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CERN Large Hadron Collider is powered up

CERN Large Hadron Collider is powered up



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On September 10, 2008, scientists successfully flip the switch for the first time on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) lab in Geneva, kicking off what many called history’s biggest science experiment.

Testing particle physics theories, the $8 billion LHC is the largest particle accelerator in the world, made up of superconducting magnets that allow engineers and physicists to study subatomic particles including protons, electrons, quarks and photons. The LHC can create 600 million collisions per second.

The 17-mile underground ring, located beneath the Swiss-French border, sends particle beams at close to the speed of light, causing them to collide and recreate debris caused by the Big Bang. At the time of its launch, some scientists and environmentalists speculated that the LHC would create a mini black hole that could end the world. These claims were refuted by CERN and physicist Stephen Hawking, who said any mini black holes would evaporate instantly.

The goal of the LHC, the largest scientific instrument on the planet, was to create and discover the Higgs boson, better known as “the God particle.” In 1964, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert came up with the theory that the particle associated with a mass-transmitting energy field was the key to how everything in the universe acquires mass.

In 2012, CERN announced the LHC experiments had allowed researchers to observe a particle consistent with the Higgs boson. On Oct. 8, 2013, Higgs and Englert were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider.”


The largest machine ever made by man, known as Large Hadron Collider (LHC) went live on September 10, 2008. This event was a new technological stepping-stone in the history of the planet as scientists could now prove the fundamental open questions in physics with proof that the calculations of greats like Albert Einstein were indeed correct.

The powering-up of the LHC paved way for a new era of scientific research as many previously debatable aspects of elementary particles and the formation of everything were now answered with proof.


Is CERN Opening Portals?

Image: Ruan Carlos/Unsplash

In June of 2016, a series of incredible photos of the skies above CERN appeared online, courtesy photographer Christophe Suarez.

Coincidentally, or perhaps not, the images were captured only 10 days after the AWAKE experiment, or Advanced WAKEfield Experiment, began at its facility at CERN on June 16, 2016.

In response, some claimed that the LHC had generated a “portal above Geneva.” The images were, after all, pretty extraordinary — towering dark clouds filled with lightning, and a rainstorm underneath.

Indeed, many such claims have been made over the years. In 2015, Yahoo News reported on footage of an alleged vortex forming over Geneva, what they referred to as a “UFO gateway.” In the footage, clouds swirl into a point, as if it were a black hole, and a number of small bright orbs can be seen “entering it.” The vortex then vanishes. The UFO portal had allegedly erupted directly over the Large Hadron Collider. Unfortunately, despite media coverage, this footage turned out to be CGI.

Another alleged portal appeared over Geneva on July 5, 2016, this one in the form of clouds that created a “ring” when looked at on radar.

Image: YouTube

According to the video, the “cloud portal” coincided with an emergency shutdown of the LHC, which happened after a weasel hopped over a substation fence, bumped a transformer, and knocked out the power.

This, at least, was true — a weasel did hop the fence, and was unfortunately electrocuted by said transformer. It was eventually stuffed and put on display at the Rotterdam Natural History Museum, in their Dead Animal Tales exhibition. Whether or not its actions resulted in a portal opening up above the particle accelerator, I’ll leave that for you to decide.

A Portal to Hell?

In August 2016, a video appeared online that seemed to depict a ritual sacrifice on the CERN grounds, right in front of the statue of Shiva, the Hindu deity. In the video, you can see a number of cloaked figures gathered near the statue, surrounding a woman.

The video is taken from the point-of-view of an unsuspecting onlooker, who decides to run for it after realizing what’s about to go down.

Image: YouTube

According to the Guardian, this was a hoax, and CERN itself launched an investigation to find out who was responsible. According to their report “pranking scientists” were suspected.

Prank or not, this didn’t exactly help dispel rumors that CERN was up to something odd. In 2014, I wrote about the Shiva statue, and why some believe it’s symbolic of CERN’s quest to not only open portals, but to open a gateway for the Annunaki to return to Earth. Others believe the LHC may in fact be an attempted portal to the underworld itself.

As Metro reported in January 2017, some bloggers online believe that CERN’s experiments are in fact an attempt to build “the kingdom of the antichrist,” who will eventually step through the portal and “rule our planet.”

Blinking Out of Existence

Image: Arseny Togulev/Unsplash

Perhaps related to the strange activity in the skies above CERN is the incident of November 2009, when an Iberworld Airbus A330-300 allegedly vanished temporarily.

As the story goes, the plane was carrying 170 passengers, and had been heading toward Santa Cruz, Bolivia, when it seemingly disappeared mid-flight. The plane was then reported to reappear roughly 5,500 miles away at Tenerife North Airport on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands.

According to an Inquisitr article published in 2016, some believe CERN’s Large Hadron Collider may have been the culprit of this mysterious turn of events, given that it had just begun circulating beams the previous year, and was preparing to do so again.

