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Flounder SS-261 - History

Flounder SS-261 - History

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Flier SS-250

A valuable food fish, many varieties of which are found in great schools along the Atlantic coast north of Cape Cod.

(SS-261: dp. 1, 626; 1. 311'9"; b. 27'3"; dr. 16'3"; s. 20 k.; cpl. 60; a. 1 3", 10 21" tt.; cl. Gato)

Flounder (SS-261) was launched 22 August 1943 by Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn.; sponsored by Mrs. Astrid H. McClellan; and commissioned 29 November 1943, Commander C. A. Johnson in command.
Flounder arrived at Milne Bay, New Guinea, from New London 5 March 1944 and 11 days later sailed on her first war patrol, bound for the Palaus. Many planes were sighted, limiting her action, and few contacts were made. She returned to Milne Bay forefit, then sailed to Manus for training, and from that base took departure 3 June on her second war patrol.
In the Philippine Sea during the assault on the Marianas, Flounder made a sound contact on 17 June which resulted in her sinking a 2, 681-ton transport Escorts immediately began a persistent, vigorous counter-attack, fortunately ineffective. On 24 June, as Flounder sailed on the surface, two enemy planes suddenly dived out of the cloud cover, and dropped bombs which landed close aboard, causing some damage, luckily not serious. The submarine topped _: off her fuel tanks at Manus 5 July, and sailed on to Brisbane, Australia, to refit.

Flounder cleared Brisbane on her third war patrol 1 August 1944, and after calling at Manus 8 and 9 August, sailed on to serve as lifeguard during strikes on the Philippines. Once more, during the portion of her patrol devoted to aggressive patrol, she found few good contacts, and was able to make only one attack. The intended target, a small escort, dodged her torpedoes, and drove her deep with depth charges. Floundertook on provisions and fuel at Mios Woendi, New Guinea, 28 August to 1 September, then completed her patrol in Davao Gulf, returning to Brisbane 4 October.

On her fourth war patrol, for which she sailed 27 October 1944, Flounder patrolled the South China Sea with two other submarines. North of Lombek Strait on 10 November Flounder sighted what was first thought to be a small sailboat. Closer inspection revealed the target to be the conning tower of a submarine, and Flounder went to battle stations submerged. She sent four torpedoes away, observing one hit and feeling another as the target submarine exploded and was enveloped by smoke and flame. Coming back to periscope depth a half hour later, Flounder found nothing in sight. She had sunk one of the German submarines operating in the Far East An attack by her group on a convoy off Palawan 21November 1944 sank a freighter, but other contacts were few, and Flounder returned to Fremantle forefit between 13 December and 7 January 1945. Underway for her fifth war patrol, Flounder had to return to Fremantle from 12 to 14 January to repair her fathometer, then sailed to lead a three-submarine wolfpack in the South China Sea. On 12 and 13 February, her group made a determined chase after a Japanese task force, but was unable to close these fast targets.

A more obliging target came her way on 22 February, when she launched four torpedoes at a patrol boat.
Two of these, however, ran erratically, and only Flounder's skillful maneuvering saved her from being hit by her own torpedoes. More trouble came her way 3 days later, when in a freak accident, she and Hoe (SS-258) brushed each other 65 feet beneath the surface. Only a slight leak developed, which was quickly brought under control.

Flounder prepared for her sixth war patrol at Subic Bay from 25 February 1945 to 15 March. Again with a wolf pack, she scouted targets south of Hainan, and on 29 March contacted a large convoy, which was attacked by aircraft before she and her sisters could launch their torpedoes. She closed her war patrol at Saipan 22 April, and headed home for a stateside overhaul. Returning to Pearl Harbor action-bound on the day hostilities ended, Flounder was ordered to the east coast, and arrived at New York City 18 September. After laying immobilized at Portsmouth and New London, she was decommisioned and placed in reserve at New London 12 February 1947.

The second and fourth of Flounder's six war patrols were designated "Successful," and she is credited with having sunk 2, 681 tons of Japanese shipping as well as U-587. Flounder received two battle stars for World War II service.

