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USS Hopkins (DD-6) and USS Paul Jones (DD-10), 1918

USS Hopkins (DD-6) and USS Paul Jones (DD-10), 1918


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USS Hopkins (DD-6) and USS Paul Jones (DD-10), 1918

Here we see the Hopkins class destroyer USS Hopkins (DD-6) and the Paul Jones class destroyer USS Paul Jones (DD-10), at Hampton Roads, Virginia, some time in 1918. This picture is well arranged to show the two different bow types used on the early Bainbridge class destroyers - the Hopkins has the 'turtle deck', which reduced space in front of the bridge platform, while the Paul Jones has the raised forecastle.


List of destroyers of the United States Navy

This article does not contain any citations or references. Please improve this article by adding a reference. For information about how to add references, see Template:Citation.

This is a list of destroyers of the United States Navy, sorted by hull number. It includes all of the series DD, DL, DDG, DLG, and DLGN.

CG-47 Ticonderoga and CG-48 Yorktown were approved as destroyers (DDG-47 and DDG-48) and redesignated cruisers before being laid down it is uncertain whether CG-49 Vincennes and CG-50 Valley Forge were ever authorized as destroyers by the United States Congress (though the fact that the DDG sequence resumes with DDG-51 Arleigh Burke argues that they were).


Where Was Asbestos Used on U.S. Navy Destroyers?

Although the U.S. Navy issued a policy limiting the use of asbestos in its vessels in 1975, many veterans and civilian seamen had already been exposed to the dangerous carcinogen by that point. U.S. Navy destroyers constructed before the 1980s commonly contained asbestos in:

  • Pumps, valves, boilers, and turbines
  • Floor tiles and decking
  • Plaster, cement, putty and caulk
  • Insulation
  • Gaskets and Packing
  • Safety gear and insulated gloves
  • Other equipment

Veterans who worked directly with or around these asbestos materials are at high risk of exposure, particularly because many of these servicemen worked in confined spaces below deck with poor ventilation. Even those veterans who did not work directly with asbestos on U.S. Navy destroyers were at risk of exposure in sleeping quarters, mess halls, and other common areas where asbestos may have been present.


Paul Jones sailed on 23 April 1917, for Norfolk, Virginia, via San Diego, Acapulco, the Panama Canal Zone, and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, arriving on 3 August. On 4 August, she took station off the York River on patrol assignment until joining Duncan, Henley, Truxtun, Stewart, Preble, Hull, Macdonough, and Hopkins as escorts for Battleship Force, Atlantic Fleet, on 13 August, for passage to Bermuda and New York.

Paul Jones departed the Brooklyn Navy Yard on 24 August and reported to Newport, Rhode Island where she began a series of convoy patrols up and down the coast and returning to Newport on 24 September. She then commenced training operations, in conjunction with other duties, off Norfolk, Lynnhaven Roads, and Chesapeake Bay, prior to reporting to Philadelphia on 20 December.

On 15 January 1918, in company with Stewart, Hopkins and Worden, Paul Jones sailed for the Azores by way of Bermuda. After departing Bermuda, she had to request permission to turn back due to a serious leak in her port after bunker. From 23–26 January, Paul Jones ' crew struggled against great odds and succeeded in saving the ship from sinking. Wallowing in stormy seas with her after fire room flooded, barely able to maintain headway, having lost all drinking and feed water and steaming under two boilers with salt feed, manning bucket brigades for lack of operable pumps, and receiving no answers to her distress signals, she finally sighted a light off St. David's Head, Bermuda, signalled the fort for assistance and dropped her anchor.

Paul Jones remained at Bermuda until 22 February for repairs and then sailed for Philadelphia escorted by Mars arriving on 25 February. Following permanent repairs at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Paul Jones reported to Fortress Monroe, Virginia on 18 April, and performed various duties in and around Chesapeake Bay until 6 August.

The highlight of Paul Jones ' career came on 2 July when Henderson was on fire in the Atlantic north of Bermuda and east of Virginia. Paul Jones made four trips from the burning ship to Von Steuben saving 1,250 Marines and officers together with over 50 tons of luggage. The next day she accompanied Henderson to Delaware Breakwater.

While in convoy on 7 August at sea, Paul Jones with several other ships in her group mistook O-6 for an enemy submarine and fired upon her. The submarine was struck seven times in the conning tower before the mistake was apparent. Paul Jones escorted the damaged submarine to Delaware Bay, and arrived at the breakwater the following day.

Paul Jones reported at Hampton Roads on 9 August and remained in and around Chesapeake Bay conducting mine patrols, convoy duties and other services until slated for inactivation on 31 January 1919. She decommissioned on 29 July was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 15 September and was sold on 3 January 1920 to Henry A. Hitner's Sons Company, Philadelphia, who subsequently scrapped her.


Ships Built at Pier 70 During World War II

During World War II, the San Francisco yard produced 5 freighters, 36 Destroyers, 12 destroyer escorts, 4 cruisers, and 15 service vessels known as "lighters." In addition, thousands of major ship repairs and refurbishments were carried out here.

Destroyer USS The Sullivans - 1943

Destroyer Escort USS Fieberling - 1944

Cruiser USS Oakland - 1944


სექციების სია

წარმომავლობა რედაქტირება

ძველი და თანამედროვე წყაროების მიხედვით 1898–1899 წლებში ჩაეშვა 4 ნაღმოსანი: ფარაგუტი, სტრინგჰემი, გოლდსბორო და ბეილი. მათი წყალწყვიდან გამომდინარე (235 ტონიდან 340 ტონამდე) ეს ნაღმოსნები პირველ საესკადრო ნარმოსნებად მიიჩნეოდნენ. მათ შორის ყველაზე დიდი სტრინგჰემი იმ დროის სამეფო ფლოტის საესკადრო ნაღმოსნებთან შედარებით უფრო დიდი იყო [1] [2] . თუმცა, 1899 წელს დაიწყო ბეინბრიჯის კლასის გემების მშენებლობა, რომელთა წყალწყვაც 420 ტონას შეადგენდა. სტრინგჰემთან შედარებით ბეინბრიჯის კლასის საესკადრო ნაღმოსნები ბევრად უფრო დიდები იყვნენ, ამავდროულად მათი შეიარაღებაც უფრო მძიმე იყო.