Prior to November 2009, the LHC had temporarily been out of commission due to a malfunction dubbed the “Quench incident,” which occurred on September 19, 2008. Liquid helium vented into the collider’s tunnel, damaging 53 superconducting magnets.

Purveyors of the Airbus theory believe the strange event may have happened during the preparations for the LHC’s relaunch in early November.

According to the theory, scientists at CERN had accidentally produced some kind of “time warp” during one of the LHC’s startups. They immediately shut everything down. LHC Machine Coordinator Dr. Mike Lamond said officially that the shutdown had been caused by a bird that dropped “a bit of baguette,” causing the magnets to heat up and almost result in another “quench” incident, as reported by the Telegraph on November 6, 2009.

And yet, some didn’t buy this explanation, believing instead that it was a cover-up to prevent the public from finding out that the LHC had “accidentally opened a time portal,” or so said the Inquisitr.

The so-called “time warp,” or so the story continues, was caused by the LHC distorting Earth’s magnetic field, creating a “time wave” that reverberated through the planet’s core. The wave passed through the Gate of the Sun, an ancient megalithic stone arch in Bolivia.

Image: Wikipedia/Public Domain

It’s believed by some to be a “stargate,” itself a portal to other worlds.

The “time wave” then continued, until it made contact with the Iberworld Airbus, temporarily displacing it in time and space. According to the bizarre tale, all 170 passengers, along with the plane, spontaneously teleported 5,500 miles from Bolivia to the Canary Islands, where they were able to land safely, though confused.

(The “true” story of the Airbus, or Air Comet A333, may in fact be a little less extraordinary, depending on what you want to believe. According to The Aviation Herald, the plane was meant to perform a flight from Madrid Barajas, Spain to Santa Cruz, Bolivia, but somehow wound up in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands. Reportedly, the crew had confused the two, though the story certainly leaves a lot of questions.)


LibertyVoter.Org

On this day in 2008, scientists successfully flip the switch for the first time on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) lab in Geneva, kicking off what many called history’s biggest science experiment.

Testing particle physics theories, the $8 billion LHC is the largest particle accelerator in the world, made up of superconducting magnets that allow engineers and physicists to study subatomic particles including protons, electrons, quarks and photons. The LHC can create 600 million collisions per second.

The 17-mile underground ring, located beneath the Swiss-French border, sends particle beams at the speed of light, causing them to collide and recreate debris caused by the Big Bang. At the time of its launch, some scientists and environmentalists speculated that the LHC would create a mini black hole that could end the world. These claims were refuted by CERN and physicist Stephen Hawking, who said any mini black holes would evaporate instantly.

The goal of the LHC, the largest scientific instrument on the planet, was to create and discover the Higgs boson, better known as “the God particle.” In 1964, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert came up with the theory that the particle associated with a mass-transmitting energy field was the key to how everything in the universe acquires mass.

In 2012, CERN announced the LHC experiments had allowed researchers to observe a particle consistent with the Higgs boson. On Oct. 8, 2013, Higgs and Englert were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.”


CERN & Revelation 9:1-11

Here, John tells us about a time when Satan is given the key to the “bottomless pit” to release a horde of demonic beings resembling locusts upon the world. I wonder if this Biblical event is connected with the experiments going on at CERN?

It's interesting to note that the word “bottomless pit” translated abussos in Greek, literally means the SHAFT OF THE ABYSS (so it isn't just a pit, but rather a tunnel—the tunnel to the abyss). The idea of a tunnel (wormhole) leading to another dimension, or a black hole, is very much at the heart of CERN! And guess what term scientists often use to describe a black hole? “bottomless pit”.

Of further interest is the fact that the town where CERN is located was called “Appolliacum” in Roman times, where a temple existed in honor of Apollyon the destroyer (Apollo), and the Romans believed that it was a gateway to the underworld (note that the bottomless pit is associated with the underworld). Compare this to Revelation 9:11, which states:

We are told that Apollyon is the angel of the bottomless pit, and the king of the demonic "locusts" that were unleashed! Is it a coincidence that CERN is built on the town dedicated to Apollyon?

Is it also a coincidence that a statue of the Hindu god Lord Shiva, the "god of Destruction" or called "The Destroyer" is prominently displayed outside of the LHC? The name of the angel, “Apollyon”, in Greek means "Destruction"! By the way, what has this got to do with science?


Statue of the Indian goddess Shiva located at CERN headquarters

On top of all that, CERN is short for the horned God Cernunnos—the god of the underworld. Just another coincidence? Is it also a coincidence that CERN has to go deep underground to do their “god” harnessing experiments?

I don't know, but all this would explain why they've chosen to build their “science project” underground, and on a site straddling two countries (France & Switzerland), which makes no sense at all or why they've chosen an acronym that doesn't seem to fit what it stands for.



