History Podcasts

5 August 1940

5 August 1940

5 August 1940

August

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Diplomacy

Anglo-Polish Military Agreement signed



What Happened in August 1940

    German occupiers forbid ritual slaughters & English & French movies Italian troops invade British Somalia Lithuanian SSR is accepted into USSR Seaplane Clare makes 1st British passenger flight to the US "Acquaintance" blows-up Zandvoortse synagogue St Louis Brown's pitcher John Whitehead no-hits Detroit Tigers, 4-0 in 6 innings (rain shortened) Estonia is annexed into Soviet empire Churchill recognizes De Gaulle's French government in exile Largest amount paid for a stamp ($45,000 for 1 1856 British Guiana) Alsace Lorraine is annexed by the Third Reich (Germany) during World War II 31 German aircraft shot down over England

Event of Interest

Aug 8 The "Aufbau Ost" directive is signed by Wilhelm Keitel.

Battle of Interest

Aug 13 Battle of Britain: Hermann Goering's "Adlertag" (Eagle Day) offensive happens, intending to destroy the Royal Air Force 47-48 German aircraft shot down, the RAF loses 25 planes

    Dutch Premier De Geer vacations in Switzerland 1st edition of Jewish Weekly newspaper in Amsterdam (under Nazis) Heavy dogfights above England: 75 German aircraft damaged 45 German aircraft shot down over England

Agreement of Interest

Aug 17 FDR & Canadian PM William M King agree to joint defense commission

Event of Interest

Aug 17 Adolf Hitler orders a total blockade of Great Britain

    Battle of Britain: The air battle known as "The Hardest Day" occurs Luftwaffe lose approximately 69 aircraft and the RAF lose 68 in one of the largest ever air battles 1st Polish squadrons fight along allies in the Battle of Britain

Event of Interest

Aug 20 British PM Churchill says of Royal Air Force, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few"

Murder of Interest

Aug 20 Louis Buchalter is indicted on murder charges in Los Angeles for the killing of Harry Greenberg, a mob associate of casino owner Meyer Lansky and mobster Bugsy Siegel

Event of Interest

Event of Interest

Aug 24 Red Sox left fielder Ted Williams pitches the last 2 innings in a 12-1 loss to Detroit Tigers, Williams allows 3 hits & 1 run

    First British night bombing of Germany (Berlin) Lithuania, Latvia & Estonia incorporated into Soviet Union RKC soccer team forms in Waalwijk Chad is the first French colony to join the Allies under the administration of Félix Éboué, France's first black colonial governor. Caproni-Campini CC-2, experimental jet plane, maiden flight (Milan) French colonies Cameroon/Congo-Brazzaville support Gen De Gaulle 7th NFL Chicago All-Star Game: Green Bay 45, All-Stars 28 (84,567) 1st edition of illegal opposition newspaper Free Netherlands RAF Fighter Command loses 39 aircraft against Luftwaffe's 41 German occupiers in Netherlands begin soap rationing US National Guard assembles

Contents

Until the mid-1930s the Muslim leaders were trying to ensure maximum political safeguards for Muslims within the framework of federation of India in terms of seeking maximum autonomy for Muslim majority provinces. They got some safeguards through a system of separate electorate on communal basis in the Government of India Act, 1935. As a result of elections held under this Act, Indian National Congress formed government in six out of eight provinces. During Congress rule from 1937 to 39, its "High Command whose iron control over its own provinces clearly hinted at what lay ahead for the Muslim majority provinces once it came to dominate the centre. Much of the League's propaganda at this stage was directed against the Congress ministries and their alleged attacks on Muslim culture the heightened activity of Hindu Mahasabha, the hoisting of Congress tricolor, the singing of Bande Mataram, the Vidya Mandir scheme in the Central Provinces and the Wardha scheme of education, all were interpreted as proof of ‘Congress atrocities’. So, the Congress was clearly incapable of representing Muslim interests, yet it was trying to annihilate every other party." [6]

Therefore, by 1938–39, the idea of separation was strongly gaining ground. The Sindh Provincial Muslim League Conference held its first session in Karachi in October 1938, adopted a resolution which recommended to the All India Muslim League to devise a scheme of constitution under which Muslims may attain full independence. The premier of the Bengal province, A. K. Fazal-ul-Haque, who was not in the All India Muslim League, was quite convinced in favor of separation. The idea was more vividly expressed by M. A. Jinnah in an article in the London weekly Time & Tide on 9 March 1940. [7] Jinnah wrote:

Democratic systems based on the concept of homogeneous nation such as England are very definitely not applicable to heterogeneous countries such as India, and this simple fact is the root cause of all of India's constitutional ills……If, therefore, it is accepted that there is in India a major and a minor nation, it follows that a parliamentary system based on the majority principle must inevitably mean the rule of major nation. Experience has proved that, whatever the economic and political programme of any political Party, the Hindu, as a general rule, will vote for his caste-fellow, the Muslim for his coreligionist.

