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Wyoming ScSlp - History

Wyoming ScSlp - History



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Wyoming

(ScSlp: dp. 1,457; Ibp. 198'6"; b. 33'2", dr. 14'10" (max.); s. 11.0 k.; cpl. 198; a. 2 11" D.sb., 1 60-pdr. P.r., 3 32-pdrs.; cl. Wyoming)

The first Wyoming—a wooden-hulled screw sloop-of war—was laid down at.the Philadelphia Navy Yard in July 1858; launched on 19 January 1859, sponsored by Miss Mary Florida Grice, and commissioned in October 1859, Comdr. John K. Mitchell in command.

Wyoming soon sailed via Cape Horn for the Pacific and arrived off the coast of Nicaragua in April 1860 There, she relieved Levant and operated along the Pacific coast of the United States and Central America into the spring of 1861. During that time, she participated in the search for the sloop Levant when that warship disappeared in the late autumn of 1860.

The outbreak of the Civil War found Wyoming at San Francisco, Calif., preparing for another cruise. She was instructed to remain in the vicinity of the Golden Gate to protect mail steamers operating off the California coast, but Comdr. Mitchell—a naval officer of Southern origin and persuasion—defied his orders and took his ship to Panama instead.

Mitchell's flagrant disobedience cost him his command and also resulted in his dismissal from the service. As a result, Wyoming came under the temporary command of her executive officer, Lt. Francis K. Murray, on 4 July 1861. While returning to Monterey, Calif., Wyoming was plagued by mishaps. First, her bottom struck a coral head off La Paz, Mexico, and was pulled free only after three days aground during which she lost her false keel. She then ran short of coal and arrive~d at Monterey with empty bunkers.

Wyoming subsequently shifted to San Francisco where, on 9 August, she received a new commanding officer, Comdr. David Stockton McDougall The warship
then proceeded to the coast of Lower California to protect American whaling interests against possible incursions by Confederate cruisers. After that service, she operated in South American waters into 1862.

Following repairs at Mare Island, Wyoming received orders—dated 16 June 1862—to proceed immediately to the Far East in search of "armed piratical cruiser~ fitted out by the rebels" and soon headed west, bound for the Orient.

Word of the Union ship's subsequent appearance in Far Eastern waters spread fast and far. In the Strait of Sunda, off Java, Capt. Raphael Semmes, the commanding officer of Confederate cruiser Alabama, learned from an English brig of Wyoming's arrival in the East Indies; and a Dutch trader later confirmed this report. On 26 October, Semmes wrote confidently in his journal that "Wyoming is a good match for this ship," and "I have resolved to give her battle. She reported to be cruising under sail—probably with banked fires—and anchors, no doubt, under Krakatoa every night, and I hope to surprise her, the moon being near its full."

Although in their search for each other, Wyoming and Alabama unknowingly came close to each other, I they never met, and it would be up to another Union warship, the sloop Kearsarge, to destroy the elusive Confederate raider. Yet, despite being unsuccessful in tracking down Confederate cruisers, Wyoming did render important service to uphold the honor of the American flag in the Far East the following year, 1863.

Ordered to Philadelphia that spring—after what had been a largely fruitless cruise—Wyoming was in the midst of preparations to leave the East Indies Station when an event occurred that changed her plans.

In May 1863, Wyoming had "showed the flag" to Yokohama, standing by to protect American lives and property during an outbreak of anti-foreign agitation in Japan. Nevertheless, that agitation continued into the early summer months, as the Japanese began to resent all foreigners in their country. Urged by his advisors, the Japanese Mikado had set 25 June 1863 as the date for the expulsion of all aliens.

Although he was largely powerless to force compliance with his directive, some officials took it literally and tried to impement it. One attempt of this kind was made by the powerful local ruler of the clan of Choshiu, the Prince of Nagato.

That clan, the most warlike in Japan and the one which could be said to have been the forerunner of the modern Japanese Army, threw down the gauntlet to western nations on 26 June. At one o'clock that morning, two armed vessels—illegally flying the flag of the Japanese central government, or shogunate, attacked the American merchantman Pembroke, bound for Nagasaki and Shanghai, as she lay anchored in the Strait of Shimonoseki. Fortunately, Pembroke suffered no casualties; got underway; and moved out of danger, escaping via Bungo Strait and continuing her voyage for Shanghai, post-haste, without making her scheduled stop at Nagasaki.

Word of the incident did not reach Yokohama from Japanese sources until 10 July That evening, mail from Shanghai brought "authentic information" confirming the Japanese report. The United States Minister in Japan, Robert H. Pruyn, sent for the Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Japanese government and informed him—in the presence of Comdr. McDougal— of the gravity of the situation, stressing that an insult to the American flag was a serious matter. After being told by Pruyn that the United States government would demand satisfaction and expect a statement from the Japanese concerning the offense, the Japanese diplomat begged that the Americans do nothing until his government at Yedo (later named Tokyo) would take action.

After the Japanese left, McDougal told Pruyn that he had decided to proceed instantly to the Shimonoseki Strait to seize and, if necessary, to destroy, the offending vessels. The two men agreed that failure to punish the outrage properly would encourage further anti foreign incidents.

Accordingly, Wyoming prepared for sea. At 4:45 a.m. On 13 July, Comdr. McDougal called all hands, and the sloop got underway 15 minutes later, bound for the strait. After a two-day voyage, Wyoming arrived off the island of Hime Shima on the evening of 15 July and anchored off the south side of that island.

At five o'clock the following morning, Wyoming weighed anchor and steamed toward the Strait of Shimonoseki. She went to general quarters at nine loaded her pivot guns with shell, and cleared for action. The warship entered the strait at 10:45 and beat to quarters. Soon, three signal guns boomed from the landward, alerting the batteries and ships of the daimyo Choshiu of Wyoming's arrival.

At about 11:15, after being fired upon from the shore batteries, Wyoming hoisted her colors and replied with her 11-inch pivot guns. Momentarily ignoring the batteries, McDougal ordered Wyoming to continue steaming toward a bark, a steamer, and a brig at anchor off the town of Shimonoseki. Meanwhile, four shore batteries took the warship under fire. Wyoming answered the Japanese cannon "as fast as the guns could be brought to bear" while shells from the shore guns passed through her rigging.

Wyoming then passed between the brig and the bark on the starboard hand and the steamer on the port, steaming within a pistol shot's range. One shot from either the bark or brig struck near Wyoming's forward broadside gun, killing two men and wounding four. Elsewhere on the ship, a marine was struck dead by a piece of shrapnel.

Wyoming, in hostile territory then grounded in uncharted waters shortly after see had made one run past the forts. The Japanese steamer, in the meantime, had slipped her cable and headed directly for Wyoming —possibly to attempt a boarding. The American man of-war, however, managed to work free of the mud and then unleashed her 11-inch Dahlgrens on the enemy ship, hulling and damaging her severely. Two welldirected shots exploded her boilers and, as she began to sink, her crew abandoned the ship.

Wyoming then passed the bark and the brig, firing into them steadily and methodically. Some shells were "overs" and landed in the town ashore. As Comdr. McDougal wrote in his report to Gideon Welles on 23 July, "the punishment inflicted (upon the daimyo) and in store for him will, I trust, teach him a lesson that will not soon be forgotten."

After having been under fire for a little over an hour, Wyoming returned to Yokohama. She had been hulled 11 times, with considerable damage to her smokestack and rigging. Her casualties had been comparatively light: four men killed and seven wounded—one of whom later died. Significantly, Wyoming had been the first foreign warship to take the offensive to uphold treaty rights in Japan.

However, the ship's projected return to Philadelphia did not materialize due to the supposed continued presence of Alabama in Far Eastern waters. She repaired her damages, resumed the search and sailed to the Dutch East Indies. She subsequently voyaged to Christmas Island, examining it to determine whether or not it was used as a supply base for "the use of rebel cruisers." Finding the island uninhabited and the report of its use as a supply base unfounded, Wyoming returned to Anjer, Java, where McDougal found out to his surprise, that Alabama had passed the Sunda Strait on 10 November—only a day after Wyoming had sailed for Christmas Island. At noon that day Alabama and Wyoming had been only 25 miles apart.

Writing from Batavia on 22 November, McDougal later reported that Wyoming had scoured the waters of the East Indies, visiting "every place in this neighborhood where she (Alabama) would likely lay in case she intended to remain in this region." Although acknowledging that the condition of Wyoming's boilers prevented a heavy pressure of steam from being carried, McDougal promised to make every effort in his power to find and capture Alabama.

Wyoming then cruised to Singapore in search of the Confederate raider, but found nothing, and continued on to the Dutch settlement of Rhio, near Sunda Strait. She subsequently sailed north, putting into Cavite, Luzon, in the Philippine Islands, on Christmas Eve. There, through the courtesy of the Spanish Navy Wyoming underwent much-needed boiler repairs and coaled. She then sailed for Hong Kong and Whampoa, China.

