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Kauravas Timeline

Kauravas Timeline

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Timeline of the Karavas

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Timeline of the Karavas

It is a fact that the first farmers were the hunter-gathers and fishermen. It is also acknowledged that maritime history cannot be overlooked when discussing the early settlement of the island.

Karava of Sri Lanka

Ancient Period- Kuru Kingdom in India with its capital at Hastinapur, inhabited by the Kauravas and the Pandavas from the royal line of King Bharata. The Mahabharata war between the Kauravas and their cousins the Pandavas at Kurukshetra and the dispersal of Kauravas in the Asian region.

A silver half Karshapana c400-350 BC from the Kuru Janapada. (See CoinIndia for more coins )Coins with simillar symbols have recently been unearthed in Godavaya, southern Sri Lanka

Early Buddhist and Jaina texts mention sixteen states known as Mahajanpadas. Although the lists vary, some names such as Vajji, Magadha, Koshala, Kuru, Panchala, Gandhara and Avanti occur frequently. Clearly these were amongst the most important Mahajanpadas. The Mahajanpadas were ruled by kings. Each Mahajanpada had a capital city. The Kuru kingdom covered the modern Haryana and Delhi to the west of river Yamuna with its capital at Indraprastha. It was the most important kingdom of the later Vedic period.

Above: King Dhananjaya Koravya of the Kuru kingdom in an old painting from a temple in Kurunegala, Sri Lanka

- Several communities claiming descent from these Kauravas were discovered by 19th century European scholars and others. The Kur in Bengal and Korawa in central India.(Dalton). Kaorwa in the Punjab and Kaurs in Jasapur, Udaepur, Sirgeya, Korea, Chand, Bhakar and Korba of Chittisgarin (Tod II 256), Gaurava a Rajput caste practicing widow remarriage (Karewa) in the Delhi district (Elliot quoted by Habib 150), Karaiar and Karawa in Ceylon ( Neville II 9) Curus in Coromandel and Taprobane (RAS 157& 8) and Gavara in Andhra Pradesh

550 BC
– Buddha visits the Kuru Kingdom, which is by then nothing like the powerful and extensive Kuru kingdom of the Mahabharata. By then it is just another Mahajanapada of India but famed as a kingdom inhabited by an extremely intelligent and clever race. The Buddha preaches the profound Satipattana Sutta, Maha Nidana Sutta, Aneñjasappaya Sutta, Magandiya Sutta, Rattapala Sutta, Sammasa Sutta and Ariyavasa Sutta. to the Kauravas as they were intelligent and clever enough to understand these higher doctrines.

The Buddha has referred to himself as ‘the kinsman of the Sun (ie. that he is a descendant of the Solar Dynasty Kshatriya Caste) in the Atanatiya Sutta, Upakkilesa Sutta, Phena Sutta and several other Suttas, emphasizing his Kshatriya caste. The Five precepts practised in the Theravada world is founded on the 'Kuru Dharma' of the Kauravas. See Kuru Dharma Jataka.

In the the Agganna Sutta, Ambattha Sutta, Madura Sutta and several other Suttas the Buddha says : “the Kshatriya caste is the highest caste”

500 BC– Migration of a community of Kauravas to Sri Lanka with prince Karavanti, a minister of prince Vijaya (Janavamsa ola manuscript) . The putative port of landing of the prince is in north-west Sri Lanka contiguous with the region later known as Kuru Rata with a city named Hastinapura (Kurunegala) named after Hasinapur, ( The ruins of Hastinapur have been unearthed within the ramparts of Purana Quila near Delhi) the Mahabharata capital of the Kauravas. This tradition of early migration of Kaurava royalty explains the prevalence of the 'Pandu' prefix in the names of early Sri Lankan kings such as Panduvasadeva and Pandukabhaya.

413 BC - The small Indian republics were gradually losing their importance and were being over-shadowed by kingdoms like Vatsa, Avanti, Kosala, Magadha etc. In the 6 th century BC only 4 states -Avanti, Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha survived. In 413 BC. the kingdom of Magadha emerged to be the most powerful and succeeded in founding an empire.

The Chedi kingdom was one of many kingdoms ruled by Paurava kings during the early period. The Chedi kingdom was ruled by an ally of king Duryodhana of Kuru. Prominent Chedis during Kurukshetra War included Damaghosha, Bhima's wife & Nakula's wife Karenumati. Uparichara Vasu was a king of Chedi belonging to the Puru Dynasty. He had five royal sons and a son and a daughter from a fisherwoman. The male child, in due course established the Matsya Kingdom and founded the Matsya Dynasty. The female child lived in the fisher community on the banks of Yamuna, in the kingdom of Kuru. The famous Kuru king Santanu's wife Satyavati was from this community. The author of Mahābhārata, Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa and the Kuru kings Chitrangada and Vichitravirya were the sons of Satyavati. Pandavas and Kauravas where the grandsons of Vichitravirya.(Mahabharata 1,63)

300 BC- Emperor Ashoka .( 304 BC – 232 BC) was the son of Mauryan emperor Bindusara and while in exile Ashoka married a fisher woman named Kaurwaki (Maharani Devi) who converted to Buddhism. Their children Mahindra and Sanghamitra establishes Buddhism in Sri Lanka.

