miles away, and in less than a minute this thing was already at our cap point”
– Commander David Fravor, Super Hornet F/A-18F Pilot, Squadron Black Aces, Tic-Tac case (2 Navy Airmen and an Object That ‘Accelerated like nothing I’ve ever seen’, New York Times, 16.12.2017).
“It had no plumes, wings or rotors and outran our F-18s”
– Commander David Fravor, Super Hornet F/A-18F Pilot, Squadron Black Aces, Tic-Tac case (2 Navy Airmen and an Object That ‘Accelerated like nothing I’ve ever seen’, New York Times, 16.12.2017).
“It was so unpredictable, high G, rapid velocity, rapid acceleration. So, you’re wondering: How can I possibly fight this?”
– Anonymous. Super Hornet, F/A-18 wing pilot. Tic-Tac case (Unidentified, Episode 1, History Channel, 2019).
“The thing that stood out to me the most was how erratic it was behaving. And what I mean by “erratic” is that its changes in altitude, air speed, and aspect were just unlike things that I’ve ever encountered before flying against other air targets. It was just behaving in ways that aren’t physically normal. That’s what caught my eye. Because, aircraft, whether they’re manned or unmanned, still have to obey the laws of physics. They have to have some source of lift, some source of propulsion. The Tic Tac was not doing that. It was going from like 50,000 feet to, you know, a hundred feet in like seconds, which is not possible”
– Lt. Chad Underwood. Super Hornet, F/A-18, Tic-Tac case (Intelligencer, 19/12/2019)
“It (Tic-Tac) was 25’000 feet then coming down in no time, zero time at all, I mean you could blink and it was already there”
– Gary Voorhis, Petty Officer, Fire control man, CG-59. USS. Princeton. The Nimitz encounters.
“The reason why I say they’re weird [is] because they were appearing in groups of five to 10 at a time and they were pretty closely spaced to each other. And there were 28,000 feet going a hundred knots tracking south”
– Kevin Day, Fmr. Navy Senior Chief Petty Officer, a former Operations Specialist and TOPGUN Air Intercept Controller. The Nimitz encounters.
“All of a sudden this object (Tic-Tac) that he was merged with fell out of the sky from 28’000 feet to the surface of the ocean, in what I found out later was 0.78 seconds”
– Kevin Day. Fmr. Navy Senior Chief Petty Officer, a former Operations Specialist and TOPGUN Air Intercept Controller. (Coast 2 Coast interview with George Knapp, 17.06.2018
“Sometimes they’d be at an altitude of 80,000 or 60,000 feet. Other times they’d be around 30,000 feet, going like 100 knots. Their radar cross sections didn’t match any known aircraft they were 100 percent red. No squawk, no IFF (Identification Friend or Foe).”
– Garry Voorhis, Perry Officer, Fire control
* For more in-depth reporting on the Nimitz Encounter witnesses, it is advised you read the Tim McMillan article from Popular Mechanics, ‘The Truth about the Navy’s UFOs’ (2019). There is an abundance of testimony from credible individuals upon the Nimitz strike group. (Also see Jason Turner’s account).
Four: What is the American Government Saying about the Nimitz and other UAP Encounters?
Firstly, the U.S. Navy are telling us despite having established new reporting protocols for military personnel to document UFO/UAP encounters, we as civilians, won’t be seeing them.
Future UAP reports will be classified.
Secondly, FOIA researcher, Roger Glassel got the DOD’s position on record (2019), it appears the Nimitz encounter is officially classified as ‘Unidentified’. That means the most sophisticated military grade tracking technology was unable to recognise the Tic-Tac.
Thirdly, the Navy acknowledged that they have a classified video (FLIR1?) of the Tic-Tac encounter, however they are unable to release it due to grave implications to national security. The video was apparently used in the classified briefings given to the senate armed forces committee and to other branches of congress.
Five: Sekret History. Tic-Tac existed prior to 2004?
To address our initial question of whether the Tic-Tac is a deep black military craft or an Alien Spacecraft we might benefit from researching case reports from research reports. Something that might tell us if the Tic-Tac has been seen throughout history, as one might possibly expect.