ბეინბრიჯის კლასის გემების წაროება დაიწყო ომის გეგმების კომიტეტის რეკომენდაციით, რომელიც ესპანეთ-ამერიკის ომის შემდეგ 1898 წელს ჩამოყალიბდა. კომიტეტის საქმიანობას წარმოადგენდა ომის გამოძიება, მისი თავმჯდომარე იყო აშშ-ის სამხედრო-საზღვაო ძალების მინისტრის მოადგილე თეოდორ რუზველტი. კომიტეტის მიერ მომზადებულ რეკომენდაციაში აღნიშნული იყო აშშ-ის მიერ საკუთარი საესკადრო ნაღმოსნების მშენებლობის აუცილებლობა. მიზეზად დასახელებული იყო საზღვაო ოპერაციებში აშშ-ის გემების (მაგ. ნაღმოსანი პორტერი 265 ტონა წყალწყვით) ნაკლებად ეფექტურობა, ასევე ესპანური საესკადრო ნაღმოსნების (მაგ. ფურორი 370 ტონა წყალწყვით) არსებობა, რომლებიც აშშ-ის ნაღმოსნებთან შედარებით უკეთესები იყვნენ [2] . სამშენებლო სიძნელეების გამო ბეინბრიჯის კლასის გემების მშენებლობა ესპანეთ-ამერიკის ომის მსვლელობისას ვერ მოესწრო, მათი დასრულება მხოლოდ 1901–1902 წლებისთვის მოხერხდა [2] . ამის შემდეგ აშშ-ის სამხედრო-საზღვაო ძალებისთვის ნაღმოსნები მეორე მსოფლიო ომის პერიოდამდე აღარ შექმნილა. ევროპაში მეორე მსოფლიო ომის დაწყებამდე, აშშ-ის ფლოტისთვის ახალი ნაღმოსნები შექნეს, თუმცა ახალი გემების დიზაინს საესკადრო ნაღმოსნებთან საერთო აღარაფერი ჰქონდა.

შეიარაღება რედაქტირება

420 ტონა საშუალო წყალწყვით ბეიბრიჯის კლასის საესკადრო ნაღმოსნები წინამორბედ ნაღმოსნებთან შედარებით ორჯერ დიდები იყვნენ. მომატებული წყალწყვით შესაძლებელი გახდა გემების უფრო მძიმედ შეიარაღება, ახალი ტექნიკის დამახმარებით კი გემების სიჩქარე გაუმჯობესდა. მათ თავისუფლად შეეძლოთ გაეწიათ კონკურენცია წინამორბედი გემებისათვის. თუ ნაღმოსნების სიჩქარე 29 კვანძს (54 კმ/სთ) შეადგენდა, ბეინბრიჯის კლასის გემები 28 კვანძს (52 კმ/სთ) ავითარებდნენ, თუმცა ისინი ზომით ნაღმოსნებზე ორჯერ დიდები იყვნენ და შეიარაღებაც უფრო მზიმე ჰქონდათ [2] . ახალი გემები აღჭურვილები იყვნენ ორი 457 მმ-იანი (18 ინჩი) სატორპედო მილისაგან. როგორც აღმოჩნდა დიზაინერებისათვის უფრო მნიშვნელოვანი იყო საქვემეხო შეიარაღების გაზრდა ვიდრე სატორბედო მილების [3] .

ახალი გემები აღჭურვილები იყვნენ ორი 76 მმ-იანი (3 ინჩი) 50 კალიბრიანი და ხუთი 6 გირვანქიანი 57 მმ-იანი (2.2 ინჩი) ქვემეხებით. შესაბამისად ახალი გემების შეაიარაღება წინამორბედებთან (მაგ. ფარაგუტის ოთხი 6 გირვანქიან ქვემეხი) შედარებით ბევრად უკეთესი იყო [4] [5] . მათ შეეძლოთ ნაღმოსნები სწრაფად გაენადგურებინათ და არ მიეცათ მათთვის სახაზო გემებთან მიახლოების საშუალება. აღსანიშნავია, რომ საესკადრო ნაღმოსნების მომავალ კლასებში შეიარაღებამ პროგრესულად მოიმატა.

პირველი მსოფლიო ომის დროს, წყალქვეშა ნავების საწინაარმდეგო მისიების დროს ბეინბრიჯის კლასის გემები დამატებით აღჭურვილები იყვნენ ერთი ან ორი სიღრმისეული ჭურვებით [6] .

ტექნიკური მხარე რედაქტირება

ბეინბრიჯის გემებში ნახშირის ბოილერებისა და სამმაგი გაფართოების ძრავების საუკეთესო, ხელმისაწვდომი ტექნოლოგია გამოიყენეს. მიუხედავად ამის მომდევნო თაობის გემებში (დაწყებული სმიტის კლასიდან) ორთქლის ტურბინების გამოყენება დაიწყეს. მომავალში, სამხედრო გემების ძრავების ტექნოლოგიურ ევოლუციაში სისწრაფე მნიშვნელოვანი ფაქტორი უნდა ყოფილიყო.

  • ბეინბრიჯს ჰქონდა Thornycroft-ის ოთხი ბოილერი, რომლებიც 275 ფკდ (1 900 კპა) ორთქლით ამარაგებდნენ ორ სამმაგი გაფართოების ძრავებს. ძრავები ჯამში გამოიმუშავებდნენ 7 000 იცძ-ს (5 200 კვ) [7] . ბეინბრიჯს შეეძლო 8 000 იცძ-ით (6 000 კვ) 28.45 კვანძის (52.6 კმ/სთ) განვითარება. ნახშირის საშუალო მოცულობა 213 ტონას შეადგენდა [2] .
  • ჰოპკინზს ჰქონდა Thornycroft-ის ოთხი ბოილერი, რომლებიც ორთქლით ამარაგებდნენ ორ სამმაგი გაფართოების ძრავებს. ძრავები ჯამში გამოიმუშავებდნენ 7 000 იცძ-ს (5 200 კვ) [7] . ჰოპკინზს შეეძლო 8 456 იცძ-ით (6 306 კვ) 29.02 კვანძის (53.7 კმ/სთ) განვითარება. ნახშირის საშუალო მოცულობა 150 ტონას შეადგენდა [2] .
  • ლოურენსს ჰქონდა Normand-ის ოთხი ბოილერი, რომლებიც ორთქლით ამარაგებდნენ ორ სამმაგი გაფართოების ძრავებს. ძრავები ჯამში გამოიმუშავებდნენ 8 400 იცძ-ს (6 300 კვ) [7] . ლოურენსს შეეძლო 8 400 იცძ-ით (6 300 კვ) 28.41 კვანძის (52.6 კმ/სთ) განვითარება. ნახშირის საშუალო მოცულობა 115 ტონას შეადგენდა [2] .