About the Congress-led provincial governments, he wrote:

An India-wide attack on the Muslims was launched. In the five Muslim provinces every attempt was made to defeat the Muslim-led-coalition Ministries. In the six Hindu provinces a “Kulturkampf” was inaugurated. Attempts were made to have Bande Mataram, the Congress Party song, recognized as the national anthem, the Party flag, and the real national language, Urdu, supplanted by Hindi. Everywhere oppression commenced and complaints poured in such force…that the Muslims, despairing of the Viceroy and Governors ever taking action to protect them, have already been forced to ask for a Royal Commission to investigate their grievances.

Is it the desire (of British people) that India should become a totalitarian Hindu State….? ….. and I feel certain that Muslim India will never submit to such a position and will be forced to resist it with every means in their power.

In his concluding remarks he wrote:

While Muslim League irrevocably opposed to any Federal objective which must necessarily result in a majority community rule under the guise of Democracy and Parliamentary system of Government. To conclude, a constitution must be evolved that recognises that there are in India two nations who both must share the governance of their common motherland.

The session was held on 22–24 March 1940, at Iqbal Park, Lahore. The welcome address was made by Sir Shah Nawaz Khan of Mamdot, as the chairman of the local reception committee. The various draft texts for the final resolution/draft were deliberated over by the Special Working Committee of the All India Muslim League [8]

The resolution text, unanimously approved by the Subject Committee, accepted the concept of a united homeland for Muslims [ citation needed ] and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state. [9]

The resolution was moved in the general session by A. K. Fazlul Huq, the chief minister of undivided Bengal, and was seconded by Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman from the United Provinces, Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb Khan from North-West Frontier Province, and Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh. [10] Qazi Muhammad Essa from Baluchistan and other leaders announced their support. [ citation needed ]

The resolution for the establishment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of British India passed in the annual session of the All India Muslim League held in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940 is a landmark document of Pakistan's history. [11] In 1946, it formed the basis for the decision of Muslim League to struggle for one state [ later named Pakistan] for the Muslims. [12] The statement declared:

No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. [13]

The Hindu press and leaders were quick to describe the resolution as the demand for the creation of Pakistan some people began to call it the Pakistan Resolution soon after the Lahore session of the Muslim League. It is landmark document in history of Pakistan. [11] Additionally, it stated:

That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities.

Most importantly, to convince smaller provinces such as Sindh to join, it provided a guarantee:

That geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North Western and Eastern Zones of (British) India should be grouped to constitute 'independent states' in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign.

The full text of the resolution document was as follows:

"THE LAHORE RESOLUTION"

Resolved at the Lahore Session of All-India Muslim League held on 22 nd -24 th March, 1940.

(1) While approving and endorsing the action taken by the Council and the Working Committee of the All Indian Muslim League as indicated in their resolutions dated the 27 th of August, 17 th and 18 th of September and 22 nd of October, 1939, and 3 rd February 1940 on the constitutional issues, this Session of the All-Indian Muslim League emphatically reiterates that the scheme of federation embodied in the Government of India Act, 1935, is totally unsuited to, and unworkable in the peculiar conditions of this country and is altogether unacceptable to Muslim India.

(2) Resolved that it is the considered view of this Session of the All India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principle, namely that geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern Zones of India, should be grouped o constitute “Independent States” in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.

(3) That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in these units and in these regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them and in other parts of India where the Mussalmans are in a minority, adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specially provided in the constitution for them and other minorities for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them.

