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Olympics of 1988 - History

Olympics of 1988 - History

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1988 Olympics- Seoul

Mens Athletics
Event: 100m Winner: Carl Lewis Country: USA
Event: 200m Winner: Joe DeLoach Country: USA
Event: 400m Winner: Steven Lewis Country: USA
Event: 1.500m Winner: Peter Rono Country: KEN
Event: 5.000m Winner: John Ngugi Country: KEN
Event: 10.000m Winner: M. Brahim Boutaieb Country: MOR
Event: 3.000m Steeplechase Winner: Julius Kariuki Country: KEN
Event: 110m Hurdles Winner: Roger Kingdom Country: USA
Event: 400m Hurdles Winner: Andre Phillips Country: USA
Event: High Jump Winner: Guennadi Adveinko Country: URS
Event: Long Jump Winner: Carl Lewis Country: USA
Event: Pole Vault Winner: Serguei Bubka Country: URS
Event: Triple Jump Winner: Christo Markov Country: BUL
Event: Shotput Winner: Ulf Timmermann Country: GDR
Event: Discus Winner: Jurgen Schult Country: GDR
Event: Hammer Winner: Serguei Litvinov Country: URS
Event: Javelin Winner: Tapio Korjus Country: FIN
Event: Marathon Winner: Gelindo Bordin Country: ITA
Event: Decathlon Winner: Christian Schenk Country: GDR
Event: 4x100m Relay Winner: URS
Event: 4x400m Relay Winner: USA
Event: 20km Walk Winner: Jozef Pribilinec Country: TCH
Event: 50km Walk Winner: Vlasheslav Ivaneko Country: URS Womens Athletics
Event: 100m Winner: Florence Griffth-Joyner Country: USA
Event: 200m Winner: Florence Griffth-Joyner Country: USA
Event: 400m Winner: Olga Brysguina Country: URS
Event: 800m Winner: Sigrun Wodars Country: GDR
Event: 1.500m Winner: Paul Ivan Country: ROM
Event: 3.000m Winner: Tatiana Samoilenko Country: URS
Event: 100m Hurdles Winner: Jordanka Donkova Country: BUL
Event: 10,000m Winner: Olga Bondarenko Country: URS
Event: 400m Hurdles Winner: Debbie Flintoff-King Country: AUS
Event: High Jump Winner: Louise Ritter Country: USA
Event: Long Jump Winner: Jackie Joyner-Kersee Country: USA
Event: Shotput Winner: Natalia Lissovskaia Country: USA
Event: Discus Winner: Martina Hellman Country: GDR
Event: Javelin Winner: Petra Felke Country: GDR
Event: 4x100m Relay Winner: USA
Event: 4x400m Relay Winner: URS
Event: Marathon Winner: Rosa Mota Country: POR
Event: Heptathlon Winner: Jackie Joyner-Kersee Country: USA Mens Rowing
Event: Sculls Winner: Thomas Lange Country: GDR
Event: Coxed Pairs Winner: G. Abbagnale, C. Abbagnale Country: ITA
Event: Double Sculls Winner: R. Florijn, N. Rienks Country: HOL
Event: Coxless Pairs Winner: A. Holmes, S. Redgrave Country: GBR
Event: Coxless Fours Winner: GDR
Event: Quadruple Sculls (Coxed) Winner: ITA
Event: Quadruple Sculls ( Coxless) Winner: GDR
Event: Eights Winner: GDR Womens Rowing
Event: Sculls Winner: Jutta Behrendt Country: GDR
Event: Coxless Pairs Winner: O. Homeghi, R. Arba Country: ROM
Event: Double Sculls Winner: M. Schroeter, B. Peter Country: GDR
Event: Coxed Fours Winner: GDR
Event: Quadruple Sculls (Coxless) Winner: GDR
Event: Eights Winner: GDR Men Basketball Winner: Soviet Union Women Basketball Winner: USA Boxing
Event: 48kg Winner: Ivailo Hristov Country: BUL
Event: 51kg Winner: Kwang-Sun Kim Country: KOR
Event: 54kg Winner: Kennedy McKinney Country: USA
Event: 57kg Winner: Giovanni Parisi Country: ITA
Event: 60kg Winner: Andres Zuelow Country: GDR
Event: 63.5kg Winner: Viatcheslav Janovski Country: URS
Event: 67kg Winner: Robert Wangila Country: KEN
Event: 71kg Winner: Park Si- Hun Country: KOR
Event: 75kg Winner: Henry Make Country: GDR
Event: 81kg Winner: Andrew Maynard Country: USA
Event: 91kg Winner: Ray Mercer Country: USA
Event: More than 95kg Winner: Lennox Lewis Country: CAN Mens Canoeing
Event: Canadian-1 500m Winner: Olaf Heukrodt Country: GDR
Event: Canadian-2 500m Winner: V. Reineski, N. Jouravski Country: URS
Event: Canadian-1 (1.000m) Winner: Ivan Klementiev Country: URS
Event: Canadian-2 (1.00 0m) Winner: V. Jouravski Country: URS
Event: Kayak-1 (500m) Winner: Zsolt Gyulay Country: HUN
Event: Kayak-2 (500m) Winner: I. Ferguson, P. McDonald Country: NZL
Event: Kayak-1 (1.000m) Winner: Greg Barton Country: USA
Event: Kayak-2 (1.000m) Winner: G. Barton, N. Bellingham Country: USA
Event: Kayak-4 (1.000) Winner: HUN Womens Canoeing
Event: Kayak-1 (500 m) Winner: Vania Guecheva Country: BUL
Event: Kayak-2 (500 m) Winner: B. Schmidt, A. Nothnagel Country: GDR
Event: Kayak-4 (500 m) Winner: GDR Mens Cycling
Event: 100km Team Time Trial Winner: GDR
Event: Team Pursuit Winner: URS
Event: Sprint Winner: Lutz Hesslich Country: GDR
Event: 1.00m Winner: Alexandre Kiritchenko Country: GDR
Event: Individual Pursuit Winner: Giantauras Umaras Country: URS
Event: 30km Points race Winner: Dean Frost Country: DEN
Event: Individual Road Race Winner: Olaf Ludwig Country: GDR Womens Cycling
Event: Sprint Winner: Erika Salumiae Country: URS
Event: Individual Road Race Winner: Monique Knol Country: HOL Equestrian Sports
Event: Grand Prix Jumping Individual Winner: Pierre Durand Country: FRA
Event: Grand Prix Jumping Team Winner: FRG
Event: Individual Dressage Winner: Nicole Uphoff Country: FRG
Event: Team Dressage Winner: FRG
Event: Three-day event Winner: Mark Todd Country: NZL
Event: Three-day event (Team) Winner: FRG Mens Fencing
Event: Foil Individual Winner: Sefano Cerioni Country: ITA
Event: Sabre Individual Winner: Jean-Francois Lamour Country: FRA
Event: Epee Individual Winner: Arnd Schmitt Country: FRG
Event: Foil Team Winner: URS
Event: Sabre Team Winner: HUN
Event: Epee Team Winner: FRA Womens Fencing
Event: Foil Individual Winner: Anja Fichtel
Event: Foil Team Winner: FRA Soccer Winner: Soviet Union Mens Gymnastics
Event: All-round Individual Competition Winner: Vladimir Artemov Country: URS
Event: All-around Team Competition Winner: URS
Event: Horizontal Bar Winner: Valeri Lioukine, Vladimir Artemov Country: URS
Event: Horse Winner: Dimitri Bilozertchev, Zsolt Borkai, Lubomir Gueraskov Country: URS
Event: Rings Winner: Dimitri Bilozertchev Country: URS
Event: Vault Winner: Lou Yun Country: CHN
Event: Parallel Bars Winner: Vladimir Artemov Country: URS
Event: Floor Exercise Winner: Sergei Kharkov Country: URS Womens Gymnastics
Event: Beam Winner: Daniela Silvas Country: ROM
Event: All-around Individual Competition Winner: Elena Chouchounova Country: URS
Event: All-around Team Competition Winner: URS
Event: Vault Winner: Elena Boguinskaia Country: URS
Event: Floor Exercise Winner: Daniela Silivas Country: ROM
Event: Asymmetric Bars Winner: Daniela Silivas Country: ROM
Event: Apparatus Winner: Lobatch Country: URS
Event: Rhythmic Competition Winner: Lobatch Country: URS Weightlifting
Event: 52kg Winner: Sevdalin Marinov Country: BUL
Event: 56kg Winner: Oksen Mirzoian Country: URS
Event: 60kg Winner: Naim Suleymanoglou Country: TUR
Event: 67.5kg Winner: Jochim Kunz Country: GDR
Event: 75kg Winner: Borislav Guidikov Country: BUL
Event: 82.5kg Winner: Israil Arsamkov Country: URS
Event: 90kg Winner: Anatoli Khrapatyi Country: URS
Event: 100kg Winner: Pavel Kouznetsov Country: URS
Event: 110kg Winner: Youri Zakharevitch Country: URS
Event: More than 110kg Winner: Alexandre Kourlovitch Country: URS Mens Handball Winner: Soviet Union Womens Handball Winner: South Korea Men Hockey Winner: Great Britain Women Hockey Winner: Australia Judo
Event: 60kg Winner: Kim Jae-Yup Country: KOR
Event: 65kg Winner: Lee Kyung-Keum Country: KOR
Event: 71kg Winner: Marc Alexndre Country: FRA
Event: 78kg Winner: Waldemar Legien Country: POL
Event: 86kg Winner: Peter Seisenbacher Country: AUT
Event: 95kg Winner: Aurelio Miguel Country: BRA
Event: Over 95kg Winner: Hitoshi Saito Country: JPN Greco Roman Wrestling
Event: 48kg Winner: Vincenzo Maenza Country: ITA
Event: 52kg Winner: Jon Ronningen Country: NOR
Event: 57kg Winner: Andras Sike Country: HUN
Event: 62kg Winner: Kamandar Madjidov Country: URS
Event: 68kg Winner: Levon Djoufalakian Country: URS
Event: 74kg Winner: Kim Young-nam Country: KOR
Event: 82kg Winner: Mikhail Mamiachvili Country: URS
Event: 90kg Winner: Atanas Komchev Country: BUL
Event: 100kg Winner: Andrezji Wronski Country: POL
Event: 130kg Winner: Alexandre Kareline Country: URS All-In Wrestling
Event: 48kg Winner: Takashi Kobayashi Country: JPN
Event: 52kg Winner: Mitsuru Sato Country: JPN
Event: 57kg Winner: Sergei Beloglazov Country: URS
Event: 62kg Winner: John Smith Country: USA
Event: 68kg Winner: Arsen Fadzaev Country: URS
Event: 74kg Winner: Kenneth Monday Country: USA
Event: 82kg Winner: Han Myung-woo Country: KOR
Event: 90kg Winner: Makharbek Khardartsev Country: URS
Event: 100kg Winner: Vasile Puscasu Country: ROM
Event: 130kg Winner: David Gobedjichvili Country: URS Mens Swimming
Event: 50m Freestyle Winner: Matt Biondi Country: USA
Event: 100m- Freestyle Winner: Matt Biondi Country: USA
Event: 200m Freestyle Winner: Duncan Armstrong Country: AUS
Event: 400m Freestyle Winner: Uwe Dassler Country: GDR
Event: 1500m Freestyle Winner: Vladimir Salnikov Country: URS
Event: 100m Backstroke Winner: Daichi Suzuki Country: JAP
Event: 200m Backstroke Winner: Igor Polianski Country: URS
Event: 100m Butterfly Winner: Anthony Nesty Country: SUR
Event: 200m Butterfly Winner: Michael Gross Country: FRG
Event: 100m Breaststroke Winner: Adrian Moorhouse Country: GBR
Event: 200m Breaststroke Winner: Josef Szabo Country: HUN
Event: 200m Individual Medley Winner: Tamas Darnyi Country: HUN
Event: 4x100m Medley Relay Winner: USA
Event: 4x200m Medely Relay Winner: USA
Event: 4x100m Freestyle Medley Winner: USA Water Polo Winner: Yugoslavia Women Swimming
Event: 50m Freestyle Winner: Kristin Otto Country: GDR
Event: 100m Freestyle Winner: Kristin Otto Country: GDR
Event: 200m Freestyle Winner: Heike Friedrich Country: GDR
Event: 400m Freestyle Winner: Janet Evans Country: USA
Event: 800m Freestyle Winner: Janet Evans Country: USA
Event: 100m Backstroke Winner: Kristin Otto Country: GDR
Event: 200m Backstroke Winner: Krisztina Egerszegi Country: HUN
Event: 100m Butterfly Winner: Kristina Otto Country: GDR
Event: 200m Butterfly Winner: Katleen Nord Country: GDR
Event: 100m Breaststroke Winner: Tania Dangalakova Country: BUL
Event: 200m Breaststroke Winner: Silke Hoerner Country: GDR
Event: 200m Individual Medley Winner: Daniela Hunger Country: GDR
Event: 400m Individual Medley Winner: Janet Evans Country: USA
Event: 4x100m Medley Relay Winner: GDR
Event: 4x100m Individual Medley Winner: GDR
Event: Synchronized Swimming Individual Winner: Carolyn Waldo Country: CAN
Event: Synchronized Swimming Duet Winner: Canada Mens Diving
Event: Springboard Diving Winner: Greg Louganis Country: USA
Event: High Diving Winner: Greg Louganis Country: USA Womens Diving
Event: Springboard Diving Winner: Galo Min Country: CHN
Event: High Diving Winner: Xu Yannei Country: CHN Modern Pentathlon
Event: Individual Winner: Janos Martinek Country: HUN
Event: Team Winner: Hungary Tennis
Event: MenÕs Singles Winner: Miloslav Mecir Country: TCH
Event: MenÕs Doubles Winner: Ken Flach, Robert Seguso Country: USA
Event: WomenÕs Singles Winner: Steffi Graf Country: FRG
Event: WomenÕs Doubles Winner: Pam Shriver, Zina Garrison Country: USA Table Tennis
Event: MenÕs Singles Winner: Yoo Nam-Kyu Country: KOR
Event: MenÕs Doubles Winner: Chen Long CAn, Wei, Quingguang Country: CHN
Event: WomenÕs Singles Winner: Chen Jing Country: CHN
Event: WomenÕs Doubles Winner: Hyun Jung Hwa, yang Young-ja Country: KOR Mens Shooting
Event: Free Pistol Winner: Sorin Babii Country: ROU
Event: Rapid-Fire Pistol Winner: Miroslav Varga Country: TCH
Event: Airgun Winner: Taniou Kirakov Country: BUL
Event: Small-Bore Rifle, Prone Winner: Miroslav Varga Country: TCH
Event: Airgun, 10m Winner: Goran Maksimovic Country: YUG
Event: Small-Bore Rifle, 3 Positions Winner: Malcolm Cooper Country: GBR
Event: Moving Target Winner: Tor Heiestad Country: NOR
Event: Trap Shooting Winner: Dimitri Monakov Country: URS
Event: Skeet Winner: Axel Wegner Country: GDR Womens Shooting
Event: Airgun,10m Winner: Jasna Sekarik Country: YUG
Event: Sport Pistol Winner: Nino Saloukvadze Country: URS
Event: Small-Bore Rifle, 3 postitons Winner: Silvia Sperber Country: FRG
Event: Airgun Winner: Irina Chilova Country: URS Mens Archery
Event: Individual Winner: Jay Barrs Country: USA
Event: Team Winner: South Korea Womens Archery
Event: Individual Winner: Kim Soo-Nyung Country: KOR
Event: Team Winner: South Korea Mens Yachting
Event: Finn Class Winner: Jose Luis Doreste Country: ESP
Event: 470 Class Winner: Thierry Peponnet-Luc Pillot Country: FRA
Event: Flying Dutchman Class Winner: DEN
Event: Soling Class Winner: GDR
Event: Tornado Class Winner: FRA
Event: Star Class Winner: GBR
Event: Windsurfing Winner: Bruce Kendall Country: NZL Womens Yachting
Event: 470 Class Winner: USA Men Volleyball Winner: USA Women Volleyball Winner: Soviet Union