ზოგიერთი წყარო ბეიბრიჯის კლასს სხვადასხვა დამატებით კლასებად ყოფს [8] [9] [7] .

  • ჰოპკინზსა და ჰულს ე.წ. კუს გემბანი ჰქონდათ, რის გამოც მათ ჰოპკინზის კლასს მიაკუთვნებდნენ. ორივეს ორი ცალკეული სატორპედო მილი ჰქონდა, თუმცა პირველი მსოფლიო ომის დროს ცალკეული მილები ტყუპი მილებით ჩაანაცვლეს, რის შემდეგაც სატორპედოს მილების რაოდენობა ოთხამდე გაიზარდა [7][10] .
  • ლოურენსსა და მაკდონაუს კუს გემბანი და გემთსაშენ Fore River-ის ბოილერები ჰქონდათ, ასევე ორივე საესკადრო ნაღმოსანს ბოილერის ოთხივე მილი ჯგუფურად ჰქონდა განლაგებული, რის გამოც მათ ლოურენსის კლასს მიაკუთხვნებდნენ. 1906 წელს წონის ეკონომიის მიზნით ორი დამატებითი 57 მილიმეტრიანი ქვემეხი ორი 3 ინჩიანი ქვემეხით ჩაანაცვლეს [10] .
  • პოლ ჯონსი, პერი და პრებლი პირველი მსოფლიო ომის დასაწყისისთვის ორი ცალკეული სატორპედო მილის მაგივრად ერთი ტყუფი სატორპედო მილით იყვნენ აღჭურვილები, რის გამოც სავარაუდოდ სამივე საესკადრო ნაღმოსანს პოლ ჯონსის კლასს მიაკუთხვნებდნენ [7] .
  • სტიუარტიSeabury-ს ბოილერებით იყო აღჭურვილი და გამოცდების დროს 400 ტონა წყალწყვის მქონეთა შორის ყველა სწრაფი აღმოჩნდა სიჩქარით 29.7 კვანძი (55 კმ/სთ), რის გამოც მას სტიუარტის კლასს მიაკუთვნებდნენ [10][2] .

1904–1917 წლებში ბეიბრიჯის კლასის რამდენიმე გემი ფილიპინებში განალაგეს. პირველ მსოფლიო ომში აშშ-ის მონაწილეობის დროს ეს ნაღმოსნები ხმელთაშუა ზღვაში გადაიყვანეს, სხვადასხვა გემების დასაცავად. კლასის სხვა ნაღმოსნები ატლანტის ოკეანეში მსახურობდნენ, ნაწილი აშშ-ის აღმოსავლეთ სანაპიროზე მსახურობდა, ნაწილი კი პანამის არხს იცავდა. 1907 წელს საესკადრო ნაღმოსანი ჩონსი ბრიტანულ სავაჭრო გემთან შეჯახების შედეგად დაიკარგა. 1919 წელს კომპიენის ზავის შემდეგ დარჩენილი ნაღმოსნები გაყიდეს, რათა დაეშალათ ან სავაჭრო მიზნებისთვის გამოეყენებინათ.


USS Hopkins (DD-6) and USS Paul Jones (DD-10), 1918 - History

The JOHN PAUL JONES DDG-32 was one of 4 Forest Sherman DD-931 class ships to be converted into a guided missile destroyers, Originally it was planed to convert all of the Sherman class ships into DDG's, but the high cost and the then limited capability of the Tarter missile system kept this down to just 4 ships being converted by the time the program was cancelled. These ships served well into the 1980's and the John Paul Jones and Parsons DDG-33 were used as a target ships for several years before being sunk in SINKEX This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations marked into the hull, and comes with a set of arrangement plans.

Package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. Set Price NL $ --.--

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 15B USS Morton DD-948 DD-931 1/96 52 1/4" 5 5/8" $ 189.00

The USS MORTON was one of the Forest Sherman DD-931 class ships that was converted to an ASW destroyer, these ships had their #2 5" gun mount replaced by an Asroc anti submarine rocket launcher as well as having their 3" twin gun mounts removed. Due to the increasing Soviet submarine threat, the US Navy started converting several destroyers of the Fletcher, Sumner and Gearing classes into specialized ASW ships and redesignated them into DDE's, as these ships got older the Navy started looking more at its larger destroyers that had limited ASW capability and made up plans to convert all of the ships of the Sherman class that had not been slated for DDG upgrades This hull has the shaft and strut locations marked out in the hull and comes with general arrangement plans.

DD-948 SET This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. NL $ --.--

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 16 USS Spruance DD-963 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

The 31 ships of the Spruance class are the largest destroyers built by any navy to date, and the first class of US Navy ships to employ Gas Turbine propulsion, which gives them a top speed, according to the Navy, over "over 30 knots". Several ships of this class have been modified with a Mk 41 missile launching system forward in place of the ASROC launcher and magazine. They have also been modified with radar and mast improvements, notably the USS Radford. Several have also been decommissioned at this time. Our hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits and strut locations molded in as well as rudder locations. It also comes with a set of plans that shows some of the various configurations that these ships have gone through.

Special Note : When you order this hull, we will send out our DD-963/CG-47 hull, which features a raised bulwark forward. The modeler will need to remove this bulwark to make a DD-963. This is fairly easily accomplished in a variety of ways, including cutting with a dremel tool and filing to the deck height.

DD-963 Set: This package includes the hull, plans, fittings and weapons sets that we offer. Price $ 760.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included.

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. Many views, including overhead shots are outstanding onboard details.

Electronic Greyhounds: The Spruance-Class Destroyers by Michael C. Potter - a very good reference for Spruance and Ticonderoga class ships of the US Navy.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D16A USS Merrill DD-976 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

Several ships of the SPRUANCE class were modified to carry a pair of Armored Box Launchers (ABL) for Tomahawk missiles forward alongside the Asroc launcher. This hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits & strut locations and the rudder locations molded in, and comes with a set of arrangement plans that show some of the various configurations these ships have gone through.

