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8 December 1944

8 December 1944

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8 December 1944

December 1944



Day one of a 72-day long USAAF attack on Iwo Jima

File #1227: "CAP News Bulletin Vol. III No. 37 8 December 1944.pdf"

This is the spirit that makes CAP tick. The real sacrifice that man
such as this hay-^ put into CAP should make us realize what our organization
means and should make us want to y/ork a little harder to build the kind of an

organization that men like thi^ vill want to return to when they come home.
AID TC STATE GUARD"''Tho Maine VJing was recently commended by Brig. Gen. Georgo

M. Carter, Adjutant General of the State, for cooperation with week-end

maneuvers of the Guard and particularly for communications work by radio units
of th-"' Wing, "vbich service has been of the highest order",
GUNNER SAVED BY CAP RSCCVERING—Jimmy T/ilscn of Jacksonville, Fla., the If-

year»old waist gunner who was the solo survivor of a bomber crash in Vermont
a f-^w weeks ago and was found unconS(%iou§ in the snow by a CAP search party,
is on th'- way to recovery in the hospital at 17-^stover Field. In a letter to
Rob-^rt Ladd, a young CAP member who was among the rescuers, young Wilson said.:
"The nurs-^ is writing this letter for me since I am unable to use either

of my hands. My condition has improved a bit sinco I was up on your mountain.
It will hr' a long time b-'fore I'll bo completely well but this will give me a

rest till I get back to flying," (Burlington, Vt., Freo Press.)
CLOTHING FLOWN TC EXPLCSION ARSA—Cn Oct. 2A, the Saginaw Squadron of GAP

received an em'^rgency call for clothing for the relief of victims of the
disastrous gas works explosion in Cl'^veland, Th'^ local radio station, wSAIVi

cooperated in broadcasti--g app-^als. Aft'^r the first announcement, the phone
began to rieg within A minutes and two phones w

re busy all ev-eing in receipt

of calls from g--'n'"-rous c5tize*"s. CAP m-'-mbers were cut making pick-ups till
long aft-^r mid'^ught. Next morning four CAP planes and also a truck and trailer,
donated by a Saginaw firm, loft for Cleveland loaded with clothing, the
next day, additional flights were made with warm garments, mainly overcoats,
LOST I-niCTER FCU!:D"Luthor W. Aurand, a St. Paul real estate salesman, lost
in the woods on a hunting trip last month, was spotted by a CAP plar'^ aft'^-r
ho had boon missing for 2A hours, John Barnes, the CAP pilot, dropped food.

Later th- hunter was brought out by an I-dian guid-"^. (St. Paul, Minn,, Dispatch.)
BEAVER SraVSY—Capt, Norman F. Kramer, coramandi':g the Alamosa Squadron, CAP
flew a member of tho St(to Wildlife Comnissie' on a 2^dcy survey pf beaver dams.

They flow along mountain str^'^ams, estimating beaver population. The survey
produced better results at a cost of '!)200 than was fonr^rTy achieved by 3 mon
on horseback covering the area in 3 months.

CAP CADETS AID ^M:GUT LANDING—A commercial pilot with two charter passengers

wer'=' sav^d from a forced landing at "ight by the alert.ness of four CAP Cadets
at Rocky Mount, N, C. Sgt, Ralph Gardner hoard th- plane circling. The three
others contacted him. Deciding that the plane was in distress-, they called the
airport but the beacon did not come on. So Cadet Roy Evens called the night

watchman at a nearby asphalt plant. drive over and light the runway with his
auto lights. The piano landed safely and the codets arrived soon afterwards
to drive tho pilct anc pfissongers to a hotel in town.

CIVIL iilR PATROL 50C $th Ave"lJew Yqflt --N Y-'- ■ - "CAP/l^Sl^igllLLgRIN^ .VOL. Ill
Auxiliary of the U, S, Arriy.Air. Forces . Kb, 37 '.-S December 19<ii
CAP wSg?:—Many Win^s and local unit^ of CAP have conducted "CAP--we$h" in their,
areas to acquaint citize:is v.'ith the v^orV cf the Patrol, to recruit sen-jor-and.
cace"^ nsm.b^'rs, to enlist instructors,and others cf srecial talent', ^'nd-'toi'ga-ingeneral surport tnc cooperation.- Cften such weeks have been 'cfficiall'y:, desig—

A recent r""cclamatien by ik.yor K". A, Allen cf Cntaric, Crag.on, noted .
that Lacenber 1st was the third anniversary of CAP and pointed' cut the'.record,--,
of the l.ocal CAP unit in furnishin.^ 2 base commanders, 3 rilots, 2 radio officers,

anc en office wor^'ar for active duty on GoavStal Patrol '•Ar^.._^.Ccuye^^

itr.=rec- t^-e citi.ze.-s of the community to assist CAP members -iri the furtherance7"

ECrv'L:"JV3--gAF units throughout the cpuntry.are backing the current war

bond-drive by flying over bond rallies,' offer3hg.-'.fr.e.e .plane..rides^^to bpndj^"'
rurchasers, m.'irc^'^n-'" i r rarades, and bther?'i.s.e ccop'Srat.ing Viith local cam*
v. .
p a i g n s i n e v e r y r c s s i b l - o v a y. - " ,

: ■ " .In Buffalo,Y. , according to the Buffalo News, military and-aivl-li^ia^
leaders rsrt:"cirated in Civil Air Patrol Day at Lafayette Square, , The. Air ■

C.adet .leagT>e of Canada, which i.e cr-rrating a program rimilar t''^ cur ovn CAP

cadets anc to the Air Training Ccrrs in Sp.gland, cooperated'by sending the- ■
2C2d Soubdron cf Canadian Ain-Gacets with their band', ■

At Brainard"Field'In" GoVinecti cut, accoraing to-"the Hertford Courartt-, •

there'^":re traffic iams.-at, a show '.vhich foatu.r-ed, free plane rides by GAP,
as well as flights of Army 'planes. 'in-boiads ■if/-'rs. s.oA.d. . ..v.