Wyoming continued her search for the elusive Alabama into February of 1864. She sailed to Foochow, China, to protect American interests and proceeded thence, via Hong Kong, to the East Indies. When the sloop-of-war reached Batavia, however, Comdr. McDougal found that there was now no alternative but to return to the United States for repairs, because the ship's boilers were in such poor condition. Accordingly, Wyoming began her long-delayed return voyage to the United States, via Anjer, the Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, and St. Thomas. After a voyage of almost three months, she arrived at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 13 July 1864; having completed a circumnavigation of the globe begun when she left that port following her commissioning.

The presence of CSS Florida off the east coast, however, meant another change in plans for the weary Wyoming. Commodore C. K. Stribling commandant of the Philadelphia Navy Yard, ordered the newly arrived screw sloop to sea to search for Florida. "It is with regret that I send you on this service," Stribling wrote McDougal, "After so long a cruise, and one in which you have rendered such important service, yourself, officers and crew, were entitled to a resite from active service; but the great importance of capturing the rebel privateer will, I hope, be an incentive to all under your command cheerfully to perform this service."

Although Wyoming required extensive repairs, she nevertheless sailed. As events proved, however, Wyoming's machinery—so long from repairs in an American navy yard—proved unequal to the strain. For five days, the ship attempted to carry out the orders given her—contending with fresh northeast winds and a head sea—but returned to Philadelphia on 19 July, due to a leaky boiler. She was decommissioned on 23 July for a complete overhaul.

Recommissioned on 11 April 1865, Comdr. John P. Bankhead in command, Wyoming proceeded to the East Indies Station, via Cape Horn, and reached Singapore on 25 September 1865, in time to participate in the search for CSS Shenandoah, a Confederate raider which remained at sea for one month after the end of the Civil War. Following service on the East Indies Station into 1866, the screw sloop-of-war was made part of the Asiatic Squadron with that unit's establishment in 1867.

Sailing from Yokohama on 28 April 1867, Wyoming headed for the island of Formosa. On 13 June, she participated in a punitive expedition against Formosan natives who had murdered the crew of the American merchant bark Rover that had been wrecked off the coast of Formosa a short time before. During that action, she sent a landing party ashore in company with one from the sloop Hartford.

Subsequently returning to the United States having performed her last service in the Far East, Wyoming was decommissioned on 10 February 1868 and placed "in ordinary" at Boston, Mass. After extensive repairs at Portsmouth, N.H., Navy Yard, during 1870 and into 1871, Wyoming was recommissioned on 14 November 1871, Comdr. John L. Davis in command.

From 1872 to 1874, Wyoming operated on the North Atlantic Station. Her ports of call included Havana, Cuba; Key West, Fla., Aspinwall, Panama, Santiago, Cuba, Kingston, Jamaica, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Key West, Fla., Hampton Roads, VA., and New Bedford Mass. After that tour of duty, cruising and "showing the flag" in the West Indies and Gulf of Mexico, Wyoming was decommissioned at the Washington Navy Yard on 30 April 1874 and remained laid up there for the next two years.

The veteran screw sloop-of-war became the receiving ship at Washington in 1877 and apparently served in that capacity into early the following year. Recommissioned on 20 November 1877, Wyoming left Washington, loaded articles for the Paris Exposition, and departed the east coast of the United States on 6 April 1878, bound for France. After discharging the cargo at Le Havre, France, the ship visited Rouen, France, and Southampton, England, before she departed the latter port on 25 June and headed for the United States. She reached Norfolk on 22 August, shifted to Washington in mid-September, and to New York in early November before she sailed on 26 November for the European Station.

Wyoming reached Villefranche, France, near the port of Nice, on Christmas Eve 1878 and remained there into 1879 before getting underway for Smyrna on 24 January 1879. Wyoming remained in the Mediterranean into November of 1880, touching at many of the more famous ports in that historic body of water—and in the Black Sea—before heading home late in 1880.

Wyoming returned to the United States in early 1881, arriving at Hampton Roads on 21 May. She sailed for Beaufort, S.C., on 15 June and thence proceeded to Annapolis, Md. Decommissioned on 30 October 1882 and turned over to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy, Wyoming spent the next decade employed as a practice ship for midshipmen. Later taken to Norfolk, VA., she was sold at the port on 9 May 1892 to E. J. Butler, of Arlington, Mass.


Wyoming ScSlp - History

Expand your research by checking out the Wyoming Online Historical Directories here.

Unsure of which county your city, town or village is a part? Check out RootsWeb's Town/County Locator here.

County & City
Name of Newspaper
Years Covered
Cost
Resource
Albany - Centennial
Centennial Post
1910 - 1914
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Boomerang
1889 - 1895
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Daily Boomerang
1890
$GenealogyBank
Albany - Laramie
Daily Boomerang
1884 - 1901
1921 - 1922
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Daily Independent
1871 - 1875
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Boomerang
1901 - 1910
1912 - 1921
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Daily Boomerang
1910 - 1914
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Daily Sentinel
1870 - 1878
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Daily Sun
1875 - 1876
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Republican
1892
1894 - 1922
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Republican (semi-weekly edition)
1910 - 1912
1914 - 1915
1921
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Republican (weekly edition)
1911
1915
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Sentinel
1879 - 1881
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Weekly Sentinel
1875 - 1878
1881 - 1895
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Laramie Weekly Sun
1875
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Semi-Weekly Boomerang
1894 - 1897
1900 - 1917
1920
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Weekly Boomerang
1883 - 1889
1895 - 1897
1900 - 1904
1908 - 1915
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Laramie
Wyoming Student
1912 - 1920
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Albany - Rock River
Rock River Review
1920
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Big Horn - Basin
Basic Republican
1905 - 1907
1911 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Big Horn - Basin
Big Horn County Rustler
1911 - 1918
1920 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Big Horn - Cowley
Cowley Progress1913 - 1916
1918 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Big Horn - Cowley
Cowley Weekly Progress
1911 - 1913
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Big Horn - Deaver
Deaver Sentinel
1918 - 1921
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Big Horn - Lovell
Lovell Chronicle1918 - 1920
FreeWyoming Newspaper Project
Campbell - Gillette
Campbell County Record
1918 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Campbell - Gillette
Gillette News1892
1904 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Campbell - Gillette
Republican1921 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Campbell - Wright
Homesteader1919 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Encampment
Encampment Echo
1919 - 1921Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Encampment
Encampment Record
1915 - 1917
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Encampment
Grand Encampment Herald
1898 - 1912
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Rawlins
Carbon County Journal1879 - 1895
1898 - 1901
1904 - 1917
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Rawlins
Rawlins Daily Journal
1891
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Rawlins
Rawlins Journal1905
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Rawlins
Rawlins Republican
1890 - 1891
1893 - 1898
1901 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Rawlins
Rawlins Semi-Weekly Republican
1898 - 1901
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Rawlins
Wyoming Reporter
1924
1926
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Riverside
Riverside Record
1904
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Carbon - Saratoga
Saratoga Sun1891 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Douglas
Bill Barlow's Budget1886 - 1914
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Douglas
Central Wyoming News
1898
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Douglas
Douglas Advertiser1887
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Douglas
Douglas Budget1914 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Douglas
Douglas Enterprise
1914 - 1922Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Douglas
Graphic1892Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Douglas
Rowdy West
1887Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Glenrock
Glenrock Graphic
1890
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Lost Spring
Lost Spring Times
1918 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Converse - Shawnee
Shawnee Record
1918
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Colony
Colony Coyote
1911 - 1914
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Hulett
Inter Mountain Circle
1907 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Hulett
Wyoming Blade
1914 - 1917
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Lightning Flat
Lightning Flat Flash
1922 - 1923
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Moorcroft
Moorcroft Democrat
1914 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Moorcroft
Moorcroft Times
1910 - 1913
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Crook County Monitor
1895 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Sundance Gazette
1884 - 1899
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Sundance Reform
1892 - 1893
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Times
1913 - 1916
1918 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Wyoming Blade
1912 - 1913
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Wyoming Farmer
1888 - 1889
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Wyoming Republican
1889
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Crook - Sundance
Wyoming Weekly Republican
1889 - 1892
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Birdseye
Copper Mountain Miner
1907 - 1908
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Boysen
Copper Mountain Miner
1907Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Hudson
Miner
1908 - 1918
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Lander
Clipper1896 - 1899
1902 - 1904
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Lander
Fremont Clipper
1887 - 1888
1890 - 1896
1911 - 1914
1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Lander
Lander Eagle
1911
1914 - 1915
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Lander
Lander Evening Post
1921 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Lander
Wind River Mountaineer
1899
1904 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Lander
Wyoming State Journal
1914 - 1919
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Lander
Wyoming State Journal & Lander Clipper
1907 - 1911
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Riverton
Riverton Chronicle
1916 - 1919
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Riverton
Riverton News
1909 - 1911
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Riverton
Riverton Republican
1907 - 1913
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Riverton
Riverton Review
1913 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Shoshoni
Shoshoni Capital
1906
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - Shoshoni
Shoshoni Enterprise
1927 - 1930
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Fremont - South Pass City
South Pass News
1870 - 1871
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Goshen - Torrington
Goshen County Journal
1913 - 1916
1918
1921 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Goshen - Torrington
Torrington Telegram
1907 - 1915
1918 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Hot Springs - Thermopolis
Big Horn River Pilot
1895 - 1899
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Hot Springs - Thermopolis
Thermopolis Independent
1907
1914 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Hot Springs - Thermopolis
Thermopolis Record
1905 - 1922
1925
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Buffalo
Big Horn Sentinel
1885 - 1889
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Buffalo
Buffalo Bulletin
1890 - 1901
1905 - 1923
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Buffalo
Buffalo News
1925 - 1926
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Buffalo
Buffalo Voice
1897 - 1919
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Buffalo
Johnson County Republican
1886
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Buffalo
People's Voice
1892
1894 - 1897
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Kaycee
Kaycee Homesteader
1925
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Kaycee
Kaycee Independent
1916 - 1919
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Johnson - Kaycee
Kaycee Optimist
1925 - 1926
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Burns
Burns Herald
1918 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheyenne Daily Leader
1870 - 1884
1887 - 1895
1900 - 1905
1907 - 1909
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheyenne Daily News
1874 - 1876
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheyenne Daily Sun
1876 - 1895
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader
1895
1897
1899 - 1900
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheynne Leader
1867 - 1870
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheyenne State Leader
1909 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheyenne Weekly Leader
1882 - 1883
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Cheyenne Weekly Sun
1889 - 1891
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Democratic Leader
1884 - 1887
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Tribune Stockman Farmer
1911 - 1912
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Commonwealth
1890 - 1891
$
GenealogyBank
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Commonwealth
1890 - 1891
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Democrat
1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Labor Journal
1917 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Semi-Weekly Tribune
1904 - 1905
1909 - 1911
1913 - 1916
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming State Ledger
1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming State Tribune
1918 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming State Tribune-Cheyenne State Ledger
1917 - 1921
$
GenealogyBank
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Stockman Farmer
1914 - 1916
1919 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Tribune
1869 - 1871
1896
1900
1903 - 1918
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Cheyenne
Wyoming Weekly Leader
1869
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Laramie - Pine Bluffs
Pine Bluff Post
1908 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Lincoln - Afton
Star Valley Independent
1911 - 1914
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Lincoln - Cokeville
Cokeville Register
1914 - 1919
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Lincoln - Kemmerer
Kemmerer Camera
1901 - 1903
1905 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Lincoln - Kemmerer Kemmerer Republican
1914 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Casper Daily Press
1914 - 1916
1918
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Casper Daily Tribune
1917 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Casper Herald
1919 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Casper Press
1910 - 1914
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Casper Record
1911 - 1918
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Casper Weekly Mail
1899 - 1890
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Casper Weekly Press
1914 - 1916
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Natrona County Tribune
1897 - 1914
1917 - 1918
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Natrona Tribune
1891 - 1897
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Wyoming Derrick
1890 - 1892
1897 - 1906
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Natrona - Casper
Wyoming Oil World
1918 - 1921
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Jireh
Jireh Record
1913
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Jireh
Jireh Tribune
1914 - 1915
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Lusk
Converse County Herald*
1896 - 1907
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Lusk
Lusk Free Lance
1933 - 1934
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Lusk
Lusk Herald
1886 - 1888
1891 - 1897
1907 - 1920
1936
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Lusk
Lusk Standard
1919 - 1922
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Manville
Manville News
1918 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Manville
Niobrara County News
1914 - 1918
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Van Tassell
Van Tassell Booster
1919 - 1920
Free
Wyoming Newspaper Project
Niobrara - Van Tassell
Van Tassell Pioneer
1914 - 1917
Free
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Wyoming ScSlp - History