Finding St. Louis' Famous Flounder Houses

Ann Street Row houses capped on each end with flounders, Soulard. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Ann Street, Soulard, Flounder with gallery filled in. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Ann Street flounder, gallery open, Soulard. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Restored Flounder on Ann Street, Soulard. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Texas Avenue, Gravois Park. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Utah Flounder with siding over brick. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Missouri Avenue in Marine Villa. Photograph courtesy of Susan Sheppard

Half-flounder in McKinley Heights. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

"Kissing" flounder in Carondelet. Photograph by Chris Naffziger

Let’s first get something straight: the famous flounder house style in St. Louis did not originate out of an attempt to trick the tax man into thinking a house was incomplete, therefore lowering a homeowner’s bill. But what the distinctive, fish-shaped housing style does represent is a unique moment in the 19th century in St. Louis when vernacular architecture thrived in the city.

Originating in the period during and in the decades after the Civil War, the flounder style house took its name from the profile of the building when observed from the street or alley. In some people’s eyes, the tall, right triangle roof line took on the shape of a flounder, a species of fish with a similar profile. In more technical terms, flounder houses possess shed roofs, in which a roof angles down from a taller exterior wall to a parallel, shorter wall. Unlike more complicated roof types, like a gabled or hipped roof, the shed roof common to a flounder simply required carpenters to lay roof rafters from one wall to the other, eliminating the need for a more complicate ridge or hip structure. Likewise, the shed roof allowed for a house to be built right on the property line without worrying about issues of drainage affecting a neighbor.

But of course in St. Louis architecture, nothing is ever that simple, and the flounder style of construction developed numerous, fascinating variants around the city. Consequently, the Cultural Resources Office, a department of the St. Louis Planning and Urban Development Agency, has begun the process of documenting all of the flounder houses in the city. Leading the effort is Jan Cameron, Preservation Administrator so far she and her staff have identified at least 260 flounder houses and variants throughout the city. Logically, most are located within the heart of 19th-century St. Louis, east of Grand, but the style has also been found in what would have been the rural outskirts of the city back then.

Besides the traditional flounder house, Cultural Resources has identified variations on the original simple shed roof. Some flounders have a gabled roof, but then mysteriously, only one side of the gable is complete and the other side is only constructed half way to its logical completion. Originally, on many examples of this style, there was an open gallery (now filled in on many houses) that completed the gable roof. Likewise, and arguing against simplicity being the sole reason for flounders, some houses of this style have a gambrel or hipped roof.

Why does this matter? For a city such as St. Louis that constantly emphasizes its prosperity and influence during the 19th century, surprisingly little of the built environment from the 1800s as a percentage of the total building stock of the city survives. Swept away primarily by urban renewal or replacement by early Twentieth Century construction, the buildings remaining from the decades around the Civil War are treasured reminders of what St. Louis used to be.

Unfortunately, because of their age, abandoned flounders often suffer from severe neglect and deterioration, placing their fate in jeopardy. Just recently, a flounder in the Gravois Park neighborhood was lost due its ostensibly advanced disrepair. Likewise, muddling with inappropriate siding, such as a well-preserved but abandoned flounder on Utah in the Benton Park West neighborhood, makes preservation more difficult. After all, who would want to save such an “ugly” building? But fire insurance maps reveal that under the white asphalt siding is a brick flounder, certainly worth saving.

Perhaps another motivation for saving these 19th century houses (and this author has covered other endangered houses from the 1800s before) revolves around the relative simplicity of these houses. Not particularly large, and frequently placed right along the property line, the flounder opens up significant space for gardens and other outdoor activities on a relatively small city lot. Their small, efficient design, often with a party wall, should prove desirable to those looking to save money on utilities. Ultimately, Cameron and Cultural Resources hope to submit the flounder style to the National Register, opening up the possibility of tax credits for owners who renovate these distinctive houses. And more importantly, this unique and rare housing style will receive the respect it has long deserved.

Own a flounder? Cultural Resources Office would love to hear from you call them at 314-657-3865.

Southern Flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

Other Names Flounder Description All flatfishes, including the southern flounder, are compressed laterally and spend most of their life lying and swimming along the bottom on their side. In the case of southern flounder, the left side is always the "up" side in other species, the opposite is true. Small flounder grow rapidly and may reach 12 inches in length by the end of their first year. Males seldom exceed 12 inches, but females grow larger than males and often reach a length of 25 inches. Life History The flounder is wonderfully adapted for its way of life. Both eyes in adults are on the "up" side of the head and the pigmentation of the upper side of the body can be varied to match the surrounding environment. A small body cavity and the absence of air bladder aid the flounder in maintaining its position on the bottom.

