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Alturas-PC-603 - History

Alturas-PC-603 - History

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A city in the northeastern corner of California. It is the seat of government of Modoc County.

(PC-602: dp. 280 1. 173'8", b. 23'0", dr. 10'10"' s. 20.2 k. (tl.) cpl. 65; a. 13", 2 20mm., 2 dep., 2 act.; cf. PC-461)

PC-602 was laid down on 12 April 1942 at Morris Heights N.Y., by the Consolidated Shipbuilding Corp., launched on 13 June 1942; sponsored by Mrs. W. J. Bolen, and commissioned on 16 September 1942, Lt. Comdr. Thomas A. Graham, USNR, in command.

Following shakedown training, the submarine chaser began escorting convoys between New York and Guantanamo Bay Cuba. After three such missions, she transited the Panama Canal late in December 1942. From January to November of 1943 PC - 02 operated along the California coast as a unit of the forces assigned to the Western Sea Frontier. Early in November, she sailed west to Hawaii and, on the 14th, reported for duty with the Hawaiian Sea Frontier. Except for one round-trip voyage to Funafuti in the Ellice Islands in December of 1943, PC - 02 spent the remainder of World War II operating as a part of the defenses of the Hawaiian Islands.

Following the end of the war in September of 1945, she continued her service in Hawaii. In March of 1946, she returned to the west coast for inactivation. Listed as inactive since March 1946 on the Naval Vessel Register dated 25 July 1946, PC-602 was out of commission, in reserve, by the following January. Berthed at Astoria, Oreg., she remained in reserve for almost a decade and a half. In February 1956, PC-602 was named Alturas. A little over four years later in July 1960, her name was struck from the Navy list. She was sold in April 1961.

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Municipal and Property

The mission of the Municipal and Property Division is to assure fairness, equity and proportionality in the assessment and collection of property taxes and the administration of municipal finances in the state by establishing tax rates, providing technical assistance and education to municipal officials, monitoring revaluations, reviewing assessment practices, equalizing local assessed valuation, appraising public utility and railroad property, and administering timber and gravel taxation.

COVID 19 Updated Property Visit Policy

Appraisers from the Municipal and Property Division will begin visiting properties for the purposes of contract monitoring and Assessment Review. THERE WILL BE NO INTERIOR INSPECTIONS only exterior inspections. Property owners have been notified by postcard and have been given the option of opting out of a visit. Timber and gravel appraisers will continue to perform site visits in their usual manner.

Please contact the Property Appraisal Bureau by calling (603) 230-5950 or by E-mail at [email protected] with questions or concerns.

The Municipal and Property Division establishes and approves municipal, school, county, state and village district tax rates. Provides technical assistance relative to taxation and finance to the over 500 political subdivisions of the state and provides general supervision over municipal tax collectors.

Other services performed include:

  • Prescribing a uniform chart of accounts for all municipalities
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  • Conducting workshops and seminars for municipal officials, including selectmen, budget committees, trustees of trust funds, tax collectors, and school officials.

The Municipal and Property Division also oversees the Assessment Review and Equalization bureaus and has the responsibility of:

  • Monitoring revaluations and revaluation contracts
  • Timber and Gravel Excavation Assistance
  • Assessing Standards, Current Use, and Equalization Standards Boards administrative assistance
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Assessment Review is the process of reviewing the assessing practices of each NH municipality over a five-year cycle to ensure compliance with applicable statutes and rules in the context of the Assessing Standards Board's Guidelines on Assessing Practices.

Equalization is the process of equalizing local assessed values for each NH municipality in order to bring the values to 100%. The equalization process includes compiling assessment data, conducting ratio studies, and preparing statistical reports. This includes administering the Flood, Forest and Recreation PILT reimbursement program and calculating Base Valuation for Debt Limits.