From Wyoming Tales and Trails

This Page: William F. Cody, Duel with Yellow Hair.

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Home Table of Contents About This Site


Buffalo Bill hunting Bison, Illustrated News of London, 1887

Willian F. Cody (1846-1917) received the appellation "Buffalo Bill" as a result of serving as a buffalo hunter for the Kansas-Pacific Railroad. Buffalo hunters were employed to provide meat to the railroad workers. During the seventeen months he was with the railroad, he killed 4,280 bison.

Born in Iowa, he moved with his family moved at an early age to Kansas. He father was absent from home for long periods of time, partially due to the unpopularity of his political leanings. His father was an abolitionist. Thus, like many boys of the age, Cody became self-supporting at age ten, working for Russell, Majors and Waddell, at first on cattle drives supplying beef to Albert Sidney Johnston who was then fighting the Mormon War. Later Cody worked as a freighter. Indeed, on one of the trips, when Cody was only 11, he killed his first Indian.

Thus, Cody was an experienced rider at age 15 when he answered an advertisement seeking riders for the newly created Pony Express. Cody was assigned to Slade's Division. The Division the longest leg on the route, extending from Red Buttes Station to Rocky Ridge Station. When Cody's relief rider was killed, Cody covered a distance of 322 miles in 21 hours, 40 minutes using 21 horses.

When the Pony Express was replaced by the telegraph, Cody became a civilian scout for the army and later, as above noted, a buffalo hunter. As a scout, in 1872, he acted as a guide with John B. "Texas Jack" Omohundro (see Rawlins II ) for the Grand Duke Alexis. In 1872, for his actions as a scout at the Battle of Summit Springs on the Platte River, Nebraska [the battle was actually fought in Weld County, Colorado], Cody was awarded the Medal of Honor. In the battle, July 11, 1869, Chief Tall Bull was killed and a white woman who had been captured by the Indians was rescued. Some question exists as to who killed Tall Bull. Officially, Major Frank North is given credit. Others, however, contend that Cody is to be credited.

L. to R., Wild Bill Hickok, Texas Jack Omohundro, Buffalo Bill Cody

Cody's exploits came to the attention of Edward Z. C. "Ned Buntline" Judson (1821-1886), author of dime novels. Buntline invited Cody to appear with Omohundro and James B. "Wild Bill" Hickok in a touring stage "wild west show," Scouts of the Prairie. Notwithstanding that Cody was not a good actor, his natural showmanship was popular with audiences. The show was less popular with critics. Buntline claimed to have written the script in four hours. Some critics wondered why it took so long. One critic for the Chicago Times wrote:

"Such a combination of incongruous drama, execrable acting, renowned performers, mixed audience, intolerable stench, scalping, blood and thunder, is not likely to be vouchsafed to a city a second time, even Chicago."

Following Custer's defeat at the Little Big Horn, Custer again returned west as a scout and earned the second appellation of "Pahaska." Until 1906, Cody's Wild West Show would end with a sanitized version of the battle.

The title "Colonel," was not one given by the Army, since he was a civilian, but was given by the Governor of Nebraska. The term "Pahaska," apparently derived from the Lakota pahinhanska, meaning "long hair of the head," was a name given Cody by Native Americans and popularized in Dime Novels. As an example, the name was used by Col. Prentiss Ingraham, in his account of the "Duel with Yellowhand" in his 1882 "Penny Dreadful," Adventures of Buffalo Bill from Boyhood to Manhood, Deeds of Daring, Scenes of Thrilling, Peril and Romantic Incidents in the Early Life of W. F. Cody, The Monarch of Bordermen, published by Beadle's Boy's Library of Sport, Story and Adventure.

Cody, of course, in his later Wild West Show, made the most of it. The Duel became more and more elaborate, so that ultimately it appeared that Cody was fighting all 500 Indians. An excerpt is printed below. The Chapter begins with a description of General Merritt, on a forced march, near present day Van Tassell, Wyoming. Cody is several miles ahead acting as a scout. Cody observes two horsemen who are about to be attacked by the Indians:

Discovering the Indians, he at the same time beheld two horsemen whom he saw to be whites, riding along unconscious of the presence of foes.

He knew that they must be scouts bearing dispatches, and at once determined to save them for they were riding in a direction down one valley that would bring them directly upon the red-skins, who had already seen them, and had sent a force of thirty warriors out to intercept them. Instantly Buffalo Bill dashed over the ridge of the hill that concealed him from the view of the Cheyennes, and rode directly toward the band going to attack the two white horsemen.

They halted suddenly at sight of him, but, seeing that he was alone, they started for him with wild yells. But still he kept on directly toward them, until within range, when he opened upon them with his matchless Evans rifle, a thirty-four-shot repeater, and a hot fight began, for they returned the fire.

This was just what Buffalo Bill wanted, for the firing alarmed the horsemen and placed them on their guard, and he knew that the Indian volleys would be heard at the command and hasten them forward. Having dropped a couple of red-skins and several ponies, Buffalo Bill wheeled to the rightabout, dashed up to the top of a hill, and, signaling to the two whites to follow him, headed for the command at full speed. As he had anticipated, the two men were scouts with important dispatches for General Merritt, and Bill's bold act had not only saved their lives, but also the dispatches, and the result of it was that the Fifth Cavalry went at once into line of battle, while the Cheyennes also formed for battle, though evidently surprised at being headed off at that point. But they saw that they were double the force of the whites, and were determined upon a fight, and their chiefs reconnoitered carefully their foes' strength and position. Buffalo Bill also volunteered to go out and get a closer look at them, to see what they were up to, and General Merritt told him to do go, but not to venture too near and expose himself.