Shortcuts to Gold: 9 Cheaters in Olympic History

1. Ben Johnson.
After smashing a world record to win the most anticipated event of the 1988 Seoul Olympics, the 100-meter dash, the Canadian sprinter told a press conference, 𠇊 gold medal—that’s something no one can take away from you.” Not exactly. A day later, Johnson tested positive for an anabolic steroid and was stripped of the gold medal, which was awarded to American Carl Lewis. (Lewis himself had tested positive for stimulants during the 1988 U.S. Olympic trials, but the U.S. Olympic Committee overturned his suspension.) In 1999, Saadi el-Qaddafi, son of Libyan dictator Muammar el-Qaddafi and an aspiring soccer player, hired Johnson as a fitness coach. After suiting up for one game in an Italian soccer league, Qaddafi, too, failed a drug test.

2. Madeline and Margaret de Jesus.
After Puerto Rico’s Madeline de Jesus came up lame while competing in the long jump, she was unable to run in the 4󗐀-meter relay at the 1984 Los Angeles Games. In a plot that could have been dreamed up in nearby Hollywood, Madeline enlisted her identical twin sister, Margaret, as an imposter for a qualifying heat. Margaret ran the second leg of the qualifier, and the team advanced. When the chief coach of the Puerto Rican team learned of the ruse, however, he pulled his team out of the final.

3. Fred Lorz.
Before thousands of cheering countrymen at the 1904 St. Louis Games, the American runner became the first competitor to cross the finish line of the marathon. One problem: Lorz had ridden 10 miles of the marathon course in an automobile after cramping up early in the race. After his car broke down, a rejuvenated Lorz ran the final 5 miles and entered the Olympic stadium before any of his fellow marathoners. The hoax, however, was quickly exposed, and Lorz readily admitted to his automotive assistance. (In another strange twist, the actual marathon winner, American Thomas Hicks, had been administered a stimulant𠅊 dose of strychnine, sulfate in egg whites and a swig of brandy𠅍uring the race. The performance enhancer, while potentially lethal, was within the rules in 1904.)

4. Spiridon Belokas.
Lorz wasn’t the first Olympic marathoner to hitch a ride, but at least he was a good enough cheat to seemingly win the race. Belokas, on the other hand, rode in a carriage for part of the inaugural Olympic marathon in Athens in 1896 but only managed to cross the line in third place. The Greek runner was disqualified, depriving the host country of sweeping the top three spots in the signature event of the Olympics.

5. Marion Jones.
The American sprinter and long jumper was the star of the 2000 Sydney Games as she captured three gold and two bronze medals, becoming the first woman to win five medals at a single Olympiad. Her feats, however, were under suspicion after news broke during the Games that husband C.J. Hunter, an American shot putter, had tested positive for steroids. Jones vehemently denied using performance enhancers. In 2007, Jones admitted she had used steroids prior to the Sydney Games, and she served a six-month sentence for lying to federal investigators. She was stripped of her Olympic medals.

6. Boris Onischenko.
It was a bit of high-tech skullduggery worthy of a Cold War spy novel that got Onischenko, a Soviet modern pentathlete and KGB colonel, thrown out of the 1976 Montreal Games. Onischenko, who had won two previous Olympic medals, rigged his fencing epee to falsely register a touch whenever he pushed a concealed button in the handle. The Soviet was foiled, so to speak, when the scoreboard recorded a hit while British captain Jim Fox was retreating and clearly untouched by the sword. Officials examined the epee and discovered the device.

7. Tunisian modern pentathlon team.
If at first you can’t succeed, cheat. Words to live by for the inept Tunisian modern pentathlon team in the 1960 Rome Games. In the first event, the entire team fell off their horses. One athlete almost drowned during the swimming competition, and the team was forced out of the shooting event after a team member nearly grazed the judges. For the fencing event, the Tunisians decided to secretly send out their expert swordsman each time and hoped no one looked behind the mask. The third time the same fencer came out, however, the hoax was discovered.

8. East German swimmers.
East Germany became an Olympic powerhouse in the pool in the 1970s and 1980s, and their incredible success𠅊long with certain physical characteristics—raised suspicions of steroid use. When a rival coach commented on the deep voices of many of East Germany’s female swimmers, an East German coach replied, “We came here to swim, not sing.” After the fall of the Berlin Wall, coaches from the women’s swimming team admitted in 1991 what many had long suspected—that East German swimmers systematically used steroids. In 2000, the former East German sports chief and his medical director were found guilty in a Berlin court of “systematic and overall doping in [East German] competitive sports.”