An artist’s impression of Theri Sanghamitta arriving in Sri Lanka with the Bodhi Tree

Migration of more Kauravas to Sri Lanka with Theri Sanghamitta, who brought the sacred Bo sapling to Sri Lanka. The Bodhiyabaduge and several other Karava clans ascribe their migration to this event. See arrival of the Bodhi tree.

A view of the River Daya, from the battlefield of Kalinga on Dhauli hills. The Daya river had turned red with the blood of 100,000 Kalingas and more than 10,000 of Ashoka's own warriors killed in the Kalinga war.

200 BC- AlthoughAshoka devastated Chedi in his Kalnga war, within a century Khāravela of the Mahameghavahana Chedi dynasty of Kalinga restored the lost power of the Kalinga kingdom with maritime links to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Bali, Sumatra and Jabadwipa (Java). The migrations of Karavas to Sri Lanka over the next millennium are traced to this region.

Kharavela Kingdom 2nd cent BC

100 BC – Bharata warriors (see above. The Kauravas were from the royal line of King Bharata) appear as wealthy and prominent patrons of the Sangha in Brahmi rock inscriptions scattered across Sri Lanka right into the deep south. Unlike other Brahmi inscriptions, many of these inscriptions bear the symbol of a ship.

Pre Christian inscriptions from Sri lanka with the ship symbol (left) and fish symbol (below)

The pre-christian rock inscriptions of the Kataragama Kshatriyas always bear the Fish symbol. These Kataragama Kshatriya kings describe themselves in their pre Christian inscriptions as " Gamini puta dasa kathikana Kedhate . " (Bovattegala inscription Inscr of Ceylon part I p 41 # 549) Kedhate was the early form of Kevatta meaning 'mastery over water'. Over a thousand years later, when Kevatta also meant a fisherman, chroniclers have used prefixes to distinguish Dunu-kevatta vamsa warrior royalty (Ariyapala p 113) from Vedi-kevatta tribal fishermen.

The word Dheega meaning water is frequently used by these kings in their personal names such as Dheegha-Gamini, Dheega-Jantu etc. and in place names such as Dhiga-Vapi, Dhiga-Mandala etc. The word Kataragama too in its original form was Kachara (Ka +Chara) where Ka meant water and Chara meant 'travelling on', meaning sailing and naval power. (Yatala Vehera p 18)

- Recent excavations in the south have uncovered many types of coins from the same period with the Fish symbol. The Fish symbol and the Ship symbol are recurrent symbols on Karava Heraldry

Early Christian era

- Karavas are by this time established in Sri Lanka and influential enough to have their own permanent council terrace in the heart of the royal city of Anuradhapura. The inscription of Ila Barata , Kuruvira, Karava Navika and others is inscribed on a vertical rock face of a terrace to the north west of the ancient Abhayagiri Dagaba in Anuradhapura (Paranavitana xo 94 )

Above: The inscription on the Karava council terrace at Anuradhapura - See Karava terrace

4th century– A rock inscription by Karava Tissa a mariner in Veragala (Codrington appendix 193)

– Sri Lanka continues to be ruled by Kshatriya kings who claim descent from Indian Solar and Lunar Dynasties. Their royal symbols are the Sun and the Moon symbols (see royal symbols of ancient Sri Lanka).

The Sun & Moon flag of Sri Lankan royalty
The lion image was not a royal symbol of ancient Sri Lanka. The above illustrates how the lion image was commonly used on ancient foot stones and trodden on by those entering shrines and royal buildings. And below: How ancient Sri lankan Kings of Anuradhapura used the Lion as adecorative motif on their toilet stones

The Lion was not a royal symbol for these monarchs and they used the lion image on foot-stones at entrances to buildings and on urinal-stones. The lion symbol was popularised by the Indian born Kalinga monarchs of Sri Lanka who claimed to hail from Sinhapura (lion city).