We literally scoured thousands of ‘MUFON‘ case reports, ‘UFOEvidence’ databases and the ‘National UFO Reporting Centre’ and Top Secret Research.
*disclaimer, obviously we haven’t been able to check all case reports, so if any correlated case exists please let us know.
We found, no direct matches that exactly fit the description of the Tic-Tac precisely. However, there are similar descriptions of various cylinder and cigar shaped objects. Here are a few cases we picked out and photos.
1) Civilian cigar shaped objects
Two white cigar shaped object, MUFON case Case 93708, July 18, 2018
2) Astronomer Allen Epling films strange cigar-shaped UFO type object in sky above Kentucky. October 16, 2012 11:20am
3) Cigar-shaped UFO spotted in skies above Barnes, U.K. Ministry of Defence files reveal. It was a large cigar shaped vehicle with big projectiles on each side like wings. It seemed to have two very bright lights at the front and a white light flashing round and round underneath.
October, 1998, 12.15am
4) White oval ‘egg shaped’ object landed, witnesses by police officer Lonnie Zamora in one of the best-documented UFO sightings of all time, occurred in Socorro, New Mexico. On April 24, 1964
5) White oval ‘scout craft’ reported by Charles Hall in the Nevada desert. 1964/1965
Artists impression of the Zamora White UFO
Artists impression of the ‘Tall White’ scout ship as described by Charles Hall.
The daytime footage shot by Mr Jerome B. Turner ([email protected]), clearly shows an anomalous cigar shaped, structured craft moving from left to right and disappearing behind a nearby tree. Unable to verify shape exactly.
This strange white cylinder object is unverifiable at such heights.
Critical assessment of Ufology case reports
There are a few issues that need to be addressed when examining the case reports for white cylinder, cigar, egg shaped or oval craft.
Firstly, the high altitude of the reported craft makes it difficult to precisely identify the object as a ‘Tic-Tac’ (the little legs would help as a marker). Secondly, the lack of real in-depth case report details are very often vague, leaving us with unusable contrasting data, meaning that again we are without the means to specifically identify the reported objects as a ‘Tic-Tac’.
Thirdly, The landed cases of Zamora and Hall for example, are not identical to the appearance of the Tic-Tac, although similar, and should be questioned for credibility, and how verifiable they are (the curse of Ufology).
Generally, we struggled to precisely identify the ‘Tic-Tac’ exactly, as stated, we did find hundreds of variations of white cigars, eggs and ovals (almost as if anyone who witnesses a UFO projects/sees their own personal version).
Yet another side note, the Nimitz Tic-Tac (2004) operated over water, and at high altitude and not (so far as we know) over the mainland where the majority of sightings that we looked at occurred. The other claim would be that the Tic-Tac was interested in the nuclear aspect of the strike group (but without more data on other instances, we can’t verify).
We spoke to the Nimitz Encounter witness Garry Voorhis, now with the company UAPx, who has looked into the historical area by which the Tic-Tac operates.
“Have you found the historical reports are a variation of objects? (Orbs, triangles, cylinders, oval shaped?)”
“Mostly orbs, tic tacs, and some other shapes, but some of them can be chalked up to known experimental aircraft over the years, but there is still a but a ton of locals with stories out the wazoo!”
“What are the plans for UAPx this year (research into tic-tac)”
“We will be heading out to the very area that we first tracked them (tic-tac) and doing a multiship expedition around the area doing everything from environmentals to testing of the area to try and determine what makes that area special. We have collected reports around that area that span over 100 years so it most definitely is a hotspot. Through breaking everything down and step by step analysis of test readings using some new tech not available to us back in 2004 we hope to get some real data to with out a doubt make this real for everyone not just our small community”
The impressive historical research of UAPx seems to match that of what was investigated by Lue Elizondo and Sean Cahill when they also visited the islands of the west coast of Mexico and California. There does appear to be a hotspot for various Unidentified objects including the tic-tac (how significant are the two electromagnetic anomalies north of the Guadalupe island).