9. Dora Ratjen.
During the 1936 Berlin Olympics, the German finished fourth in the women’s high jump. After setting a women’s high jump record in 1938, a bombshell was uncovered—Ratjen was a man. Later in life, Horst Ratjen claimed the Nazis ordered him to pose as a woman 𠇏or the sake of the honor and glory of Germany.” He also reportedly said, 𠇏or three years I lived the life of a girl. It was most dull.”

FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.


20th century Edit

1900 to 1912 Edit

A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organised by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and then every fourth year thereafter until 1926. [7] Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin. He attempted to have winter sports, specifically figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. [7] Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow (10-time world champion) and Madge Syers won the individual titles. [8] [9]

Three years later, Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. The organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports. [10] [11] [12]

World War I Edit

The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Berlin, Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I. [11]

1920 to 1936 Edit

The first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp, Belgium, and featured figure skating [13] and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, France, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this week (actually 11 days) of events.

The 1924 games in Chamonix proved to be a success when more than 250 athletes from 16 nations competed in 16 events. [14] Athletes from Finland and Norway won 28 medals, more than the rest of the participating nations combined. [15] The first gold medal awarded was won by Charles Jewtraw of the United States in the 500-meter speed skate. Sonja Henie of Norway, at just 11 years old, competed in the ladies' figure skating and, although finishing last, became popular with fans. Gillis Grafström of Sweden defended his 1920 gold medal [13] in men's figure skating, becoming the first Olympian to win gold medals in both Summer and Winter Olympics. [16] Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics). In 1925 the IOC decided to create a separate winter event and the 1924 games in Chamonix was retroactively designated as the first Winter Olympics. [11] [14]

St. Moritz, Switzerland, was appointed by the IOC to host the second Winter Games in 1928. [17] Fluctuating weather conditions challenged the hosts. The opening ceremony was held in a blizzard while warm weather conditions plagued sporting events throughout the rest of the games. [18] Because of the weather the 10,000 metre speed-skating event had to be abandoned and officially cancelled. [19] The weather was not the only noteworthy aspect of the 1928 games: Sonja Henie of Norway returned to the Winter Olympics to make history when she won the ladies' figure skating at the age of 15. She became the youngest Olympic champion in history, a distinction she held for 70 years, [20] and went on to defend her title at the next two Winter Olympics. Gillis Grafström won his third consecutive figure skating gold [21] and went on to win silver in 1932, [22] becoming the most decorated men's figure skater to date.

The next Winter Olympics, held in Lake Placid, New York, United States was the first to be hosted outside of Europe. Seventeen nations and 252 athletes participated. [23] This was less than in 1928, as the journey to Lake Placid was too long and expensive for some European nations that encountered financial problems in the midst of the Great Depression. The athletes competed in fourteen events in four sports. [23] Virtually no snow fell for two months before the Games, and there was not enough snow to hold all the events until mid-January. [24] Sonja Henie defended her Olympic title, [22] and Eddie Eagan of the United States, who had been an Olympic champion in boxing in 1920, [25] won the gold medal in the men's bobsleigh event [26] to join Gillis Grafström as the only athletes to have won gold medals in both the Summer and Winter Olympics. [23] Eagan has the distinction as the only Olympian as of 2020 to accomplish this feat in different sports. [27]

The German towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen joined to organise the 1936 edition of the Winter Games, held from 6–16 February. [28] This was the last time the Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same country in the same year. Alpine skiing made its Olympic debut, but skiing teachers were barred from entering because they were considered to be professionals. [29] Because of this decision the Swiss and Austrian skiers refused to compete at the games. [29]

World War II Edit

World War II interrupted the holding of the Winter Olympics. The 1940 games had been awarded to Sapporo, Japan, but the decision was rescinded in 1938 because of the Japanese invasion of China. The games were then to be held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, but the 1940 games were cancelled following the German invasion of Poland in 1939. [30] Due to the ongoing war, the 1944 games, originally scheduled for Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italy, were cancelled. [31]

1948 to 1960 Edit

St. Moritz was selected to host the first post-war games, in 1948. Switzerland's neutrality had protected the town during World War II, and most of the venues were in place from the 1928 games, which made St. Moritz a logical choice. It became the first city to host a Winter Olympics twice. [32] Twenty-eight countries competed in Switzerland, but athletes from Germany and Japan were not invited. [33] Controversy erupted when two hockey teams from the United States arrived, both claiming to be the legitimate U.S. Olympic hockey representative. The Olympic flag presented at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp was stolen, as was its replacement. There was unprecedented parity at these games, during which 10 countries won gold medals—more than any games to that point. [34]

The Olympic Flame for the 1952 games in Oslo, was lit in the fireplace by skiing pioneer Sondre Nordheim, and the torch relay was conducted by 94 participants entirely on skis. [35] [36] Bandy, a popular sport in the Nordic countries, was featured as a demonstration sport, though only Norway, Sweden, and Finland fielded teams. Norwegian athletes won 17 medals, which outpaced all the other nations. [37] They were led by Hjalmar Andersen who won three gold medals in four events in the speed skating competition. [38]

After not being able to host the games in 1944, Cortina d'Ampezzo was selected to organise the 1956 Winter Olympics. At the opening ceremonies the final torch bearer, Guido Caroli, entered the Olympic Stadium on ice skates. As he skated around the stadium his skate caught on a cable and he fell, nearly extinguishing the flame. He was able to recover and light the cauldron. [39] These were the first Winter Games to be televised, and the first Olympics ever broadcast to an international audience, though no television rights were sold until the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. [40] The Cortina games were used to test the feasibility of televising large sporting events. [40] The Soviet Union made its Olympic debut and had an immediate impact, winning more medals than any other nation. [41] The Soviets' immediate success might be explained by the advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete". The USSR entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train full-time. [42] [43] Chiharu Igaya won the first Winter Olympics medal for Japan and the continent of Asia when he placed second in the slalom. [44]

The IOC awarded the 1960 Olympics to Squaw Valley, United States. It was an undeveloped resort in 1955, so from 1956 to 1960 the infrastructure and all of the venues were built at a cost of US$80,000,000. [45] [46] The opening and closing ceremonies were produced by Walt Disney. [47] The Squaw Valley Olympics was the first Winter Games to have a dedicated athletes' village, [48] [49] the first to use a computer (courtesy of IBM) to tabulate results, and the first to feature female speed skating events. The bobsleigh events were absent for the only time due to the cost of building a bobsleigh run. [47]

1964 to 1980 Edit

The Austrian city of Innsbruck was the host in 1964. Although Innsbruck was a traditional winter sports resort, warm weather caused a lack of snow during the games and the Austrian army was enlisted to transport snow and ice to the sports venues. [47] Soviet speed-skater Lidia Skoblikova made history by winning all four speed skating events. Her career total of six gold medals set a record for Winter Olympics athletes. [47] Luge was first contested in 1964, but the sport received bad publicity when a competitor was killed in a pre-Olympic training run. [50] [51]

Held in the French town of Grenoble, the 1968 Winter Olympics were the first Olympic Games to be broadcast in colour. There were 1,158 athletes from 37 nations competing in 35 events. [52] French alpine ski racer Jean-Claude Killy became only the second person to win all the men's alpine skiing events. The organising committee sold television rights for US$2 million, which was more than twice the cost of the broadcast rights for the Innsbruck Games. [53] Venues were spread over long distances requiring three athletes' villages. The organisers claimed that this was necessary to accommodate technological advances, however critics disputed this, alleging that the layout would incorporate the best possible venues for television broadcasts at the athletes' expense. [53]

The 1972 Winter Games, held in Sapporo, Japan, were the first to be hosted on a continent other than North America or Europe. The issue of professionalism was disputed during these Games when a number of alpine skiers were found to have participated in a ski camp at Mammoth Mountain in the United States three days before the opening ceremony, IOC president Avery Brundage threatened to bar the skiers from competing in the Games as he insisted that they were no longer amateurs having benefited financially from their status as athletes. [54] Eventually only Austrian Karl Schranz, who earned more than the other skiers, was excluded from the competition. [55] Canada did not send teams to the 1972 or 1976 ice hockey tournaments in protest at not being able to use players from professional leagues. [56] It also accused the Soviet Union of using state-sponsored athletes, who were de facto professionals. [57] Francisco Fernández Ochoa became the first (and, as of 2018, only) Spaniard to win a Winter Olympic gold medal when he triumphed in the slalom. [58]

The 1976 Winter Olympics had initially been awarded in 1970 to Denver, Colorado in the United States. These Games would have coincided with the year of Colorado's centennial and the United States Bicentennial. However, in November 1972 the people of Colorado voted against public funding of the Games by a 3:2 margin. [59] [60] The IOC responded by offering the Games to Vancouver-Garibaldi, British Columbia, which had previously been an official candidate for the 1976 Games. However, a change in the provincial government resulted in an administration that did not support the Olympic bid, so the IOC's offer was rejected. Salt Lake City, previously a candidate for the 1972 Winter Olympics, then put itself forward, but the IOC opted instead to invite Innsbruck to host the 1976 Games, as most of the infrastructure from the 1964 Games had been maintained. Despite only having half the usual time to prepare for the Games, Innsbruck accepted the invitation to replace Denver in February 1973. [61] Two Olympic flames were lit because it was the second time that the Austrian town had hosted the Winter Games. [61] The 1976 Games featured the first combination bobsleigh and luge track, in neighbouring Igls. [58] The Soviet Union won its fourth consecutive ice hockey gold medal. [61]

In 1980 the Winter Olympics returned to Lake Placid, which had hosted the 1932 Games. Cyprus made their Olympic debut at the games. The People's Republic of China and Costa Rica both made their Winter Olympic debut. The Republic of China refused to attend the Games over the IOC's recognition of the People's Republic of China as "China", and its request for the Republic of China to compete as "Chinese Taipei". The PRC, on the other hand, returned to the Olympics for the first time since 1952 and made its Winter Olympic debut. [62] [63] American speed-skater Eric Heiden set either an Olympic or World record in every one of the five events in which he competed, winning a total of five individual gold medals and breaking the record for most individual golds in a single Olympics (both Summer and Winter). [64] Hanni Wenzel won both the slalom and giant slalom and her country, Liechtenstein, became the smallest nation to produce an Olympic gold medallist. [65] In the "Miracle on Ice", the American hockey team composed of college players beat the favoured seasoned professionals from the Soviet Union, and progressed to eventually win the gold medal. [66] [nb 4]