As he left the line two Indian horsemen also rode out from among their comrades, and one was some lengths in front of the other. At a glance Buffalo Bill saw that the two were full chiefs, and they had not advanced far toward each other when he discovered that he was the especial object of their attention. But though one waited, the other came on, and the scout and the chief came within a hundred yards of each other.

Then the Indian cried out in his own tongue:

"I know Pa-e-has-ka the Great White Hunter and want to fight him."

"Then come on, you red devil, and have it out," shouted back Buffalo Bill, and forgetting General Merritt's orders not to expose himself, and to the horror of the regiment, every man of whom saw him, as well as did the Indians, he dashed at full speed toward the chief, who likewise, with a wild yell rode toward him.

Together both fired, the chief with his rifle, and Buffalo Bill with his revolver, and down dropped both horses. Buffalo Bill nimbly caught on his feet, while the Indian was pinned by one leg under his and with his war-cry the scout rushed upon him. As he advanced the chief succeeded in releasing his leg from beneath his horse and again fired, as did Buffalo Bill, and both of them with revolvers. The Indian's bullet cut a slight gash in Bill's arm, while he struck the red-skin in the leg, and the next instant sprung upon him with his knife, which both had drawn.

The hand-to-hand fight was hardly five seconds in duration, and Buffalo Bill had driven his knife to the broad red breast, and then tore from his head the scalp and feather war-bonnet, and waving it over his head, shouted in ringing tones:

"Bravo! the first scalp to avenge Custer!"

"First Scalp for Custer," image from 1903 brochure for Buffalo Bill's Wild West.

A shout of warning from the cavalry caused him to turn quickly and he beheld the second chief riding down upon him at full speed. But Bill turned upon him, and a shot from his revolver got him another scalp. But hardly had he stooped to tear it from the skull, when the Indians, with wildest yells, charged upon him. They were nearer to him than was the regiment, and it looked bad for Buffalo Bill but the gallant Fifth charged in splendid style, met the Indians in a savage fight, and then began to drive them in wild confusion, and pushed them back into the Agency a sorely whipped body of Cheyennes, and grieving over heavy losses.

Upon reaching the Agency Buffalo Bill learned that the two Indians he had killed in the duel were Yellow Hand and Red Knife, and Cut Nose, the father of the former swore some day to have the scout's scalp. But Buffalo Bill laughed lightly at this threat, evidently believing the old adage that "A threatened man is long lived."

[Writer's note: Yellow Hand is more correctly known as Yellow Hair] Later, in an early example of political correctness, some military officers contended that Cody didn't really scalp Yellow Hand, he merely lifted up his hair. In contrast two observers on the scene, including 5th Cavalry Scout Jules Green, attested to the taking of the scalp. Green also observed Cody wearing the scalp over his belt the next day while Cody was playing a game of pool at the Red Cloud Agency. Indeed, shortly after the incident, Cody returned to the stage in a touring production of The Red Right Hand or Buffalo Bill's First Scalp of Custer. The final word, however, was a notice given by the Department of the Interior pursuant to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), and 43 CFR 10.9, in the Federal Register, October 13, 2000, relating to the repatriation of human remains to the Cheyenne. The remains were identified:

[Writer's note: It appears that the Federal Government still can't bring itself to recognize Cody's title, colonel.]


Postcard, Johnny Baker's Museum, Lookout Mountain, Colorado, 1923.


Battle of the Little Bighorn: Custer’s Last Stand

At mid-day on June 25, Custer’s 600 men entered the Little Bighorn Valley. Among the Native Americans, word quickly spread of the impending attack. The older Sitting Bull rallied the warriors and saw to the safety of the women and children, while Crazy Horse set off with a large force to meet the attackers head on. Despite Custer’s desperate attempts to regroup his men, they were quickly overwhelmed. Custer and some 200 men in his battalion were attacked by as many as 3,000 Native Americans within an hour, Custer and all of his soldiers were dead.


Wyoming ScSlp - History

The Battle of Wyoming captivated artists of all types in the 19th century, including painter Alonzo Chappel.

Click on many pictures in this story to see a larger version.

t is 1778 and the Revolutionary War is in full swing throughout the thirteen colonies of America. The British were on a campaign through the southern colonies and the Americans had just claimed a vital victory at the Battle of Saratoga in northeast New York. In the regions of northwest New York and northern Pennsylvania, however, there was a more pressing conflict at hand. Settlers in these regions encountered grave danger as their lands were being attacked, homes burned to the ground, and families&rsquo safety jeopardized. The attacking force although led by the British, included the settler&rsquos own neighbors and local factions of Indians. The inhabitants of these areas responded with force and the Battle of Wyoming Valley was the result a battle historians would mark as both significant and extremely controversial.

As the Revolution rolled on, the British looked for any way possible to disrupt the American Patriots&rsquo war fighting abilities. While the frontier land of the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania may not seem to be ideal land to capture, it actually was a key location at the time. The Susquehanna River was a crucial route to move important supplies to the army as it ran all the way from New York to Maryland. In addition to the ease of transportation, the Wyoming Valley was also a leading producer of grains and other crops that could be shipped to the army. These factors combined with the presence of several sturdy forts in the area made this region a &ldquomust have&rdquo for the invading British Army.

The responsibility of taking these pivotal areas in northern Pennsylvania fell on the shoulders of 50-year-old Major John Butler, a Connecticut Tory (Loyal to the Crown during the Revolution). He had gained favor with the English after fighting for them in the French and Indian War. With his extensive knowledge of Indian languages, he proved himself a valuable asset in organizing and communicating with the native groups. His experience in this area also made him the prime choice for the mission at hand as he was instructed to recruit as many nearby Indians as possible. The Mohawks, one of the Six Nations of Iroquois from northern New York, were the primary source of recruitment for Major Butler. A total of 500 Mohawks volunteered along with a group of 400 Tories whom Butler also recruited locally.

With this force of about 900 men, Butler now had the military power to wreak havoc along the frontier of the Wyoming Valley. His campaign began by stirring up fear in the minds of surrounding settlers. His men headed south while stopping only to burn homes, attack settlers, and to raid settlements for much needed food and valuable goods. This guerrilla warfare was well suited to the Mohawk warriors under Butler&rsquos command. Arthur Miller, Jr., in his book Pennsylvania Battlefields and Landmarks, claims that the British would pay the Mohawks for each settler&rsquos scalp that they claimed. Miller went on to describe the attacks by saying, &ldquoSettlers were murdered in their beds, frontier cabins and lean-tos put to the torch, and children abducted.&rdquo The attacks seemed to reach a climax on June 30, 1778 when the force killed eight settlers working in a corn field along the Susquehanna River.

The Wyoming Valley was a very pro-Revolution region with most of its able-bodied men already away fighting for the cause. Manpower was therefore at a premium. The officers in charge of the safety of the Wyoming Valley frontier, Colonel Zebulon Butler (no relation to the British commander) and Colonel Nathan Denison, were well aware of this fact. Colonel Butler was on leave from his position as lieutenant colonel in the 3rd Connecticut Continental Regiment and he was extremely wary of the task at hand. They were given only 400 militiamen to defend the entire Wyoming Valley from pending invasion. In many cases, the men who volunteered were older than ideal for the combat they were about to experience. These men were placed into the 24th Connecticut Militia Regiment under the joint control of both Butler and Denison.

Connecticut troops were located in the Wyoming Valley during this time because Connecticut had a legal claim on the region. This claim originated in overlapping mandates given to the colonies of Connecticut and Pennsylvania by the British Crown. In fact, Connecticut would create its own County of Westmoreland in the northeastern corner of what is now Pennsylvania before the claims were resolved in Pennsylvania&rsquos favor.

One advantage that the Patriots did have on their side was the large presence of forts in the Wyoming Valley area. They included Wilkes-Barre Fort and Forty Fort in the south along with the northern forts of Wintermoot, Jenkins&rsquo, and Pittston. These structures provided excellent defense against oncoming invaders if they were properly manned. With only 400 militia in service, however, Zebulon Butler found it very difficult to appropriately use all the forts as they were intended. Fort Pittston had a garrison of only eight men to defend it from capture. The fort most important to the cause, however, was Forty Fort. The fort was named after the forty settlers it was originally built to protect during a conflict between the states of Connecticut and Pennsylvania in the recurring land dispute of the Pennamite-Yankee Wars. This fort built along the Susquehanna River would be the main rallying point for Zebulon Butler and his band of Patriot militia. Upon hearing of the destruction caused by the invading Tories and Indians, Butler decided to assemble his men at Forty Fort to undertake the defense.