In addition to the Sun and Moon royal symbols, Kings such as Parakramabahu the Great, Nissankamalla and other kings have also used the Fish symbol on their inscriptions. The Fish symbol too is a recurrent symbol on Karava Heraldry

- A Sri Lankan royal inscription from this period refers to the overlord’s share of tax as Kara Kadaya(EZ II 59)

7th – 8th centuries- Arikesari Maravarman attacks the Paravas who did not submit to him and destroys the people of Kuru Nadu in the Pandyan Kingdom. (Sastri 52)

The Mediaeval Period

- King Mahinda IV (956-972) marries Indian princess Sundari of the Kalinga dynasty which causes the Kalinga and Pandya (Lunar dynasty Kshatriyas) dynastic skirmishes for the Sri Lankan throne over the next several centuries.

- 993 Rajendra Chola invades Sri Lanka . Chola armies led by Generals such as Aditya Karikalan. (Karikal was an ancient port on the Kuru Mandala Coast. Many Karavas migrated from here ) King Mahinda V describes his Kshatriya ancestry as Sehekula kew lu sudana (EZ IV p62)

- More Karavas settle in Sri Lanka as independent migrants and settlers from invading armies of Pandya, Chola and, Kalinga from the Kuru-Mandala coast (ie. The region of the Kurus - Coromandel) stretching across Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

According to Indian sources the Kalinga Dynasty had fought in the Mahabharat war for the Kauravas and Kharavela was a famous king of Kalingas. . The Kalinga rulers of Sri lanka intermarried with local Kshatriya familes and styled themselves as Vichaya kulingai (from the line of Vijaya) Ariyan ( Ariyan = Oriya from Orissa region) from Sinhapur (lion city in the Malay peninsula).

According to Indian historian Benarji, 20,000 families had been sent over to Java by the King of Kalinga in India. Chandrabanu who invaded Sri Lanka in the 13 th century with 'Javaka' armies is believed to be from this settlement with Singapur as its capital.

The capital of the Pandyan Kingdom was Korkai before it was shifted to Madurai. Madura in the south was sometimes called Dakshina Madura (Southern Madura) to differentiate it from the northern Uttara Madra. Sangam literature refers to the Pandyans as Kauriyar.

11th century– Many Kurukularajas all over the Tamil country (BITC 1)

– A commander in the Sri Lankan king Vijayabahu I’s army is referred to as Kurukulattarayan who wore the golden anklet (EI No. 38 XXI 5)

– Several references to Kurukulattarayans and Kurukularayans in Chalukya Chola inscriptions (Sastri The Cholas 592, Travancore archaeological series I, 247 and South Indian Inscriptions No. 53 VII 126)

12th century

According to the old Sinhala texts Rajavaliya, Janavamsa and Kadaim-Poth, King Gajabahu brought a large community of Kauravas among 24,000 second generation Sri Lankan captives and Indian prisoners from Chola, and settled them in Kuru Rata, the present Negombo Chilaw region and calls it Aluth Kuru Rata (the new Kuru country) and renamed the previous synonymous region as Parana Kuru Rata (The old Kuru country). Historians with other motives have attempted to misidentify this king as Gajabahu I and place the event in the 2nd century. The king in reality is Gajabahu II who ruled Sri Lanka in the 12th century. The Gajabahu story which has been displaced and thereby discredited by these historians makes much sense when it is placed in it's rightful context in the 12th century . The Sun and Moon Flag of the Kaurava is now mistaken as the district flag of this region

An inscription of Kullotunga says that he invaded Madura on behalf of his nephew Karadeva (Madras epigraphy collection of 1928, No. 336)

The capital of the Pandyan Kingdom was Korkai before it was shifted to Madurai. Madura in the south was sometimes called Dakshina Madura (Southern Madura) to differentiate it from the northern Uttara Madra.
Sangam literature refers to the Pandyans as Kauriyar.

The Kalinga Dynasty had fought in the Mahabharat war for the Kauravas and Kharavela was a famous king of Kalingas.

Chola armies led by Generals such as Aditya Karikalan.

Throughout the medieval period there is evidence that powerful Kshatriya generals decided as to which king or queen ascended the throne. General Thakura who defeated Mitta and established Bhuvanekabahu I (1272 -1285) on the throne is one documented examples ( Mahavamsa 88.16) Other powerful king makers from the period are: Vijayá Yán tannávan and Vijaya Singu Távurunávan (EZ II. Page 112) whose names equate with the Karava clan name Vijaya Kula Suriya. Thakura too is a traditional Karava clan name.

13th century- Several inscriptions refer to Gurukulattarayan (Kurukulattarayan) in the Pandya Kingdom (Madras Government Epigraphy Inscriptions 548, 549, 550. 553 572, 575)

- A Gurukulattarayan in the Chola Kingdom eulogized as lord of Tadangauni. (Madras Government Epigraphy Inscription 554)

– A division of Trichinopoly district was known as Kurunagai Nadu (Rangacharya 1512).