1984 to 1998 Edit

Sapporo, Japan, and Gothenburg, Sweden, were front-runners to host the 1984 Winter Olympics. It was therefore a surprise when Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, was selected as host. [69] The Games were well-organised and not affected by the run-up to the war that engulfed the country eight years later. [70] A total of 49 nations and 1,272 athletes participated in 39 events. Host nation Yugoslavia won its first Olympic medal when alpine skier Jure Franko won silver in the giant slalom. Another sporting highlight was the free dance performance of British ice dancers Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean their Boléro routine received unanimous perfect scores for artistic impression, earning them the gold medal. [70]

In 1988, the Canadian city of Calgary hosted the first Winter Olympics to span three weekends, lasting for a total of 16 days. [71] New events were added in ski-jumping and speed skating, while future Olympic sports curling, short track speed skating and freestyle skiing made their debut appearance as demonstration sports. The speed skating events were held indoors for the first time, on the Olympic Oval. Dutch skater Yvonne van Gennip won three gold medals and set two world records, beating skaters from the favoured East German team in every race. [72] Her medal total was equalled by Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen, who won all three events in his sport. Alberto Tomba, an Italian skier, made his Olympic debut by winning both the giant slalom and slalom. Ski jumper Eddie the Eagle competed in the 70m and 90m in finishing last with a British record of 73.5 metres. East German Christa Rothenburger won the women's 1,000 metre speed skating event. Seven months later she would earn a silver in track cycling at the Summer Games in Seoul, to become the only athlete to win medals in both a Summer and Winter Olympics in the same year. [71]

The 1992 Winter Games were the last to be held in the same year as the Summer Games. [73] They were hosted in the French Savoie region, with 18 events held in the city of Albertville and the remaining events spread out over the Savoie. [73] Political changes of the time were reflected in the composition of the Olympic teams competing in France: this was the first Games to be held after the fall of Communism and the fall of the Berlin Wall, and Germany competed as a single nation for the first time since the 1964 Games former Yugoslavian republics Croatia and Slovenia made their debuts as independent nations most of the former Soviet republics still competed as a single team known as the Unified Team, but the Baltic States made independent appearances for the first time since before World War II. [74] At 16 years old, Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen made history by becoming the youngest male Winter Olympic champion. [75] New Zealand skier Annelise Coberger became the first Winter Olympic medallist from the southern hemisphere when she won a silver medal in the women's slalom.

The 1994 Winter Olympics, held in Lillehammer, Norway, were the first Winter Games to be held in a different year from the Summer Games. This change resulted from the decision reached in the 91st IOC Session (1986) to separate the Summer and Winter Games and place them in alternating even-numbered years. [76] Lillehammer is the northernmost city to ever host the Winter Games. It was the second time the Games were held in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, and the first time the Olympic Truce was observed. As a result, after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia made their Olympic debuts. [77] The women's figure skating competition drew media attention when American skater Nancy Kerrigan was injured on 6 January 1994, in an assault planned by the ex-husband of opponent Tonya Harding. [78] Both skaters competed in the Games, but the gold medal was controversially won by Oksana Baiul who became Ukraine's first Olympic champion, while Kerrigan won the silver medal. [79] [80] Johann Olav Koss of Norway won three gold medals, coming first in all of the distance speed skating events. [81] 13-year-old Kim Yoon-Mi became the youngest-ever Olympic gold medallist when South Korea won the women's 3,000 meter speed skating relay. Bjørn Dæhli of Norway won a medal in four out of five cross-country events, becoming the most decorated Winter Olympian until then. Russia won the most events, with eleven gold medals, while Norway achieved 26 podium finishes, collecting the most medals overall on home ground. Juan Antonio Samaranch described Lillehammer as "the best Olympic Winter Games ever" in his closing ceremony speech. [82]

The 1998 Winter Olympics were held in the Japanese city of Nagano and were the first Games to host more than 2,000 athletes. [83] The National Hockey League allowed its players to participate in the men's ice hockey tournament for the first time, and the Czech Republic won the tournament. Women's ice hockey made its debut, and the United States won the gold medal. [84] Bjørn Dæhlie of Norway won three gold medals in Nordic skiing, becoming the most decorated Winter Olympic athlete, with eight gold medals and twelve medals overall. [83] [85] Austrian Hermann Maier survived a crash during the downhill competition and returned to win gold in the super-G and the giant slalom. [83] Tara Lipinski of the United States, aged just 15, became the youngest ever female gold medallist in an individual event when she won the Ladies' Singles, a record that had stood since Sonja Henie of Norway won the same event, also aged 15, in St. Moritz in 1928. New world records were set in speed skating largely due to the introduction of the clap skate. [86]

21st century Edit

2002 to 2010 Edit

The 2002 Winter Olympics were held in Salt Lake City, United States, hosting 77 nations and 2,399 athletes in 78 events in 7 sports. [87] These Games were the first to take place since the September 11 attacks of 2001, which meant a higher degree of security to avoid a terrorist attack. The opening ceremony saw signs of the aftermath of the events of that day, including the flag that flew at Ground Zero, and honour guards of NYPD and FDNY members. [88]

German Georg Hackl won a silver in the singles luge, becoming the first athlete in Olympic history to win medals in the same individual event in five consecutive Olympics. [87] Canada achieved an unprecedented double by winning both the men's and women's ice hockey gold medals. [87] Canada became embroiled with Russia in a controversy that involved the judging of the pairs figure skating competition. The Russian pair of Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze competed against the Canadian pair of Jamie Salé and David Pelletier for the gold medal. The Canadians appeared to have skated well enough to win the competition, yet the Russians were awarded the gold. The French judge, Marie-Reine Le Gougne, awarded the gold to the Russians. An investigation revealed that she had been pressured to give the gold to the Russian pair regardless of how they skated in return the Russian judge would look favourably on the French entrants in the ice dancing competition. [89] The IOC decided to award both pairs the gold medal in a second medal ceremony held later in the Games. [90] Australian Steven Bradbury became the first gold medallist from the southern hemisphere when he won the 1,000 metre short-track speed skating event. [91]

The Italian city of Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics. It was the second time that Italy had hosted the Winter Olympic Games. South Korean athletes won 10 medals, including 6 gold in the short-track speed skating events. Sun-Yu Jin won three gold medals while her teammate Hyun-Soo Ahn won three gold medals and a bronze. [92] In the women's Cross-Country team pursuit Canadian Sara Renner broke one of her poles and, when he saw her dilemma, Norwegian coach Bjørnar Håkensmoen decided to lend her a pole. In so doing she was able to help her team win a silver medal in the event at the expense of the Norwegian team, who finished fourth. [92] [93] On winning the Super-G, Kjetil-Andre Aamodt of Norway became the most decorated ski racer of all time with 4 gold and 8 overall medals. He is also the only ski racer to have won the same event at three Olympics, winning the Super-G in 1992, 2002 and 2006. Claudia Pechstein of Germany became the first speed skater to earn nine career medals. [92] In February 2009, Pechstein tested positive for "blood manipulation" and received a two-year suspension, which she appealed. The Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld her suspension but a Swiss court ruled that she could compete for a spot on the 2010 German Olympic team. [94] This ruling was brought to the Swiss Federal Tribunal, which overturned the lower court's ruling and precluded her from competing in Vancouver. [95]

In 2003 the IOC awarded the 2010 Winter Olympics to Vancouver, thus allowing Canada to host its second Winter Olympics. With a population of more than 2.5 million people Vancouver is the largest metropolitan area to ever host a Winter Olympic Games. [96] Over 2,500 athletes from 82 countries participated in 86 events. [97] The death of Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili in a training run on the day of the opening ceremonies resulted in the Whistler Sliding Centre changing the track layout on safety grounds. [98] Norwegian cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen won five medals in the six cross-country events on the women's programme. She finished the Olympics with three golds, a silver and a bronze. [99] For the first time, Canada won a gold medal at an Olympic Games it hosted, having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. In contrast to the lack of gold medals at these previous Olympics, the Canadian team finished first overall in gold medal wins, [100] and became the first host nation—since Norway in 1952—to lead the gold medal count, with 14 medals. In doing so, it also broke the record for the most gold medals won by a NOC at a single Winter Olympics (the previous was 13, set by the Soviet Union in 1976 and matched by Norway in 2002). [101] The Vancouver Games were notable for the poor performance of the Russian athletes. From their first Winter Olympics in 1956 to the 2006 Games, a Soviet or Russian delegation had never been outside the top five medal-winning nations, but in 2010 they finished sixth in total medals and eleventh in gold medals. President Dmitry Medvedev called for the resignation of top sports officials immediately after the Games. [102] Russia's disappointing performance at Vancouver is cited as the reason behind the enhancement of an already existing doping scheme alleged to have been in operation at major events such as the 2014 Games at Sochi. [103] The success of Asian countries stood in stark contrast to the under-performing Russian team, with Vancouver marking a high point for medals won by Asian countries. In 1992 the Asian countries had won fifteen medals, three of which were gold. In Vancouver the total number of medals won by athletes from Asia had increased to thirty-one, with eleven of them being gold. The rise of Asian nations in Winter Olympics sports is due in part to the growth of winter sports programmes and the interest in winter sports in nations such as South Korea, Japan and China. [104] [105]

2014 to 2018 Edit

Sochi, Russia, was selected as the host city for the 2014 Winter Olympics over Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea. This was the first time that Russia had hosted a Winter Olympics. [106] The Games took place from 7 to 23 February 2014. [107] A record 2,800 athletes from 88 countries competed in 98 events. The Olympic Village and Olympic Stadium were located on the Black Sea coast. All of the mountain venues were 50 kilometres (31 miles) away in the alpine region known as Krasnaya Polyana. [106] The Games were the most expensive so far, with a cost of £30 billion (USD 51 billion).