(4) This Session further authorizes the Working Committee to frame a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles, providing for the assumption finally by the respective regions of all powers such as defense, external affairs, communications, customs and such other matters as may be necessary." [14] [15]

There remains a debate on whether the resolution envisaged two sovereign states in the eastern and western parts of British India. Abdul Hashim of the Bengal Muslim League interpreted the text as a demand for two separate countries. [16] In 1946, Prime Minister H. S. Suhrawardy of Bengal, a member of the All India Muslim League, mooted the United Bengal proposal with the support of Muslim and Hindu leaders, as well as the Governor of Bengal. However, it was opposed by Lord Mountbatten, the Muslim League, the Congress and the Hindu Mahasabha.

Although there were and continue to be disagreements on the interpretation of the resolution, it was widely accepted that it called for a separate Muslim state. [ citation needed ] Opposing opinions focus on the phrase "independent states" claiming this means Muslim majority provinces, i.e. Punjab, Sindh, etc. would be independent of each other. They ignore the phrase "geographically contiguous units." They also rely on the claims of certain Bengali nationalists who did not agree with one state. They accuse their opponents of diverting the "spirit" of the resolution.

The majority of the Muslim League leadership contended that it was intended for not only the separation of India but into only 2 states (Muslim majority and Hindu majority). Therefore, it is indeed a statement calling for independence and one Muslim state. [ citation needed ] Eventually, the name "Pakistan" was used for the envisioned state.

The All India Azad Muslim Conference gathered in Delhi in April 1940 to voice its support for an independent and united India, in response to the Lahore Resolution. [17] [18] Its members included several Islamic organisations in India, as well as 1400 nationalist Muslim delegates. [19] [20] [21] The pro-separatist All-India Muslim League worked to try to silence those nationalist Muslims who stood against the partition of India, often using "intimidation and coercion". [21] [20] The murder of the Chief Minister of Sind and All India Azad Muslim Conference leader Allah Bakhsh Soomro also made it easier for the All-India Muslim League to demand the creation of a Pakistan. [21]

The Sindh assembly was the firstly British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan. G. M. Syed, an influential Sindhi activist, revolutionary and Sufi and later one of the important leaders in the forefront of the Sindh independence movement, [22] joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly. A key motivating factor was the promise of "autonomy and sovereignty for constituent units". [23]

This text was buried under the Minar-e-Pakistan during its building in the Ayub regime. [ citation needed ] In this session the political situation was analysed in detail and Muslim demanded a separate homeland only to maintain their identification and to safeguard their rights. Pakistan resolution was the landmark in the history of Muslim of South-Asia. It determined for the Muslims a true goal and their homeland in north-east and north-west. The acceptance of the Pakistan resolution accelerated the pace of freedom movement. It gave new energy and courage to the Muslims who gathered around Muhammad Ali Jinnah for struggle for freedom. [ citation needed ]


August 5, 1942 Old Doctor

The children’s author was offered sanctuary on the “Aryan side” but the man refused, saying that he would stay with his children. Janusz Korczak and his orphaned children were last seen boarding the train to the Treblinka extermination camp on August 5 or 6.

Janusz Korczak was a children’s author and pediatrician, a teacher and himself a lifelong learner, a student of pedagogy, the art of science of education, and how children learn.

Born Henryk Goldszmit into the Warsaw family of Józef Goldszmit, in 1878 or 󈨓 (the sources vary), Korczak was the pen name by which he wrote children’s books.

Henryk was an exceptional student, of above-average intelligence. His father fell ill when the boy was only eleven or twelve and was admitted into a mental hospital, where he died, six years later. As the family’s situation worsened, the boy would tutor other students, to help with household finances.

Goldszmit was a Polish Jew, though not particularly religious, who never believed in forcing religion on children.

He wrote his first book in 1896, a satirical tome on child-rearing, called Węzeł gordyjski (The Gordian Knot). He adopted the pen name Janusz Korczak two years later, writing for the Ignacy Jan Paderewski Literary Contest.

Korczak wrote for several Polish language newspapers while studying medicine at the University of Warsaw, becoming a pediatrician in 1904. Always the writer, Korczak received literary recognition in 1905 with his book Child of the Drawing Room (Dziecko salonu), while serving as medical officer during the Russo-Japanese war.

He went to Berlin to study in 1907-󈧌 and worked at the Orphan’s Society in 1909, where he met Stefania “Stefa” Wilczyńska, an educator who would become his associate and close collaborator.

In the years before the Great War, Korczak ran an orphanage of his own design, hiring Wilczyńska as his assistant. There he formed a kind of quasi-Republic for Jewish orphans, complete with its own small parliament, court, and newspaper. The man was born to be an educator.