Adult southern flounder leave the bays during the fall for spawning in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn for the first time when two years old at depths of 50 to 100 feet. The eggs are buoyant. After hatching, the larval fish swim in an upright position and the eyes are located on opposite sides of the head. As the young fish grows, the right eye begins to "migrate" to the left side of the head. When body length of about one-half inch has been attained, the eye migration is complete and the fish assumes its left-side-up position for life.

The young fish enter the bays during late winter and early spring. At this time they are about one-half inch in length and seek shallow grassy areas near the Gulf passes. As growth continues, some will move farther into bays. Some will enter coastal rivers and bayous. Juvenile flounder feed mainly on crustaceans, but as they grow fish become more important in their diet. Adult flounder enter shallow water at night where they lie, often partially buried, and wait for prey. Empty depressions where flounder have lain are called "beds."

Although most of the adults leave the bays and enter the Gulf for spawning during the winter, some remain behind and spend winter in the bays. Those in the Gulf will reenter the bays in the spring. The spring influx is gradual and does not occur with large concentrations that characterize the fall emigration. How To Catch Flounder are taken by rod and reel or by gig. When fishing with rod and reel, light tackle offers both the greatest sport and best chance for catching flounder. Both artificial lures and natural bait can be used. Over barren bottoms, leaded plastic worms (worm jigs) are often very effective. In heavily vegetated areas, shallow-running spoons are best.

Flounder prefer live to dead bait. Live shrimp retrieved slowly along the bottom often produce excellent results. Killifish (referred to locally as mud minnows) fished in a similar fashion, is good bait. These fish can often be taken in large numbers with the cast or minnow seine.

Although many are taken by rod and reel, "floundering" or gigging offers the best challenge for this species. The flounder is vulnerable to this technique because it often enters the shallows at night to feed. Both the skills of the angler and the hunter are called for here.

Lanterns are used in searching for flounder and gigs ranging from single-pronged to modified hay forks are used to spear the fish. The anglers wade quietly along the shallows looking for flounder. Once the flounder is within the light from the lantern, normally it will not move, affording the fisher a chance to "gig" the fish. Although this sounds like a sure-fire method, many fish are missed because they go undetected until they swim away or because of inaccurate gigging by an overanxious angler.

The more sophisticated flounder fisher may mount his lanterns (or battery-powered lamps) on the front of a flat-bottomed skiff. The skiff is then poled through the water in search of fish or is pushed by a small air motor. Floundering from a boat is much easier than wading. It allows the angler to cover more area and search bottoms that are too soft for wading. Where To Catch Although flounder can be taken by rod and reel in almost any portion of the bay, it is more often productive to fish around jetties or oyster reefs that extend from shore into the bay. Flounder do not swim continuously so they tend to accumulate in such places in their search for food. During the fall, when flounder are moving to the Gulf for spawning, the best catches are made in the channels and passes leading to the Gulf. During the spring, wading anglers work the edges of channels, such as the Intracoastal Waterway, as the fish are moving back into the bays.

During the spring and summer the best catches with gigs are made in the back bays. Areas with cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) along the shoreline are good producers, and a bottom that is slightly silty or muddy generally is better than a hard sand bottom. The mouths of small bayous and sloughs often yield flounder.

Since water clarity is very important to the success of any floundering trip, floundering should be done on calm nights. When fishing on windy nights, anglers should try to work small protected bays and shorelines.

The best catches are made during an incoming tide and on dark nights as opposed to moonlit nights. However, do not hesitate to flounder on an outgoing tide. During a falling tide trying farther offshore in water one to two feet deep or around offshore sandbars is often more productive. Avoid nights when the tides are abnormally high.

Stingrays also frequent the shallows at night. They are flat and can sometimes be mistaken for a flounder or stepped on by the unwary. The inexperienced flounder fisher should make certain of what he has gigged before retrieving it. If in doubt, simply hold the creature on the bottom with the gig and wait for the water to settle before attempting to retrieve your catch. A multi-pronged gig is helpful in such cases, because the catch can be lifted unassisted from the bottom. How To Eat The flounder's reputation as table fare is unsurpassed in Texas. Remember that the quality of any seafood is largely dependent on how it is handled between capture and preparation. Remove the viscera and gills from the flounder and place the fish on ice as soon as possible. Cleaning beyond this point depends on how the fish will be cooked.