On the snow, Norwegian biathlete Ole Einar Bjørndalen took two golds to bring his total tally of Olympic medals to 13, overtaking his compatriot Bjørn Dæhlie to become the most decorated Winter Olympian of all time. Another Norwegian, cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen took three golds her total of ten Olympic medals tied her as the female Winter Olympian with most medals, alongside Raisa Smetanina and Stefania Belmondo. Snowboarder Ayumu Hirano became the youngest medallist on snow at the Winter Games when he took a silver in the halfpipe competition at the age of fifteen. On the ice, the Dutch dominated the speed skating events, taking 23 medals, four clean sweeps of the podium places and at least one medal in each of the twelve medal events. Ireen Wüst was their most successful competitor, taking two golds and three silvers. In figure skating, Yuzuru Hanyu became the first skater to break the 100-point barrier in the short programme on the way to winning the gold medal. Among the sledding disciplines, luger Armin Zöggeler took a bronze, becoming the first Winter Olympian to secure a medal in six consecutive Games. [106]

Following their disappointing performance at the 2010 Games, and an investment of £600 million in elite sport, Russia initially topped the medal table, taking 33 medals including thirteen golds. [108] However Grigory Rodchenkov, the former head of the Russian national anti-doping laboratory, subsequently claimed that he had been involved in doping dozens of Russian competitors for the Games, and that he had been assisted by the Russian Federal Security Service in opening and re-sealing bottles containing urine samples so that samples with banned substances could be replaced with "clean" urine. A subsequent investigation commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency led by Richard McLaren concluded that a state-sponsored doping programme had operated in Russia from "at least late 2011 to 2015" across the "vast majority" of Summer and Winter Olympic sports. [109] On 5 December 2017, the IOC announced that Russia would compete as the Olympic Athletes from Russia at the 2018 Winter Olympics [110] and by the end of 2017 the IOC Disciplinary Commission had disqualified 43 Russian athletes, stripping thirteen medals and knocking Russia from the top of the medal table, thus putting Norway in the lead. [111] [112] [113] However, nine medals were later returned to Russia, meaning that country returned to the first place.

On 6 July 2011, Pyeongchang, South Korea, was selected to host the 2018 Winter Olympics over Munich, Germany, and Annecy, France. [114] This was the first time that South Korea had been selected to host a Winter Olympics and it was the second time the Olympics were held in the country overall, after the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. The Games took place from 9 to 25 February 2018. More than 2,900 athletes from 92 countries participated in 102 events. The Olympic Stadium and many of the sports venues were situated in the Alpensia Resort in Daegwallyeong-myeon, Pyeongchang, while a number of other sports venues were located in the Gangneung Olympic Park in Pyeongchang's neighboring city of Gangneung.

The lead-up to the 2018 Winter Olympics was affected by the tensions between North and South Korea and the ongoing Russian doping scandal. Despite tense relations, North Korea agreed to participate in the Games, enter with South Korea during the opening ceremony as a unified Korea, and field a unified team in women's ice hockey. Russian athletes, who complied with the IOC's doping regulations, were given the option to compete in Pyeongchang as "Olympic Athletes from Russia" (OAR). [110]

The Games saw the addition of big air snowboarding, mass start speed skating, mixed doubles curling, and mixed team alpine skiing to the programme. On the ice, the Netherlands again dominated the speed skating, winning gold medals in seven of the ten individual events. Dutch speed skater Sven Kramer won gold in the men's 5000m event, becoming the only male speed skater to win the same Olympic event three times. On the snow, Norway led the medal tally in cross-country skiing, with Marit Bjørgen winning bronze in the women's team sprint and gold in the 30 kilometre classical event, bringing her total Olympic medal haul to fifteen, the most won by any athlete (male or female) in Winter Olympics history. Johannes Høsflot Klæbo became the youngest ever male to win an Olympic gold in cross-country skiing when he won the men's sprint at age 21. Noriaki Kasai of Japan became the first athlete in history to participate in eight Winter Olympics when he took part in the ski jumping qualification the day before the opening of the Games. Ester Ledecká of the Czech Republic won gold in the skiing super-G event and another gold in the snowboarding parallel giant slalom, making her the first female athlete to win Olympic gold medals in two sports at a single Winter Games.

Norway led the total medal standings with 39, the highest number of medals by a nation in any Winter Olympics, followed by Germany's 31 and Canada's 29. Host nation South Korea won seventeen medals, its highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics.

Future Edit

The host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics is Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, elected on 31 July 2015 at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur. Beijing will be the first city ever to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 2022 Winter Olympics will take place between 4 and 20 February 2022. The 2026 Winter Olympics will be in Milan-Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy and take place between 6 and 22 February 2026.

The process for awarding host city honours came under intense scrutiny after Salt Lake City had been awarded the right to host the 2002 Games. [115] Soon after the host city had been announced it was discovered that the organisers had engaged in an elaborate bribery scheme to curry favour with IOC officials. [115] Gifts and other financial considerations were given to those who would evaluate and vote on Salt Lake City's bid. These gifts included medical treatment for relatives, a college scholarship for one member's son and a land deal in Utah. Even IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch received two rifles valued at $2,000. Samaranch defended the gift as inconsequential since, as president, he was a non-voting member. [116] Nevertheless, from sporting and business standpoints, Salt Lake 2002 was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history records were set in both the broadcasting and marketing programs. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours. [117] The Games were also financially successful relying exclusively on private sponsorship with no governmental investments and raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues. [117] The subsequent investigation uncovered inconsistencies in the bids for every Olympics (both Summer and Winter) since 1988. [118] For example, the gifts received by IOC members from the Japanese Organising Committee for Nagano's bid for the 1998 Winter Olympics were described by the investigation committee as "astronomical". [119] Although nothing strictly illegal had been done, the IOC feared that corporate sponsors would lose faith in the integrity of the process and that the Olympic brand would be tarnished to such an extent that advertisers would begin to pull their support. [120] The investigation resulted in the expulsion of 10 IOC members and the sanctioning of another 10. New terms and age limits were established for IOC membership, and 15 former Olympic athletes were added to the committee. Stricter rules for future bids were imposed, with ceilings imposed on the value of gifts IOC members could accept from bid cities. [121] [122] [123]

Host city legacy Edit

According to the IOC, the host city for the Winter Olympics is responsible for ". establishing functions and services for all aspects of the Games, such as sports planning, venues, finance, technology, accommodation, catering, media services, etc., as well as operations during the Games." [124] Due to the cost of hosting the Games, most host cities never realise a profit on their investment. [125] For example, the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, cost $3.6 billion to host. By comparison, the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, cost $12.5 billion. [126] The organisers of the Nagano Games claimed that the cost of extending the bullet train service from Tokyo to Nagano was responsible for the large price tag. [126] The organising committee had hoped that the exposure gained from hosting the Winter Olympics, and the improved access to Nagano from Tokyo, would benefit the local economy for years afterwards. In actual fact, Nagano's economy did experience a post-Olympic boom for a year or two, but the long-term effects have not materialised as anticipated. [126] The likelihood of heavy debt is a deterrent to prospective host cities, as well as the prospect of unused sports venues and infrastructure saddling the local community with upkeep costs into the future with no appreciable post-Olympic value. [127]

The Winter Olympics has the added problem of the alpine events requiring a mountain location the men's downhill needs an 800-meter altitude difference along a suitable course. As this is a focal event that is central to the Games, the IOC has previously not agreed to it taking place a great distance from the main host city. [128] (In opposite to the Summer games where sailing and horse sports have taken place more than 1000 km away) The requirement for a mountain location also means that venues such as hockey arenas often have to be built in sparsely populated areas with little future need for a large arena and for the hotels and infrastructure needed for all olympic visitors. Due to cost issues, fewer and fewer cities are willing to host. Both the 2006 and 2010 Games, which were hosted in countries where large cities are located close to suitable mountain regions, had lower costs since more venues, hotels and transport infrastructure already existed. In contrast the 2014 games had large cost due to most installations had to be built.

The IOC has enacted several initiatives to mitigate these concerns. Firstly, the commission has agreed to fund part of the host city's budget for staging the Games. [129] Secondly, the qualifying host countries are limited to those that have the resources and infrastructure to successfully host an Olympic Games without negatively impacting the region or nation this consequently rules out a large portion of the developing world. [130] Finally, any prospective host city planning to bid for the Games is required to add a "legacy plan" to their proposal, with a view to the long-term economic and environmental impact that hosting the Olympics will have on the region. [131]

For the 2022 Winter Games, IOC allowed a longer distance between the alpine events and other events. The Oslo bid had 220 kilometres (140 mi) to the Kvitfjell downhill arena. For the 2026 Winter Games, IOC allowed Stockholm to have the alpine event in Åre, 620 kilometres (390 mi) away (road distance).

Doping Edit

In 1967 the IOC began enacting drug testing protocols. They started by randomly testing athletes at the 1968 Winter Olympics. [132] The first Winter Games athlete to test positive for a banned substance was Alois Schloder, a West German hockey player, [133] but his team was still allowed to compete. [134] During the 1970s testing outside of competition was escalated because it was found to deter athletes from using performance-enhancing drugs. [135] The problem with testing during this time was a lack of standardisation of the test procedures, which undermined the credibility of the tests. It was not until the late 1980s that international sporting federations began to coordinate efforts to standardise the drug-testing protocols. [136] The IOC took the lead in the fight against steroids when it established the independent World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in November 1999. [137] [138]

The 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin became notable for a scandal involving the emerging trend of blood doping, the use of blood transfusions or synthetic hormones such as Erythropoietin (EPO) to improve oxygen flow and thus reduce fatigue. [139] The Italian police conducted a raid on the Austrian cross-country ski team's residence during the Games where they seized blood-doping specimens and equipment. [140] This event followed the pre-Olympics suspension of 12 cross-country skiers who tested positive for unusually high levels of haemoglobin, which is evidence of blood doping. [139]

The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi's Russian Doping Scandal has resulted in the International Olympic Committee to begin disciplinary proceedings against 28 (later increased to 46) Russian athletes who competed at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, Russia, acting on evidence that their urine samples were tampered with. [141] [142] [143] [144] [145]

Cold War Edit

The Winter Olympics have been an ideological front in the Cold War since the Soviet Union first participated at the 1956 Winter Games. It did not take long for the Cold War combatants to discover what a powerful propaganda tool the Olympic Games could be. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis. [42] Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism until the '90s. [43]