Contents

Beams of high-energy particles are useful for fundamental and applied research in the sciences, and also in many technical and industrial fields unrelated to fundamental research [9] . It has been estimated that there are approximately 30,000 accelerators worldwide. Of these, only about 1% are research machines with energies above 1 GeV, while about 44% are for radiotherapy, 41% for ion implantation, 9% for industrial processing and research, and 4% for biomedical and other low-energy research. [10]

High-energy physics Edit

For the most basic inquiries into the dynamics and structure of matter, space, and time, physicists seek the simplest kinds of interactions at the highest possible energies. These typically entail particle energies of many GeV, and interactions of the simplest kinds of particles: leptons (e.g. electrons and positrons) and quarks for the matter, or photons and gluons for the field quanta. Since isolated quarks are experimentally unavailable due to color confinement, the simplest available experiments involve the interactions of, first, leptons with each other, and second, of leptons with nucleons, which are composed of quarks and gluons. To study the collisions of quarks with each other, scientists resort to collisions of nucleons, which at high energy may be usefully considered as essentially 2-body interactions of the quarks and gluons of which they are composed. This elementary particle physicists tend to use machines creating beams of electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons, interacting with each other or with the simplest nuclei (e.g., hydrogen or deuterium) at the highest possible energies, generally hundreds of GeV or more.

The largest and highest-energy particle accelerator used for elementary particle physics is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, operating since 2009. [11]

Nuclear physics and isotope production Edit

Nuclear physicists and cosmologists may use beams of bare atomic nuclei, stripped of electrons, to investigate the structure, interactions, and properties of the nuclei themselves, and of condensed matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, such as might have occurred in the first moments of the Big Bang. These investigations often involve collisions of heavy nuclei – of atoms like iron or gold – at energies of several GeV per nucleon. The largest such particle accelerator is the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Particle accelerators can also produce proton beams, which can produce proton-rich medical or research isotopes as opposed to the neutron-rich ones made in fission reactors however, recent work has shown how to make 99 Mo, usually made in reactors, by accelerating isotopes of hydrogen, [12] although this method still requires a reactor to produce tritium. An example of this type of machine is LANSCE at Los Alamos.

Synchrotron radiation Edit

Electrons propagating through a magnetic field emit very bright and coherent photon beams via synchrotron radiation. It has numerous uses in the study of atomic structure, chemistry, condensed matter physics, biology, and technology. A large number of synchrotron light sources exist worldwide. Examples in the U.S. are SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, APS at Argonne National Laboratory, ALS at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In Europe, there are MAX IV in Lund, Sweden, BESSY in Berlin, Germany, Diamond in Oxfordshire, UK, ESRF in Grenoble, France, the latter has been used to extract detailed 3-dimensional images of insects trapped in amber. [13]

Free-electron lasers (FELs) are a special class of light sources based on synchrotron radiation that provides shorter pulses with higher temporal coherence. A specially designed FEL is the most brilliant source of x-rays in the observable universe. [14] The most prominent examples are the LCLS in the U.S. and European XFEL in Germany. More attention is being drawn towards soft x-ray lasers, which together with pulse shortening opens up new methods for attosecond science. [15] Apart from x-rays, FELs are used to emit terahertz light, e.g. FELIX in Nijmegen, Netherlands, TELBE in Dresden, Germany and NovoFEL in Novosibirsk, Russia.

Thus there is a great demand for electron accelerators of moderate (GeV) energy, high intensity and high beam quality to drive light sources.

Low-energy machines and particle therapy Edit

Everyday examples of particle accelerators are cathode ray tubes found in television sets and X-ray generators. These low-energy accelerators use a single pair of electrodes with a DC voltage of a few thousand volts between them. In an X-ray generator, the target itself is one of the electrodes. A low-energy particle accelerator called an ion implanter is used in the manufacture of integrated circuits.

At lower energies, beams of accelerated nuclei are also used in medicine as particle therapy, for the treatment of cancer.

DC accelerator types capable of accelerating particles to speeds sufficient to cause nuclear reactions are Cockcroft-Walton generators or voltage multipliers, which convert AC to high voltage DC, or Van de Graaff generators that use static electricity carried by belts.