Flounder can be prepared in many ways. Broiling the fish with butter, lemon juice and favorite seasoning is popular. They also may be baked or fried. The gourmet may like his flounder stuffed with crabmeat. Many other recipes are available at various internet sites. Other The southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, is the largest of more than 25 species of flatfishes found in Texas coastal waters. It is highly prized as both food and a recreationally harvested fish and accounts for more than 95 percent of the flounder harvest in the state. Southern flounder occur from North Carolina to the mouth of the Rio Grande and southward into Mexico. They are usually found west of the Mississippi River.


This flounder house in Soulard was built in about 1845-1847, and is one of the oldest of its kind in the city. Flounder houses were first built in St. Louis in the 1840s, and they are thought to have been brought over by German immigrants. The name flounder was coined since the house has all its features on one side, and the other is a flat brick wall with no windows. Flounder houses were built on small lots, and were functional in allowing for the owner to build very closely to the neighboring house, and allowed the water to flow off in the opposite direction away from the other house. St. Louis has nearly 300 examples of flounder houses, the most of any city in the country.

This flounder on South 9th Street was built sometime between 1845 and 1847 for German immigrant Christopher Otto, who was a laborer. He was born in Germany in 1782, and immigrated to St. Louis sometime before 1842. He lived at the house with his wife Helen, and they lived there until Christopher died in 1866. In 1872, Helen died, but one of their children, Nicholas, continued to live in the house until at least 1890.

During the time that the Otto family lived there, Soulard grew from a relatively new neighborhood with lots of still undeveloped land, into one of the city’s most densely populated urban neighborhoods. The address changed from 92 Decatur Street, to 1823 Decatur in 1867, and to 1823 S. 9th in 1884. Sometime later, it was changed to its current address of 1825 S. 9th Street.

This block of South 9th Street is one of the oldest blocks of houses in the city, with at least 5 houses dating before the Civil War. While the city has numerous flounder houses dating from before the Civil War, this is one of only a few that survives from the 1840s.

St. Louis History and Architecture

This second empire structure on California Ave was built in about 1883 near the street’s intersection with the alley north of Russell Boulevard, which was then knows Pontiac Street to the west of Jefferson. It is unique in its style, as it has a flat brick wall on one side, similar to a flounder house, but it also features a mansard roof. Given the definition and purpose of a flounder house as a home with one flat wall and all features on the opposite side, this house would qualify as one of the city’s only mansarded flounder houses.

One of the earliest residents of the building was a tailor named Joseph Mashek, who lived here from 1883-1884. In 1885, it was home to Irene LaMotte. From 1886-1892, a whitener named Achilles J. Craig was boarding at the residence. This implies that despite the house’s relatively small size, it was a multi family building. In 1890, the Ampleman family lived at the house, with Louis T. and William being paperhangers, while Louis P. was a carpenter. In 1893 and 1894, William Hruska was listed as a resident of the home. Hruska was the secretary of the Barada Ghio Real Estate Company located downtown. In 1897, a carpenter named Charles A. Taylor lived at the residence.

In about 1900, the address was changed to its current one, going from 2013 California to 2011. One of the first people listed at the new address was Henry Montgomery, a coach. In 1905, George Ross was living at the residence. Ross was an electrical engineer who worked for the Terminal Railroad Association at Union Station. From 1911-16, a feeder named William Doelling lived at the residence. In 1916, a shoemaker named Henry Dout also lived at the house. In another unit, Philip Collins, who was a plumber, lived in the house between 1915 and 1923. By 1918, he was living alongside Charles Holzwarth, who was listed as a bricklayer and contractor.

Over the years, this block of Fox Park remained intact despite its close proximity to highway 44, which cut it off from many of the buildings to the north, and caused the area to decline in the 1970s through 1990s. The area was listed as a local historic district, and has since seen a resurgence, with many of the houses surviving and being restored. Today, this is one of the most unique houses in St. Louis, and one of the only ones to have both flounder house features and a mansard roof.

USS Dace  (SS-247) , a Gato-class submarine , was the first submarine of the United States Navy to be named for any of several small North American fresh-water fishes of the carp family.

USS Gudgeon (SS-211) was the first American submarine to sink an enemy warship in World War II. One of the long-range Tambor -class vessels, Gudgeon scored 14 confirmed kills, placing her 15th on the honor roll of American submarines. She was declared overdue, presumed lost, on 7 June 1944.