Th^ Harrisburg, Pa., !:evjs reports that G3,050 in bonds were sold in- orie^

morning '.vith the incentive of .CAP'.rlane rides in ■which the ycunge'st passenger

A1I this builds inter-est in aviation and in CAP as well as doing the main
job of selling bonqs. . ' . ^ . " , ' " ' '

Cii.F'CADETS i-AP LA:?1I:'G strips—"Survey of the land , within a 3G-raile .radius of
t^- Focria luniciTal Airport is ncv/ being ccmpleted b* the loc^l Squadron of
Civi:-Air Patro>,'' according..to..the Peoria., Ill,, Journal-Transcript. "The

surv?:-y is to locate pctentiai landing strips in the interest cf .pxp.jects^ for

. _ "Tyese landing strips arc-' 'L''shared and are located alb'ng'prominent

"highWy's, Thoy vill be 2',500 toƉ,000 feet long 8nd"at least 100-feqt v^ide,
The/rrcject. y-'i'l give tra.ining. to more than 100.GAP cadets now in the Peoria
Sqv^dron, ■ Adjoining Seucdrons will pprticipbte' in similar projects,.^'., ,

.•-.(See notes about .lc.rping priject3 in CAP Hens Bul>.etin Ko, -33.)

PaP^SCTS cf cadets—The inviting of parents of CAP cadets at loafft' once-ae-

World War II Today: December 8

Two more U-boats are reported to have been destroyed as the British campaign to destroy three a week continues.

Franco says Spain is not prepared to enter war.

Italian Naval Chief resigns, to be replaced by Admiral Campioni.

The Western Desert Force is now fully concentrated for ‘Operation Compass’.

Greeks take Argyrokastro and Delvino.

Congress declares war after personal address by Roosevelt. But the vote is not unanimous. The lone dissenting vote is cast by Representative Jeanette Rankin, who was a dissenter also when Congress approved U.S. entry into World War I.

Britain and dominions declare war on Japan.

The Soviet offensive against Army Group Centre succeeds in breaking through the German lines in many places, causing hasty withdrawals by ill-prepared and frost-bitten troops that are forced to abandon much heavy equipment that was immobilized by the below-zero weather.

In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational. Jews taken there are placed in mobile gas vans and driven to a burial place while carbon monoxide from the engine exhaust is fed into the sealed rear compartment, killing them. The first gassing victims include 5,000 Gypsies who had been deported from the Reich to Lodz.

The Eighth Army officially relieves the Tobruk garrison.

Japanese aircraft bomb Singapore, which as yet has not blacked out. The raid inflicts about 200 casualties, mostly civilians. Japanese troops land at Singora and Patani on the Kra peninsula in southern Thailand, which surrenders the same day. Japanese make landings at Kota Bharu on the north eastern coast of Malaya, although troops of the 8th Indian Brigade put up strong resistance against these Japanese landings. However, rumors that the Japanese had broken through the defenders, caused the RAF to evacuate Kota Bharu airfield and forced the 8th Indian Brigade to withdraw to the south after dark. Japanese troops launch an offensive against the new territories, a part of the British colony of Hong Kong. The Japanese overrun the US garrisons in Shanghai and Tientsin.

Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita begins his attack against the British army at Singapore. By nightfall, 60 of the 110 British and Australian aircraft defending Malaya and Singapore had been destroyed.

The British battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse, set sail from Singapore in an attempt to intercept and destroy the Japanese landings that are taking place at Kota Bharu on the north eastern coast of Malaya, while the RAF manages to damage three of enemy’s transports.

Japanese aircraft attack Guam and Wake Islands in the central pacific. The Japanese bomb the US controlled Philippine islands of Luzon and Mindanao from their bases in Formosa.

German troops occupy the port of Bizerte in Tunisia.

Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz becomes the chief of U.S. strategic air forces in Europe.

Australians troops capture Wareo in New Guinea.

U.S. carrier-based planes sink two cruisers and down 72 planes in the Marshall Islands.

German troops evacuate Jülich on the Roer river.

The Red Army begins an offensive aimed at encircling Budapest.

A second Japanese airborne counter-attack on Leyte achieves some success against US airfields.

The USAAF begins a 72-day bombardment of Iwo Jima Island 700 miles to the South of Japan.

The Comanche Chief (Comanche, Tex.), Vol. 72, No. 19, Ed. 1 Friday, December 8, 1944

Weekly newspaper from Comanche, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

twelve pages : ill. page 24 x 18 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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  • Main Title: The Comanche Chief (Comanche, Tex.), Vol. 72, No. 19, Ed. 1 Friday, December 8, 1944
  • Serial Title:The Comanche Chief


Weekly newspaper from Comanche, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

twelve pages : ill. page 24 x 18 in.
Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.



Library of Congress Subject Headings

University of North Texas Libraries Browse Structure


Item Type


Unique identifying numbers for this issue in the Portal or other systems.

  • Library of Congress Control Number: sn85033465
  • OCLC: 11974064 | External Link
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metapth841601

Publication Information

  • Volume: 72
  • Issue: 19
  • Edition: 1


This issue is part of the following collections of related materials.

Comanche Area Newspapers

The Comanche Area Newspapers represent a collection of newspaper titles from Comanche County, Texas. The bulk of this collection comes from The Comanche Chief, which is owned and operated by the Wilkerson family and is now in its third generation of newspaper publishing.

Tocker Foundation Grant

Collections funded by the Tocker Foundation, which distributes funds principally for the support, encouragement, and assistance to small rural libraries in Texas.

Texas Digital Newspaper Program

The Texas Digital Newspaper Program (TDNP) partners with communities, publishers, and institutions to promote standards-based digitization of Texas newspapers and to make them freely accessible.