Colonel John Butler led his group of Mohawks and Tories into the heart of the Wyoming Valley. The force reached Wintermoot Fort in the early hours of July 1 and immediately sent an emissary requesting its surrender. Butler promised that no one inside the fort would be harmed if a prompt surrender occurred. Wintermoot quickly raised the white flag and Colonel Butler had conquered the first fort he desired. Not resting on his laurels, the next day, Butler received news that Jenkins&rsquo Fort had also yielded to the power of his force. Having captured two forts in as many days, Butler gained confidence and demanded that all forts and militia in the area were to surrender immediately. In return for their surrender, Butler promised not to harm the militia as long as they never fought again in the War for Independence. Colonel Denison received the message from Butler and quickly assembled the militia and requested reinforcements. The response from the militia stationed at Forty Fort was determined and unified. They replied stating that they would, &ldquonever give up the fort over to the Tories and savages but stand it out to the last and defend it to the last extremity.&rdquo

Hearing the news of Forty Fort&rsquos resistance, Colonel John Butler devised a plan to lure the Patriot militia out of their fortifications. He concluded that if his force left Forty Fort, the Patriots would infer that the Indians and Tories would continue to terrorize nearby communities. The garrison of men would then follow Butler&rsquos force in an attempt to protect their homes from destruction. On July 3, Colonel Butler had his men set fire to Jenkins&rsquo Fort along with several houses north of Forty Fort in a demonstration of the destruction he was about to create. Butler and his men then left, heading back to Wintermoot Fort.

John Butler&rsquos ploy was executed perfectly and the militia was desperate to pursue the fleeing Tories and Indians. The commanding officers however were not as eager to follow. Both Colonels Zebulon Butler and Nathan Denison were of the opinion that waiting for reinforcements was their best option. Neither Butler nor Denison had any idea about the strength of their enemy and therefore elected to use caution. The men in the garrison did not agree with this decision and demanded action. They believed their homes and families were being destroyed and that attack was the only viable option. Denison and Butler soon conceded and the men headed out of the fort in pursuit. They caught up to the enemy and found the Tories in a long line behind a wood fence with the Mohawks nowhere in sight. Quickly, Butler and Denison formed their 400 militia into a single line to prepare for battle. The militia advanced upon the line of the Tories firing three volleys of musket fire with no reply from the enemy. The two enemies found themselves inching closer and closer as the dense smoke filled the air. John Butler and his men were now ready to spring their trap. Before the Patriot militia could release their fourth volley of musket fire, the Tories let loose a volley of their own. At the same time, hundreds of Mohawk warriors came storming out of the nearby woods, enveloping the militia in brutal hand-to-hand combat. The Mohawks, carrying spears and tomahawks, were vastly more experienced and well equipped for this type of fighting. The militia&rsquos left flank began to crumble. Orders were given to refuse the line in order to create stability on the left flank, but these commands were not followed due to the confusion and panic of the situation.

The line of Patriot militia began to break and orders were given for retreat. The battle seemed to be reaching its conclusion with many militiamen escaping to safety, but the Mohawk warriors had other plans. They continued to pursue the retreating militia, scalping and slaughtering any soldier they could find. Many men made it as far as the Susquehanna River, but were either taken capture or butchered in the river. The men who were captured by the Mohawks encountered a terrible fate as they were soon tortured and tomahawked by their captures their scalps taken and later exchanged for a British bounty. Colonel Denison surrendered Forty Fort the next day and Colonel Butler promised not to harm any civilians in the fort. Most civilians however had packed up and left when news of the defeat reached them.

While casualty numbers are not mutually agreed upon by both sides, it is clear that the Patriot militia experienced monumental casualties. Colonel John Butler claimed that his Indians took 227 scalps while Denison claimed to have lost 303 men. The number of Indians and Tories who perished during the battle is also a dispute, but according to Ernest Cruikshank, the casualties were minimal. In Cruikshank&rsquos book The Story of Butler&rsquos Rangers and the Settlement of Niagara, he depicts John Butler saying, &ldquoOn our side we lost one Indian killed, two rangers and eight Indians wounded.&rdquo A big question raised by historians about the massacre is how involved John Butler and the Tories were. The slaughtering was done exclusively by the Mohawks, but the question of whether Butler encouraged the Indians is still hotly debated. Butler defended himself by stating the Mohawks were out for revenge of a previous encounter between white settlers. He stated, &ldquoThe Indians were so exasperated with the loss at Fort Stanwix last year that it was with difficulty I could save the lives of these few.&rdquo Also, some of the atrocities that occurred in the aftermath of the battle were exaggerated severely by nearby settlers. Some reports shortly after the battle depicted Butler organizing groups of women and children to be burned alive. According to Barbara Graymont these terrible events did not occur at all. In her book The Iroquois in the American Revolution, she writes that &ldquoNo women were along on the expedition, and no such sanguinary tortures took place.&rdquo

In response to the heinous events that occurred on July 3, many settlers decided to flee the Wyoming Valley for fear of their safety. Trying to stabilize the situation, the Continental Army assigned Colonel Thomas Hartley and nearly one thousand Pennsylvania militia to reinforce the area. While considerably less than one thousand men actually showed up, Hartley and his men took the offensive to try and ensure the safety of local settlers. They attacked Mohawk villages and slaughtered many natives, causing the Indians to focus their attention back on their own settlements. Moving the fighting out of the Wyoming Valley restored some order to the region and gave settlers a chance to repopulate the valley.

The effects of the Battle of Wyoming Valley could be felt throughout America. The event greatly increased the tension between Patriots and Tories throughout the thirteen colonies. These two factions lived side by side as neighbors in communities throughout America, so it was obvious that many would be shaken up by the events that took place in Pennsylvania. The combination of strong pro-British sentiment along with Indian guerrilla warfare provoked a terrible result. Many Americans would be reluctant to live in areas where the Indian presence resembled that of the Wyoming Valley. They wanted to avoid similar conflicts if at all possible. These frontier conflicts are often forgotten about because they occurred at the time of the Revolution, but they play an important part in the history of Pennsylvania.

Today, at the site of the battle near Kingston, Luzerne County, is a sixty-two foot monument that honors the men who fought and died during that July day. The monument was built in 1803 and it demonstrates the bravery and commitment of the Patriot militia. Along with this monument still stands the original house of Colonel Nathan Denison, where tours are offered May through August.

Maybe the most famous remembrance of the Battle of Wyoming was not built by the hand of a carpenter, but crafted by a poet. Scottish poet Thomas Campbell&rsquos 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming reflects the horror and sadness many experienced in the battle&rsquos aftermath. The poem remembers the fatal day in its first lines stating, &ldquoOn Susquehanna&rsquos side, fair Wyoming! Although the wild-flower on thy ruin&rsquod wall, and roofless homes, a sad remembrance bring, of what thy gentle people did befall.&rdquo Many historians believe that this poem was strongly influential in the naming of the western state of Wyoming.

While the poem is a highly romanticized version of the Battle, or &ldquoMassacre&rdquo as many put it, and while the flamingoes he mentions would surely be out of place in northeastern Pennsylvania, Campbell&rsquos poem made the Wyoming Valley known throughout the English-speaking world in the 19th century. The story of the men who bravely fought defending their homes and families, however, will be the lasting memory of a spirited battle in northern Pennsylvania.


9. Custer was thought to have lived a charmed life.

During the Civil War, the 𠇋oy General” seemed to have such a streak of good fortune, which included his avoidance of serious injury in spite of his daring command and having 11 horses shot out from under him, that is was referred to as 𠇌uster’s luck.” The revival of his military career after his 1867 court-martial furthered the perception that Custer lived a charmed life, but Custer’s luck ran out at Little Bighorn.


Legends of America

The Shoshone tribe often referred to as the Shoshoni or Snake Indians, consists of several distinct groups, of which there are different bands. Originally living in a wide area of the Great Basin and Great Plains and sharing similar Shoshone languages, they are closely related to the Comanche, Paiute, and Ute Indians.

By the mid 18th century, the Blackfoot, Blood, Piegan, and Crow to the north and the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho to the east were well better armed and had an abundant supply of horses. These competing tribes soon pushed the Shoshone south from the northern plains and west of the Continental Divide.

The first white men to explore the west were the trappers and explorers. Sacagawea, a Lemhi Shoshone woman, led Lewis and Clark through the west to the Pacific Ocean.

Sacagawea guided Lewis and Clark on their expedition of 1804-06

By the time the Europeans began to move into the Great Basin and Snake River areas in the 1840s, there were seven distinct groups of Shoshone, with very few seen east of the Continental Divide. By that time the tribe limited their excursions east only to hunt buffalo, limiting their stays to short periods. When the white settlers pushed westward the Shoshone tribe also succumbed to epidemics of small-pox and other diseases previously unknown to them, which decimated the tribe and diminished its power.

By this time, the Northern Shoshone and Bannock hunted in the Snake River Valley, the Camus Prairie, and the Portneuf and Sawtooth Mountains, while a Shoshone group called the Sheepeaters lived primarily in the Yellowstone country. The Eastern Shoshone, led by Chief Washakie spent most of their time in the Wind River and Bighorn Mountains.

Two other divisions having similar cultures were the Goshute Shoshone, who lived in the valleys and mountains west and southwest of Great Salt Lake and the largest group, the Western Shoshone, occupied what is today, northwest Nevada. Four other groups, generally called the Northern Shoshone, were scattered about Montana, Idaho, and Utah.