In early modern European Royalty, 15th – 18th century, a “whipping boy” was the friend and constant companion to the boy prince or King, whose job it was to get his ass kicked, for the prince’s transgressions. The Lord was not the be struck by his social inferior. It was thought that, to watch his buddy get whipped for his misdeeds would have the same instructional effect, as the beating itself.

The extent of the custom is open to debate and it may be a myth altogether, but one thing is certain. Poland has been described as the “whipping boy of Europe”, for good reason.

The Polish nation, the sixth largest in all Europe, was sectioned and partitioned for over a century, by Austrian, Prussian, and Russian imperial powers. Korczak volunteered for military service in 1914, serving as military doctor during WW1 and the series of Polish border wars between 1919-󈧙.

The “Second Polish Republic” emerging from all this in 1922 was roughly two-thirds Polish, the rest a kaleidoscope of ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities. Relations were anything but harmonious between ethnic Russians, Germans, Lipka Tatars and others, and most especially Poland’s Jewish minority, the largest in pre-WW2 Europe.

Silver Cross of the Polonia Restituta

Janusz Korczak returned to his life’s work in 1921 of providing for the children of this Jewish community, all the while writing no fewer than thirteen children’s books, along with another seven on pedagogy and other subjects.

In the inter-war years, Korczak put together a children’s newspaper, the Mały Przegląd (Little Review), as a weekly supplement to the daily Polish-Jewish newspaper, Nasz Przegląd (Our Review).

Korczak had his own radio program promoting the rights of children, to whom he was known as Pan Doktor (“Mr. Doctor”) or Stary Doktor (“Old Doctor”).

The Polish government awarded “Old Doctor” the Polonia Restituta in 1933, a state order bestowed on individuals for outstanding achievements in the fields of education, science and other civic accomplishments.

Yearly visits to Mandatory Palestine, the geopolitical entity partitioned from the Ottoman Empire in 1923 and future Jewish state of Israel, led to anti-Semitic crosscurrents in the Polish press, and gradual estrangement from non-Jewish orphanages.

The second Republic’s brief period of independence came to an end in September 1939, with the Nazi invasion of Poland. Korczak volunteered once again but was refused, due to his age.

Tales of Polish courage in the face of the Wehrmacht are magnificent bordering on reckless, replete with images of horse cavalry riding out to meet German tanks. Little Poland never had a chance, particularly when the Soviet Union piled on, two weeks later.

As an independent nation-state the Sovereign Republic of Poland was dead, though Polish air crews went on to make the largest contribution to the Battle of Britain, among the United Kingdom’s thirteen non-British defenders. Polish Resistance made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, throughout WW2.

Warsaw became the largest Jewish ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe within the following year. The Jews of Poland were herded into the city, barely existing on meager rations while awaiting the death squads of the SS. Old Doctor and his orphans were forced into the Ghetto, in 1939.

There were nearly 200 of them on this day in 1942, when soldiers of the Gross-Aktion (Great Action) Warsaw, came for their “Resettlement to the East”.

The Pianist, by Władysław Szpilman

The extermination camp at Treblinka, awaits.

Polish-Jewish composer and musician Władysław Szpilman, one of precious few survivors of the Jewish ghetto, describes the scene in his 1946 memoir, The Pianist:

“He told the orphans they were going out into the country, so they ought to be cheerful. At last they would be able to exchange the horrible suffocating city walls for meadows of flowers, streams where they could bathe, woods full of berries and mushrooms. He told them to wear their best clothes, and so they came out into the yard, two by two, nicely dressed and in a happy mood. The little column was led by an SS man…”

Eyewitness Joshua Perle states that: Janusz Korczak was marching, his head bent forward, holding the hand of a child… A few nurses were followed by two hundred children, dressed in clean and meticulously cared for clothes, as they were being carried to the altar.

At the Umschlagplatz, the rail-side assembly area on the way to Treblinka, an SS officer recognized Korczak, and called him aside. The children’s author was offered sanctuary on the “Aryan side” but the man refused, saying that he would stay with his children. Stary Doktor was offered deportation to the Theresienstadt concentration camp instead, but again he refused.

The man who refused freedom to die with his orphaned children was last seen boarding the train to Treblinka on August 5 or 6, where all 200 were murdered, the following day.