Referat & citat = European contemporary history & policy: * Raoul Wallenberg

There was 1944, an important last-ditch, German defenceline, stretching from the Balatonlake to the (today most dried up? ) Velencelake, and from there, over: Martonvásar, up to Budafók, a western, suburb to (Buda)Pest. (Here the Wehrmacht and SS had deployed around 400 panzer-vehicles, and reserves, to battle a Soviet breakthrough, around the 8th of December. (Close to a main road to Budapest.)

Both the Soviet fronts, (2nd & 3rd Ukranian. ) meet at Ercsi, to the North. – – —GERRIT VAN DER WAALS, worked with the Swedes, (Legation´s B-section) until 8 December 1944, when he was arrested by units of the Red Army, 4th.Guard army, (at Velencelake) or more precisely by people working for the Smersh units of the 4th Guards Army, (3rd Ukranian.Front (Due to the K.Schandl´s triology, he was sent there, to contact the Russians, later to be transferred, by them, to the Allies base in Italy/ Bari.) ( He imagined…)

Within a month, both WAALS and WALLENBERG, are prisoners, of the Soviet´s Smersh units, both in for the Red army, critical battle sectors, West and East of Budapest, and without regular identifications /credible written orders, warrants, from SOE or the Swedish legation, but perhaps with some personal projects, in mind, and could easily been suspected of spying, from their locations.

– – – Lieutenant Gerrit van der Waals (Vanderwaals), was an employee in the Dutch section of the “B department” at the Swedish legation in Budapest from 1944 on, and according to the Soviet files, »- when he was arrested the Dutch-man was said to have been carrying documents in the English, German and French languages concerning military intelligence operations directed against the Soviet Union. » – – –

Both were jailed and disappeared. Even Gerrit van der Waals, (specialist/ forging identification cards) could have informed the Smersh, of Raoul Wallenberg activities, during that coming month. Their cooperation, in Budapest, if then known, by the Russians, could have been used and turned against them, from start. What did Raoul Wallenberg know about the fate of van der Waals, during this month ? We don´t know .Who betrayed – if so, (SOE ?/C.Schandl) – van der Waals ?
The « BudaPestgroup »/special unit, contained six (6) divisions, commanded by Major General, I.M. AFONIN, but between the: 30th.Rifle corp, (from North) and the 18th. Guard Rifle Corp, (from South) (from the 7.th Guard Army, Leut. Major Schumilov) ,even the 7th Romanian Rifle Corps, joins the offensive, in direction right on – the central part of Pest. But the Romanian corp, was withdrew, the 15th of January, 1945, and was deployed in Czechoslovakia. (The Romanian casualties between the 1st of December and the 15th of January, (Budapest sector) was about, 11.000/=30% (= average Red Army-war losses)
Göran Rydeberg.eu./ claims : (about mrs Sandorne Erdös et al, interviewed by Paul A. Levine, 1990) (+ the RW-eu.) « – – –In themselves, the stories told by the witnesses are quite incredible and their contention that Romanian forces were involved in the abduction of Wallenberg and his chauffeur is totally incorrect. * However, it is interesting to note that the two women claim that the Swedish diplomat had been involved in discussions with Hungarians who were in a position to give information on the delicate relations between the country and Romania. » – – –

Attila Lajos claims/ eu. : ) « – – –The credibility in the interview no 514, is weakening, when the informant, claims, there was, a » Romanian officer, talking perfect German, who met Raoul Wallenberg, the 14th of January, 1945, and brought Wallenberg to the Russian headquarter in Cinkota , the East of Hungary. » – –( But « Cinkota » is situated just outside East of Pest, not far away.)
The Romanian 7th. Corps, in « the Budapest Group », was headed against the Pest city (!) parts, more than the two flanking Red Army, corps,(30th & 18th) so Romanian officers, could have been in place near the positions where Raoul Wallenberg was hiding, around 13-15th January, 1945. (By that, this « Romanian » connection – can´t be 100%, ruled out.)

(Anyway, about ,the Romanian army´s participating and moves those days there is not that much writings, to give perspectives, in the context of Wallenberg´s ”walk-in”/ apprehension, during of the capture of Pest, 1945.) (Due to Gellert Kovacs, the Romanians, fighted « too » fierce, against the Hungarians, their « hereditary foe », but were « not allowed by the Russians/Malinowski, to share the honour « , of capturing, Budapest.)
« – – – The first known Soviet document, where Raoul Wallenberg is mentioned, (indirectly), is a preserved order, from the 317th.- Rifle division (in the 18th. Guards Corp) commander Leutn. Raga and major Smirnov, from the 12 th januari, and about protection of the Swedish legation. – – –

(The 18th. Guards Rifle Corp contained three divisions, two Guards Div., the 66th. and the 68th, but the 317th. division was not a Guard division, « Guard », always a Soviet elite force. ) (This deployment from the 24th – 30th of December 1944, so the 151st Rifle Division, could have been reinforcing, and attached, during beginning January, 1945.)

« – – -The 15th of January, the staffcommander of 2nd Ukrainian Front, Leut.General M(atvei) V(asilevich) ZACHAROV (1898-72) reports to his Marshal R(odion).Malinowski and the Soviet General staff, (Antonov) , that Raoul Wallenberg was found, by the 151st. Rifle Division (and its 581st Infantry regiment /source: I Carlberg) (of the 30th Rifle Corps, of the 7th Guard Army, (=commander Col. General, M(ichail) S(tepanovich) Shumilow.) (1898-75). – – –-

The 16th of January 1945, the Soviet´s vice foreign minister, Dekanozov, reports to the Swedish ambassador, Staffan Söderblom, that Raoul Wallenberg have been taken in custody. (Then, even the British pressattaché in Stockholm, Herbert Caird North,/PRB and Vilmos Böhm, soon got this message, especially from Söderblom. This, fact, from the SOU 2003:18, observed as a today, unsolved problem.)
The Leutn. General, Dmitrij A(ndrevich) KUPRIANOV, (1901-71), (66th Guard Rifle Division in the 18th Guard Rifle Corp) (even in the staff of the 7th Guard Army/source: Carlberg) reports to the commander of the 30th Rifle Corps, of its 151th Rifle Division´s/581 infantry regiment.) contact with Wallenberg, and ordered he should be transferred to the main commander (among of, his own whole corp), 18th Guard Rifle Corp, commander Major General, Pavel A.(?) AFONIN : (this name due to to the Swedish official report/ Rydeberg), but other printed sources give for sure: . . . . . . . .