The basis of the Shoshone religion was a belief in dreams, visions, and a Creator and fostered individual self-reliance, courage, and the wisdom to meet life’s problems in a difficult environment. Most of the Shoshone ceremonies are dances similar to the Great Basin Round Dances. The Bannock shared the warfare practices of the Plains Indians, which included counting coups and taking scalps of enemies. They adopted the Scalp Dance from the plains tribes and during the reservation period began dancing the Sun Dance. Today, the Sun Dance, a very important event, is held each summer.

When the first Mormon pioneers began to settle in northern Utah they encountered three major bands of Shoshone who had adopted most of the plains culture, utilizing the horse for mobility and hunting game. However, as the Mormon farmers began to take over their traditional homelands, and more settlers moved westward along the Oregon and California Trails, the pioneers took over much of their land and wasted their food supplies. As a result, Chief Bear Hunter began to strike back in 1862 by raiding Mormon cattle herds and attacking mining parties traveling to and from Montana.

Bear River Massacre in Idaho

The Shoshone aggression ended in what has become known as the Bear River Massacre on January 29, 1863. On that morning, Colonel Patrick Edward Connor led about 200 California volunteers from Camp Douglas in Salt Lake City to assault the winter camp of Chief Bear Hunter. Encamped at the confluence of Bear River and Bear Creek in the Cache Valley were about 450 men, women, and children.

The troops approached in the early morning darkness around 6:00 a.m. After two hours of firing, the Indians were out of ammunition and the next two hours of the battle became a massacre as the volunteers shot indiscriminately into the camp. When it was over, 250 of the Shoshone lay dead, compared to about 23 soldiers who lost their lives.

Chief Bear Hunter was killed in the battle and the remainder of the tribe, under Chief Sagwitch and the chiefs of nine other Northwestern bands of Shoshone signed the Treaty of Box Elder at Brigham City, Utah, on July 30, 1863. After the treaty was signed, the government immediately began to force the Shoshone to move on to the newly founded Fort Hall Indian Reservation in Idaho. After several years, most of the Shoshone finally gave up roaming their homelands in Utah and settled on the reservation, where their descendants continue to live today.

During the period between 1863 and 1939, the Eastern Shoshone and Shoshone-Bannock tribes saw their reserved lands, which once covered five states, reduced to parcels making up an area one-twentieth the size of the original reserves.

Today, the Shoshone’s approximately 10,000 members primarily live on several reservations in Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada, the largest of which is the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. The Wind River Reservation now consisting of approximately 3,500 square miles is located in Fremont and Hot Springs Counties in west-central Wyoming. The Fort Hall Reservation of the Shoshone-Bannock tribes is located in southeastern Idaho. Originally encompassing some 1.8 million acres of land, it was later reduced to 544,000 acres.

Well over a century later, the Eastern Shoshone and the Shoshone-Bannock have preserved much of their traditional lands and retain their traditional ceremonies, holding the annual Sun Dance on the Fort Hall and Wind River Reservations. Tribal members also host annual powwows and continue to engage in sweat ceremonies to pray for individuals, families, or the tribe.


Annals Index - E

Edwards, Paul M. 41:2:178 (see also Analysis of Scottish Population review of American West: A Reorientation review of Chronical of a Congressional Journey. The Doolittle Committee in the Southwest, 1865 review of Old Forts of the Far West review of Peopling the High Plains. Wyoming’s European Heritage review of Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem review of Red Man’s Religion)

Edwards, Sally A. (Mrs.) 23:1:104

Edwards, William B. "Billy" 38:1:78, 82

Edwards, William C. (see review of Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States)

Edwin J. Smalley by Alice M. Shields 13:1:58-72

E. E. G. (see GRAVES: relocation of pioneer burials)

E .E. Hunt and Smith 15:3:282

Eells, Myra 40:1:35 42:2:191-192, 197, 202, 211-212, 216 43:2:228

Egan (Captain) 32:2:223 38:1:88

Egan, James (Captain) 40:2:182 41:1:96

Egan, Teddy (Captain) 44:2:163

Egbert, H. C. (Major) 38:1:61, 67 45:2:163

Egeria, Colorado 16:2:95-96, 98, 109

Eggan, Fred (see Social Anthropology of North American Tribes)

Eggenhofer, Nick 38:1:106, 117 (see also Wagons, Mules and Men)

Egippetche 39:2:254-25 (see also Shoshone (Eastern))

Ehernberger, James L. "Jim" 27:2:227, 240 (see also Colorado and Southern: Northern Division review of End of Track Sherman Hill review of Grenville M. Dodge review of Photographers of the Frontier West review of We took The Train Smoke Over the Divide Smoke Across the Prairie Smoke Down the Canyons)

Eichler, Carl (Reverend) 39:2:258

Eight Seconds, video review 66:1&2:68, 70

Eighteen Fifty Overland Diary of the Dr. Warren Hough 46:2:207-216

Eighteen Fifty-nine (1859) Overland Journal of Naturalist George Suckley by Richard G. Beidleman 28:1:68-79

Eighteen Fifty-two (1852) On the Oregon Trail by Mae Urbanek 34:1:52-59

Eighteenth Amendment (to the U.S. Constitution) 64:2:56 66:4:12

Eighteenth Infantry (see MILITARY)

Eighth Circuit Court 53:2:5-8

Eighty-Third Congress 66:3:56, 62

Eine Jagd in Wyoming 66:1&2:2

Eisenhower Administration 66:3:58

Eisenhower Congress 66:3:56

Eisenhower, Dwight David (General President) 45:2:179, 186, 195, 200, 214-216 55:1:14 66:3:56

E. J. Sawyer photo 66:4:12 (see also Yancey, Uncle John)

EK Mountain Post Office 29:1:171, photo 172, 173-174

EK Ranch (see Plunkett of the EK, Irish Notes on the Wyoming Cattle Industry in the 1880s RANCHES)

Ekdall, A. B. (Doctor) 22:2:109 25:1:95 27:2:227

Eklund, Dick 37:1:75, 99 38:1:85, 102 39:1:109, 128 40:1:107-108, 122

Ekstrom, Laura Allyn 25:1:95-97 25:2:211, 214 27:2:227 (see also Mystery and Romance of Wyoming Where the Paintbrush Grows)

El Dorado (see Ghost Town El Dorado)

El Paso, Texas 17:1:8 22:1:79 (see also Dallas Stoudenmire, El Paso Marshal)

Elazar, Daniel (see Cities of the Prairie Revisited: The Closing of the Metropolitan Frontier)

Eldred, F. C. (Reverend) 35:2:143

electric railway projects (see Wyoming’s Electric Railway Projects)

Eleventh Infantry (see MILITARY)

Eleventh Kansas Volunteer Cavalry (see MILITARY)

Eleventh Ohio Cavalry (see MILITARY)

Eleventh Ohio Volunteer Cavalry (see MILITARY)

Elizabeth Bacon Custer and the Making of a Myth by Leckie, Shirley A., review 66:1&2:59

elk (see Commission of the Conservation of the Elk of Jackson Hole, Wyoming Jackson Hole elk herd photo)

Elk Commission 50:2:249

Elk Mountain 3:1:83 24:1:38-39 30:2:138 32:1:113 33:1:82, 87, 93, 95-97 34:1:13 44:2:143, 147, 153, 163 65:2/3:4 (see also Pole Camp and Home of John Sublett at Elk Mountain, Carbon County)

Elk Mountain Post Office 15:1:62 21:1:11 33:1:98 (see also Medicine Bow Stage Station, Now Elk Mountain Post Office)

Elk Mountain school 21:1:24

Elk Mountain Stage Station 33:1:96, 98 (see also FORTS AND CAMPS: Fort Halleck)

Elk Mountain Ute 26:2:168, 176 27:1:86-87 27:2:220 30:1:77 (see also Ute)

Elk Mountain, Wyoming 54:2:13

Elk River (see Yellowstone River)

Elk River, Wyoming 16:1:89, 94, 96, 108 29:2:141

Elkhorn Creek 30:2:153, 155, 159

Elkhorn Stamp Mill 40:2:237

Elkhorn Wagon Train Encounter by Margaret Mitchell Wilson 42:2:263-265

Elkins, Henry Arthur 48:1:92

Elks Club (see Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks)

Elks Juvenile Band 43:1:100-101

Ell Seven (L7) Ranches by Herbert O. Brayer 15:1:5-37 (see also RANCHES)

Ella Watson: Rustler or Homesteader by Sharon Leigh 64:3/4:49-56

Ellen Hereford Washakie of the Shoshones by Mary Lou Pence 22:2:3-11

Elliot 16:2:90 (see also Elliott)

Elliot, Joe 45:2:143-172, photo 174 65:4:30 (see also Joe Elliott’s Story)

Elliott 47:2:185-187 (see also Elliot)