NOTE: When you order a DD-963 hull, we will ship a CG-47 hull for this. The modeler needs to remove the bulwark only, to make a DD-963 model

Addition of the DD-976 as D16A, this version has the Tomahawk launchers etc.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. Many views, including overhead shots are outstanding onboard details.

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D16A USS Fife DD-963 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

The USS Fife represents the improvements and upgrades that the Spruance class destroyers had gone through over the last 20 years of their service. This includes the removal of the Asroc and NATO Sea Sparrow launchers And their replacement with Vertical Launch systems, these changes have greatly improved the capabilities of these ships and has brought them up to Guided Missile Destroyer status but with out the new hull number designation. The Spruance's were refitted with new radar and mast improvements on a regular basis during their service lives. This hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits & strut locations and the rudder locations molded in, and comes with a set of arrangement plans that show some of the various configurations these ships have gone through.

NOTE: When you order a DD-963 hull, we will ship a CG-47 hull for this. The modeler needs to remove the bulwark only, to make a DD-963 Class model.

DD-963 SET AS MODERNIZED This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included.

DD-963 Modernized Set $ 715.00

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. Many views, including overhead shots are outstanding onboard details.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 17 USS Kidd DDG-993 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

The four ships of the Kidd class were originally ordered for the Iranian Navy by the Shah of Iran, but upon the fall of his government were seized by the US before completion. The design of these ships, originally to be a class of 6, closely followed that of the Spruance class from which they were based upon. With improved sensors, and Mk 26 missile launchers these were very powerful warships indeed. All have been decommissioned and await their fates. Our hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits and strut locations molded in as well as rudder locations. It also comes with a set of plans.

Special Note : When you order this hull, we will send out our DD-963/CG-47 hull, which features a raised bulwark forward. The modeler will need to remove this bulwark to make a DDG-993. This is fairly easily accomplished in a variety of ways, including cutting with a dremel tool and filing to the deck height.

DDG-993 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price: $ 816.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 18 USS Charles F. Adams DDG-2 1/96 53 15/16" 6" $ 219.00

The CHARLES F. ADAMS guided missile destroyers were built in the 1950's as the first US Navy DD class to carry a guided missile launcher. There were 18 of these ships built in two groups, the first group through DDG 14 had a twin arm tartar missile launcher mounted at the aft end of the superstructure while the second group DDG-15 through DDG-I9 a early MK-13 arm launcher instead, which was more reliable.

This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations marked in and comes with a set of arrangement plans for the USS BERKELEY DDG-15.

DDG-13 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings.

DDG 15 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings.

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 19 USS Waddell DDG-24 1/96 55 1/96 6" $ 239.00

The USS WADDELL DDG-24 was the last ship of the improved C.F. Adams class built during the mid 1960's . All of these ships have now been decommissioned and have either been laid up for scrapping or given to foreign navies: The ships of the three groups of this class have been the mainstay in escorting the US Navy's carrier battle groups for over three decades. This hull is for the last five ships of the DDG-2 class (DDG-20, DDG-21, DDG-22, DDG-23 and DDG-24) only, which are slightly longer, a bow mounted sonar dome and a higher swept focsle deck along with several other improvements. Our DDG-24 hull has the bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits and strut locations molded in, and comes with a set of general arrangement plans.

DDG 24 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings.

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 69.00.

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 20 USS Coontz DLG 6 and DDG - 40 DLG-6 1/96 64 1/16" 6 9/16" $ 239.00

These ships were built during mid 1960's as large guided missile leaders. The primary role of these ships was to provide anti-air and anti missile defenses for the carrier task forces. The Coontz class ships were the smallest DLG ships built by the US Navy and in 1975 when the navy change its ship type designations, these ships were reclassified as Guided Destroyers ( DDG-36) class. All of these ships have been decommissioned now and some are being considered for sale to foreign navies. This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations marked in.. A set of arrangement plans for the DLG-14 as in 1964 is included with this hull.

DLG 6 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings. Price $ 392.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 72.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 21 USS Arleigh Burke DDG-51 1/96 63" 8 3/16" $ 389.00

The BURKE class Aegis Guided Missile Destroyers are the newest and only destroyer type ships built by the US Navy in the 1990's . The Burke herself was commissioned in 1991, seven years after the contracts were signed. Commissioning of the ships of this class will continue past the year 2000, with 41 ships planned. These are the first warships in the US Navy designed from the up to the Aegis radar system and the MK-41 vertical missile launching system. Our hull for the DDG-51 class features the large bow sonar dome bolsters, the wedge stern shape and the shaft exits and strut locations molded in. A set of arrangement plans is also provided.


USS John Paul Jones by Kurt Greiner

DDG 51 set: This package for the ARLEIGH BURKE class destroyers features the hull with plans and a fittings package that includes: 5'-54 cal gun mount, forward and aft MK-41 vertical missile launchers, harpoon missile launchers, 20 mm CIWS, Mk 99 target , MK-32 torpedo tubes, WSC 3 sat-comm. antennas, SLQ32 ECM antennas, LN-66 nav. Radar, SPS-67 bar radar, SPY-1 aegis arrays, SRBOC chaff roc launchers, IFF ring antenna, and radomes. Also included are all the w/t doors, hatches, scuttles, mooring bitts and chocks, side lights, life rings, equipment lockers, capstan set, encapsulated life rafts , RIB's (rigid inflatable boats) with their crane, stack tops, vent set and the rudders. This set has most of the fittings necessary to build your model, the modeler still needs to fabricate their own prop shaft set, decks and the superstructure. Mr. Ron Hunt of Battle Creek, Mi. chose the DDG-53 as his first radio controlled model ship and was able to construct a very nice prize winning model in just over 4 1/2 months from start to sea trials.

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 98.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. SeaPhoto has many of the Arleigh Burke class thoroughly covered, including onboard and overhead views - all the reference material you will ever need to build a first class model.


The Yard - Follows the building of an Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer from first metal to delivery. A fantastic book that gives a lot of insight into how a modern warship is created. The chapter launching a ship from the building ways is particularly interesting. Very readable and highly recommended.


Modern U.S. Navy Destroyers - a nice softbound picture book with lots of views of an Arleigh Burke class destroyer

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 22 USS Garcia FF-1040 1/96 51 13/16" 5 1/2" $ 219.00

The 10 GARCIA class Frigates were originally designed and built as Ocean Escorts (DE-1040) and designated as DE's during a program to build an inexpensive and easily to mass produce escorts for war emergencies. These ships were an all gun armed version of the BROOKE FFG-1 missile frigates that were being built at about the same time. All of these ships have been either transferred to foreign navies or are being broke up. This hull has the large bow mounted sonar dome and anchor bolsters molded in and come with a set of arrangement plans.