. . . . .. that, General, (AFONIN, I(van).M(ikhailovich.) was the commander of the 18th Guards Rifle Corps, but wounded January, 21/22 1945 through an ammunitionexplosion. Then I.(van) M.(efodevich) Managorow, (1898-81) replaced him for a while, from the 53rd. Rifle Army, in the 2nd Ukrainian Front, (Malinowski).

But Rydeberg is probably wrong here, latest http://www.source gives: Ivan Mikhailovich, AFONIN, Major general, commanding the 18th. Guards Rifle Corp, since 1943, (1904-1979). (I.M Afonin even on a photo, with Marshal Malinowski´s staff, in Pestszentlörinc, 25 km south-east, outside Budapest.) (*Not Pavel A. Afonin, an Airborne corps, commander.)

Again, AFONIN , I.M. was even the commander of the special unit, « Red army, Budapest group », containing, (1.)the 30.th Rifle Division, probably, Major General, Iankovskii, Viktor Pavlovich/ (1907-1966) (2.) 7th Romanian Corps, and (3.) the 18th. Guards Rifle Corp, with the special mission, to capture Pest, the Eastern main part, of Budapest.
Raoul Wallenberg, was ordered under arrest, by vice defenceminister, Nikolaj Bulganin, the 17th of January, and transported to Moscow, the 25th of January.
Wallenberg was transported due to the Russian orders,from their, the 30th. Rifle Corp, fighting from, North of Pest – to the 18th Guard Rifle Corp, in the South, the latter, most an elite”guard” force. This is something, more detailed, about the commanders/military units/deployments, and battles, what could have influenced both van der Waals´s and Wallenberg´s situation, both active in volontary contacts with the Red army units. (But much of the order of the battle, December/January is difficult, to reconstruct, from the literary sources.)

(* There is a Russian 1965, study of the battles of Budapest, Vienna, Berlin, with offensive maps, and troop movements, photos, day by day: Budapešt, Vena, Praga : 4 aprelja 1945 g., 13 aprelja 1945 g., 9 maja 1945 g. : istoriko-memuarnyj trud / pod obščej red. R.Ja. Malinovskogo Malinovskij, Rodion Jakovlevič (Medarbetare) Moskva, 1965, 381 s. : ill. Serie: Vtoraja mirovaja vojna v issledovanijach i vospominanijach
The third German offensive early in the morning of the 18th of January, with battles of the Stalingrad intensity, from South of Budapest, in order to reach Danube, and then swing to the North, to break the Siege. Very serious problems for the Red army, around the 21 of January when the Germans in the South, splitted Marshal Tolbuchins , 3rd Ukrainian front in two. The situation is stabilizing, first the 27th of January. (The first German offensive: the 1/1-6/1, the second, the 7/1-13/1, no doubt, » once a week ».) (But Wallenberg, was transferred, the day before, the 17th, what can be interpret , (if mean), as to prevent him from observing the Red Army´moves, in a critical phase, as he performed some « climbing around », visiting different military units/staffs.)

The Russians had to transfer, the 30th. Rifle Corp, what just finished the capture of Northern Pest, 70 km, south of Budapest, to prevent the Germans from bridging the Danube, where even, important (3rd.Ukr.) staffs/weapons already had taken up, new positions, West of the Danube. The 18.th Guard Rifle corp, had so heavy losses, they must stay behind in Pest, and by that there is no renewal of the Red Army offensive against the Buda/part – from the Pest-side. (*But against the Margaret Island, the 19th-25th of January, from North.)

Hitler´s choice of Budapest as defenseline, was based on the Pest´s many citybuildings, suited for close battle, and hard to capture, then the river Danube, to cross, 7 bridges to blow, if needed, or transport warmateriels south, and on the Buda-side, buildings, high mountains, advantageous for every defender, and an emergency exit to the west.

That´s why the Red army must cut off all communications with the city, for reinforcements, and in spite of that, they need 40 days to proclaim victory. A city must be surrounded, to be captured. Warsaw was never surrounded, and the Wisla river was bridged north of the city, about January 17, when the Germans withdraw

8 December 1944 - History

Part of the Axis Order of Battle Series by John Mulholland.

The Artic Front (under OKW command)

And Wehr.Befh.- Norway:
AOK Reserves:
- Stab XVIII (18) Gebirgskorps.
Armee-Abt.”Narvik” (Stab XIX (19) Gebirgskorps):
Armee Reserves:
- Stab XXXVI (36) Gebirgskorps
- Stab XVIII (18) Gebirgskorps
- M.G.Ski-Bde.”Finland”
- Pz.Bde.”Norway”
XIX (19) Gebirgskorps:
- 7 Geb.Div. + 139 Geb.Bde.
- 230 Inf.Div.
- 6 Geb.Div. + 388 Gren.Bde.
- Div.Grp.”K” (140 z.b.V.Div.)
- 270 Inf.Div. + 193 Gren.Bde.
- 169 Inf.Div.
LXXI (71) Armeekorps:
- 210 Inf.Div. + Fest.Bde.”Lofoten”
- 163 Inf.Div.
- 199 Inf.Div. + 503 Gren.Bde..
GebirgsAOK 20 – direct:
XXXIII (33) Armeekorps:
- 14 Luft.Fld.Div.
- 702 Inf.Div.
- 295 Inf.Div.
LXX (70) Armeekorps:
- 280 Inf.Div.
- 274 Inf.Div.