Elliott, Henry S. 12:3:177-178 15:1:42 photo 37:1:4, 5 35:2:132, 142 37:2:187

Elliott, Henry Wood 34:2:179 48:1:91

Elliott, Washington Lafayette (First Lieutenant) 38:1:5, 11, 42

Ellis, Cathy (see review of Discovering Wyoming review of Wyoming: Courage in a Lonesome Land)

Ellis, Charles (Mrs.) 2:2:39 3:1:109 6:4:324 7:2:369-378 7:3:443 15:1:50-62 (see also Carbon History of Carbon Life of Oscar Collister, Wyoming Pioneer Medicine Bow, Wyoming)

Ellis, Everett L. 31:2:248 (see also To Take A Scalp)

Ellis, Richard N. (see review of Hostiles and Horse Soldiers: Indian Battles and Campaigns in the West review of Indian Dances of North America review of Phil Sheridan Album General Pope and U.S. Indian Policy)

Ellison, Robert S. 2:2:39 3:3:191 7:2:404 9:3:763 23:2:58 28:2:175, 188 50:1:23-27, 30, 40-41, 45

Ellsworth (Indian interpreter) 29:2:198

Ellsworth (Lieutenant) 34:2:154

Ellsworth, Edmund 21:2/3:133, 135, 138, 142 29:2:179 31:1:13-14 32:1:52

Ellsworth, Ora 24:1:26, 29-30, 32, 34, 36, 42

Ellsworth, Ralph (Doctor) 54:1:33

Ellsworth, S. George (see Dear Ellen. Two Mormon Women and Their Letters)

Elston, Allan Vaughn (see Gun Law at Laramie Sagebrush Serenade Treasure Coach from Deadwood Marked Men Wyoming Bubble Wyoming Manhunt)

Elston, Charles "Charley" 39:2:196-197, 207-208, 216 51:2:39

Elswell, Alcott Farrar photo 38:2:142, 143-172 (see also Alcott Farrar Elwell, His Diary, Wyoming 1908, As Camp Cook, United States Geodetic Survey, Roosevelt Lignite Conservation)

Elwell, R. Farrington 48:1:95

Emancipation Proclamation 66:3:54

Embar Cattle Company 51:1:118

Emergency Work Act 56:1:13 (see also CCC)

Emerson, Frank 27:1:21 (Mr. and Mrs.) 31:2:226

Emerson, Frank C. (Governor) 49:2:200-201, 203 50:1:30 50:2:324, 328 photo 61:1:5 photo 7:4:448 12:4:267-269 44:2:246

Emerson, Pat (Private) 64:3/4:3, 39

Emerson, Paul W. (Doctor) 20:1:93 20:2:179 24:2:119 26:2:213, 216 27:2:227, 239 30:2:225 33:2:218

Emery, George B. (Governor of Utah) 60:1:3

Emery, Maude M. 3:2:150 5:4:164 10:1:14-15

Emge, Joe 47:2:172 52:2:48-49, 53, 56

emigrant train 5:2&3:107 23:2:11

Emigrant Canyon (Utah) 22:2:9

Emigrant Gulch 36:2:220 40:2:277-278

Emigrant Hill 32:1:110-111, 117

Emigrant Springs 22:2:57 23:1:61 30:2:209-211

Emigrant Trail 27:2:163 (see Oregon Trail Overland Stage Trail-Trek No. 1, Trek No. 11 of the Emigrant Trail Treks Overland Stage Trail-Trek No. 2, Trek No. 12 of the Emigrant Trail Treks Overland Stage Trail-Trek No. 3, Trek No. 13 of the Emigrant Trail Treks)

Emigrant Trail Trek No. 9 by Maurine Carley 31:2:213-226, map 214

Emigrant Trail Trek No. 10, Part I compiled by Maurine Carley 32:1:103, maps 104-105, 106-123 Part II map 32:2:218, 219-232

emigrants 21:2/3:132-134 23:2:11 24:1:28, 31, 33-36, 38, 40, 44 26:2:70, 142, 154-155, 162-163, 167-170, 169, 187, 189 28:1:83-84, 86, 90-94 28:2:193-194 31:2:221 (see also Emigrant’s Guide to California)

Emigrants Wash Tub 27:2:190-194

Emigrant’s Guide 21:2/3:120 31:1:7, 13

Emigrant’s Guide to California by Joseph E. Ware 11:2:123

emigration (1849-1851) 22:2:51 28:2:191 30:1:5-31 30:2:145-189

Emmons, David M. (see Garden in the Grasslands Moreton Frewen and the Populist Revolt review of Far Southwest, 1846-1912. A Territorial History review of Splendid Pauper. The Story of Moreton Frewen)

Empey, Ida Terry (Mrs.) 21:2/3:119, 121

Empey, Margaret Steenbergh 21:2/3:118

Empey, William A. photo 21:2/3:110, 111-167 (see also Journal of William A. Empey)

Empire Road, Wyoming 16:2:89

Employment Security Commission 48:2:211-212

Encampment, Wyoming 15:1:13 19:1:53 19:2:11, 122 29:2:158 30:2:146, 150 56:1:35-36

End of American Exceptionalism: Frontier Anxiety from the Old West to the New Deal by David M. Wrobel, review 66:3:71-72

End of the Long Horn Trail by A. P. "Ott" Black, review 52:1:69

End of Track by James H. Kyner, review 32:2:260-261

Endicott, William C. (Secretary of War) 44:2:202 59:2:18-19

Endlich, F. M. 34:2:182-183 44:1:38, 49, 50

Engell, Peter F. (Private) 39:1:125

England 65:4:47 66:3:16, 19, 21

Englehard, William M. 56:1:36

Englemann, Henry 17:1:24, 54 59:2:39, 41

English (see Victorian Englishman’s View of the West)

English, T. C. (Brevette Lieutenant) 36:2:183

Enos, James E. "Jim" 21:2/3:187-189 40:2:195

Entitled to Power: Farm Women and Technology, 1913-1963 by Katherine Jellison 66:4:65

Entrepreneurs of the Old West by David Dary, review 61:1:55-56

environment (see Land Use, Environment and Social Change: The Shaping of Island County, Washington Reflections on Environmental History and Wyoming)

environmental history (see Reflections on Environmental History and Wyoming)

environmental protection (see Federal Land, Western Anger: The Sagebrush Rebellion and Environmental Politics)

Environmental Spokesman: Olaus J. Murie and a Democratic Defense of Wilderness by Gregory D. Kendrick 50:2:213-302

EPCOT Center (Florida) 66:4:33

epidemiology (see MILITARY: Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality of the Army)

Episcopal Church 34:1:30 (Laramie) 34:2:231 (Cheyenne) 39:1:29 (Rawlins) 39:1:72 43:1:5-52 (see also Shoshone Indian Episcopalian Mission)

Episcopal Sunday School 65:2/3:17-20, 22

Epperson, Lucretia Lawson 65:2/3:17-20, 22

Epsicopal Church (see FIRSTS: Episcopal clergy in Cheyenne)

equal suffrage 22:1:59-60 (see also suffrage woman’s suffrage)

Equality State (Wyoming) 66:1&2:6 66:3:13

Era of Violence by Ted Bohlen and Tom Tisdale 65:4:32

Erb, Louise B. (see Wagon Trails and Folk Tales: Sulphur Springs Station, 1862-1979)

Erdoes, Richard (see Saloons of the Old West)

Eric and Erick (see Glines, Herrick)

Ericcson, H. C. (Colonel) photo 5:4:148

Erickson, Katie Kinnear (Mrs.) 27:2:227

Erlanson, Charles B. (see In the West-In My West)

Ernest, Boney 32:2:236 33:2:198 44:2:269

Ernest L. Ives (Mrs.) Collection 66:3:34-35

Ersenberger, George 25:2:194-195

Erwin, Marie H. 11:2:123 maps 11:4:281-292 12:2:162 18:2:131-132 21:2/3:191, 193 (see also Cheyenne Indian Portraits Painted by George Catlin Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality of the Army of the United States, 1819-1860 Maps of Early Wyoming Tell a Fascinating Story Trader’s License Granted to General William H. Ashley)

Escalante (Father-priest Friar) 15:3:226-227 33:2:161

Escolas, Edmond L. (Doctor) 35:2:244 (see also review of Politics and Grass: The Administration of Grazing on the Public Domain Rise of Workmen’s Compensation in Wyoming Wyoming’s Pioneer Life Insurance Company)

Eshelman, Edwin F. (Reverend) 24:2:110-111

Eskridge, E.W. 16:2:94, 102-103, 123

Esmay, R. L. (General Adjutant General of Wyoming) 21:2/3:219, 236 24:1:2-4, 13 27:2:164 28:2:167 29:1:67 29:2:177 30:1:37 45:1:73

Estergreen, M. Morgan (see Kit Carson, A Portrait in Courage)

Esther Morris Monument (see HISTORICAL MARKERS: Morris, Esther)

ethnicity (see Chinese Emigrants in Southwest Wyoming, 1868-1885 Other Germans in Wyoming)

Ethnicity in Wyoming by Carl V. Hallberg 63:4:136-139

ethnohistory (see Annotated Bibliography of Northern Plains Ethnohistory)