The Cold War created tensions amongst countries allied to the two superpowers. The strained relationship between East and West Germany created a difficult political situation for the IOC. Because of its role in World War II, Germany was not allowed to compete at the 1948 Winter Olympics. [33] In 1950 the IOC recognised the West German Olympic Committee, and invited East and West Germany to compete as a unified team at the 1952 Winter Games. [146] East Germany declined the invitation and instead sought international legitimacy separate from West Germany. [147] In 1955 the Soviet Union recognised East Germany as a sovereign state, thereby giving more credibility to East Germany's campaign to become an independent participant at the Olympics. The IOC agreed to provisionally accept the East German National Olympic Committee with the condition that East and West Germans compete on one team. [148] The situation became tenuous when the Berlin Wall was constructed by East Germany in 1962 and Western European nations began refusing visas to East German athletes. [149] The uneasy compromise of a unified team held until the 1968 Grenoble Games when the IOC officially split the teams and threatened to reject the host-city bids of any country that refused entry visas to East German athletes. [150]

Boycott Edit

The Winter Games have had only one national team boycott when Taiwan decided not to participate in the 1980 Winter Olympics held in Lake Placid. Prior to the Games the IOC agreed to allow China to compete in the Olympics for the first time since 1952. China was given permission to compete as the "People's Republic of China" (PRC) and to use the PRC flag and anthem. Until 1980 the island of Taiwan had been competing under the name "Republic of China" (ROC) and had been using the ROC flag and anthem. [63] The IOC attempted to have the countries compete together but when this proved to be unacceptable the IOC demanded that Taiwan cease to call itself the "Republic of China". [151] [152] The IOC renamed the island "Chinese Taipei" and demanded that it adopt a different flag and national anthem, stipulations that Taiwan would not agree to. Despite numerous appeals and court hearings the IOC's decision stood. When the Taiwanese athletes arrived at the Olympic village with their Republic of China identification cards they were not admitted. They subsequently left the Olympics in protest, just before the opening ceremonies. [63] Taiwan returned to Olympic competition at the 1984 Winter Games in Sarajevo as Chinese Taipei. The country agreed to compete under a flag bearing the emblem of their National Olympic Committee and to play the anthem of their National Olympic Committee should one of their athletes win a gold medal. The agreement remains in place to this day. [153]

The Olympic Charter limits winter sports to "those . which are practised on snow or ice." [154] Since 1992 a number of new sports have been added to the Olympic programme which include short track speed skating, snowboarding, freestyle and moguls skiing. The addition of these events has broadened the appeal of the Winter Olympics beyond Europe and North America. While European powers such as Norway and Germany still dominate the traditional Winter Olympic sports, countries such as South Korea, Australia and Canada are finding success in the new sports. The results are: more parity in the national medal tables more interest in the Winter Olympics and higher global television ratings. [155]

Current sports Edit

Sport Years Events Medal events contested in 2014
Alpine skiing Since 1936 11 Men's and women's downhill, super G, giant slalom, slalom, and combined, and parallel slalom. [156]
Biathlon Since 1960 [i] 11 Sprint (men: 10 km women: 7.5 km), the individual (men: 20 km women: 15 km), pursuit (men: 12.5 km women: 10 km), relay (men: 4x7.5 km women: 4x6 km mixed: 2x7.5 km+2x6 km), and the mass start (men: 15 km women: 12.5 km). [157]
Bobsleigh Since 1924 (except 1960) 3 Four-man race, two-man race and two-woman race. [158]
Cross-country skiing Since 1924 12 Men's sprint, team sprint, 30 km pursuit, 15 km, 50 km and 4x10 km relay women's sprint, team sprint, 15 km pursuit, 10 km, 30 km and 4x5 km relay. [159]
Curling 1924, since 1998 3 Men's, women's and mixed doubles. tournaments. [160]
Figure skating Since 1924 [ii] 5 Men's and women's singles pairs ice dancing and team event. [161]
Freestyle skiing Since 1992 10 Men's and women's moguls, aerials, ski cross, superpipe, and slopestyle. [162]
Ice hockey Since 1924 [iii] 2 Men's and women's tournaments. [163]
Luge Since 1964 4 Men's and women's singles, men's doubles, team relay. [164]
Nordic combined Since 1924 3 Men's 10 km individual normal hill, 10 km individual large hill and team. [165]
Short track speed skating Since 1992 8 Men's and women's 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m women's 3000 m relay and men's 5000 m relay. [166]
Skeleton 1928, 1948, Since 2002 2 Men's and women's events. [167]
Ski jumping Since 1924 4 Men's individual large hill, team large hill [168] men's and women's individual normal hill.
Snowboarding Since 1998 8 Men's and women's parallel, half-pipe, snowboard cross, and slopestyle. [169]
Speed skating Since 1924 14 Men's and women's 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 5000 m, mass start, team pursuit women's 3000 m men's 10,000 m. [170]
  1. ^ The IOC's website now treats Men's Military Patrol at the 1924 Games as an event within the sport of Biathlon. [nb 2]
  2. ^ Figure skating events were held at the 1908 and 1920 Summer Olympics.
  3. ^ A men's ice hockey tournament was held at the 1920 Summer Olympics.

Demonstration events Edit

Demonstration sports have historically provided a venue for host countries to attract publicity to locally popular sports by having a competition without granting medals. Demonstration sports were discontinued after 1992. [171] Military patrol, a precursor to the biathlon, was a medal sport in 1924 and was demonstrated in 1928, 1936 and 1948, becoming an official sport in 1960. [172] The special figures figure skating event was only contested at the 1908 Summer Olympics. [173] Bandy (Russian hockey) is a sport popular in the Nordic countries and Russia. In the latter it's considered a national sport. [174] It was demonstrated at the Oslo Games. [175] Ice stock sport, a German variant of curling, was demonstrated in 1936 in Germany and 1964 in Austria. [29] The ski ballet event, later known as ski-acro, was demonstrated in 1988 and 1992. [176] Skijöring, skiing behind dogs, was a demonstration sport in St. Moritz in 1928. [175] A sled-dog race was held at Lake Placid in 1932. [175] Speed skiing was demonstrated in Albertville at the 1992 Winter Olympics. [177] Winter pentathlon, a variant of the modern pentathlon, was included as a demonstration event at the 1948 Games in Switzerland. It included cross-country skiing, shooting, downhill skiing, fencing and horse riding. [157]

The table below uses official data provided by the IOC.

No. Nation Games Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Norway (NOR) 23 132 125 111 368
2 United States (USA) 23 105 111 91 307
3 Germany (GER) 12 93 87 60 240
4 Soviet Union (URS) 9 78 57 59 194
5 Canada (CAN) 23 74 64 62 200
6 Austria (AUT) 23 64 81 87 232
7 Sweden (SWE) 23 61 48 56 161
8 Switzerland (SUI) 23 55 46 52 153
9 Russia (RUS) 6 47 38 35 120
10 Netherlands (NED) 21 45 44 41 130
11 Finland (FIN) 23 44 63 61 168
12 Italy (ITA) 23 40 36 48 124
13 East Germany (GDR) 6 39 36 35 110
14 France (FRA) 23 36 35 53 124
15 South Korea (KOR) 18 31 25 14 70
16 Japan (JPN) 21 14 22 22 58
17 China (CHN) 11 13 28 21 62
18 West Germany (FRG) 6 11 15 13 39
19 Great Britain (GBR) 23 11 4 16 31
20 Czech Republic (CZE) 7 9 11 11 31

Most successful nations Edit

  • Norway — 8 times,
  • Soviet Union — 7 times,
  • Germany — 3 times,
  • Russia — 2 times,
  • United States — 1 time,
  • Sweden — 1 time,
  • East Germany — 1 time,
  • Canada — 1 time.

Medal leaders by year Edit

No. Year Host Sports Disciplines Competitors Dates Events Nations Top Nation Ref
Total Men Women
I 1924 Chamonix, France 6 9 258 247 11 25 January – 5 February 1924 16 16 Norway (NOR) [1]
II 1928 St. Moritz, Switzerland 4 8 464 438 26 11–19 February 1928 14 25 Norway (NOR) [2]
III 1932 Lake Placid, United States 4 7 252 231 21 4–15 February 1932 14 17 United States (USA) [3]
IV 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany 4 8 646 566 80 6–16 February 1936 17 28 Norway (NOR) [4]
1940 Awarded to Sapporo, Japan cancelled because of World War II
1944 Awarded to Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy cancelled because of World War II
V 1948 St. Moritz, Switzerland 4 9 669 592 77 30 January – 8 February 1948 22 28 Norway (NOR)
Sweden (SWE)
VI 1952 Oslo, Norway 4 8 694 585 109 14–25 February 1952 22 30 Norway (NOR) [6]
VII 1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy 4 8 821 687 134 26 January – 5 February 1956 24 32 Soviet Union (URS) [7]
VIII 1960 Squaw Valley, United States 4 8 665 521 144 18–28 February 1960 27 30 Soviet Union (URS) [8]
IX 1964 Innsbruck, Austria 6 10 1091 892 199 29 January – 9 February 1964 34 36 Soviet Union (URS) [9]
X 1968 Grenoble, France 6 10 1158 947 211 6–18 February 1968 35 37 Norway (NOR) [10]
XI 1972 Sapporo, Japan 6 10 1006 801 205 3–13 February 1972 35 35 Soviet Union (URS) [11]
XII 1976 Innsbruck, Austria 6 10 1123 892 231 4–15 February 1976 37 37 Soviet Union (URS) [12]
XIII 1980 Lake Placid, United States 6 10 1072 840 232 13–24 February 1980 38 37 Soviet Union (URS) [13]
XIV 1984 Sarajevo, Yugoslavia 6 10 1272 998 274 8–19 February 1984 39 49 East Germany (GDR) [14]
XV 1988 Calgary, Canada 6 10 1423 1122 301 13–28 February 1988 46 57 Soviet Union (URS) [15]
XVI 1992 Albertville, France 6 12 1801 1313 488 8–23 February 1992 57 64 Germany (GER) [16]
XVII 1994 Lillehammer, Norway 6 12 1737 1215 522 12–27 February 1994 61 67 Russia (RUS) [17]
XVIII 1998 Nagano, Japan 7 14 2176 1389 787 7–22 February 1998 68 72 Germany (GER) [18]
XIX 2002 Salt Lake City, United States 7 15 2399 1513 886 8–24 February 2002 78 78 [178] Norway (NOR) [19]
XX 2006 Turin, Italy 7 15 2508 1548 960 10–26 February 2006 84 80 Germany (GER) [20]
XXI 2010 Vancouver, Canada 7 15 2566 1522 1044 12–28 February 2010 86 82 Canada (CAN) [21]
XXII 2014 Sochi, Russia 7 15 2873 1714 1159 7–23 February 2014 98 88 Russia (RUS) [22]
XXIII 2018 Pyeongchang, South Korea 7 15 2922 1680 1242 9–25 February 2018 102 92 Norway (NOR) [23]
XXIV 2022 Beijing, China 7 15 TBA TBA TBA 4–20 February 2022 109 TBA TBA [24]
XXV 2026 Milan and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA 6–22 February 2026 TBA TBA TBA [25]

Unlike the Summer Olympics, the cancelled 1940 Winter Olympics and 1944 Winter Olympics are not included in the official Roman numeral counts for the Winter Games. While the official titles of the Summer Games count Olympiads, the titles of the Winter Games only count the Games themselves.

