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Side View of HMIS Godavari
Here we see a side view of the Black Swan class sloop HMIS Godavari, a type of dedicated convoy escort that was larger and more seaworthy than the corvettes, but also more complex to build as they built to military rather than civilian standards.
History [ edit | edit source ]
HMIS Sutlej was ordered on 8 September 1939 under the 1939 Programme for the Royal Indian Navy. She was built by William Denny and Brothers and commissioned in 23 April 1941.
With World War II underway at the time, she was immediately deployed for convoy defence in the Irish Sea. In August, she was deployed as a part of the escort for convoy WS11 through the Northwest approaches, with HMS Repulse (1916), HMS Encounter (H10), HMAS Nestor (G02), HMS Sennen (Y21), HMS Totland (Y88) and HMS Derbyshire (N90). When the convoy was split into fast and slow vessels, she and Totland escorted the slow section to Freetown. She then joined Repulse, Encounter, Derbyshire and HMS Woodruff as an escort to the Indian Ocean.
Mid-way, in September, she received orders to join the British Mediterranean Fleet and proceeded to the Suez, where she was deployed for anti-aircraft defence.
After Japan entered the war, she was transferred to the East Indies in December 1941. She was then deployed to escort military convoys to Singapore, in the Bay of Bengal, on the West coast of India, as well as to the Persian Gulf and Aden all through 1942 and early 1943.
In May 1943, she joined the Mediterranean Fleet again in Alexandria, where she continued on escort duty. In July, she was part of the amphibious task force for Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily. In September, she supported military operations during the defence of the Aegean Islands.
In December 1943, she was transferred back to the Eastern Fleet and deployed for convoy escort in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. In June 1944, she was deployed for anti-submarine operations in the Indian Ocean.
After a refit in Bombay, she was deployed back in the Bay of Bengal, and supported amphibious assaults in Burma and Malaya. She was part of the task force during Operation Dracula for the amphibious assault on Rangoon by the British Indian Army and the British Army. The other members of this task force were HMIS Cauvery (U10), HMIS Godavari (U52), HMIS Kistna (U46), HMIS Narbada (U40) and HMIS Hindustan.
The task force then continued on a mission to intercept Japanese troops withdrawing from the Andamans. At the end of the war, she was on refit in Bombay.
After Indian Independence, she was commissioned into the Indian Navy as INS Sutlej and reclassified as a frigate. In 1955, she was converted into a survey ship. She was decommissioned in 1978, and sold for scrapping in 1979. Ώ]
Kistna being launched on 22 April 1943
HMIS Kistna was ordered under the 1940 Build Programme on 10 September 1941. She was built by Yarrow (Shipbuilders), Limited and commissioned in 1943.
With World War II underway, she was soon deployed for convoy escort duties between the UK and West Africa. In November 1943, while escorting a convoy to Liverpool, the convoy was sighted by German aircraft. Wolfpack Schill was formed to attack the convoy, which was repelled by the escorts, including HMIS Kistna. HMS Chanticleer (U05) was hit by a torpedo and took major damage in the attack. A mercantile vessel being escorted was sunk and another damaged by German aircraft with HS 233 glider bombs.
HMIS Kistna was transferred to the Eastern Fleet and continued to escort convoys en route to Bombay. In the Eastern Fleet it continued escort duties in the Persian Gulf, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. It supported military operations by the British Indian Army and the British Army in Burma.
In December 1944, she joined a task force with HMIS Jumna, HMIS Narbada (U40) and HMS Flamingo (L18) to support the advance by the Indian Division down the Mayu peninsula in Burma as a part of Operation Romulus.
In January 1945, HMIS Kistna with HMS Phoebe (43), HMS Rapid (H32) and HMS Flamingo, supported the amphibious landings of the Indian 71st Division and the British 4th Division on Ramree Island in Burma, as a part of Operation Matador. It continued to provide naval gunfire support as a part of the operation.
After a refit in Bombay, in April 1945, she was part of the amphibious assault group for the Indian 26th Division on Rangoon during Operation Dracula. Other members of this assault group included HMIS Cauvery (U10), HMIS Godavari (U52), HMIS Narbada, HMIS Sutlej (U95) and HMIS Hindustan.
In July, Kistna was deployed for minesweeping operations to the Malacca Straits during Operation Collie. In August, she conducted preparatory exercises to participate in Operation Zipper to recapture Malaya.
At the end of World War II, Kistna was in Penang during the Japanese surrender there.
After India's independence, she was commissioned into the Indian Navy as INS Krisna. She was a part of the 12th Frigate Squadron, before being used for training purposes. She was decommissioned in 1981 and scrapped. Ώ]
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Godavari River, sacred river of central and southeastern India. One of the longest rivers in India, its total length is about 910 miles (1,465 km), and it has a drainage basin of some 121,000 square miles (313,000 square km).
The Godavari River rises in northwestern Maharashtra state in the Western Ghats range, only about 50 miles (80 km) from the Arabian Sea, and flows for most of its course generally eastward across the broad plateau of the Deccan (peninsular India). After traversing central Maharashtra it enters northern Telangana state northwest of Nizamabad and continues through a broad valley and forms a short stretch of Telangana’s northeastern border with Maharashtra. The river then turns southeastward for the last 200 miles (320 km) of its course, flowing through a gap in the Eastern Ghats ranges and then across Andhra Pradesh state before reaching the Bay of Bengal. There it empties via its two mouths: the Gautami Godavari to the north and the Vasishta Godavari to the south.