Etulain, Richard W. 41:2:282-283 64:3/4:60 (see also Conversations with Wallace Stegner on Western History and Literature review of Cousin Jacks: The Cornish in America Writing Western History: Essays on Major Western Historians)

Eubank (Mrs.) 12:2:144 27:1:11 41:2:214

Eubanks, Eugene (Brigadier General) 64:3/4:14, 44

Eucre 65:1:9 (see also Sledge)

Eureka College (Illinois) 66:3:31

Europe 66:1&2:35, 49 66:3:11, 19, 39 66:4:45

European heritage (see peopling the High Plains. Wyoming’s European Heritage)

Evans, Andrew Wallace (Major) 38:1:26-27, 29, 42, 46-47

Evans, Burrelle W. 31:2:164 32:1:61

Evans, Colorado 23:1:14 65:1:18

Evans, D. P. (Mrs.) 5:4:164 6:1&2:241

Evans, Elva (see review of Country Railroad Station in America)

Evans, Hartman K. 23:1:76-96, maps 82, 86, 92 (see also Sheep Trailing from Oregon to Wyoming)

Evans, James 39:1:6 47:2:229 59:2:18

Evans, James A. (Colonel) 18:1:7 60:1:5

Evans, John E. (Governor) 41:1:47-48, 55 41:2:211-212 46:1:7, 12, 21 (see also Frontier Capitalist: The Life of John Evans)

Evans, Lewis (Captain) 33:1:95

Evans, Lloyd R. (see review of Custer: The Life of General George Armstrong Custer review of Fort Phil Kearny-An American Saga)

Evans, Luther H. 45:1:70, 73, 75, 79-80, 82-83

Evans, W. H. (Major) (see Fort Laramie)

Evans-Jackson Livestock Company 54:2:68

Evanston Age 9:3:741 33:2:151-152 35:1:97

Evanston Examiner 33:2:152

Evanston Land Office 10:1:39

Evanston News 33:2:152

Evanston Register 33:2:152

Evanston, Wyoming 16:1:11, 24 19:1:26-27 22:2:30, 41, 64-65, 69 24:1:25-26 30:2:146 33:2:137 34:1:90 35:1:31 35:2:180 42:2:239 44:1:93, 99 56:1:56, 58 59:2:17-20, 22-23 photos 60:1:37 65:4:32, 42 66:3:33 (see also FIRSTS: tree planted in Evanston Levancia Bent’s Diary of a Sheep Drive, Evanston, Wyoming, to Kearney, Nebraska)

Evarts, Hal G. 42:2:177 65:4:18

Events of the Year 1865 Pertaining to Johnson County by T. J. Gatchell 27:2:142-158

Everett, Dick (see Dick, Everett)

Everett, Ernest T. (Reverend) 24:2:88

Everett General Hospital (Washington) 66:1&2:75

Everman, Michael (see review of West of Hell’s Fringe: Crime, Criminals, and the Federal Peace Officer in Oklahoma Territory, 1889-1907)

Everts, Truman C. 15:2:108, 112-114

Evolution of the Cow-Puncher by Owen Wister 65:4:3, 14

Ewers, John C. 44:1:64-65 (see also Horse in Blackfoot Culture with Comparative Material from Other Western Tribes O-Kee-Pa. A Religious Ceremony and Other Customs of the Mandans)

Ewert, A. L. T. (Reverend) 65:1:29

Ewig, Rick 55:1:64 58:2:61 64:2:71 64:3/4:4 66:3:71-72 (see also Behind the Capitol Scenes: The Letters of John A. Feick McCarthy Era Politics: The Ordeal of Senator Lester Hunt review of Coxey’s Army: An American Odyssey review of End of American Exceptionalism: Frontier Anxiety from the Old West to the New Deal review of Kings of the Hill: Power and Personality in the House of Representatives review of Saga of Tom Horn: The Story of a Cattlemen’s War review of What Should We Tell our Children About Vietnam? Wyoming’s Truss Bridges Wyoming Women as Jurors)

Ewing Canyon by Michael Chadey 50:2:343-344

Ewing, Jesse 31:1:62 50:2:343-344, 346

Ewing, Joseph M. (Reverend) 38:2:175

Excelsior Geyser 65:1:36, 42

Excerpt from the Journal of E. Willard Smith, 1839-1840 by J. Nielson Barry 15:3:287-297

execution (see capital punishment)

Expedition against the Mormons 16:1:41-42

Expedition Island National Historic Site 43:1:113,116 45:2:251

Expedition of President Chester A. Arthur to Yellowstone National Park in 1883 by Jack Ellis Haynes 14:1:31-38

Expeditions of John Charles Fremont. Volume I. Travels from 1838-1844 and Map Portfolio edited by Donald Jackson and Mary Lee Spence, review 43:12:138-140

Expeditions of John Charles Fremont. Vol. II: The Bear Flag Revolt and Court-Martial edited by Mary Lee Spence and Donald Jackson, review 46:1:147-148

Expense Account of Fort Fetterman, Wyoming, 23 December 1875 1:3:18

Experiment Station 64:1:11-14, 18-19

Exploration of Verendrye and His Sons by Warren Upham 17:2:144-146 (see also Verendrye, Jean)

Explorations by Henry’s Men 17:2:91

explorers (see Early Explorers reports of early explorers)

Exploring the Northern Plains by Lloyd McFarling, review 27:2:241

Exploring the Yellowstone with Hayden, 1872 edited by Herbert Oliver Brayer 14:4:253-298

Express Messengers of the Overland Mail 5:2:62-64 5:2&3:101-102

Expressly Portraits photo 65:4:47

Extension Service Club 54:2:25

Extract from Journal of Appleton Harmon, 1847 21:2/3:136-138

Eyewitness at Wounded Knee by Richard E. Jensen and R. Eli Paul 64:3/4:59-60

Eyewitness Reports of the Wagon Box Fight compiled by Walter N. Bate 41:2:193-201

Ezra Meeker-Pioneer. A Bibliographical Guide by Frank L. Green, review 41:2:288


After the defeat of Gen. George A. Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, many Native Americans joined with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, encouraged by the Indians' success. About 200-300 Cheyenne warriors led by Morning Star (also known as Dull Knife) set out with their families from the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud agencies in Nebraska.

The United States Army had sent the 5th Cavalry Regiment, commanded by Lt. Col. Eugene Asa Carr, from Oklahoma to a position on the Cheyenne River in South Dakota to guard against such an occurrence. Carr was replaced in command on July 1 by Col. Wesley Merritt, and when news of the Battle of the Little Big Horn reached Gen. George Crook on July 5, the 5th Cavalry was ordered to reinforce Crook on Goose Creek in Wyoming.

Word of the breakout of the Cheyenne also reached Merritt and, guided by "Buffalo Bill" Cody, he was able to intercept the Cheyenne warriors.

Merritt planned an ambush. He hid most of his 350 troopers inside covered wagons and posted sharpshooters nearby out of sight. Spotting Merritt's seemingly unescorted wagon train along Warbonnet Creek, a small war party of six Cheyenne warriors charged directly into the trap to divert attention from the main body of Cheyenne.

A few warriors were wounded by the troopers, but the only real action of the engagement was a "duel" between Buffalo Bill and a Cheyenne chief, Yellow Hair. Cody shot and killed the Indian with his Winchester carbine, then pulled out a Bowie knife and scalped him.

The main body of warriors attempted to rescue the small war party, but fled so quickly after seeing the true strength of the U.S. forces that not a single trooper was killed or injured.

Merritt joined Crook, whose expedition later linked up with that of Gen. Alfred H. Terry, bringing the combined strength of the U.S. force to about 4,000.

Ever the showman, Buffalo Bill returned to the stage in October, his show highlighted by a melodramatic reenactment of his duel with Yellow Hair. He displayed the fallen warrior's scalp, feather war bonnet, knife, saddle and other personal effects. [2] He later often celebrated the killing during his Wild West shows in a reenactment he entitled "The Red Right Hand, or, Buffalo Bill's First Scalp for Custer". [3]


Crowheart Butte

In March, 1866, a battle was fought in this vicinity between Shoshone and Bannock Indians on one side and Crow Indians on the other.
The contest was waged for the supremacy of hunting grounds in the Wind River basin. Crowheart Butte was so named because the victorious Washakie, Chief of the Shoshones, displayed a Crow Indian's heart on his lance at the war dance after the battle. The major portion of the battle was fought near Black Mountain several miles to the north.
Washakie, in his youth and middle age, was a very mighty warrior. He was a wise chief and friendly to the white people. No white man's scalp hung in this chief's teepee.

Erected by Wyoming State Parks and Historic Sites.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Native Americans.

Location. 43° 16.404′ N, 109° 6.96′ W. Marker is near Crowheart, Wyoming, in Fremont County. Marker is on U.S. 287 near Sand Draw Road, on the left. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Crowheart WY 82512, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 2 other markers are within 7 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. The Riverton Project (approx. 6.2 miles away) Wyoming Winds (approx. 6.2 miles away).


Watch the video: Geologic History of Wyoming (August 2022).