The Eastern Front (under OKW command)

- “Nord” Fld.Trg.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- Stab 52 Sich.Div.
I (01) Armeekorps:
- 563 VG.Div.
- 225 Inf.Div.
- 32 Inf.Div.
- 218 Inf.Div.
- 11 Inf.Div.
III (03) Panzerkorps-SS:
- 4 SS-PzGR.Bde. “Nederland”
- 11 SS-PzGR.Div. “Nordland”
- 121 Inf.Div.
X (10) Armeekorps:
- 132 Inf.Div.
- 87 Inf.Div.
- 30 Inf.Div.
II (02) Armeekorps:
- 14 Pz.Div.
- 31 VG.Div.
- 263 Inf.Div.
- 126 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- Stab 207 Sich.Div.z.b.V.
- Stab 201 Sich.Div.
XXXVIII (38) Armeekorps:
- 329 Inf.Div. + 201 Sich.Div. (part)
- 205 Inf.Div.
- 215 Inf.Div. + 227 Inf.Div. (part)
L (50) Armeekorps:
- 389 Inf.Div.
- 290 Inf.Div.
- 122 Inf.Div.
- 24 Inf.Div.
VI (06) SS-Korps:
- 93 Inf.Div.
- 19 SS-Div. “Latvian#2”
- 12 Luft.Fld.Div.
- 4 Pz.Div.
- 12 Pz.Div.
- 227 Inf.Div. (most)
XVI (16) Armeekorps:
- Group “Henze” (Stab 21 Luft.Fld.Div.) + 201 Sich.Div. (part)
- 281 Inf.Div.
- 81 Inf.Div.

- 7 Pz.Div.
- 18 PzGR.Div. (forming)
- Group “Hauer” (605 z.b.V.Div.)
- 20 Pz.Div.

XX (20) Armeekorps:
- 14 Inf Div.
- 292 Inf.Div.
- 102 Inf.Div.
XXIII (23) Armeekorps:
- 5 Jag.Div.
- 7 Inf.Div.
- 299 Inf.Div.
- 129 Inf.Div.
XXVII (27) Armeekorps:
- 542 VG.Div.
- 252 Inf.Div.
- 35 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 5 Pz.Div.
- “HG.1” Pz.Div.
LV (55) Armeekorps:
- 547 VG.Div.
- 562 VG.Div.
- 203 Inf.Div.
VI (06) Armeekorps:
- 541 VG.Div.
- Group “Hannibal”
- 131 Inf.Div.
- 558 VG.Div.
XXXXI (41) Panzerkorps:
- 170 Inf.Div.
- 367 Inf.Div.
- 50 Inf.Div.
- 28 Jag.Div.
- 21 Inf.Div.
“H.G.” Panzerkorps:
- “HG.2” PzGR.Div.
- 61 Inf.Div.

XXVI (26) Armeekorps:
- 549 VG.Div.
- 349 VG.Div.
- 1 Inf.Div.
- 69 Inf.Div.
IX (09) Armeekorps:
- 56 Inf.Div.
- 561 VG.Div.
- 548 VG.Div.
- 551 VG.Div.
- Stab 286 Sich.Div.
XXVIII (28) Armeekorps:
- Stab 607 z.b.V.Div.
- 58 Inf.Div.
- 95 Inf.Div.

- Stab XXIV (24) Panzerkorps
- Stab XXXX (40) Panzerkorps
- 601 z.b.V.Div.
- 602 z.b.V.Div.
- 603 z.b.V.Div.
- 608 z.b.V.Div.
- 391 Sich.Div.
- 344 Inf.Div. (in transit)
- 16 Pz.Div.
- 17 Pz.Div.
- 20 PzGR.Div.
- 19 Pz.Div.
- 25 Pz.Div.
- 10 PzGR.Div. (KGrp)
ARMEEGRUPPE “Heinrici” (Stab PzAOK 1):
AOK Reserves:
- 154 Fld.Trg.Div.

(Under AGrp.”Heinrici”)
XVII (17) Armeekorps:
- 208 Inf.Div.
- 3 Geb.Div. (KGrp)
- 4 Geb.Div. (KGrp)
V (05) (Hung) Corps:
- 24 (Hung) Inf.Div. + 1 (Hung) Mtn.Bde.
- 16 (Hung) Inf.Div.

(Under AGrp.”Heinrici”)
XXXXIX (49) Gebirgskorps:
- 1 Ski-Jag.Div. + 2 (Hung) Res.Div.
- 97 Jag.Div.
- 254 Inf.Div.
- 101 Jag.Div.
XI (11) Armeekorps:
- 75 Inf.Div. + 5 (Hung) Res.Div.
- 100 Jag.Div.
- 253 Inf.Div.

XI (11) SS-Korps:
- 545 VG.Div.
- 78 VG.Div.
- 320 VG.Div.
LIX (59) Armeekorps:
- 544 VG.Div.
- 359 Inf.Div.
- 371 Inf.Div.

XXXXVIII (48) Panzerkorps:
- 304 Inf.Div.
- 68 Inf.Div.
- 168 Inf.Div.
XXXXII (42) Armeekorps:
- 291 Inf.Div.
- 88 Inf.Div.
- 72 Inf.Div.
- 342 Inf.Div.

LVI (56) Panzerkorps:
- 214 Inf.Div.
- 17 Inf.Div.
VIII (08) Armeekorps:
- 45 VG.Div.
- 6 VG.Div.
- 251 Inf.Div.
XXXXVI (46) Panzerkorps:
- 337 VG.Div.
- 73 Inf.Div.
- Kdr.Fest.”Warsaw”
- 70 H-Pi.Bde.

- 153 Fld.Trg.Div.
- Pz.Trg.Div.”Tatra”
- Stab IV (04) SS-Panzerkorps
- 3 SS-Pz.Div. “Tot.”
- 5 SS-Pz.Div. “Vik”
- 711 Inf.Div.
- 118 Jag.Div.
- 211 Inf.Div.
- 96 Inf.Div.