Radiation sterilization of medical devices Edit

Electron beam processing is commonly used for sterilization. Electron beams are an on-off technology that provide a much higher dose rate than gamma or X-rays emitted by radioisotopes like cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) or caesium-137 ( 137 Cs). Due to the higher dose rate, less exposure time is required and polymer degradation is reduced. Because electrons carry a charge, electron beams are less penetrating than both gamma and X-rays. [16]

Historically, the first accelerators used simple technology of a single static high voltage to accelerate charged particles. The charged particle was accelerated through an evacuated tube with an electrode at either end, with the static potential across it. Since the particle passed only once through the potential difference, the output energy was limited to the accelerating voltage of the machine. While this method is still extremely popular today, with the electrostatic accelerators greatly out-numbering any other type, they are more suited to lower energy studies owing to the practical voltage limit of about 1 MV for air insulated machines, or 30 MV when the accelerator is operated in a tank of pressurized gas with high dielectric strength, such as sulfur hexafluoride. In a tandem accelerator the potential is used twice to accelerate the particles, by reversing the charge of the particles while they are inside the terminal. This is possible with the acceleration of atomic nuclei by using anions (negatively charged ions), and then passing the beam through a thin foil to strip electrons off the anions inside the high voltage terminal, converting them to cations (positively charged ions), which are accelerated again as they leave the terminal.

The two main types of electrostatic accelerator are the Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, which uses a diode-capacitor voltage multiplier to produce high voltage, and the Van de Graaff accelerator, which uses a moving fabric belt to carry charge to the high voltage electrode. Although electrostatic accelerators accelerate particles along a straight line, the term linear accelerator is more often used for accelerators that employ oscillating rather than static electric fields.

Due to the high voltage ceiling imposed by electrical discharge, in order to accelerate particles to higher energies, techniques involving dynamic fields rather than static fields are used. Electrodynamic acceleration can arise from either of two mechanisms: non-resonant magnetic induction, or resonant circuits or cavities excited by oscillating RF fields. [17] Electrodynamic accelerators can be linear, with particles accelerating in a straight line, or circular, using magnetic fields to bend particles in a roughly circular orbit.

Magnetic induction accelerators Edit

Magnetic induction accelerators accelerate particles by induction from an increasing magnetic field, as if the particles were the secondary winding in a transformer. The increasing magnetic field creates a circulating electric field which can be configured to accelerate the particles. Induction accelerators can be either linear or circular.

Linear induction accelerators Edit

Linear induction accelerators utilize ferrite-loaded, non-resonant induction cavities. Each cavity can be thought of as two large washer-shaped disks connected by an outer cylindrical tube. Between the disks is a ferrite toroid. A voltage pulse applied between the two disks causes an increasing magnetic field which inductively couples power into the charged particle beam. [18]

The linear induction accelerator was invented by Christofilos in the 1960s. [19] Linear induction accelerators are capable of accelerating very high beam currents (>1000 A) in a single short pulse. They have been used to generate X-rays for flash radiography (e.g. DARHT at LANL), and have been considered as particle injectors for magnetic confinement fusion and as drivers for free electron lasers.

Betatrons Edit

The Betatron is a circular magnetic induction accelerator, invented by Donald Kerst in 1940 for accelerating electrons. The concept originates ultimately from Norwegian-German scientist Rolf Widerøe. These machines, like synchrotrons, use a donut-shaped ring magnet (see below) with a cyclically increasing B field, but accelerate the particles by induction from the increasing magnetic field, as if they were the secondary winding in a transformer, due to the changing magnetic flux through the orbit. [20] [21]

Achieving constant orbital radius while supplying the proper accelerating electric field requires that the magnetic flux linking the orbit be somewhat independent of the magnetic field on the orbit, bending the particles into a constant radius curve. These machines have in practice been limited by the large radiative losses suffered by the electrons moving at nearly the speed of light in a relatively small radius orbit.

Linear accelerators Edit

In a linear particle accelerator (linac), particles are accelerated in a straight line with a target of interest at one end. They are often used to provide an initial low-energy kick to particles before they are injected into circular accelerators. The longest linac in the world is the Stanford Linear Accelerator, SLAC, which is 3 km (1.9 mi) long. SLAC is an electron-positron collider.

Linear high-energy accelerators use a linear array of plates (or drift tubes) to which an alternating high-energy field is applied. As the particles approach a plate they are accelerated towards it by an opposite polarity charge applied to the plate. As they pass through a hole in the plate, the polarity is switched so that the plate now repels them and they are now accelerated by it towards the next plate. Normally a stream of "bunches" of particles are accelerated, so a carefully controlled AC voltage is applied to each plate to continuously repeat this process for each bunch.

As the particles approach the speed of light the switching rate of the electric fields becomes so high that they operate at radio frequencies, and so microwave cavities are used in higher energy machines instead of simple plates.

Linear accelerators are also widely used in medicine, for radiotherapy and radiosurgery. Medical grade linacs accelerate electrons using a klystron and a complex bending magnet arrangement which produces a beam of 6-30 MeV energy. The electrons can be used directly or they can be collided with a target to produce a beam of X-rays. The reliability, flexibility and accuracy of the radiation beam produced has largely supplanted the older use of cobalt-60 therapy as a treatment tool.