Does any of this prove that the Tic-Tac objects are secret military tech or an Alien Spacecraft? No, unfortunately it is still inconclusive at this point, we need more data.
Six: What do the Nimitz witnesses think of the Tic-Tac?
Commander David Fravor claimed on the Joe Rogan podcast (2019) that he doesn’t believe we have UAP technology in 2004, he also suggested that the DOD doesn’t covertly test secret aircraft against its own nuclear strike groups.
We casually spoke to a few other Nimitz witnesses who were present during the time of the Tic-Tac encounters, to see what the people involved think about the objects and possible origin.
“But based upon my experience, my knowledge, projects I worked on and was read into, I lean towards it being our tech. I’m open to all the other possibilities. Overall, I am about 60/40 (in favour of terrestrial explanation)”
– P.J. Hughes, speaking to the Unidentified, 28/02/2020
“If this is Back project tech I honestly believe they would not care about breaking the law to test it. Since they probably broke laws to develop it. If it is not then wow we need to find and figure out what they are asap!
I am about 60/40 that it is terrestrial tech. 40% that it could be unknown. But that is the very reason we formed UAPx a nonprofit enlisting some brilliant minds and people to find out”
– Garry Voorhis, speaking to the Unidentified, 27/02/2020
“The US Navy and US Military, in general, found out a long time ago that unannounced “red-cell” operations where we expose active conventional forces to friendly special forces (posing as the enemy) was a bad idea and therefore prohibited it. Further, it would be unprecedented and catastrophic for one service to “test” another. Operational risk management would prohibit such an exercise completely. Whoever was controlling the tic tac(s) during the 2004 encounter(s) certainly put the lives of the pilots, co-pilots and crew sent to intercept them at an unacceptable risk with it’s maneuvers and lack of navigational protocol or beacons. Given what we have learned via the five observables the tic-tac may have even put the thousands on board Nimitz and Princeton at risk due to the unknown parameters of it’s propulsion technology specifically as related to high frequency radiation. While it is not out of the absolute realm of possibility, the probability of the tic-tac being deployed in 2004 by any known ally or adversary seems incredibly low to me. It is my firm conviction that the tic-tacs represent an as yet unknown or at least unidentified actor or entity that possesses physics and technology that far outstrips our current state of the art even up to assumed advances that may remain in the black”
– Sean Cahill, Speaking to the Unidentified, 27/02/2020
Having spoke with a few witnesses and examined statements from Tim McMillan’s Popular Mechanics article, it would appear that the consensus is one of general uncertainty, there are indications that the Tic-Tac could in theory, be advanced military tech (although no documentation or credible testimony has yet been presented) however there are good arguments against this also. One thing is for certain, there is classified data which hasn’t been released, data which could influence how we approach the mystery.
We don’t have enough data to conclude on the origin of the Tic-Tac. The classification of the Nimitz case and probably other similar encounters involving the Tic-Tacs would ensure that we are left guessing. The danger from this is tabloid speculation, which leads conspiracy theorists to unwarranted conclusions, it also has the danger of dismissing the need for engagement, whilst increasing apathy amongst the general public.
Secret UFO Propulsion Systems - History
Possible Methods of UFO Propulsion Examined - Part I
By Dr. Raymond A. Keller, author of the international awards-winning Venus Rising series of books
Since the massive appearance of UFOs in our skies at the dawn of the atomic and space ages, the astounding power and maneuvering capabilities of these objects has long amazed engineers and scientists the world over. To greater and lesser degrees, these dedicated ones have tried their hands at duplicating the qualities manifest in the UFOs in both the design and construction of unconventional and experimental aerospace vehicles. In this series of articles, we look at some of the attempts by those on the cutting edge of anti-gravity and spacecraft propulsion research to build Earth-based versions of the legendary flying saucers.