Janusz Korczak memorial stone, Treblinka

“Dr. Janusz Korczak’s children’s home is empty now. A few days ago we all stood at the window and watched the Germans surround the houses. Rows of children, holding each other by their little hands, began to walk out of the doorway. There were tiny tots of two or three years among them, while the oldest ones were perhaps thirteen. Each child carried the little bundle in his hand”. — Mary Berg, The Diary


On This Day in History, 5 август

General Abdel Aziz, who came to power in a coup in 2008, was sworn in as the President of Mauritania after elections in 2009.

1963 Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is Signed

Also known as the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the document was signed by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States in Moscow. The treaty, which came as a response to the heightening tensions due to the frequent testing of nuclear weapons by the these 3 countries during the Cold War, banned the testing of nuclear weapons anywhere on land, over water or in space. Underground testing was still allowed under the treaty, until it was also banned in 1996 after the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty came into force.

1962 Nelson Mandela is Arrested

The South African anti-apartheid activist and adherent of nonviolence was arrested by the government at Rivonia, a suburb of Johannesburg. After a year-long trial, Mandela was imprisoned at the infamous Robben Island prison where we spent the next 18 years. He was released from prison in 1990 after spending 28 years as a political prisoner. In the early 1990s, after intense international and domestic pressure, in part from the efforts of Mandela, the South African government started taking steps to end apartheid – a government policy of racial segregation and discrimination. As a result, Mandela was elected the country’s first black president in 1994.

1960 Burkina Faso gains its Independence

The landlocked West African country, known as Upper Vota until 1984, became a French protectorate in the late 19th century. In 1958, the Republic of Upper Volta was created as a self-governing French colony. After independence, Maurice Yaméogo became the first president of the country, whose name was changed to Burkina Faso in 1984.

1940 Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic is established

The Soviet Union added Latvia to the union as the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic.


Audio Recording Interview about dust storms in Oklahoma

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The Center asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here. Researchers are also reminded that privacy and publicity rights may pertain to certain uses of this material.

A small subset of the sound recordings in this collection (36 items) are not included in this online presentation because the underlying musical lyrics or works may be protected by copyright. Researchers with an interest or need to review the entire body of material are encouraged to contact the American Folklife Center. The staff of the American Folklife Center is eager to learn more about the musical compositions and performers included in the collection and encourages the public to contact them with any information.

Credit line

Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin migrant workers collection (AFC 1985/001), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress


The New International

Vol. I No. 1, July 1934
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editor:
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

REVIEW OF REVIEWS:

Vol. I No. 2, August 1934
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editor
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

THE CRISIS IN FASCISM:

DOCUMENTS AND DISCUSSION:

Inside Front Cover: For the Man on the Planet without a Visa
Inside Back Cover: At Home. An Apology

Vol. I No. 3, September–October 1934
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editor:
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: For the Right of Asylum for Leon Trotsky
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Vol. I No. 4, November 1934
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editor:
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE OPPOSITION:

Inside Front Cover: Three Conventions
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Vol. I No. 5, December 1934
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editor:
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
WILLIAM DUNCAN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: The New New International
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Vol. II No. 1, January 1935
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: The Readers Have the Floor
Inside Back Cover: The Press. At Home

Vol. II No. 2, March 1935
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

The Housing Question in America:

Vol. II No. 3, May 1935
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

Where Is France Going? (from La Verité, Paris) (different translation)

  • How a Revolutionary Situation Comes About
  • Immediate Demands and the Struggle for Power
  • The Struggle Against Fascism and the General Strike
  • Socialism and Armed Struggle
  • The Proletariat, the Peasantry, the Army, the Women, the Youth
  • Why the Fourth International?
  • Conclusion

Inside Front Cover: All Eyes on France!
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Vol. II No. 4, July 1935
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

Inside Front Cover: “United Front in France Wavers”
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Note by ETOL: * In the printed edition the titles of these two reviews have been swapped.