Circular or cyclic RF accelerators Edit

In the circular accelerator, particles move in a circle until they reach sufficient energy. The particle track is typically bent into a circle using electromagnets. The advantage of circular accelerators over linear accelerators (linacs) is that the ring topology allows continuous acceleration, as the particle can transit indefinitely. Another advantage is that a circular accelerator is smaller than a linear accelerator of comparable power (i.e. a linac would have to be extremely long to have the equivalent power of a circular accelerator).

Depending on the energy and the particle being accelerated, circular accelerators suffer a disadvantage in that the particles emit synchrotron radiation. When any charged particle is accelerated, it emits electromagnetic radiation and secondary emissions. As a particle traveling in a circle is always accelerating towards the center of the circle, it continuously radiates towards the tangent of the circle. This radiation is called synchrotron light and depends highly on the mass of the accelerating particle. For this reason, many high energy electron accelerators are linacs. Certain accelerators (synchrotrons) are however built specially for producing synchrotron light (X-rays).

Since the special theory of relativity requires that matter always travels slower than the speed of light in a vacuum, in high-energy accelerators, as the energy increases the particle speed approaches the speed of light as a limit, but never attains it. Therefore, particle physicists do not generally think in terms of speed, but rather in terms of a particle's energy or momentum, usually measured in electron volts (eV). An important principle for circular accelerators, and particle beams in general, is that the curvature of the particle trajectory is proportional to the particle charge and to the magnetic field, but inversely proportional to the (typically relativistic) momentum.

Cyclotrons Edit

The earliest operational circular accelerators were cyclotrons, invented in 1929 by Ernest Lawrence at the University of California, Berkeley. Cyclotrons have a single pair of hollow "D"-shaped plates to accelerate the particles and a single large dipole magnet to bend their path into a circular orbit. It is a characteristic property of charged particles in a uniform and constant magnetic field B that they orbit with a constant period, at a frequency called the cyclotron frequency, so long as their speed is small compared to the speed of light c. This means that the accelerating D's of a cyclotron can be driven at a constant frequency by a radio frequency (RF) accelerating power source, as the beam spirals outwards continuously. The particles are injected in the center of the magnet and are extracted at the outer edge at their maximum energy.

Cyclotrons reach an energy limit because of relativistic effects whereby the particles effectively become more massive, so that their cyclotron frequency drops out of sync with the accelerating RF. Therefore, simple cyclotrons can accelerate protons only to an energy of around 15 million electron volts (15 MeV, corresponding to a speed of roughly 10% of c), because the protons get out of phase with the driving electric field. If accelerated further, the beam would continue to spiral outward to a larger radius but the particles would no longer gain enough speed to complete the larger circle in step with the accelerating RF. To accommodate relativistic effects the magnetic field needs to be increased to higher radii as is done in isochronous cyclotrons. An example of an isochronous cyclotron is the PSI Ring cyclotron in Switzerland, which provides protons at the energy of 590 MeV which corresponds to roughly 80% of the speed of light. The advantage of such a cyclotron is the maximum achievable extracted proton current which is currently 2.2 mA. The energy and current correspond to 1.3 MW beam power which is the highest of any accelerator currently existing.

Synchrocyclotrons and isochronous cyclotrons Edit

A classic cyclotron can be modified to increase its energy limit. The historically first approach was the synchrocyclotron, which accelerates the particles in bunches. It uses a constant magnetic field B , but reduces the accelerating field's frequency so as to keep the particles in step as they spiral outward, matching their mass-dependent cyclotron resonance frequency. This approach suffers from low average beam intensity due to the bunching, and again from the need for a huge magnet of large radius and constant field over the larger orbit demanded by high energy.

The second approach to the problem of accelerating relativistic particles is the isochronous cyclotron. In such a structure, the accelerating field's frequency (and the cyclotron resonance frequency) is kept constant for all energies by shaping the magnet poles so to increase magnetic field with radius. Thus, all particles get accelerated in isochronous time intervals. Higher energy particles travel a shorter distance in each orbit than they would in a classical cyclotron, thus remaining in phase with the accelerating field. The advantage of the isochronous cyclotron is that it can deliver continuous beams of higher average intensity, which is useful for some applications. The main disadvantages are the size and cost of the large magnet needed, and the difficulty in achieving the high magnetic field values required at the outer edge of the structure.

Synchrocyclotrons have not been built since the isochronous cyclotron was developed.