FF-1040 set: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price: $ 422.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 23 USS Knox FF-1052 1/96 54 3/4" 5 7/8" $ 239.00

The KNOX class Frigates were originally designed and built as Destroyer Escorts (DE-1052) and reclassified as Fast Frigates (FF-1052) in 1975. These ships were built to counter the ever growing Soviet submarine threat. There were 46 ships in this class built during the late 1960's and early 70's, a number which in the post war US Navy is only surpassed by the newer 51 ship FFG-7 class. These ships mainly performed anti-submarine and other general patrol or escorting duties, although on many occasions they were called upon to supply off-shore gunfire support and various other duties as the situation called for. All of the ships of this class have now been withdrawn from active service and have been laid up in reserve or are being sold to foreign navies. This hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, bow bulwarks and anchor bolsters molded in and come with a set of detailed arrangement plans.

FF 1052 SET: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price: $ 510.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 69.00

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 24 USS Brooke FFG 1 1/96 51 13/16" 5 1/2" $ 219.00

The 6 ships of the BROOKE class were built as a cheaper alternative to high cost and long building times involved with the larger and more complex DDG's and DLG's that the US Navy was in the process of building at the time. These ships were primarily designed as anti-submarine escorts for the larger cruisers and carrier battle groups, but they were also capable of anti air defense. These ships have all been transferred to foreign navies. This hull has the large bow mounted sonar dome and the anchor bolsters molded in. A set of anangement plans also comes with it.

FFG-1 SET: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price $ 393.00

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 25 USS Oliver Hazard Perry FFG 7 1/96 54 3/4" 5 5/16" $ 219.00

The OLIVER HAZARD PERRY class Guided Missile Frigates are the last of the frigate classes of warships the US Navy operates, there were 51 units of this class built, as well as 4 additional units that were built for the Australian Navy. Spain also operates ships of this class. The Perry class frigates were designed primarily for anti-air warfare escorts with limited ASW capabilities as well. When these ships were in the planning they were designated as Patrol Frigates (PF-109 class). Now with the SH-60 Lamps III ASW Helicopter system installed, these ships are much more valuable for anti-submarine patrol duties. They are powered by 2 gas turbine engines running a single shaft which propels them to over 30 knots. This hull features molded in shaft skeg and anchor well and comes with a set of arrangement plans. Use this hull to build a model of FFG-7, 9 thru 27 and 28 thru 32 if you are building an early version of these last 5 ships.

FFG-7 SET: This set includes the hull w/plans, weapon set, polymer fittings package such as doors, hatches, mooring bitts & chocks, fire hose racks, main and diesel exhaust stacks, nixie aperture, scuttles, life rafts with racks, capstan set, sonar dome, lockers, rudder & fin stabilizers and other parts as well as cast metal fittings from our catalog. Price: $ 517.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 65.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. SeaPhoto has many views of the Perry class, including onboard and overhead shots.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 26 USS McInerney FFG 8 1/96 56 5/8" 5 5/16" $ 219.00

The McINERNEY was taken in hand for conversion into the test ship for the new "RAST" (recovery assist, securing and traversing) system for the LAMPS III helicopter . These ships were referred to as long hull FFG-7's. The FFG 8 and the FFG-28 thru FFG 61 have had their sterns lengthened by 8 feet and had the fantail deck lowered by 2 feet to clear the helo landing deck of all deck gear and to accommodate the RAST system which required additional space for the helo landing control booth mounted in the deck. This hull has the shaft skeg and anchor well molded in and comes with a set of arrangement plans.

The model of the FFG-7 class ships is a good project for someone just getting started and wishes to build a modern warship.

FFG-8 SET: This set includes the hull w/plans, weapon set, polymer fittings package such as doors, hatches, mooring bitts & chocks, fire hose racks, main and diesel exhaust stacks, nixie aperture, scuttles, life rafts with racks, capstan set, sonar dome, lockers, rudder & fin stabilizers and other parts as well as cast metal fittings from our catalog. Price: $ 517.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 65.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. SeaPhoto has many views of the Perry class, including onboard and overhead shots.


Update for January 2018 at HistoryofWar.org: Jurgurtine and Cimbric Wars, Salamanca, Marshall Islands, Seventh and Eighth Wars of Religion, Lockheed & Douglas aircraft, German artillery, Wickes class destroyers

Update for January 2018 at HistoryofWar.org: Jurgurtine and Cimbric Wars, Salamanca, Marshall Islands, Seventh and Eighth Wars of Religion, Lockheed & Douglas aircraft, German artillery, Wickes class destroyers

January saw us bring to an end our series of articles on the Jugurthine War, and begin a look at the Cimbric War, the conflict that gained Marius his reputation as the saviour of Rome.

Our series on the French Wars of Religion reaches the short Seventh War of 1580 and moves onto the more significant Eighth War, the first half of the prolonged conflict that finally ended the main sequence of the wars of religion.

In Spain we bring our account of the Peninsular War up to the Battle of Salamanca, one of Wellington’s most significant victories and a battle that forced the French to abandon southern Spain permanently.

Our series of articles on the Marshall Islands campaign brings us to the invasions of Roi and Namur, the key stage in the first part of the campaign, and Engebi, the stepping stone to the Marianas.

In the air we finish our series on Douglas aircraft with four more transport aircraft and move onto Lockheed.

On the land we focus on the 15cm howitzers of the German Army of the First World War

At sea we continue with our series on Wickes class destroyers, covering six that fought during the Second World War.

The siege of Zama (109 BC) was a Roman attempt to force Jugurtha to accept battle that backfired and had to be abandoned after Jugurtha carried out a series of costly attacks on the Roman camp.

The revolt of Vaga (108 BC) saw this Numidian city massacre a Roman garrison, before almost immediately being recaptured by the Romans, at the same time opening up a feud between the Roman commanders Metellus and Marius.

The siege of Thala (108 BC) saw the Romans under Metellus capture the site of one of Jugurtha's treasuries, but without capturing the King or securing much of the treasure (Jugurthine War)

The siege of Capsa (107 BC) was Marius's first major military success in Numidia, but although it helped him conquer the south-east of the kingdom it failed to bring an end to the war any nearer (Jugurthine War).