LXVIII (68) Armeekorps:
- 44 Inf.Div.
- 13 SS-Geb.Div. “Croatian#1” (remnants)
- 71 Inf.Div.
XXII (22) Gebirgskorps:
- 1 Geb.Div. + 92 Mot.Gren.Bde. (remnants)
- 3 Kav.Bde.
ARMEEGRUPPE “Balck” (Stab AOK 6):

(Under AGrp.”Balck”)
II (02) (Hung) Corps:
- 25 (Hung) Inf.Div.

(Under AGrp.”Balck”)
Group “Breith” (Stab III (03) Panzerkorps):
- Kav.Korps:
-- 1 Pz.Div.
-- 23 Pz.Div.
-- 4 Kav.Bde.
- Group “Pape”:
-- 3 Pz.Div. (part)
-- 1 (Hung) Cav.Div.
-- 8 Pz.Div. (part)
-- 6 Pz.Div. (part)
-- 271 VG.Div.
Group “Kirchner” (Stab LVII (57) Panzerkorps):
- LXXII (72) Armeekorps:
-- 6 Pz.Div. (part) + Div.”Szentlaszlo”
-- 2 (Hung) Arm.Div. (remnants)
-- 3 Pz.Div. (part)
- LVII (57) Panzerkorps:
-- 8 Pz.Div. (part)
-- Group “Rintelen”
-- 357 Inf.Div. (remnants)
IX (09) SS-Gebirgskorps:
- Group “Schmidthuber”
- Pz.Div.”F”
- 13 Pz.Div. + 10 (Hung) Inf.Div.
- 22 SS-Cav.Div. + 1 (Hung) Arm.Div.
- 8 SS-Cav.Div. “Flo.Gey.”
- 12 (Hung) Res.Div. (remnants) +
-- Group “Kesseoe” +
-- 23 (Hung) Inf.Div. (remnants)
AOK Reserves:
- 9 (Hung) Border Div.
- 27 (Hung) Light Div. (remnants)
- Stab IX (09) (Hung) Corps
XXIX (29) Armeekorps:
- 8 Jag.Div.
- 15 Inf.Div. (o.1 Rgt.)
- 76 Inf.Div.
IV (04) Panzerkorps:
- 24 Pz.Div.
- 4 SS-PzGR.Div. “Polizei” + 18 SS-PzGR.Div. “H.W.”
- 46 Inf.Div.
- SS-Inf.Bde. “Dirlewanger”

The Balkans Front (under OKW command)

And OB - “Southeast”:
Stab V (05) SS-Gebirgskorps

Heeresgruppe “E”:
(Acting as an AOK under HGrp.”F”):
LXXXXI (91) z.b.V.Korps:
- 963 Fest.Bde.
- 964 Fest.Bde.
- 966 Fest.Bde.
- 1077 Fest.Bde.
- 22 Inf.Div.
- 369 (Kroat) Inf.Div.
- 181 Inf.Div.
- 297 Inf.Div. (o.1 Regt.)
XXI (21) Gebirgskorps:
- 104 Jag.Div.
- 297 Inf.Div. (part)
- 967 Fest.Bde.
- 969 Fest.Bde.
- 41 Fest.Div.
XXXIV (34) z.b.V.Korps:
- 7 SS-Geb.Div. “Prinz Eugen”
- 21 SS-Div. “Albanian#1” (remnants)
- 11 Luft.Fld.Div. + 117 Jag.Div.
- 1 Geb.Div. (KGrp)
- 264 Inf.Div. (part)
- Koruck z.b.V. “Stephan”
- 18 SS-Police Geb.Jag.Regt.
- 5 SS-Police Regt.
XV (15) Gebirgskorps:
- 264 Inf.Div. (o.1 Rgt.)
- 373 (Kroat) Inf.Div.
- 392 (Kroat) Inf.Div.
Kdt.d. Ost (Eastern) Aegean:
- 939 Fest.Bde. (Rhodes)
- 968 Fest.Bde. (Leros)
Kdt.d.Festung “Crete”:
- 133 Fest.Div. (part)

The Italian front (under OKW command)

And OB - “Southwest”:
ARMEEGRUPPE “Ligurien” :
- 162 Inf.Div. (ohne 1 Rgt.)
- SS-Gren.Bde. “Italian#1” (forming)
LXXV (75) Armeekorps:
- 5 Geb.Div.
- 34 Inf.Div.
- 2 (Ital) Inf.Div. “Littorio”
Korps “Lombardia”:
- 3 (Ital) Inf.Div. “San Marco”
- 148 Inf.Div. (part)
- 4 (Ital) Mtn.Div. “Monte Rosa” (part)

(Under AGrp.”Ligurien”)
AOK Reserve:
- 1 (Ital) Inf.Div. “Italia”
LI (51) Gebirgskorps:
- 148 Inf.Div. (ohne1 Rgt.)
- 4 (Ital) Mtn.Div. “Monte Rosa” (ohne 1 Rgt.)
- 232 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 26 Pz.Div.
- 157 Geb.Div.
- 98 Inf.Div.
I (01) Fschjag.Korps:
- 94 Inf.Div.
- 4 Fschjag.Div.
XIV (14) Panzerkorps:
- 65 Inf.Div.
- 362 Inf.Div.
- 42 Jag.Div.
- 1 Fschjag.Div.
- 334 Inf.Div.
LXXVI (76) Panzerkorps:
- 715 Inf.Div.
- 90 PzGR.Div.
- 29 PzGR.Div.
- 278 Inf.Div.
LXXIII (73) z.b.V.Korps:
- 356 Inf.Div.
- 162 (Turk) Inf.Div. (1 Regt.)
- 114 Jag.Div.
- 710 Inf.Div. (part)
- 16 SS-PzGR.Div. “RFSS”
XCVII (97) z.b.V.Korps:
- 710 Inf.Div. (most – forming)
- 188 Res.Geb.Div.
- 237 Inf.Div.