Synchrotrons Edit

To reach still higher energies, with relativistic mass approaching or exceeding the rest mass of the particles (for protons, billions of electron volts or GeV), it is necessary to use a synchrotron. This is an accelerator in which the particles are accelerated in a ring of constant radius. An immediate advantage over cyclotrons is that the magnetic field need only be present over the actual region of the particle orbits, which is much narrower than that of the ring. (The largest cyclotron built in the US had a 184-inch-diameter (4.7 m) magnet pole, whereas the diameter of synchrotrons such as the LEP and LHC is nearly 10 km. The aperture of the two beams of the LHC is of the order of a centimeter.) The LHC contains 16 RF cavities, 1232 superconducting dipole magnets for beam steering, and 24 quadrupoles for beam focusing. [22] Even at this size, the LHC is limited by its ability to steer the particles without them going adrift. This limit is theorized to occur at 14TeV. [23]

However, since the particle momentum increases during acceleration, it is necessary to turn up the magnetic field B in proportion to maintain constant curvature of the orbit. In consequence, synchrotrons cannot accelerate particles continuously, as cyclotrons can, but must operate cyclically, supplying particles in bunches, which are delivered to a target or an external beam in beam "spills" typically every few seconds.

Since high energy synchrotrons do most of their work on particles that are already traveling at nearly the speed of light c, the time to complete one orbit of the ring is nearly constant, as is the frequency of the RF cavity resonators used to drive the acceleration.

In modern synchrotrons, the beam aperture is small and the magnetic field does not cover the entire area of the particle orbit as it does for a cyclotron, so several necessary functions can be separated. Instead of one huge magnet, one has a line of hundreds of bending magnets, enclosing (or enclosed by) vacuum connecting pipes. The design of synchrotrons was revolutionized in the early 1950s with the discovery of the strong focusing concept. [24] [25] [26] The focusing of the beam is handled independently by specialized quadrupole magnets, while the acceleration itself is accomplished in separate RF sections, rather similar to short linear accelerators. [27] Also, there is no necessity that cyclic machines be circular, but rather the beam pipe may have straight sections between magnets where beams may collide, be cooled, etc. This has developed into an entire separate subject, called "beam physics" or "beam optics". [28]

More complex modern synchrotrons such as the Tevatron, LEP, and LHC may deliver the particle bunches into storage rings of magnets with a constant magnetic field, where they can continue to orbit for long periods for experimentation or further acceleration. The highest-energy machines such as the Tevatron and LHC are actually accelerator complexes, with a cascade of specialized elements in series, including linear accelerators for initial beam creation, one or more low energy synchrotrons to reach intermediate energy, storage rings where beams can be accumulated or "cooled" (reducing the magnet aperture required and permitting tighter focusing see beam cooling), and a last large ring for final acceleration and experimentation.

Electron synchrotrons Edit

Circular electron accelerators fell somewhat out of favor for particle physics around the time that SLAC's linear particle accelerator was constructed, because their synchrotron losses were considered economically prohibitive and because their beam intensity was lower than for the unpulsed linear machines. The Cornell Electron Synchrotron, built at low cost in the late 1970s, was the first in a series of high-energy circular electron accelerators built for fundamental particle physics, the last being LEP, built at CERN, which was used from 1989 until 2000.

A large number of electron synchrotrons have been built in the past two decades, as part of synchrotron light sources that emit ultraviolet light and X rays see below.

Storage rings Edit

For some applications, it is useful to store beams of high energy particles for some time (with modern high vacuum technology, up to many hours) without further acceleration. This is especially true for colliding beam accelerators, in which two beams moving in opposite directions are made to collide with each other, with a large gain in effective collision energy. Because relatively few collisions occur at each pass through the intersection point of the two beams, it is customary to first accelerate the beams to the desired energy, and then store them in storage rings, which are essentially synchrotron rings of magnets, with no significant RF power for acceleration.

Synchrotron radiation sources Edit

Some circular accelerators have been built to deliberately generate radiation (called synchrotron light) as X-rays also called synchrotron radiation, for example the Diamond Light Source which has been built at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England or the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, USA. High-energy X-rays are useful for X-ray spectroscopy of proteins or X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), for example.

Synchrotron radiation is more powerfully emitted by lighter particles, so these accelerators are invariably electron accelerators. Synchrotron radiation allows for better imaging as researched and developed at SLAC's SPEAR.

Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient Accelerators Edit

Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient accelerators (FFA)s, in which a magnetic field which is fixed in time, but with a radial variation to achieve strong focusing, allows the beam to be accelerated with a high repetition rate but in a much smaller radial spread than in the cyclotron case. Isochronous FFAs, like isochronous cyclotrons, achieve continuous beam operation, but without the need for a huge dipole bending magnet covering the entire radius of the orbits. Some new developments in FFAs are covered in. [29]

History Edit

Ernest Lawrence's first cyclotron was a mere 4 inches (100 mm) in diameter. Later, in 1939, he built a machine with a 60-inch diameter pole face, and planned one with a 184-inch diameter in 1942, which was, however, taken over for World War II-related work connected with uranium isotope separation after the war it continued in service for research and medicine over many years.