USS Drum (SS-228) is a Gato-class submarine of the United States Navy, the first Navy ship named after the drum. Drum is a museum ship in Mobile, Alabama, at Battleship Memorial Park.

USS Finback  (SS-230) , a Gato-class submarine was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the finback.

USS Snapper (SS-185), a Salmon-class submarine , was the third ship of the United States Navy of the name and the second to be named for the snapper. Her keel was laid down by the Portsmouth Navy Yard on 23 July 1936. She was launched on 24 August 1937, sponsored by Mrs. Katharine R. Stark, wife of Rear Admiral Harold R. Stark, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, and commissioned on 16 December 1937 with Lieutenant F. O. Johnson in command.

USS Greenling  (SS-213) , a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the greenling.

USS Kingfish (SS-234), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the kingfish.

USS Flasher (SS-249) was a Gato-class submarine which served in the Pacific during World War II. She received the Presidential Unit Citation and six battle stars, and sank 21 ships for a total of 100,231 tons of Japanese shipping, making her one of the most successful American submarines of the War.

USS Gurnard  (SS-254) , a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the gurnard.

USS Hake (SS/AGSS-256) was a Gato-class submarine of the United States Navy that served during World War II.

USS Hoe (SS-258), a Gato-class submarine, was a ship of the United States Navy named for the hoe, one of various sharks, especially the dogfish.

USS Jack (SS-259), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the jack.

USS Lapon (SS-260), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the lapon, a scorpionfish of the Pacific coast of the United States.

USS Pargo (SS-264), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the pargo, a fish of the genus Lutjanus found in the West Indies.

USS Pogy (SS-266), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the pogy, or menhaden.

USS Puffer (SS-268), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the puffer.

USS Sunfish (SS-281), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the ocean sunfish, Mola mola, a plectognath marine fish, having a deep body truncated behind, and high dorsal and anal fins.

USS Seahorse (SS-304), a Balao-class submarine, was the first submarine and second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the seahorse, a small fish whose head and the fore part of its body suggest the head and neck of a horse.

USS Spadefish (SS/AGSS-411), a Balao-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the spadefish. Although she was commissioned late in the war and spent only one year in the Pacific war zone, she was able to run up a record of 88,091 tons in 21 ships and numerous trawlers sunk.

USS Guitarro (SS-363), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the guitarro.

총 17척 격침 -
수상기모함 미즈호, 불명의 수송선,
쇼난 마루, 키타카타 마루,
하구에 마루, 하치만잔 마루,
류난 마루, 오야마 마루,
닛슌 마루, 묘코 마루,
제13 하쿠테츠 마루, 히에 마루,
아사히 마루, 시키샨 마루,
타이쇼 마루, 타이하쿠 마루,
타츠라 마루

총 15척 격침 -
테이손 마루, 아프리카 마루,
야마후지 마루, 수와 마루,
코치 마루, 카호쿠 마루,
제오아 마루, 류잔 마루,
카이쇼 마루, 대잠 호위함 Cha-109,
잇신 마루, 료호 마루,
하쇼 마루, 제2 하칸 마루,
유산 마루 I-Go

3척 손상 -
불명의 구축함 1척, 런던 마루, 소해정 야치요 마루

World War II Database

ww2dbase Commissioned in Feb 1943 with Lieutenant Commander Ralph Lynch, Jr. in command, USS Mingo had her shakedown cruise off Long Island, New York, United States. After three weeks of operations with the torpedo station at New London, Connecticut, United States, she set sail for the Pacific Ocean via the Panama Canal. She departed for her first war patrol in Jun 1943, during which she damaged and sank several Japanese ships and bombarded Sorol, Palau Islands. During her second war patrol in the Central Pacific, she damaged a Japanese cruiser with a torpedo, while on her fourth war patrol, she sank Japanese destoyer Tamanami. In the Philippine Islands and Borneo regions, she sank four small enemy vessels during her fifth war patrol, despite her primary mission being on lifeguard station. She patrolled the South China Sea, Gulf of Siam, and the general Philippine Islands and Borneo area until Apr 1945.