Flying Saucers and High-Tech Weaponry in Nazi Germany
The Nottingham, United Kingdom, Guardian Journal newspaper of 18 February 1957, reports that the Nazis had a prototype flying saucer in their armory of secret weapons in 1945. Allegedly, this circular aircraft could reach a speed of 1,250 miles per hour. The saucer, which was 138 feet in diameter, was designed by four engineers, these being three Germans and one Italian. Fortunately, because this aircraft was developed in the closing stages of World War II, an opportunity never presented itself for the Axis powers to deploy it against Allied forces. The saucer was taken for one test flight, however, on 14 February 1945, at Prague, Czechoslovakia. It supposedly reached a height of more than 40,000 feet and achieved the expected maximum speed of 1,250 miles per hour.
Reports of the saucer’s existence first appeared in the pages of Rudolph Lusar’s book, German Weapons and Secret Weapons of World War II and their Development (London, United Kingdom: Neville Spearman, English edition, 1959 original German, 1957). The book is considered credible by weapons experts worldwide, at least insofar as Lusar was the head of the Technical Arms Department of the German War Ministry from 1940-1945.
One of the many secret Nazi weapons covered in Lusar’s book include a vertical takeoff plane called the Viper. There were ten Vipers actually ready for action but Lusar asserts that they were never used. Also, there was a radio-controlled flying bomb that was equipped with a television camera to allow it to be guided more accurately and remotely to its target by the bombardier aboard the aircraft it was deployed from. Lusar maintains that the United States military adapted the technology of this radio and television-directed bomb for the development of a similar device used against Chinese invading forces in Korea during the conflict that took place on that Asian peninsula (1950-1953).
Also, in the field of aviation, Lusar maintains that the Germans towards the end of World War II were working on the Heinkel 343, a bomber that could reach the Eastern United States and return to Europe without refueling and the so-called “V-9 Super Rocket.” This last mentioned weapon was an outgrowth of the V-1 and V-529 rockets which the Nazis fired at the British Isles. Had it been completed, the V-9 would have been capable of carrying a one-ton warhead to New York City in 35 minutes.
Other secret Nazi weapons included in Lusar’s book were various types of cannons: acoustic, electric and wind. The acoustic cannon was designed to kill enemy combatants with sound waves at a range of 70 yards. Lusar, however, writes that the acoustic cannon never lived up to the touted expectations of the Nazi war planners. The electric cannon, on the other hand, did make it so far as the experimental stage. According to the Technical Arms Department chief, this cannon was soundless, even while expelling a conventional shell by means of electricity. And then there was a wind cannon that could shatter boards at a distance of 200 yards with jets of compressed air, thus eliminating the need for expensive and manufactured ammunition.
On top of all this, there was also an automatic rifle that could fire around corners in house-to-house fighting. This type of advanced rifle was not duplicated until the early 2000s, when Lt. Col. Amos Golan of the Israeli Defense Forces came up with the “Corner Shot,” a weapon accessory now in common use by Special Weapons Attack Teams and special forces in hostile situations, usually involving the taking of hostages by terrorists.
Nazi Rocket Scientist Opines on Extraterrestrial Origin of the Flying Saucers
In 1940, at the onset of World War II, we find the rocketry pioneer, Hermann Oberth (1894-1989), working as a physics professor in the Technische Hochschule, a technical college, in Dresden, Germany. In the following year, Oberth moved to Peenemunde to work on Nazi Germany’s TOP SECRET Aggregate rocket program, where he achieved much success in the development of the V-series of rockets that were ultimately used to rain down massive destruction on lives and property in the British Isles. During the course of the war, he also helped the Nazis develop solid propellant anti-aircraft rockets at a facility in Wittenberg.
Despite his sordid past in the ranks of the Nazi scientific establishment, Oberth eventually came to the United States in the mid-1950s, at the behest of his former student Wernher von Braun, to work with him at a newly created space research facility in Huntsville, Alabama, run by the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, on the development of a fleet of space rockets for the United States. Oberth had published many technical papers on the possibilities of space-based reflecting telescopes, space stations, space suits and even electric-powered spaceships. Wernher von Braun convinced his American superiors at Huntsville that Oberth’s help with various on-going projects would prove invaluable. Of course, their research and rocket designs laid the groundwork for the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958.