The first large proton synchrotron was the Cosmotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which accelerated protons to about 3 GeV (1953–1968). The Bevatron at Berkeley, completed in 1954, was specifically designed to accelerate protons to sufficient energy to create antiprotons, and verify the particle-antiparticle symmetry of nature, then only theorized. The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven (1960–) was the first large synchrotron with alternating gradient, "strong focusing" magnets, which greatly reduced the required aperture of the beam, and correspondingly the size and cost of the bending magnets. The Proton Synchrotron, built at CERN (1959–), was the first major European particle accelerator and generally similar to the AGS.

The Stanford Linear Accelerator, SLAC, became operational in 1966, accelerating electrons to 30 GeV in a 3 km long waveguide, buried in a tunnel and powered by hundreds of large klystrons. It is still the largest linear accelerator in existence, and has been upgraded with the addition of storage rings and an electron-positron collider facility. It is also an X-ray and UV synchrotron photon source.

The Fermilab Tevatron has a ring with a beam path of 4 miles (6.4 km). It has received several upgrades, and has functioned as a proton-antiproton collider until it was shut down due to budget cuts on September 30, 2011. The largest circular accelerator ever built was the LEP synchrotron at CERN with a circumference 26.6 kilometers, which was an electron/positron collider. It achieved an energy of 209 GeV before it was dismantled in 2000 so that the tunnel could be used for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is a proton collider, and currently the world's largest and highest-energy accelerator, achieving 6.5 TeV energy per beam (13 TeV in total).

The aborted Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in Texas would have had a circumference of 87 km. Construction was started in 1991, but abandoned in 1993. Very large circular accelerators are invariably built in tunnels a few metres wide to minimize the disruption and cost of building such a structure on the surface, and to provide shielding against intense secondary radiations that occur, which are extremely penetrating at high energies.

Current accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source, incorporate superconducting cryomodules. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and Large Hadron Collider also make use of superconducting magnets and RF cavity resonators to accelerate particles.

The output of a particle accelerator can generally be directed towards multiple lines of experiments, one at a given time, by means of a deviating electromagnet. This makes it possible to operate multiple experiments without needing to move things around or shutting down the entire accelerator beam. Except for synchrotron radiation sources, the purpose of an accelerator is to generate high-energy particles for interaction with matter.

This is usually a fixed target, such as the phosphor coating on the back of the screen in the case of a television tube a piece of uranium in an accelerator designed as a neutron source or a tungsten target for an X-ray generator. In a linac, the target is simply fitted to the end of the accelerator. The particle track in a cyclotron is a spiral outwards from the centre of the circular machine, so the accelerated particles emerge from a fixed point as for a linear accelerator.

For synchrotrons, the situation is more complex. Particles are accelerated to the desired energy. Then, a fast acting dipole magnet is used to switch the particles out of the circular synchrotron tube and towards the target.

A variation commonly used for particle physics research is a collider, also called a storage ring collider. Two circular synchrotrons are built in close proximity – usually on top of each other and using the same magnets (which are then of more complicated design to accommodate both beam tubes). Bunches of particles travel in opposite directions around the two accelerators and collide at intersections between them. This can increase the energy enormously whereas in a fixed-target experiment the energy available to produce new particles is proportional to the square root of the beam energy, in a collider the available energy is linear.

At present the highest energy accelerators are all circular colliders, but both hadron accelerators and electron accelerators are running into limits. Higher energy hadron and ion cyclic accelerators will require accelerator tunnels of larger physical size due to the increased beam rigidity.

For cyclic electron accelerators, a limit on practical bend radius is placed by synchrotron radiation losses and the next generation will probably be linear accelerators 10 times the current length. An example of such a next generation electron accelerator is the proposed 40 km long International Linear Collider.

It is believed that plasma wakefield acceleration in the form of electron-beam "afterburners" and standalone laser pulsers might be able to provide dramatic increases in efficiency over RF accelerators within two to three decades. In plasma wakefield accelerators, the beam cavity is filled with a plasma (rather than vacuum). A short pulse of electrons or laser light either constitutes or immediately precedes the particles that are being accelerated. The pulse disrupts the plasma, causing the charged particles in the plasma to integrate into and move toward the rear of the bunch of particles that are being accelerated. This process transfers energy to the particle bunch, accelerating it further, and continues as long as the pulse is coherent. [30]

Energy gradients as steep as 200 GeV/m have been achieved over millimeter-scale distances using laser pulsers [31] and gradients approaching 1 GeV/m are being produced on the multi-centimeter-scale with electron-beam systems, in contrast to a limit of about 0.1 GeV/m for radio-frequency acceleration alone. Existing electron accelerators such as SLAC could use electron-beam afterburners to greatly increase the energy of their particle beams, at the cost of beam intensity. Electron systems in general can provide tightly collimated, reliable beams laser systems may offer more power and compactness. Thus, plasma wakefield accelerators could be used – if technical issues can be resolved – to both increase the maximum energy of the largest accelerators and to bring high energies into university laboratories and medical centres.