The Western Front (under OKW command)

- 166 Res.Div.
- 160 Res.Div.
- 233 Res.Pz.Div.
- 2 Geb.Div. (refitting)
- 6 Inf.Div.
OB - “WEST”:
OB Reserves:
- Div.Stab z.b.V.604 (stationed in the Netherlands)
- 70 Inf.Div. (formation unknown)

XXX (30) z.b.V.Korps:
- 346 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
LXXXVIII (88) Armeekorps:
- 711 Inf.Div.
- 6 Fschjag.Div.
- 2 Fschjag.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 7 Fschjag.Div.
- Kdo. “Feldt”
II (02) Fschjag.Korps:
- 606 z.b.V.Div.
LXXXVI (86) Armeekorps:
- 84 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
- 180 Inf.Div.
- 190 Inf.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 10 SS-Pz.Div. “Frund.”
XII (12) SS-Korps:
- 176 Inf.Div.
- 59 Inf.Div.
- 183 VG.Div.
LXXXI (81) Armeekorps:
- 47 VG.Div.
- 353 Inf.Div.
- 363 VG.Div.
LXXIV (74) Armeekorps:
- 85 Inf.Div.
- 272 VG.Div.
- 326 VG.Div.
LXVII (67) Armeekorps:
- 277 VG.Div.
- 246 VG.Div.
- 89 Inf.Div.
- 3 Fschjag.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 12 VG.Div.
LXVI (66) Armeekorps:
- 18 VG.Div.
- 62 VG.Div.
II (02) Panzerkorps-SS:
- 9 SS-Pz.Div. “Honhen.”
- 560 VG.Div.
- 2 SS-Pz.Div. “Reich”

AOK Reserves:
- Stab I (01) SS-Panzerkorps
- 340 VG.Div.
- 12 SS-Pz.Div. “H.J.”
LVIII (58) Panzerkorps:
- 116 Pz.Div.
- 9 Pz.Div.
- 2 Pz.Div.
XXXIX (39) Panzerkorps:
- 3 PzGR.Div.
- 26 VG.Div.
- 1 SS-Pz.Div. “LAH”
XXXXVII (47) Panzerkorps:
- Pz.Div. “Lehr”
- Fuhrer Begl.Div.
- 15 PzGR.Div.

AOK Reserves:
- 11 Pz.Div.
LXXXV (85) Armeekorps:
- 352 VG.Div.
- 79 VG.Div.
LXXX (80) Armeekorps:
- 276 VG.Div.
- 212 VG.Div.
LIII (53) Armeekorps:
5 Fschjag.Div.
Fuhrer Gren.Div.
9 VG.Div.

- 553 VG.Div. (forming)

AOK Reserves:
- Div.Nr.526
- 559 VG.Div.
- 36 VG.Div.
- 17 SS-PzGR.Div. “Gotz von B.”
- 25 PzGR.Div. (KGrp)
- 21 Pz.Div.
XIII (13) SS-Korps:
- 347 Inf.Div.
- 19 VG.Div.
LXXX (80) Armeekorps:
- 257 VG.Div.
Group “Hoehne” (Stab LXXXIX (89) Armeekorps):
- 361 VG.Div.
- 245 Inf.Div.
- 256 VG.Div.
XXV (25) Armeekorps:
- 265 Inf.Div.
- 319 Inf.Div.
- 226 Inf.Div.
- Fest.”Lorient”

OB “Oberrhein”:
(Under RFSS command)
- Stab XIV (14) SS-Korps: (forming)
- Stab XVIII (18) SS-Korps: (forming)
- Div.Nr.405
- 716 Inf.Div. (part)

LXIV (64) Armeekorps:
- 708 VG.Div. + 716 Inf.Div. (most)
- 198 Inf.Div.
- 189 Inf.Div.
- 106 Pz.Bde.
- 16 VG.Div.
LXIII (63) Armeekorps:
- 159 Inf.Div.
- 269 Inf.Div.
- 338 Inf.Div.

General reserves

Chef H.Rust und BdE:
- 23 Inf.Div. (forming in Wkr.I)
- 300 z.b.V.Div. (forming in Wkr.I)
- 275 VG.Div. (forming in Wkr.X)
- 83 Inf.Div. (forming in Wkr.XX)
- 182 Res.Div. (forming in Slovakia)
- 48 VG.Div. (forming in Slovakia)
- 167 VG.Div. (forming)
- 182 Res.Div. (forming)
- 14 SS-Div. “Ukranian#1” (forming in Slovakia)
- 15 SS-Div. “Latvian#1” (forming)
- 20 SS-Div. “Estonian#1” (forming)
- 27 SS-Div. “Langemarck” (forming)
- 28 SS-Div. “ Wallonien” (forming)
- SS-Gren.Bde.”Franz.” (forming)
- SS-Gren.Bde. “Tartar#1” (forming in Hungary)
- SS-Gren.Bde. “Land.Neder.” (forming in Holland)
- 600 (Russ.) Inf.Div. (forming in Wkr.V)
- 23 SS-Div. “Kroatian#1” (forming in Croatia)
- 31 SS-Div. “Boh.-Mah.” (forming in Wkr.XVIII)
- 25 SS-Div. “Hungarian#1” (forming)
- 1 Kos.Kav.Div. (forming in Croatia)
- 2 Kos.Kav.Div. (forming in Croatia)

Note: All units are German unless otherwise indicated.
All errors, omissions, or “typos” are those of the writer.

Map HQ Twelfth Army Group situation map : [Battle of the Bulge--France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Germany]

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Scholla: What’s In a Name December 1, 1944

It was very seldom, indeed that Davy Bressler found an opportunity to spend an evening with “the boys” as old cronies foregathered around the old stove in the country store and spat tobacco juice into the coal bucket. Years earlier Davy had been a member of that fraternity, but he was exiled as a result of his marriage to Sabina Lamb, who lived on the crest of South Mountain near Blainsport. He lived on the rocky farm with his wife’s people and his excursions to his old haunts in Womelsdorf were few.