ww2dbase USS Mingo was decommissioned on 1 Jan 1947 and placed in reserve. In May 1955, she was recommissioned for the purpose of preparation to be transferred to the Japanese Navy under the Military Assistance Program. As submarine Kuroshio, she served with the Japanese Navy until 1966. In 1971, she was sold to Japan for scrapping, but in 1973 she was sunk as a target.

ww2dbase Source: Wikipedia

Last Major Revision: May 2011

Submarine Mingo (SS-261) Interactive Map

Mingo Operational Timeline

21 Mar 1942 Submarine Mingo was laid down.
30 Nov 1942 Submarine Mingo was launched, sponsored by Mrs. Henry L. Pence.
12 Feb 1943 USS Mingo was commissioned into service with Lieutenant Commander Ralph Lynch, Jr. in command.
1 Apr 1943 USS Mingo departed Long Island, New York, United States area for Newport, Rhode Island, United States.
16 May 1943 USS Mingo departed New London, Connecticut, United States for the Panama Canal.
25 Jun 1943 USS Mingo departed Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii for her first war patrol.
12 Jul 1943 USS Mingo damaged a Japanese freighter with torpedoes.
26 Jul 1943 USS Mingo fired four torpedoes at a Japanese tanker all torpedoes missed.
6 Aug 1943 USS Mingo damaged a Japanese freighter, hitting her with one out of four torpedoes fired.
29 Sep 1943 USS Mingo departed Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii for her second war patrol.
16 Oct 1943 USS Mingo fired a spread of six torpedoes at a Japanese carrier, claiming two hits.
20 Nov 1943 USS Mingo arrived at Pearl Harbor, US Territory of Hawaii, ending her second war patrol.
29 Nov 1943 USS Mingo entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
3 Feb 1944 USS Mingo departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States after her overhaul.
22 Mar 1944 USS Mingo fired six torpedoes at a Japanese freighter all missed.
9 May 1944 USS Mingo arrived at Brisbane, Australia, ending her third war patrol.
10 Jun 1944 USS Mingo arrived at Manus, Admiralty Islands for training.
18 Jun 1944 USS Mingo departed Manus, Admiralty Islands for her fourth war patrol.
7 Jul 1944 USS Mingo attacked a Japanese convoy off Luzon, Philippine Islands during the night, sinking destroyer Tamanami by hitting her with 3 of 8 torpedoes fired.
30 Jul 1944 USS Mingo arrived at Fremantle, Australia, ending her fourth war patrol.
27 Aug 1944 USS Mingo departed Fremantle, Australia for her fifth war patrol.
13 Sep 1944 USS Mingo fired three torpedoes at a Japanese ship all missed.
2 Oct 1944 USS Mingo sank four small Japanese ships with her deck gun.
13 Oct 1944 USS Mingo arrivedat Fremantle, Australia, ending her fifth war patrol.
25 Nov 1944 USS Mingo sank a Japanese tanker in a night time torpedo attack, hitting her with three of six torpedoes fired. She also damaged an escorting vessel with one of four torpedoes fired.
25 Dec 1944 USS Mingo attacked a Japanese convoy between Singapore and Brunei, Borneo, damaging an escorting gunboat and sinking tanker Manila Maru.
29 Dec 1944 USS Mingo arrived at Fremantle, Australia, ending her sixth war patrol.
6 Feb 1945 USS Mingo departed Fremantle, Australia for her seventh war patrol.
10 Feb 1945 USS Mingo survived a typhoon, which caused some damage and caused 2 men to be lost.
14 Feb 1945 USS Mingo arrived at Fremantle, Australia for repairs, pausing her seventh war patrol.
19 Feb 1945 USS Mingo departed Fremantle, Australia, resuming her seventh war patrol.
10 Apr 1945 USS Mingo arrived in the Mariana Islands, ending her seventh war patrol.
4 May 1945 USS Mingo entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
9 Aug 1945 USS Mingo completed her overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
1 Jan 1947 USS Mingo was decommissioned at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet.
20 May 1955 USS Mingo was recommissioned into service.
15 Aug 1955 USS Mingo was decommissioned from US Navy service and transferred to the Japanese Navy as submarine Kuroshio.
31 Mar 1966 Japanese submarine Kuroshio was decommissioned from service and returned to the United States.
20 Feb 1971 Submarine Mingo was struck from the US Naval Register and was sold to Japan for scrapping.