Vol. II No. 5, August 1935
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

A Reply to Olgin, by John G. Wright and Joseph Carter

Vol. II No. 6, October 1935
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A BI-MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

US Capitalism: National or International, by George Novack
A Critique of Lewis Corey’s The Decline of American Capitalism

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: A Bolshevik Fugitive
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Vol. II No. 7, December 1935
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A BI-MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

  • The Marxist Theory of the Intellectuals
  • Non-Marxist Theories of the Intellectuals
  • Reaction and Anti-Intellectualism

Inside Front Cover: Sanctions and the British Elections
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Vol. III No. 1 (Whole No. 13), February 1936
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A BI-MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

Once Again: The ILP, An Interview with Leon Trotsky

Vol. III No. 2 (Whole No. 14), April 1936
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A BI-MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: The Record of the League
Inside Back Cover: At Home

Vol. III No. 3 (Whole No. 15), June 1936
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL (With which is merged Labor Action) A BI-MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

Editors:
MAX SHACHTMAN
JOHN WEST

Inside Front Cover: Our Voices Must Be Heard
Inside Back Cover: The Press

Vol. IV No. 1 (Whole No. 16), January 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: At Home – Hands Off in Spain! – Notes
Inside Back Cover: Clippings

Vol. IV No. 2 (Whole No. 17), February 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: At Home – Notes
Inside Back Cover: Clippings & History by Scissors

Vol. IV No. 3 (Whole No. 17), March 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Vol. IV No. 4 (Whole No. 19), April 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: At Home – Notes

Vol. IV No. 5 (Whole No. 20), May 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: At Home – Notes
Inside Back Cover: A Gift for a Friend – Clippings

Vol. IV No. 6 (Whole No. 21), June 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

Inside Front Cover: At Home – Notes
Inside Back Cover: Clippings

Vol. IV No. 7 (Whole No. 22), July 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

DISCUSSION:
Once More: Kronstadt:

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: At Home – Notes
Inside Back Cover: [Announcement] – Clippings

Vol. IV No. 8 (Whole No. 23), August 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

The Question of a Labor Party:

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: At Home – Notes

Vol. IV No. 9 (Whole No. 24), September 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

The Two Party System, by George Novack
(Conclusion of critique of The Politicos, by M. Josephson)

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. IV No. 10 (Whole No. 25), October 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. IV No. 11 (Whole No. 26), November 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. IV No. 12 (Whole No. 27), December 1938
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

ARCHIVES OF THE REVOLUTION:

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 1, January 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

Intellectuals in Retreat, by James Burnham and Max Shachtman

CORRESPONDENCE:

Vol. V No. 2 (Whole No. 29), February 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

A Letter and Some Notes, by Victor Serge and The Editors

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 3 (Whole No. 30), March 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
MAURICE SPECTOR
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 4 (Whole No. 31), April 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

Inside Front Cover: At Home
Inside Back Cover: Clippings

Vol. V No. 5 (Whole No. 32), May 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home
Inside Back Cover: Oktober

Vol. V No. 6 (Whole No. 33), June 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 7 (Whole No. 34), July 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

A Step Towards Social-Patriotism, by Editorial Board, Bulletin of the Russian Opposition

Inside front cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 8 (Whole No. 35), August 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home
Inside Back Cover: A Correction

Vol. V No. 9 (Whole No. 36), September 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
Business Manager:
MARTIN ABERN

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 10 (Whole No. 37), October 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
General Manager:
MARTIN ABERN
Assistant Manager:
SHERMAN STANLEY

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside Front Cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 11 (Whole No. 33), November 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
General Manager:
MARTIN ABERN
Assistant Manager:
SHERMAN STANLEY

CORRESPONDENCE:

Inside front cover: At Home

Vol. V No. 12 (Whole No. 39), December 1939
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
General Manager:
MARTIN ABERN
Assistant Manager:
SHERMAN STANLEY

  • The Negro and the French Revolution
  • The Haitian Revolution and World History
  • The Negro and the Civil War
  • The Negro and World Revolution.
  • From Slavery to Sharecropping
  • Extent and Character of Sharecropping and Tenancy
  • Wage Labor
  • Mechanization
  • Negro Landownership
  • Concentration of Landownership
  • Credit System

Inside front cover: At Home

Vol. VI No. 1 (Whole No. 40), February 1940
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY (Section of the Fourth International)

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
General Manager:
GEORGE CLARKE
Assistant Manager:
SHERMAN STANLEY

Resolution on Russia, A Statement of Policy by the Political Committee of the Socialist Workers Party

Inside front cover: At Home

Vol. VI No. 2 (Whole No. 41), March 1940
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL A MONTHLY ORGAN OF REVOLUTIONARY MARXISM OFFICIAL THEORETICAL ORGAN OF THE SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY (Section of the Fourth International)