The siege near the Muluccha River (106 BC) saw Marius besiege and capture one of Jugurtha's last fortresses, almost at the western border of Numidia.

The first battle of Cirta (winter 106-105 BC) saw a Roman army under Marius narrowly escape from an ambush led by Jugurtha and his ally Bocchus (Jugurthine War).

The second battle of Cirta (winter 106-105 BC) was the final major battle of the Jugurthine War, and saw the Romans repulse a second attack on their army in four days, convincing Jugurtha's ally Bocchus to change sides.

The Cimbric War (113-101 BC) saw the Romans suffer a series of serious defeats at the hands of the Cimbri, Teutons and other tribes, before the consul Marius won a series of victories that ended the threat to Italy.

The siege of Astorga (2 July-18 August 1812) saw the Spanish attack the isolated French garrison of Astorga, in an attempt to support Wellington's advance to Salamanca.

The combat of Lequeitio (21-11 June 1812) was the first of a series of successes for a joint British and Spanish force operating in northern Spain.

The combat of Castro Urdiales (6-8 July 1812) was the second of a series of joint Anglo-Spanish successes that weakened the French hold on the coast of northern Spain.

The combat of Portugalete (11 July 1812) was an unsuccessful Anglo-Spanish attack on a fortified village at the mouth of the Bilbao River.

The combat of Castrejon (18 July 1812) was a rearguard action that came after Marmont outmanoeuvred Wellington on the River Douro, early in the campaign that ended at Salamanca.

The combat of Castrillo (18 July 1812) was the second of two combats on the same day, and came after Marmont outmanoeuvred Wellington on the Douro and briefly threatened to cut off his rearguard.

The battle of Salamanca (22 July 1812) was one of the most important of Wellington's victories during the Peninsular War, and forced the French to abandon Madrid and temporarily withdraw towards the French border.

The occupation of Allen Island (Ennubirr), 31 January 1944, was one of two simultaneous landings that formed the second stage in the invasion of Roi and Namur in Kwajelein Atoll.

The occupation of Abraham (Ennugarret) Island, 31 January 1944, was the last of a series of preliminary operations that came before the invasions of Roi and Namur in Kwajalein Atoll.

The battle of Roi (1 February 1944) saw the US marines captured the main Japanese airbase in Kwajalein Atoll in a single day, after the Japanese defences were almost destroyed by the pre-invasion bombardment.

The battle of Namur (1-2 February 1944) saw the US Marines capture the most strongly defended island in the northern part of Kwajalein Atoll, completing the conquest of the northern part of the Atoll.

Operation Catchpole (17-22 February 1944) saw the Americans conquer Eniwetok Atoll in the north-western corner of the Marshall Islands, giving them a good base for the advance into the Marianas Islands.

The battle of Engebi (17-18 February 1944) was the first stage in the American conquest of Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands (Operation Catchpole).

French Wars of Religion

The Seventh War of Religion (1580) was the least significant of the nine wars of religion, and saw Henry of Navarre expand his influence in the south-west of France.

The siege of Cahors (28-31 May 1580) was the main military action of the Seventh War of Religion, and saw Henry of Navarre capture a city that had been promised to him as part of his wife’s dowry.

The peace of Fleix (November 1580) ended the short Seventh War of Religion, and largely repeated the terms of earlier treaties.

The Treaty of Joinville (31 December 1584) was an agreement between Philip II of Spain and the more radical French Catholics, led by Henry, duke of Guise, aimed at preventing the Protestant Henry of Navarre coming to the French throne.

The Eighth War of Religion or War of the Three Henrys (1585-89) was fought after the Protestant Henry of Navarre became heir to the throne of France, and merged into the Ninth War after Henry III died, leaving Navarre as king.

The treaty of Nemours (7 July 1585) saw Henry III of France give in to pressure from the Catholic League and agree to attempt to eliminate Protestantism in France, turning a Catholic revolt against his authority into the Eighth War of Religion.

The Douglas C-118 Liftmaster/ Douglas R6D was the military version of the DC-6, and most were based on the improved DC-6A model.

The Douglas C-124 Globemaster II was the main USAF heavy strategic cargo transport during the 1950s and 1960s, until it was replaced by the Lockheed C-5.

The Douglas C-132 was a design for a two-deck turboprop powered transport aircraft that never got beyond the mock-up stage.

The Douglas C-133 Cargomaster was the largest turboprop transport to be built for the USAF, and was designed to carry ICBM missiles around the United States.

The Lockheed Y1C-12 was a single example of a DL-1 'Vega' that was purchased for evacuation by the USAAC.

The Lockheed Y1C-17 'Speed Vega' was a single example of the DL-1B Vega purchased by the USAAC, and was lost in 1931 during an attempt to break a transcontinental speed record.

The 10cm Kanone 17 was an improved version of the earlier 10cm Kanone 14, with a longer barrel to improve range.

The schwere 10cm Kanone 18 (heavy 10cm cannon 18) was the standard equipment of German medium artillery units in the late 1930s but wasn't a terribly successful design, and was eventually relegated to the coastal defence role.

The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz M1893 was the first German heavy howitzer to be light enough to serve with the field armies. It was obsolete at the outbreak of the First World War, but still saw service.

The 15cm Versuchs-Haubitzen 99 was an experimental weapon that played a part in the development of the 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 02.

The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitze 02 was the first artillery gun with barrel recoil to enter service with the German Army, and was still in service in large numbers at the outbreak of the First World War.

The 15cm schwere Versuchs-Haubitzen L/13 was an experimental howitzer produced by Ehrhardt in response to a request from the German War Ministry.

USS Bernadou (DD-153) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War performing various escort duties in the Atlantic theatre, as well as taking part in Operation Torch, the invasion of Sicily and the Salerno landing.

USS Ellis (DD-154) was a Wickes class destroyer that mainly performed escort duties in the Atlantic theatre during the Second World War.

USS Cole (DD-155) was a Wickes class destroyer that served in the Atlantic and Mediterranean theatres during the Second World War, supporting Operation Torch and the invasions of Sicily and mainland Italy.

USS J. Fred Talbott (DD-156/ AG-81) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War on convoy escort duties in the Western Atlantic and Caribbean.

USS Dickerson (DD-157/ APD-21) was a Wickes class destroyer that served on convoy escort duties until 1943 when she was converted into a fast transport. In 1945 she was struck by two kamikazes and suffered such heavy damage that she was sunk by US gunfire two days later.