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Visitor Submitted Comments

1. Irv says:
7 Sep 2016 08:03:29 PM

I just love to read these old WW-11 submarine patrol reports. Thank you for keeping these stories alive .

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Flounder SS-261 - History

In recent decades, Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias) has been the most abundant groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska and an apex predator with trophic links to many pelagic and benthic species. Its abundance and trophic status implies that a small change in survival may result in substantial uncertainty in the ecosystem, with potentially large effects across multiple species. A synthesis of Arrowtooth Flounder ecology in the Gulf of Alaska was undertaken to determine exposure to the environment during different life history stages, and to develop hypotheses regarding population response to environmental forcing. Historical data sets were used to identify mechanisms of interaction with the pelagic environment during the egg and larval phase, assess habitat utilization and trophic interactions from early settlement through adult life, and evaluate sensitivity and potential response of the population to climate-induced variability in the Gulf of Alaska ecosystem. Modeling approaches include Individual-Based Modeling of the planktonic drift phase from spawning to settlement, Generalized Additive Modeling to examine the effects of location, bottom temperature, and depth on the distribution and density of different size categories of fish, and Habitat Suitability Modeling which integrates presence-absence and environmental data to develop predictive maps of suitable habitat for early juveniles, late juveniles, and adults. A strategy of high endurance characterizes the early ontogeny phase. Spawning and hatching occur during winter in deep water where predation risk is relatively low, and cold temperatures along with intrinsically low metabolic rates ensure extended availability of yolk reserves, lowering the risk of larval starvation in a food-poor environment. Larval duration and drift is protracted, contributing to widespread delivery of larvae to coastal, continental shelf and slope waters throughout the Gulf of Alaska, as well as expected transportation into the Bering Sea through the Aleutian Island Passes. Connectivity between spawning and settlement areas is less directed and juveniles are more ubiquitous across depths than previously understood. Juvenile and adult Arrowtooth Flounder are habitat and prey generalists, with some ontogenetic shifts apparent. Based on this comprehensive ecological synthesis, a preliminary climate-related vulnerability assessment indicates low risk, high resilience overall for this species in the Gulf of Alaska. However, some stage-specific sensitivity is hypothesized primarily relating to the potential for exacerbated temporal mis-match between early larvae and suitable zooplankton prey with increased temperatures. Density-dependent effects during the juvenile to adult stage may constrain further increases in Arrowtooth Flounder biomass in the Gulf of Alaska. This comprehensive ecological approach to assessing environmental sensitivities across life history stages for a commercially and ecologically important fish species has substantial merit for furthering the ecosystem approach to fisheries management, especially in marine ecosystems where there are robust sampling programs across trophic levels.

Flounder SS-261 - History

The following table shows the officers assigned to submarine-related commands during World War II organized by their Class Year at the US Naval Academy. This table utilizes the sources used in the other
Submarine Commander pages at this site, but especially on research conducted by Tom Woronko. Some information on officers who were killed in action came from On Eternal Patrol . Class years 1935 to 1937
inclusive can be found on this page.

It shows the commands, including those not related to submarine when known, each held during the war (and in some cases just before and just after the war), with dates known to be in command, as well as the
ranks they held, with dates of rank where known. Note that after early 1942 nearly all wartime promotions were temporary in nature - temporary ranks often outstripped permanent ranks by a great deal. Also, date of
rank was primarily for determining seniority and does not necessarily indicate when the officer actually assumed the rank. Postwar, many temporary ranks did become permanent with the same date of seniority.

Please email me if you spot any errors in this table or have any comments.

  1. ^ abcdefghij Friedman, Norman (1995). U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp.𧈝–304. ISBN  1-55750-263-3 .
  2. ^ abcdef
  3. Bauer, K. Jack Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775-1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp.𧈏–273. ISBN  0-313-26202-0 .
  4. ^ abcde
  5. Bauer, K. Jack Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp.𧈓–280. ISBN  978-0-313-26202-9 .
  6. ^ abcU.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305–311
  7. ^ abcdefU.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305-311
  8. ^
  9. Friedman, Norman (1995). U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp.𧉨–361. ISBN  1-55750-263-3 .
  • Wright, C. C. (2005). "Question 17/03: Replacement of US Submarine Diesel Engines". Warship International. XLII (4): 431–434. ISSN�-0374.

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.

Watch the video: Flounder Flatfish facts: a one-sides fish. Animal Fact Files (July 2022).


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