Editorial Board:
JAMES BURNHAM
MAX SHACHTMAN
General Manager:
GEORGE CLARKE
Assistant Manager:
SHERMAN STANLEY

The Second World War and the Soviet Union, A Resolution Submitted by the Minority of the Political Committee for the Consideration of the Membership of the Socialist Workers Party
 


War in the Pacific Break Out Effort to Produce High Quality Products Continues : in 1940 at age 45

As war broke out between Japan and China in 1937, the militarization of Japan's economy intensified. Fearing that these changes would compromise the company's principles, Konosuke issued a series of directives clarifying his management philosophy. Then, in January of 1940, Konosuke gave his first management address, calling for a company-wide effort to maintain product quality, which had been affected by wartime material shortages.
With the start of the War in the Pacific in 1941, the company was pressured to accept to military contracts, which led to the establishment of the Matsushita Shipbuilding Company in 1943, followed by the Matsushita Airplane Company.
Finally, the war that cost Japan one quarter of its national assets came to an end. Panasonic had lost 32 factories and offices, mainly in Tokyo and Osaka. Miraculously, the Head Office and main factory were spared, but the company would virtually have to be rebuilt itself from scratch.

Copyright © Panasonic Corporation

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The Bombing of Coventry in 1940

The bombing of Coventry occurred on the night of 14 November 1940. Known as ‘Operation Moonlight Sonata’, more than 400 German bombers attacked Coventry, leaving a trail of destruction. The city was bombed many times during World War Two, but the most devastating of these attacks happened on this night.

Before World War Two, Coventry was one of the largest manufacturing and engineering cities in Britain and its factories supplied Britain’s military at the beginning of the war. Since many workers lived nearby to the factories, attacks on these buildings put the civilian population at risk too.

The Germans meticulously planned for the raid on Coventry to ensure that all the targets were hit. They intended to create a firestorm in the city that would obliterate factories and hit the city’s residents morale.

Churchill at the Cathedral

The city was incredibly important to the war, but it was also poorly defended. It only had 40 anti-aircraft guns and 50 barrage balloons. It was hoped that the frequent fog that covered the city would be enough to defend the city.

The night of 14 November was very cold and clear - the perfect conditions for a raid. At 7.10pm the first air raid sirens went off and pathfinder aircraft launched parachutes to mark their targets. This first wave of bombing caused more than 200 fires.

The first powerful bombs were dropped at 9.30pm, causing extensive damage and destroying phone lines and roads. This left Coventry cut off from the outside world.

Although thousands of rounds were fired by the anti-aircraft guns, only one German bomber was shot down.

The water mains were destroyed during the attack, so the firefighters only had limited water to put out the raging fires.

By 11.50pm, a firestorm had engulfed St Michael’s Cathedral, completely gutting the building

By 1.30am the flames could be seen 100 miles away. This created the perfect target for an additional wave of bombers.

The bombing went on for 13 hours during the night. In total, 30,000 incendiaries along with 500 tons of high explosive bombs. In one night, more than 4,300 homes in Coventry were destroyed and around two-thirds of the city's buildings were damaged.

When Mass Observation, a social research organisation, entered the city the following day, it claimed the city had experienced a “collective nervous breakdown”. This report angered the government as it also criticised the lack of provision for the homeless and bereaved. It led the government to consider taking over the BBC, which commissioned ‘Mass Observation’.

There can be little doubt that the city’s morale was severely damaged after the raid. With rumours of a second wave of attacks the following evening, around 100,000 people flocked to the countryside to escape the city.

On 20 November, the first of two mass burials took place. In total 568 people were killed. Within two weeks of the bombing some factories had opened up. While food kitchens appeared, the city’s infrastructure had been severely damaged. Although people in the city were offered evacuation, only 300 took up the offer.

The bombing of Coventry has incited some controversy. Historians believe that the Prime Minister Winston Churchill may have known about plans for the attack up to two days before they occurred, but failed to launch an evacuation of the city. His intelligence supposedly came from the scientists at Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire, who, in utmost secrecy, had cracked the Enigma code the Germans used for their military communications. From an intercepted message, they had discovered that the city was a target. But warning the city of Coventry and its residents of the imminent threat would have alerted the Germans to the fact that their codes had been cracked and their security breached.

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