Subject Address City, State & Zip Code
Municipal and Property Division PO Box 487 Concord, NH 03302-0487

Subject Telephone Fax
Municipal and Property Division (603) 230-5090 (Municipal)
(603) 230-5950 (Property)
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New Hampshire Department of Revenue Administration
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Reinforcing bars in masonry construction have been used since at least the 15th century (2,500 meters of rebar was used in the Château de Vincennes). [5] During the 18th century, rebar was used to form the carcass of the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk in Russia, built on the orders of the industrialist Akinfiy Demidov. The cast iron [ citation needed ] used for the rebar was of high quality, and there is no corrosion on the bars to this day. The carcass of the tower was connected to its cast iron tented roof, crowned with one of the first known lightning rods. [6] However, it was not until the mid-19th century that rebar displayed its greatest strengths with the embedding of steel bars into concrete, thus producing modern reinforced concrete. Several people in Europe and North America developed reinforced concrete in the 1850s. These include Joseph-Louis Lambot of France, who built reinforced concrete boats in Paris (1854) and Thaddeus Hyatt of the United States, who produced and tested reinforced concrete beams. Joseph Monier of France is one of the most notable figures for the invention and popularization of reinforced concrete. As a French gardener, Monier patented reinforced concrete flower pots in 1867, before proceeding to build reinforced concrete water tanks and bridges. [7]

Ernest L. Ransome, an English engineer and architect who worked in the United States, made a significant contribution to the development of reinforcing bars in concrete construction. He invented twisted iron rebar, which he initially thought of while designing self-supporting sidewalks for the Masonic Hall in Stockton, California. His twisted rebar was, however, not initially appreciated and even ridiculed at the Technical Society of California, where members stated that the twisting would weaken the iron. [8] In 1889, Ransome worked on the West Coast mainly designing bridges. One of these, the Alvord Lake Bridge in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, was the first reinforced concrete bridge built in the United States. He used twisted rebar in this structure. [9]

At the same time Ernest L. Ransome was inventing twisted steel rebar, C.A.P. Turner was designing his "mushroom system" of reinforced concrete floor slabs with smooth round rods and Julius Kahn was experimenting with an innovative rolled diamond-shaped rebar with flat-plate flanges angled upwards at 45° (patented in 1902). Kahn predicted concrete beams with this reinforcing system would bend like a Warren truss, and also thought of this rebar as shear reinforcement. Kahn's reinforcing system was built in concrete beams, joists, and columns. The system was both praised and criticized by Kahn's engineering contemporaries: C.A.P. Turner voiced strong objections to this system as it could cause catastrophic failure to concrete structures. He rejected the idea that Kahn's reinforcing system in concrete beams would act as a Warren truss and also noted that this system would not provide the adequate amount of shear stress reinforcement at the ends of the simply supported beams, the place where the shear stress is greatest. Furthermore, Turner warned that Kahn's system could result in a brittle failure as it did not have longitudinal reinforcement in the beams at the columns. This type of failure manifested in the partial collapse of the Bixby Hotel in Long Beach, California and total collapse of the Eastman Kodak Building in Rochester, New York, both during construction in 1906. It was, however, concluded that both failures were the consequences of poor quality labor. With the increase in demand of construction standardization, innovative reinforcing systems such as Kahn's were pushed to the side in favor of the concrete reinforcing systems seen today. [10]

Requirements for deformations on steel bar reinforcement were not standardized in U.S. construction until about 1950. Modern requirements for deformations were established in "Tentative Specifications for the Deformations of Deformed Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement", ASTM A305-47T. Subsequently, changes were made that increased rib height and reduced rib spacing for certain bar sizes, and the qualification of “tentative” was removed when the updated standard ASTM A305-49 was issued in 1949. The requirements for deformations found in current specifications for steel bar reinforcing, such as ASTM A615 and ASTM A706, among others, are the same as those specified in ASTM A305-49. [11]

Concrete is a material that is very strong in compression, but relatively weak in tension. To compensate for this imbalance in concrete's behavior, rebar is cast into it to carry the tensile loads. Most steel reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary reinforcement, but there are other minor uses:

  • Primary reinforcement refers to the steel which is employed to guarantee the resistance needed by the structure as a whole to support the design loads.
  • Secondary reinforcement, also known as distribution or thermal reinforcement, is employed for durability and aesthetic reasons, by providing enough localized resistance to limit cracking and resist stresses caused by effects such as temperature changes and shrinkage.
  • Rebar is also employed to confer resistance to concentrated loads by providing enough localized resistance and stiffness for a load to spread through a wider area.
  • Rebar may also be used to hold other steel bars in the correct position to accommodate their loads.
  • External steel tie bars can constrain and reinforce masonry structures, as illustrated by the Nevyansk Tower or ancient structures in Rome and the Vatican.

Masonry structures and the mortar holding them together have similar properties to concrete and also have a limited ability to carry tensile loads. Some standard masonry units like blocks and bricks are made with voids to accommodate rebar, which is then secured in place with grout. This combination is known as reinforced masonry.

Steel has a thermal expansion coefficient nearly equal to that of modern concrete. If this were not so, it would cause problems through additional longitudinal and perpendicular stresses at temperatures different from the temperature of the setting. [12] Although rebar has ribs that bind it mechanically to the concrete, it can still be pulled out of the concrete under high stresses, an occurrence that often accompanies a larger-scale collapse of the structure. To prevent such a failure, rebar is either deeply embedded into adjacent structural members (40–60 times the diameter), or bent and hooked at the ends to lock it around the concrete and other rebar. This first approach increases the friction locking the bar into place, while the second makes use of the high compressive strength of concrete.

Common rebar is made of unfinished tempered steel, making it susceptible to rusting. Normally the concrete cover is able to provide a pH value higher than 12 avoiding the corrosion reaction. Too little concrete cover can compromise this guard through carbonation from the surface, and salt penetration. Too much concrete cover can cause bigger crack widths which also compromises the local guard. As rust takes up greater volume than the steel from which it was formed, it causes severe internal pressure on the surrounding concrete, leading to cracking, spalling, and, ultimately, structural failure. This phenomenon is known as oxide jacking. This is a particular problem where the concrete is exposed to salt water, as in bridges where salt is applied to roadways in winter, or in marine applications. Uncoated, corrosion-resistant low carbon/chromium (microcomposite), silicon bronze, epoxy-coated, galvanized, or stainless steel rebars may be employed in these situations at greater initial expense, but significantly lower expense over the service life of the project. [13] [14] Extra care is taken during the transport, fabrication, handling, installation, and concrete placement process when working with epoxy-coated rebar, because damage will reduce the long-term corrosion resistance of these bars. [15] Even damaged epoxy-coated bars have shown better performance than uncoated reinforcing bars, though issues from debonding of the epoxy coating from the bars and corrosion under the epoxy film have been reported. [16] These epoxy-coated bars are used in over 70,000 bridge decks in the USA, but this technology was slowly being phased out as of 2005 because of its poor performance. [17] [18]

Requirements for deformations are found in US-standard product specifications for steel bar reinforcing, such as ASTM A615 and ASTM A706, and dictate lug spacing and height.

Fibre-reinforced plastic rebar is also used in high-corrosion environments. It is available in many forms, such as spirals for reinforcing columns, common rods, and meshes. Most commercially available rebar is made from unidirectional fibers set in a thermoset polymer resin, and is often referred to as FRP.

Some special construction such as research and manufacturing facilities with very sensitive electronics may require the use of reinforcement that is non-conductive to electricity, and medical imaging equipment rooms may require non-magnetic properties to avoid interference. FRP rebar, notably glass fibre types have low electrical conductivity and are non-magnetic which is commonly used for such needs. Stainless steel rebar with low magnetic permeability is available and is sometimes used to avoid magnetic interference issues.