The tiger appears frequently in Korean popular art and legends. With a positive image, it is often associated with humour, bravery and nobility. Hodori wears the Olympic rings around his neck. On his head is a typical traditional Korean hat, the sangmo. The ribbon on the hat is in the shape of an “S” for Seoul, and appears in various forms.

The Organising Committee set up a contest to select the mascot which generated 4,344 entries. Four candidates were selected: a rabbit, a squirrel, a pair of mandarin ducks and a tiger. Finally, the tiger was chosen.

Kim Hyun, Hodori's creator, was also behind the emblem for the Asian Games in 1986.

Although less well known, there is a female version of the mascot named Hosuni. “Suni” is the Korean for “girl”.

The cartoon book “Come along, Hodori” about the mascot won the top prize in the children’s category of a Korean cartoon awards contest in 1988.


For the first time, the Winter Games extended to 16 days, including three weekends. The Alpine events were expanded from three to five with the inclusion of the super giant slalom and the Alpine combined. Team events were added in Nordic combined and ski jumping.

Winter and Summer Champion

East Germany’s Christa Rothenburger won the 1000m speed skating title. Seven months later, she earned a silver medal in cycling to become the only athlete ever to win medals in the Winter and Summer Olympic Games in the same year.

Memorable Champions

East German figure skater Katarina Witt defended her Olympic title, while American Brian Boitano edged out Canada’s Brian Orser in an extremely close decision in the men’s competition. Charismatic Italian skier Alberto Tomba made the most of his Olympic debut, winning both the giant slalom and the slalom.

Flying Finn

Finnish ski jumper Mat Nykänen dominated both individual events, winning both by huge margins. This made him the first ski jumper to win two gold medals at the same Games. He then led the Finnish team to victory in the large hill team event and brought his career total to four gold medals and one silver medal.

Athletes: 1,423 (301 women, 1,122 men)

Volunteers: 9,498

Media: 6,838 (2,477 written press, 4,361 broadcasters)

For the First Time in Canada

Canada hosted the Olympic Winter Games for the first time.

More Events

The number of events increased from 39 in Sarajevo to 46 in Calgary—notably in Alpine skiing, where the super giant slalom was on the programme for the first time and the Nordic combined returned to the programme (absent since 1948).

The Artificial Snow

The Alpine events took place on artificial snow.

Demonstration Sport

Curling appeared on the programme as a demonstration sport.

Demonstration Discipline

Short-track speed skating and freestyle skiing were two demonstration disciplines.

Speed Skating Moves Indoors

The speed skating events were held on a covered rink for the first time.

The Athletes and the Spectators Side-by-side

The athletes, the real heroes of the Games, could sit in the stands next to the spectators.

No Smoking

The first smoke-free Games were held.


13 February 1988, Calgary. Opening Ceremony at the MacMahon Stadium. The Olympic Flag.

Official Opening of the Games by:

Her Excellency, the Right Honourable Jeanne Sauvé, Governor General of Canada, declared the XV Olympic Winter Games open.


The Jamaica Olympic Association was formed in 1936, [1] but due to the cancellation of the 1940 and 1944 Olympics due to the Second World War, the first Games they competed in was the 1948 Summer Olympics in London. They have appeared at every Summer Games since, [2] including at the 1960 Games in which they appeared as part of the combined team of the British West Indies. [3] They have won medals at every Summer Games they have competed at, with the exception of the 1956 and 1964 Summer Olympics. [2]

George B. Fitch, who was the Commercial Attache for the American embassy in Kingston from 1985-86, suggested that Jamaica should begin competing in the Winter Olympics and is quoted as saying, "You got great athletes and a great athlete should be able to do any sport." [4] After seeing a local pushcart derby, Fitch and businessman William Maloney proposed the idea of a Jamaican bobsleigh team as it played well to the strengths of Jamaicans in sprinting. The President of the Jamaica Olympic Association at the time supported the idea, and so preparations were made to hire athletes. [5] Advertisements were placed describing "dangerous and rigorous" trials which would form the basis of the country's first bobsleigh team. [6] However, recruitment proved to be problematic and so the Jamaica Defence Force was asked for volunteers. This resulted in the first team of Dudley Stokes, Devon Harris and Michael White. These three were selected as part of the team in October 1987, with teammate Casewell Allen added later. [5]

With funding provided by the Fitch and the Jamaica Tourist Board, training was conducted in Canada and Austria in preparation for the 1988 Winter Olympics. Sepp Haidacher was recruited as a coach, and the team began to be featured in North American media with a comical angle. An agreement was reached with the Fédération International de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing in order to allow for entrance in both the four-man and the two-man events at the Games. [5] Once in Calgary, the team conducted test runs on a frozen lake in order to get used to the conditions, but Allen fell and was injured. Chris Stokes, who was only in Canada in order to support his brother Dudley, was added to the four-man team three days before the first run having never been in a bobsleigh before. [6]

The first event which Jamaica competed in was the two-man bobsleigh, where Dudley Stokes and Michael White became Jamaica's first Winter Olympians. [5] In their first run, they finished in 34th position, ahead of the second New Zealand team, both of the pairs from Portugal, U.S. Virgin Islands and Mexico. [7] They improved in the second run, moving up to 22nd place, [8] but were in 31st place on the third run and finished only one place higher in 30th place during the fourth and final run. [9] [10] Overall the duo finished in 30th place out of the 41 teams competing. [11]

Following the elimination of the United States ice hockey team, American television stations needed to fill airtime and chose to focus on the Jamaican bobsleigh team in the four-man event. [5] The first run ended poorly, as when Dudley Stokes jumped into the bobsleigh, the push-bar in the sleigh broke, [6] resulting in the team coming in third from last in 24th place. [12] On their second attempt, the team ranked second to last, due in part to White struggling to crouch down properly in his seat, remaining almost upright through the first corner. [5] [13]

It was the events of the third run for which the team became best known. Stokes injured his shoulder prior to the race, but decided to continue with the run. The team set the seventh-fastest start for all competitors. At the turn called the "Kreisel", Stokes lost control of the bobsleigh and it careened into the wall of the track, and flipped over on top of the four athletes. [5] The four team members climbed out and pushed the bobsleigh to the end of the track, before they carried it off. [6] The team did not compete in the fourth run of the event, [14] and subsequently were listed as not finishing the event and therefore were placed in the last place overall. [15]

Sled Athletes Event Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 Total
Time Rank Time Rank Time Rank Time Rank Time Rank
JAM Dudley Stokes, Michael White Two-man 1:00.20 34 1:00.56 22 1:01.87 31 1:01.23 30 4:03.86 30
JAM Dudley Stokes, Devon Harris, Michael White, Chris Stokes Four-man 58.04 24 59.37 25 1:03.19 26 DNF DNF

The story of the Jamaican bobsleigh team at the 1988 Winter Olympics was turned into the 1993 movie Cool Runnings. [5] However, the film was only loosely based on actual events, with real life coach Pat Brown later saying that the team had never experienced any of the animosity from the other teams as depicted in the movie. [6]

All of the team members returned for the 1992 Winter Olympics, however Harris only competed in the two-man event, with his place in the four-man team taken by newcomer Ricky McIntosh. [16] Harris and the Stokes brothers would continue to compete at the Winter Games in the bobsleigh events until the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. [17]

Calgary 1988 Olympic Winter Games

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Calgary 1988 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Calgary, Alta., Can., that took place Feb. 13–28, 1988. The Calgary Games were the 15th occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games.

The city of Calgary first organized a bidding committee for the Winter Olympics in 1957 24 years later it was awarded the 15th Winter Games. The influence of television on the Games spread even deeper. The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) paid $309 million for the television rights, and advertisers were able to influence the starting times of events to maximize their products’ exposure. Many charged that the Games resembled well-rehearsed shows instead of sporting contests.

In figure skating Katarina Witt (East Germany) retained her title in the women’s event. The men’s figure skating competition was dubbed the “Battle of the Brians” as Brian Boitano (U.S.) and Brian Orser (Canada) vied for the gold. Though Orser held the edge in international competition, Boitano was victorious at Calgary, skating a nearly perfect performance to narrowly defeat his Canadian rival.

In the Alpine events the supergiant slalom (super-G) was added, and the Alpine combined returned after being absent from the Olympics for 40 years. The stars on the slopes were the flamboyant Alberto Tomba (Italy) and Vreni Schneider (Switzerland), each of whom won gold in both the slalom and giant slalom events.

The women’s speed skating competition was marked by upsets. Although most attention was focused on the East German women and the American Bonnie Blair, Yvonne van Gennip of the Netherlands dominated, winning three gold medals. Blair and Christa Luding-Rothenburger (East Germany) claimed the other two golds.

Nordic skiing underwent numerous modifications at Calgary. Team competitions were added in the Nordic combined and the ski jumping events. Cross-country events were revamped because of the “skating technique,” which had been introduced at the 1984 Games. The men’s 15- and 30-km races and the women’s 5- and 10-km races were skied by using the classic style. The longer distances and relay events used the freestyle, or skating, method. Ski jumping was dominated by Matti Nykänen (Finland), whose three gold medals made him the most successful male athlete at Calgary.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

How Steffi Graf became tennis’ Golden Slam winner in 1988

German legend Steffi Graf is widely recognised as one of the greatest-ever tennis players in history.