From its source to the Eastern Ghats, the Godavari River flows through gentle, somewhat monotonous terrain, along the way receiving the Darna, Purna, Manjra, Pranhita, and Indravati rivers. Upon entering the Eastern Ghats region, however, the river flows between steep and precipitous banks, its width contracting until it flows through a deep cleft only 600 feet (180 metres) wide, known as the Gorge. On either side wooded hills rise almost vertically from the waters. Having passed through the Eastern Ghats, the river widens again, traversing wide lowland plains, the low islands in its stream being used to grow a variety of crops, notably tobacco. At that point the Godavari flows placidly. Just below the city of Rajahmundry in Andhra Pradesh, a dam was constructed on the river in the mid-19th century by the British engineer Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton, the first major irrigation project on the Godavari. Since Indian independence from Britain in 1947, some newer projects have been completed to provide irrigation and hydroelectric power, including the Jayakwadi Dam in west-central Maharashtra, and other projects have been planned.
The upper reaches of the Godavari are dry in winter and spring, making it virtually useless for irrigation. At its mouths, however, the development of a navigable irrigation-canal system, linking its delta with that of the Krishna River to the southwest, has made the land one of the richest rice-growing areas of India. The Godavari, throughout its entire length, is sacred to the Hindus.
- ↑"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 February 2008 . https://web.archive.org/web/20080215232507/http://indiannavy.nic.in/frigates_giri.htm . Retrieved 2011-02-01 .
- ↑ Hiranandani, G. M. (9 October 2017). "Transition to Triumph: History of the Indian Navy, 1965-1975". Lancer Publishers . https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zFyMKROi46kC&pg=PA281 . Retrieved 9 October 2017 .
Naval Forces of the World, by Christopher Chant Transition to Triumph - Indian Navy 1965 to 1975, by Vice Admiral GM Hiranandani (retd)
Royal Indian Navy
The Royal Indian Navy (RIN) is a semi-autonomous unit of the Royal Navy which operates under the control of the Imperial Dominion of India, a country of the British Empire. Though subservient to the Royal Navy, the Royal Indian Navy is allowed to fly the Indian flag in addition to the White Ensign, to use its own ship prefix (HMIS Her Majesty's Indian Ship), and to crew its ships exclusively from India. The Royal Indian Navy can also pay for its own expenses through the Imperial Dominion of India's defence budget, independent of the Royal Navy proper. The Royal Indian Navy mostly performs operations in the Indian Ocean.
The Royal Indian Navy has major naval bases in Karachi, Bombay, Cochin, Colombo, Visakhapatnam, and Chittagong.
Not Too Big, Not Too Small, Often Just Right
The obvious choice for mid-size equipment and processes is an embedded HMI. However, in many cases, this middle-of-the-road HMI can also fit the bill for applications small to large. Even smaller machines can benefit from connection to the cloud, and these 6- to 15-inch embedded HMIs work well in a variety of configurations whether standalone or networked.
Embedded HMIs can go it alone, but they also play well with others. In a dedicated, standalone setup, an embedded HMI connected to small or mid-sized automated equipment is a cost-effective and simple solution. Simply ensure the correct protocol is available to talk to the machine controller, hardwire it to the controller with its included cables, and you’re ready to configure the software. Unlike OITs, these embedded HMIs have many features including the capability to interface with mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. If you’re working in a networked setup, there are two main network architecture options.
Design [ edit ]
Teg belongs to the TalwarȌlass of frigates. The Talwar-class guided missile frigates are modified Krivak III-class frigates built by Russia. These ships use stealth technologies and a special hull design to ensure a reduced radar cross section. Much of the equipment on the ship is Russian-made, but a significant number of systems of Indian origin have also been incorporated. The main differences between Teg and the earlier Talwar-class ships are the use of BrahMos missiles in place of the Klub-N missiles and the use of AK-630 instead of Kashtan in the earlier ships. Δ] It is the first of the three frigates built in Russia as a follow-up order to the first batch of Talwar-class frigates.
Trikand belongs to the TalwarȌlass of guided missile frigates. These are modified Krivak III-class frigates built by Russia. These ships use stealth technologies and a special hull design to ensure a reduced radar cross section. [ clarification needed ] Much of the equipment on the ship is Russian-made, but a significant number of systems of Indian origin have also been incorporated. The main difference between the second batch and the first three Talwar-class ships is the use of BrahMos missiles in place of the Klub-N missiles in the earlier ships. She is the last of the three frigates built in Russia as a follow-up order to the first batch of Talwar-class frigates. Β]
It is not known whether taking forskolin is safe, because it has not been thoroughly studied. Some negative reactions to forskolin have been reported. These include:
- Flushing, fast heart beats, and low blood pressure when taken through an IV
- Upper respiratory tract irritation, cough, tremor, and restlessness when inhaled
- Stinging of the eyes and enlarging of the blood vessels in the eyes
People taking blood thinners or antiplatelet drugs should not take forskolin. Also, certain high blood pressure drugs may interact with forskolin, including:
Avoid taking forskolin if you take such medications.
Forskolin should also be avoided if you have polycystic kidney disease. The safety of forskolin in pregnant and breastfeeding women is not known, so they should avoid it.
Talk to your doctor about potential risks before you take forskolin or any other dietary supplement.