Davy’s boyhood companions also had married, but their spouses lived in town. Horace Guth, Uriah Lengel, and “Butch” Geissler made it a part of life’s routine to seek the friendly shelter of Harvey Bennetch’s store – General Store, Dry Goods, Wet Goods, Groceries and Notions – each evenin, there to converse upon the topics of the day and pass judgement upon the acts of Congress or the merits of mechanical flies as fishing bait. One crisp October evening these veterans of the “cracker barrel” forum were astonished to see their old friend, Davy Bressler, enter the store and take a seat among them.

“Why! Davy! What are you doing away from your wife’s apron strings?” Taunted “Butch” Geissler.

“Just bought a new buggy from Andy Schoener, and I must wait until the wheels are greased before I can go home,” answered Davy, rather testily.

“Ei!Ei! What will Sabina say when you get home so late?”

“Sabina? My wife is the quiet kind. I am the boss in my home. You see, I married a Lamb, and lambs are meek and patient. Yep! I’m the boss with a capital B.

“Well,” muttered Horace Guth, “I married a Mauser, and you all know how sly mice are. She watches me like a cat that is a good mouser.”

“And I married a Haas, said Lengel, complainingly, and you know that rabbits sleep with one eye open. I can’t get away with anything.

“My wife’s maiden name was Baer,” explained “Butch” Geisseler. “I’ll admit that I’m afraid of her.”

“That’s where you fellows made a mistake,” chortled Davy, “always watch the name of the person you deal with. See, I bought my buggy from Andy Schoener – the name Schoener means “pretty – and I got a pretty buggy.”

“But will Sabina like it?” queried Horace, winking to Uriah, as he spoke.

“Sure she will. I bought it, didn’t I? And I’m the boss in my family, I, David Himmelberger Bressler!”

The following evening the group was assembled as usual, in the food emporioum belonging to Harvey Bennetch, when Davy stalked into the store room again. Surprised to see their buddy so soon after the visit of the previous evening, one of the veterans asked:

“How’s this, that you come to town in the evening, two evenings in a row.”

2. Retreat and evacuation

As the Japanese advance into Burma gained momentum, British reinforcements began to arrive. But they couldn't prevent the fall of Burma's capital city, Rangoon, or of Mandalay, Burma's second city. British and Empire forces under Generals Alexander and Slim began the long and tortuous withdrawal to India. In what became the longest fighting withdrawal in the history of the British Army, the retreating troops faced problems of sickness and disease, impenetrable jungle, poor roads and constant harassment from the Japanese Air Force. They shared the retreat with thousands of civilian refugees fleeing northwards to India to escape the threat of Japanese brutality. The last stragglers crossed the final mountain range into India at Imphal in May 1942. Prue Brewis was serving with the Women's Auxiliary Service (Burma) at the time of the invasion. She was one of the thousands who fled Burma for India, in a long and exhausting journey.

Prue Brewis interview
© IWM (IWM SR 22741)

'We were absolutely packed like sardines'

On This Day: December 12

On Dec. 12, 1963, Kenya gained its independence from Britain.

On Dec. 12, 1915, Frank Sinatra, the American singer and actor who elevated popular song into an art, was born. Following his death on May 14, 1998, his obituary appeared in The Times.

On Dec. 12, 2000, a divided U.S. Supreme Court halted the presidential recount in Florida, effectively making Republican George W. Bush the winner.

On This Date

1745 John Jay, statesman and the first chief justice of the Supreme Court, was born in New York City.
1787 Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1870 Joseph H. Rainey of South Carolina took his seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, becoming the first black congressman.
1897 "The Katzenjammer Kids," the pioneering comic strip by Rudolph Dirks, debuted in the New York Journal.
1914 The New York Stock Exchange re-opened for the first time since July 30. The market had shut down when World War I broke out.
1915 Singer Frank Sinatra was born in Hoboken, N.J.
1917 Father Edward Flanagan founded Boys Town outside Omaha, Neb.
1924 New York City Mayor Ed Koch was born in the Bronx.
1925 The first motel, the Motel Inn, opened, in San Luis Obispo, Calif.
1947 The United Mine Workers union withdrew from the American Federation of Labor.
1963 Kenya gained its independence from Britain.
1975 Sara Jane Moore pleaded guilty to trying to kill President Gerald R. Ford.
1998 The House Judiciary Committee approved a fourth article of impeachment against President Bill Clinton and submitted the case to the full House.
2003 Keiko, the killer whale made famous by the "Free Willy" movies, died in a Norwegian fjord.
2009 Houston became the largest U.S. city to elect an openly gay mayor, with voters handing a solid victory to City Controller Annise Parker.

Historic Birthdays

Frank Sinatra 12/12/1915 - 5/14/1998 American actor and singer.Go to obituary »
61 Alvaro de Bazan Santa Cruz 12/12/1526 - 2/9/1588
Spanish naval commander
83 John Jay 12/12/1745 - 5/17/1829
First chief justice of the United States
73 William Lloyd Garrison 12/12/1805 - 5/24/1879
American abolitionist
64 Stand Watie 12/12/1806 - 9/9/1871
Cherokee chief
67 Gustave Flaubert 12/12/1821 - 5/8/1880
French novelist
80 Edvard Munch 12/12/1863 - 1/23/1944
Norweigan painter
72 Arthur Garfield Brisbane 12/12/1864 - 12/25/1936
American editor and writer
51 Alvin Kraenzlein 12/12/1876 - 1/6/1928
American Olympic athlete first competitor to win four gold medals in a single Olympics
73 Arthur Garfield Hays 12/12/1881 - 12/14/1954
American lawyer and defender of civil liberties
79 Edward G. Robinson 12/12/1893 - 1/26/1973
American actor
85 Henry Armstrong 12/12/1912 - 10/24/1988
American boxer
65 John Osborne 12/12/1929 - 12/24/1994
English playwright

Correction: An earlier version of the historical birthday list incorrectly referred to Edward G. Robinson as a singer.

Watch the video: Η απελευθέρωση της Αθήνας 1944 (August 2022).