She won 22 Grand Slam titles in a 16-year professional career, the second-most behind Serena Williams (23) since the start of the Open Era in 1968, and the third-most in history behind Margaret Court (24).

Steffi Graf was ranked world No. 1 for 377 weeks, the most of any player - male or female - and won a total of 107 career titles, the third-most in history behind Martina Navratilova (167) and Chris Evert (157).

However, there is one achievement in her career that stands out. In 1988, a then 19-year-old Steffi Graf won the Golden Slam, and till today, remains the only player in tennis history - male or female - to achieve the feat.

A term coined by the media, the Golden Slam is when a player wins all four Grand Slams - the Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon and US Open - in addition to the Olympic gold medal in the same year.

It is as daunting as it sounds and requires great effort and adaptability from a tennis player to triumph across hard courts, grass courts and clay courts, all within months of each other.

Steffi Graf though had those qualities in abundance - she is the only player in history to have won each of the Grand Slams at least four times.

Here’s how Steffi Graf became tennis’ Golden Slam winner in 1988.

1988 Australian Open

Having won her first Grand Slam title, the French Open in 1987, and risen to world No.1 for the first time, Steffi Graf entered the 1988 Australian Open as the top seed.

The German was in form, winning the first four rounds in straight sets and dropping only 13 games.

Steffi Graf then beat defending champion Hana Mandlikova 6-2, 6-2 in the quarter-finals before ousting compatriot Claudia Kohde-Kilsch 6-2, 6-3 in the semis.

With such devastating form coming into the final, Steffi Graf beat third seed Chris Evert 6-1, 7-6 to claim her first Australian Open crown. It would prove to be the last of Evert’s six Australian Open final appearances.

1988 French Open

Defending champion Steffi Graf was seeded first again at the French Open and swiftly went about beating her opponents, dropping only 11 games until the semi-finals.

Up against fourth-seeded Argentine Gabriela Sabatini in the last four, Steffi Graf faced her first real test, but overcame it with ease, winning 6-3, 7-6 to go through to the final.

In one of the most dominating performances in Grand Slam finals, Steffi Graf whipped Belarus’ Natasha Zvereva 6-0, 6-0 to claim her second-consecutive French Open crown. It lasted just 34 minutes and is the only ‘double bagel’ Grand Slam final.

1988 Wimbledon

Switching to the rapid grass courts for the year’s third Grand Slam at Wimbledon, top-seeded Steffi Graf needed no time to adapt. She won all her matches in straight sets and dropped only 17 games in her run to the final.

In the final, Steffi Graf faced her biggest challenge - up against record six-time defending champion, the legendary Martina Navratilova.

The final began well for Graf as she took a 5-3 lead but Navratilova hit back, winning four games in a row to win the first set.

Navratilova also won the first two games of the second set to take a 2-0 lead and looked on course for a seventh-straight Wimbledon title.

However, a determined Steffi Graf hit back in ferocious fashion, bringing out her famous forehands and groundstrokes to win six games in a row to take the second set and force a decider.

With the momentum firmly on her side, Graf then went on to win the third set 6-1 and claimed her first Wimbledon title, ending Navratilova’s stronghold.

Steffi Graf also won her only Grand Slam doubles title at the 1988 Wimbledon, taking the women’s doubles title partnering Gabriela Sabatini.

1988 US Open

All eyes were now firmly fixed on Steffi Graf entering the US Open, the year’s final Grand Slam.

The German did not disappoint, winning all her matches in straight sets and dropping just 13 games up until the semi-final. In the last four, the great Chris Evert pulled out, giving Graf a rest before the big final.

Up against her Grand Slam-winning doubles partner Gabriela Sabatini in the US Open final, Steffi Graf won the first set before the Argentine hit back in the second.

Unfazed, Graf went on to take the third set in quick time, beating Sabatini 6-3, 3-6, 6-1 to win her first US Open and with it, became only the third player - after Maureen Connolly Brinker and Margaret Court - and the first in the Open Era to win the Calendar Slam (all four Grand Slams in the same calendar year).

The crowning glory though was yet to come.

1988 Seoul Olympics

Steffi Graf was again seeded first for the 1988 Seoul Olympics. Entering the competition in the second round, the German won her first two matches in straight sets.

Steffi Graf dropped her first set of the event against the Soviet Union’s Larisa Savchenko, beating her 6-2, 4-6, 6-3 in the quarter-finals.

After dominating USA’s Zina Garrison in the semis, Graf was up against Gabriela Sabatini for the Olympic gold - the second time in three weeks the German was facing the Argentine in a final.

However, there would no hiccups this time as Steffi Graf overcame Sabatini 6-3, 6-3 in the final to win the Olympic gold medal and complete an incredible Golden Slam.

Steffi Graf would also claim a second Olympic medal - a bronze in the women’s doubles with Claudia Kohde-Klisch - after the pair lost the semi-finals to Czech Republic’s Jana Novotna and Helena Sukova.

Check Gallery

Facts & Figures:




Olaf Petersen of Germany was the course designer. With the generous financial help of SLOOC he had designed beautiful obstacles, all referring to the history, traditions and pageantry of Korea.

The team competition was held at the equestrian centre in Kwachon. The course measured 770m. The verticals were up to 1.60m, the largest oxer was 2.00m wide and the water jump measured 4.60m.

The first German to go in the team competition was Ludger Beerbaum who, after his horse Landlord went lame, was able to ride on Hafemeister’s second horse, The Freak, formerly ridden by Hugo Simon. His clear round with a quarter time fault set Germany on the road to gold. In the second round, Germany’s last rider, Franke Sloothaak, who had gone clear in the first round, did not have to start. Germany won with 17.25 points ahead of the USA with 20.5 and France with 27.5.

The individual Jumping final was held in the huge Olympic Stadium on closing day, but not on the same ticket as the closing ceremony, thus attracting a small crowd compared to the 75,000 seats available. At 8am, when the first horse entered the arena, there were around 200 spectators the number increased to 10,000 for the jump-off.

For the first time qualifications were held to reduce the starting field for the individual final. Of the 74 riders who took part in the first qualification, half were allowed to compete in round A of the final in the Olympic stadium. Twenty-one returned for round B. Only three of the four riders per country were allowed in the final.

The reigning European champions, Pierre Durand and the 13-year-old black gelding Jappeloup, added Olympic gold to their winnings.

Fifty-three riders from 18 nations competed 10 countries fielded full teams of four riders and one country had a team of three. It was the first time ever that four riders per country were allowed, though only three could go forward to the Grand Prix Special. Since Los Angeles four years previously the Grand Prix had been shortened to 7 minutes, which gave increased importance to the piaffe and passage.

The elegant “dancer” Rembrandt ridden by Nicole Uphoff won ahead of Margit Otto-Crépin’s Corlandus, while third place went to a “working horse”, Christine Stückelbergers’ Gauguin de Lully. A pleasant surprise was the performance of the young Korean Jung-Kyun Suh on Reiner Klimke’s former horse Pascal who placed 10th.

Not deemed supernatural… the competition was slightly disturbed by a wandering shadow from the roof of the Grand Stand. It affected at least six horses probably the most to suffer was Monica Theodorescu, third in the Grand Prix, but only sixth in the Special.

For only for the second time in the 76-year history of Eventing at the Olympic Games the defending champion, Mark Todd, 32, aboard the 16-year-old New Zealand bred Charisma, repeated his victory.

Todd had taken the lead after Dressage, ahead of Claus Erhorn, Virgina Leng and Thies Kaspreit. The test was the same as in 1976 it lasted 7½ minutes and comprised 20 individual marks and four collective marks.

Wondang, 43km north of Kwachon, was a hilly terrain and after the course walk, six of the obstacles on Hugh Thomas’ cross-country course had to be lowered and the first element of No.27 was removed. The four phases measured a total of 26,761m.

Germany, all four riders of which had gone clear over the cross-country fences, was safely in the lead, ahead of New Zealand and Great Britain.

The Jumping phase saw only one change in the medal positions. New Zealand, with only three riders, lost silver to Great Britain after five knock-downs by Andrew Bennie on Grayshott. Germany won gold. There were 10 clear rounds by the 36 remaining starters, while Todd, Stark and Leng remained in their individual medal positions.

Seoul 1988 Olympic Games

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Seoul 1988 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Seoul that took place September 17–October 2, 1988. The Seoul Games were the 21st occurrence of the modern Olympic Games.

After boycotts had marred the previous two Olympiads, political problems threatened to return to centre stage at the 1988 Games. Violent student riots took place in Seoul in the months leading up to the Games. North Korea, still technically at war with South Korea, complained bitterly that it should have cohost status. The International Olympic Committee made some concessions to North Korea, but North Korea did not find them satisfactory and boycotted several other countries, notably Cuba and Ethiopia, stayed away from Seoul in solidarity with North Korea. The boycott did not have the effect of previous ones, and the Seoul Games proved to be extremely competitive.

Nearly 8,500 athletes from 159 countries participated. The Olympic rule requiring participants to be amateurs had been overturned in 1986, and decisions on professional participation were left to the governing bodies of particular sports. This resulted in the return of tennis, which had been dropped in 1924, to the Games. Table tennis and team archery events were also added.

Canadian Ben Johnson, champion of the 100-metre run, and several weightlifters tested positive for steroid use and were disqualified. In all, 10 athletes were banned from the Games for using performance-enhancing drugs. In the track events the Kenyan men’s team won four of the six distance races. Soviet pole-vaulter Sergey Bubka won his first gold medal. The women’s competition featured Americans Florence Griffith Joyner, winner of three gold medals, and Jackie Joyner-Kersee, who earned gold medals in the heptathlon and the long jump. Weightlifter Naim Suleymanoglu of Turkey won the first of his two career gold medals in the featherweight division. Soviet Greco-Roman wrestler Aleksandr Kareline, competing in the super heavyweight division, also won his first gold medal.

Kristin Otto of East Germany won six gold medals in swimming. American swimmer Janet Evans won three events. The men’s diving competition was again swept by Greg Louganis of the United States.

Watch the video: The Calgary 1988 Winter Olympics Film - Part 1. Olympic History (July 2022).


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