Hermann Oberth had some definite opinions about flying saucers, however, that are surely worth noting. In the American Weekly magazine (New York City) of 24 October 1954, the space scientist opined that, “It is my thesis that the flying saucers are real and that they are spaceships from another solar system. I think that they possibly are manner by intelligent observers who are members of a race that may have been investigating our Earth for centuries.” And in an article that appeared in the May-June 1955 issue of the prestigious Flying Saucer Review (London, United Kingdom), Vol. 1, No. 2, pages 12-14, “They Come From Outer Space,” Oberth details the history of “strange, luminous objects” seen in the skies of our planet since the time of Pliny the Elder in the first century A.D. Roman Empire, and then writes, “Having weighed all the pros and cons, I find the explanation of flying discs from outer space the most likely one. I call this the ‘Uraniden’ hypothesis, because from our viewpoint, the hypothetical beings appear to come from the sky (Greek- ‘Uranos’).”
Other former Nazi scientists that have made their way to the United States under the auspices of Project Paperclip to contribute their expertise to research and development in various high-tech fields have made similar comments about the extraterrestrial origin of the flying saucers. Most notable among these was Oberth’s former student, Wernher von Braun, who made America’s Apollo Moon program the success that it was, stated to a reporter’s inquiries concerning UFOs on 3 June 1959, that, “We find ourselves faced by powers which are far stronger than we had assumed, and whose base is at present unknown to us. More I cannot say at present. We are now engaged in entering into closer contact with those powers, and in six, or nine-months-time, it may be possible to speak with some precision on the matter.” He also purportedly went on to aver that, “It is as impossible to confirm UFOs in the present as it will be to deny them in the future.” See UFO/UAP Alien News and Info Disclosure/UFO Scoop, https://ufoscoop.com/high-level-quotes-ufo-phenomenon/ (Accessed 2 September 2020), for direct quotes on UFOs from sundry authorities “in the know” on this subject.
From the comments made by the space research team of Hermann Oberth and Wernher von Braun, one can logically deduce that the Nazis may have gained some inkling of the advanced technology they were developing in the Third Reich from extraterrestrial sources. Oberth believed that the flying saucers originated from another solar system, although he wasn’t sure if they were manned or remotely controlled and his student von Braun felt that the objects were manned and have been operating out of nearby secret bases for hundreds of years, perhaps under the Earth, on the backside of the Moon, or perhaps the closer planets of Mars and Venus, conducting an ongoing surveillance of our world and keenly watching our scientific and spiritual progress. Given the vast distances between the stars, it certainly makes sense that the extraterrestrials would conduct themselves in this manner.
Editor’s Note: Keep checking this website for Part II of Raymond Keller’s Possible Methods of UFO Propulsion Examined, where the doctor will examine the amazing theories put forth by the electrical engineering wizard J. R. R. Searl in 1949, that led to the development of an advanced generator conducive to explaining the nature and origin of the propulsion system onboard the enigmatic flying saucers.
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The Truth Is The Military Has Been Researching "Anti-Gravity" For Nearly 70 Years
Decades-old questions about the potential existence of fantastical anti-gravity propulsion technologies have resurfaced following the Navy’s own disclosure of encounters with unidentified aerial phenomena and our own original reporting on a series of bizarre patents assigned to the U.S. Navy that seem to defy our current understanding of physics and aerospace propulsion. While the discussion continues over whether any such technologies are feasible, the truth is that the theoretical concepts behind them are anything but new. In fact, the U.S. military and the federal government have been formally researching these radical concepts since the 1950s, and according to our own research, those efforts have continued on to this very day.
In our dive into what seems like something of a bottomless rabbit hole of government studies into this exotic scientific realm, we have collected a body of research, news reports, and firsthand accounts. These establish the fact that the types of "anti-gravity", propellantless propulsion, and mass reduction technologies described in the Navy’s recent "UFO" patents are at least based on more than 60 years of peer-reviewed research conducted and published by the likes of the American Institute of Physics, NASA, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Air Force Research Laboratory.