Higher than 0.25 GeV/m gradients have been achieved by a dielectric laser accelerator, [32] which may present another viable approach to building compact high-energy accelerators. [33] Using femtosecond duration laser pulses, an electron accelerating gradient 0.69 Gev/m was recorded for dielectric laser accelerators. [34] Higher gradients of the order of 1 to 6 GeV/m are anticipated after further optimizations. [35]

Black hole production and public safety concerns Edit

In the future, the possibility of a black hole production at the highest energy accelerators may arise if certain predictions of superstring theory are accurate. [36] [37] This and other possibilities have led to public safety concerns that have been widely reported in connection with the LHC, which began operation in 2008. The various possible dangerous scenarios have been assessed as presenting "no conceivable danger" in the latest risk assessment produced by the LHC Safety Assessment Group. [38] If black holes are produced, it is theoretically predicted that such small black holes should evaporate extremely quickly via Bekenstein-Hawking radiation, but which is as yet experimentally unconfirmed. If colliders can produce black holes, cosmic rays (and particularly ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, UHECRs) must have been producing them for eons, but they have yet to harm anybody. [39] It has been argued that to conserve energy and momentum, any black holes created in a collision between an UHECR and local matter would necessarily be produced moving at relativistic speed with respect to the Earth, and should escape into space, as their accretion and growth rate should be very slow, while black holes produced in colliders (with components of equal mass) would have some chance of having a velocity less than Earth escape velocity, 11.2 km per sec, and would be liable to capture and subsequent growth. Yet even on such scenarios the collisions of UHECRs with white dwarfs and neutron stars would lead to their rapid destruction, but these bodies are observed to be common astronomical objects. Thus if stable micro black holes should be produced, they must grow far too slowly to cause any noticeable macroscopic effects within the natural lifetime of the solar system. [38]

The use of advanced technologies such as superconductivity, cryogenics, and high powered radiofrequency amplifiers, as well as the presence of ionizing radiation, pose challenges for the safe operation of accelerator facilities. [40] [41] An accelerator operator controls the operation of a particle accelerator, adjusts operating parameters such as aspect ratio, current intensity, and position on target. They communicate with and assist accelerator maintenance personnel to ensure readiness of support systems, such as vacuum, magnets, magnetic and radiofrequency power supplies and controls, and cooling systems. Additionally, the accelerator operator maintains a record of accelerator related events.


UnNews:Large Hadron Collider 'destroys God by accident'

GENEVA, Switzerland – Concerns that the Large Hadron Collider might destroy the Earth proved unfounded on Wednesday, but scientists warned that they may instead have accidentally destroyed God shortly after powering up the machine.

Detectors in the gazillion-dollar machine recorded a massive outburst of Higgs bosons, nicknamed the "God particle", about 3 seconds into the first experiment. Scientists speculate that God may have accidentally strayed into the high-powered opposing beams of protons the collider generates, and been disintegrated. A spokesman stated "Well. it was inevitable, as God is famous for being omnipresent. His omniscience is in doubt, as he should have seen it coming and not been there".

"We detected so many Higgs bosons in such a short space of time, there's little chance God could have survived," said Dr Tara Sheers, a particle physicist from the University of Manchester.

Despite the unexpected results from the collider's first day of operations, the public should not be concerned over the safety of the machine, said Professor Jim Vordee, a particle physicist at Imperial College London.

Moreover, today's accident should not greatly impact the world's major religions (especially the Church of England), he said.

"From the results of today's experiment, we can conclude that while God probably did exist, He probably doesn't now.

"Theologically speaking, this is much the same position we were in on Tuesday. It's ironic that at the very instant that we had scientific evidence of the existence of God, He most probably ceased to exist. This may be due to the belief/evidence duality proposed in quantum theory. God exists (or did exist) only by belief. The presence of evidence produces an antigod, and when both meet. well, you do the maths".

Officials at the organization that operates the collider - the European Organization for Nuclear Research, better known by its old acronym CERN – have yet to make a statement on God's probable destruction.

However, Steve Myars, head of the accelerator and beam department at CERN, said some sort of letter of apology and condolences to the leaders of the world's major religions might be in order.

"We really didn't mean to 'do a Nietzsche' as it were, and kill God, but then again, God's been dead for over three hours now, and things still seem to be going on pretty much as usual in the universe. The Americans still exist, so their influence may have something to do with this, together with the God Complex encountered in the majority of Londoners".

"God may have been destroyed, but it's not the end of the world."

God's next-of-kin Jesus could not be reached for comment, although sources state that he's been in touch with Injury Lawyers 4U and plans to crucify CERN. At present it is believed he is very busy running his successful catering company. Customs and Excise, however, are investigating the source of the wines served at one particular wedding.

Meanwhile, back at CERN an investigation into String Theory is proposed to answer the other age-old question "Just how long is a piece of string?"