USS Leary (DD-158) was a Wickes class destroyer that served in the Atlantic and Caribbean, before being sunk by U-boats on 24 December 1943.

US Navy Ships vs Kamikazes 1944-45, Mark Stille.

Looks at the reasons for the kamikaze attacks, the techniques used by them, the aircraft involved, the ships they targeted, the American response, and the effectiveness of the attacks. Includes a useful statistical analysis of the campaign, looking at if it was an effective use of resources. A good short account of the kamikaze campaign, looking at it from both sides

Man of War - The Fighting Life of Admiral James Saumarez, Anthony Sullivan.

An interesting biography of a less familiar senior British naval officer of the Napoleonic Wars, who served off the French coast and as a floating diplomatic in the Baltic, where he helped prevent an escalation of the war, as well as fighting at many of the major naval battles of the period and commanding at the two battles of Algerciras

Stalin's Secret Police, Rupert Butler.

Covers the full history of Soviet political policing, from the Revolution and Civil War, through Stalin's rule and the Second World War and onto the post-war and Cold War worlds. More of a history of Soviet repression than of the activities of the Secret Police, covering what they did rather than how they were organised or how they worked. A useful but rather grim look at one of history's darker corners

US Infantryman vs German Infantryman, European Theatre of Operations 1944, Steven J. Zaloga.

Looks at three clashes between American and German infantry, from Normandy to the Ardennes, looking at how their units were equipped, organised and supported, and how that impacted on the fighting. I found the background information most interesting, looking at how the different sides were equipped and organised, and struggled to get into the perfectly well written battle accounts

Nile River Gunboats 1882-1918, Angus Konstam.

Looks at the increasingly powerful gunboats that supported Anglo-Egyptians operations on the Nile, from Gordon's disastrous invention in the Sudan and the attempts to save him to the eventual reconquest under Kitchener. Looks at the different classes of gunboat, the individual boats involved, how they were armed, armoured, powered and crewed and what life was like onboard, and finishes with a look at their two main campaigns

Tippecanoe 1811 - The Prophet's battle, John F Winkler.

Follows the campaign from the pressures on Indian land that helped trigger the fighting, through the rise of the Prophet, and the split that he caused in Indian society, and on to the actual fighting itself, looking at Harrison's careful efforts to reach Prophetstown with his army intact and the battle itself, a night attack on the American camp that failed to achieve its objectives, and ended the rule of the Prophet, but opened the way to the brief dominance of Tecumseh

Generals of the Bulge - Leadership in the U.S. Army's Greatest Battle, Jerry D. Morelock.

A valuable study of the performance of a series of US generals, from Eisenhower, through the various levels of command down to Divisional, during the battle of the Bulge, the biggest single American land battle of the Second World War. Benefits greatly from the author's willingness to choose officers whose performance was less than impressive as well as those who shone during the battle. Includes some very useful debates on the bigger controversies of the battle (Read Full Review)

Conquerors of the Roman Empire - The Vandals, Simon MacDowall.

Tells the impressive story of the Vandals, who in not much more than a single generation crossed the Rhine into Gaul, established a kingdom in Spain and then did the same in North Africa, sacked Rome and briefly set themselves up as one of the major naval powers of the period. Also covers the earlier, rather obscure, history of the Vandals, and their eventual defeat and destruction by the Eastern Romans

The Japanese Navy in World War II, ed. David C. Evans.

A very valuable examination of the successes and failures of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Second World War, written by some of the officers who were closest to the action. Provides a very different view of some very familiar battles, and some interesting insights into the flaws in the Japanese war effort, including a lack of a realistic war plan and the tendency to adopt over-complex plans

River Plate 1939 - The sinking of the Graf Spee, Angus Konstam.

Looks at one of the earliest major British naval successes of the Second World War, the defeat and forced destruction of the pocket battleship Graf Spee by a much weaker force of British cruisers. Covers everything from the design of the warships, her commerce raiding career, and the allied hunt to the final destruction of Graf Spee by her own crew

Death before Glory! The British Soldier in the West Indies in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 1793-1815, Martin R. Howard.

Looks at the costly campaigns in the West Indies, where disease was often more dangerous for either side than their opponents. Well organised, split into three - the armies, the campaigns and the soldier's experiences, and gives a good picture of a series of difficult campaigns, where isolated, disease afflicted, British forces slowly came to dominate the area

Armoured Horsemen: With the Bays and Eight Army in North Africa and Italy, Peter Willett.

Looks at the experiences of a British armoured unit during the key battles in North Africa and the last year of the Italian campaign, with a focus on the desert war. Gives us an interesting view into a generally well led but Public School dominated regiment, as well as the author's own experiences of the nature of armoured warfare. Also covers his post-war career in racing, to complete the picture


  • 22. března – Kuba pronajala na neomezeně dlouhou dobu USA přístavy Guantánamo a Bahía Honda, kde si Američané zřídili námořní základny.
  • 11. července – Konal se první závod motorových člunů na světě. Místem konání byla 13,6 km dlouhá trať vedoucí z Corku do Glamire podél pobřeží Irska.
  • 15. prosince – Norsko zakázalo na deset let lov velryb v pobřežních vodách.
  • 1903 – Dupleix – pancéřový křižník třídy Dupleix
  • 1903 – Marseillaise a Sully – pancéřové křižníky třídy Gloire
  • únor – HMS Russell – bitevní loď třídy Duncan
  • 21. února – SMS Basilisk – minonoska (samostatná jednotka)
  • 14. dubna – US 48 stars USS Lawrence (DD-8) – torpédoborec třídy Lawrence
  • květen – HMS Exmouth – bitevní loď třídy Duncan
  • 20. května – US 48 stars USS Hull (DD-7) – torpédoborec třídy Hopkins
  • 25. května – German Empire SMS Mecklenburg – predreadnought třídy Wittelsbach
  • 15. června – SMS Árpád – predreadnought třídy Habsburg
  • 1. září – Gueydon – pancéřový křižník třídy Gueydon
  • 3. září Naval Ensign of Russia Cesarevič – predreadnought (samostatná jednotka)
  • 5. září – US 48 stars USS MacDonough (DD-9) – torpédoborec třídy Lawrence
  • 23. září – US 48 stars USS Hopkins (DD-6) – torpédoborec třídy Hopkins
  • říjen – Suffren – predreadnought
  • říjen – HMS Duncan a HMS Montagu – bitevní loď třídy Duncan
  • listopad – HMS Albemarle – bitevní loď třídy Duncan
  • 2. listopadu – US 48 stars USS Cleveland (C-19) – chráněný křižník třídy Denver
  • 1. prosince – Missouri – predreadnought třídy Maine
  • 12. prosince – German Empire SMS Friedrich Carl – pancéřový křižník třídy Prinz Adalbert
  • 14. prosince – US 48 stars USS Paul Jones (DD-10) – torpédoborec třídy Bainbridge
  • 17. prosince – US 48 stars USS Stewart (DD-13) – torpédoborec třídy Bainbridge