Reinforcing steel can also be displaced by impacts such as earthquakes, resulting in structural failure. The prime example of this is the collapse of the Cypress Street Viaduct in Oakland, California as a result of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, causing 42 fatalities. The shaking of the earthquake caused rebars to burst from the concrete and buckle. Updated building designs, including more circumferential rebar, can address this type of failure.

US sizes Edit

Sizes smaller than #3 are no longer recognized as standard sizes. These are most commonly manufactured as plain round undeformed rod steel, but can be made with deformations. Sizes smaller than #3 are typically referred to as "wire" products and not "bar", and specified by either their nominal diameter or wire gage number. #2 bars are often informally called "pencil rod" as they are about the same size as a pencil.

When US/Imperial sized rebar are used in projects with metric units, the equivalent metric size is typically specified as the nominal diameter rounded to the nearest millimeter. These are not considered standard metric sizes, and thus is often referred to as a soft conversion or the "soft metric" size. The US/Imperial bar size system recognizes the use of true metric bar sizes (No. 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40, 50 and 60 specifically) which indicates the nominal bar diameter in millimeters, as an "alternate size" specification. Substituting a true metric size for a US/Imperial size is called a hard conversion, and sometimes results in the use of a physically different sized bar.

There are no fractional bar sizes in this system. The "#" symbol in this system indicates the number sign, and thus "#6" is read as "number six". The use of the "#" sign is customary for US sizes, however "No." is sometimes used instead.

US Area Codes By State

Location of all Area Codes in the US

To faciltiate the millions of phone users, the United States of America is divided into regions known as Area Codes, corresponding to particular geographic telephone dialing areas. Based around major cities, some low population states such as Idaho and Montana have only one areas code, whereas other, such as California or New York, may have muliple area codes as they have a requirment for millions of local landline, cell phone, fax, and business phone numbers.

On January 1, 1947, the first North American area codes were issued in regions where standard 7 digit dialing codes were scheduled to be exhaused the soonest. By adding a 3 digit prefix to a 7 digit local number, this allowed for hundreds of millons of new phone numbers to be issued. The North American Numbering Plan Administration (NANPA) is reponsible for further divisions or adjustments to current area codes.

Alturas-PC-603 - History


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The MQ-1 Predator drone is introduced and put into action by the United States Air Force and the Central Intelligence Agency. It was widely used in Afghanistan and the Pakistani tribal areas against Al-Qaeda forces and Taliban militants starting after September 11, 2001. The unmanned aerial vehicles were equipped with cameras for reconnaissance and could be upgraded to carry two missiles.

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How Do You Determine the Value of Rogers Brothers Silverware?

Online auction sites, sell-by-owner sites, antiques dealers and silverware resellers are good sources for valuing Rogers Brothers silverware. Complete sets in excellent condition in their original hardwood chests command the best prices. There were so many Rogers silver companies in late 19th-century America that it was hard to keep track of them. However, for valuing Rogers Brothers silverware, it's useful to know that almost all of the flatware produced by companies named Rogers is low-worth silver-plate, not valuable sterling.

The various Rogers and Rogers Brothers silverware companies were bought up around the same time by two main silver-plate manufacturers, International Silver and Oneida, but the individual companies continued to use their own marks for some patterns. Most of the flatware produced was less expensive silver-plate.

1847 Rogers Brothers is one well-known silver-plate mark that indicates the year the original company was founded, not the year the flatware was manufactured. An additional "IS" mark after the Rogers name on the backs of spoons and forks stands for International Sterling. Real sterling silver is marked with the word "STERLING" or the number 925, for the 92.5 percentage of silver required for the sterling designation. Any piece with a sterling mark may be reliably valued by a certified appraiser or a jeweler specializing in silverware.

Patterns and manufacturers' marks for Rogers Brothers silverware may be matched to photographs online at resellers' sites. Those sites and online auction sites give a reasonable estimate of market value for Rogers Brothers silver-plate.