Torpedo Boat Destroyers

The USS Farragut was the first American Torpedo Boat Destroyer [T.B.D.], launched on 16 July 1898 and commissioned 05 June 1899. Soon thereafter Farragut was reclassfied from T.B.D. to Torpedo Boat as [TB-15], along with TB-19 Stringham, TB-20 Goldsborough, TB-21 Bailey, all of which displaced between 235 and 340 tons [that is, less than other Destroyers, but more than other Torpedo Boats]. Along with 16 other remaining Torpedo Boats [of an original total of 35], Farragut was renamed a Coast Torpedo Boat [No. 5] in August 1918, so that the name would be available for a new destroyer.

The U.S. Navy's destroyer history began again in 1902, with the commissioning of 11 torpedo boat destroyers. The first of these ships to be commissioned was USS Decatur (Torpedo-Boat Destroyer No. 5), on May 19, but the honor of being the first American destroyer is usually given to USS Bainbridge (Torpedo-Boat Destroyer No. 1), which the Navy commissioned on Nov. 24. By the end of 1911 there were 36 destroyers in the fleet, and by World War I there would be many more.

The destroyer had its origin in the late-19th century with the development of the first self-propelled torpedo. Navies quickly developed small fast torpedo boats designed to attack and sink larger battleships and cruisers. As a counter against torpedo boats, navies built a slightly larger ship, armed with torpedoes and heavier guns. These 900-ton ships were known as torpedo boat destroyers. World War I showed these ships suited to protecting larger ships against surface, submarine, and air attack. Also, they proved more effective offensively than torpedo boats, and assumed the attack role. By the end of World War I, they were simply known as "destroyers."

Two major events shaped the beginnings of the destroyer. The first was the advent of the torpedo boat. These swift, small craft were able to dash in close to larger ships, loose their torpedoes, and dash away. They proved their abilities with devastating effectiveness in the Chilean Civil War of 1894 and in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894.

In naval warfare the powers of destruction and protection held each other a close race. Whenever the penetration of the projectile has been increased, the armor plate has been thickened or hardened or both. The torpedo is the only weapon that stood unchallenged by the art of defence, and for this reason it was hard to overestimate its value.

Nothing so deadly had ever been introduced into warfare. It offered but two alternatives -- avoidance or destruction. In it powers were concentrated that did not admit of defence. The torpedo net, a steel netting arranged to be hung around a ship from spars, was probably more effective than any other defence that had been tried but these nets were very difficult to handle, impede the speed of the ship, and were rendered vulnerable by a device attached to the torpedo, and known as a net cutter.

As with artillery directed against unprotected men, which must be silenced before it becomes ineffective, so it was with the torpedo boat, which must be put out of action before it is inoperative. There was no protection against a torpedo if it strikes its mark and expleKes. The most powerful battleship ever built may become its victim as readily as the lightest tug. When the torpedo boats of France became a menace to England, she quickly saw that she could not rely on nets, or any of the devices for defence that had been proposed.

There was but one means of protection and that was to hunt down and destroy the torpedo boats of the enemy. This meant that she at once directed all her energies to securing a vessel that could be relied upon to run down torpedo boats. She built a number of vessels designed to do this and these have become known as torpedo boat catchers. They all, however, proved utter failures, for as in nature so in naval architecture there are some inexorable laws. One of these is that within certain limits speed is not appreciably affected by size, and to secure greater speed the size of the vessel must either rise above or fall below these limits. To rise above makes the vessel so large as to be suitable only for a heavy battery, and to fall below brings it within the dimensions of a large sized torpedo boat.

Though this law was well known as a matter of theory, it took England six years to learn that she could not disregard it in practice, and during that time she stayed within the prohibited limits, producing the most ignominious failures, and the more marked her failures the more persistent were her efforts to attain speed without constructing a vessel either large enough or small enough to accomplish that purpose. None of the catchers ever proved capable of catching a torpedo boat. The fastest one only made twenty knots under the most favorable circumstances, two knots less than the speed made by one of the first twelve torpedo boats England built. In addition to lacking speed, the catchers were too large to be handled as quickly or easily as the torpedo boats. They were structurally weak and their seaworthiness was often questioned.

It looked as though England would never solve the problem of protection against torpedo boats. All the valuable time and the immense amount of money she had expended on the catchers had been wasted. Her failures had attracted the attention of the world and it was apparent she would only render herself ridiculous by pursuing further the theory of construction on which these boats had been built. So in 1893, much chagrined and discouraged by her failures, she commenced the construction of a vessel upon an entirely different plan. This time she fell below the prescribed limits which had stood in the way of former success, and produced a vessel which was a large-sized torpedo boat capable of & arrying a light battery. This craft was a marked success and exceeded in both speed and seaworthiness the most sanguine expectations.

It was the first of the class of vessels now known as torpedo boat destroyers, which entirely superseded the catchers and were adopted by the foremost maritime nations. Vessels of this character could be built of great strength and with a seaworthiness that admitted of their going anywhere, in any weather, and by the late 1890s they had attained a speed of 30 knots and even more.

By the mid-1890s, many of the world's navies recognized the need for a counter weapon, and so the torpedo boat destroyer, later just "destroyer," was born. The "torpedo boat" part of the name got dropped, but the purpose of the type has not changed. Destroyers are picket ships. They protect larger ships from threats. The job of the destroyer has expanded from torpedo boats, to submarines (the torpedo boat under water) to anti aircraft pickets.


Watch the video: 1959, USS Forrest Sherman, Operation Inland Seas, Detroit Michigan (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Arakinos

    It is similar to it.

  2. Zulkit

    It was specially registered at a forum to tell to you thanks for the information, can, I too can help you something?



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