1220- Commencement of the Karava 'Siri Sangabo' dynasty by Vijayabahu III (1220 - 1234 ), who claimed descent from a family that arrived with the sacred Bodhi tree.

- Kaurava Adittya ( meaning Kurukulasuriya) Arasa Nila Yitta (bearing kingly position) Elenaga, Mahanaga and other Patabenda Karava kings rule regional kingdoms of Sri Lanka.(Valignano 1577, Perniola 82, Valentyn 1726)
Also see Karava swords in the Colombo Museum and Varnakula Aditya Arasa-nilayitta Clan.

14th century– According to an inscription dated 1353, the city of Vijayanagar was called Kurukshetra- Vidyanagari. Other inscriptions from the periods of Harihara I and Bukka I say that it was also called Hastinavati reminiscent of Hastinapur of the ancient Kauravas (Ramanayar 52).

1340s - The appearance of Nissanka Alakeshvara and the Alagakkonara (as in Koon Karava clan) rulers of Kotte. They too are from Kanchipuram as the Karava Generals of the Mukkara Hatana. The 'Vaniya Kula' (Varna Kula, as in the Karava Warnakulasuriya clan and the Vanni Kula Kshatriyas of that part of India) ancestry of the Alagakkonaras is misinterpreted by modern historians as a 'trade' ancestry.

Modern historians lament about the lack of information on this period. However Mudaliyar Wijesinghe who translated the Mahavamsa during the British period has noted that original pages were missing from the ola leaf book and fictitious pages were found in their place.

1391- Virabahu II (=Weera Suriya) 1391 – 1397 ascends the throne and rules from Raigama (east of Panadura)

15th century

1411 – A Chinese expedition of the Ming Emperor attacks Kotte and takes king Alakeshvara and his family to China.

1412 – A Karava Kurukule prince deposes the puppet king placed on the throne by the Chinese and ascends the throne as king Parakramabahu VI. Valentyn states that Parakrama Bahu VI is from Kurukule (ie. Kuru caste). And Parakrama Bahu VI himself says that he is " descended from King Bharatha" in his Padákada Sannasa. (JRASCB XXXVI). One of the Karava Generals who arrived for the Mukkara Hatana is also from the Bharatha Kula and King Bharatha is the legendary ancestor of the Kauravas and Pandavas

- Literary compositions from the Kotte period say that the Makara flags (Muvara dada in the Kav Silumina and min dada in the Thisara Sandesha) of victory flew over the city of Kotte. The Thisara Sandesha also says that the Garuda flag was a royal flag of the Kotte kingdom. It is important to note that both the Makara flag and the Garuda flag are traditional flags of the Karava community.

- Migration of several Suriya clans of the Karavas in the reign of King Parakrama Bahu VI (1412-1467) as documented in the Mukkara Hatana palm leaf manuscript now in the British Museum. The region they settled is known todate as Aluth Kuru Rata, meaning the 'new Kuru country'.

- The story in the Mukkara Hatana is also found in Vanni Upatha ( British Museum catalogue Or. 6606 (139) ). The subsequent Vanni kula (Varna Kula) rulers who lend their name to the Vanni region are their descendants.

- More Karava migrants settle in Sri Lanka as independent migrants and settlers from invading armies of Pandya, Chola and, Kalinga from the Kuru-Mandala coast (ie. The region of the Kurus - Coromandel) stretching across Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

- King Parakramabahu adopts both sons of Karava General Manikka Thalevan (Menik Otunu Kumara in Sinhala) who was slain in the Mukkara Hatana. The elder prince (known as Xemba Perumal and also Tammita Suriya Bandara and later known as Prince Sapumal) first rules Jaffna and later ascends the throne of Sri Lanka

1467 – Prince Jayabahu (Jayasuriya), son of Ulakudai Devi (daughter of Parakramabahu VI) and prince Nallurutun (from Karava Singhe dynasty of Nallur or Nalluruva in Panadura near Raigama kingdom) ascends the throne as Vira Parakramabahu VII (1467-1470)

1470 –Prince Sapumal (Son of Karava General Makikka Thalevan) ascends the throne of Sri Lanka as Bhuvanekabahu VI (1470 1480).

1484 - Prince Ambulugala, the other son of Karava General Manikka Thalevan slays Bhuvanekabahu IV’ s son Panditha Parakramabahu and ascended the throne as Vira Parakramabahu VII ( Sirisangabo Vira Parakramabahu)

- The Kshatriya family of Keerawella (denoting their origin from Keelakkare / Karikal. Some of the Karavas of Mukkara Hatana too came from the same region) resident in the Hatara Korale (in the Parana Kuru Rata - Old Kuru Country in Sri Lanka) is the source of royal maidens for the rulers of this period. Similarly, the daughter of Bhuvaneka Bahu VII is named Samudra Devi (meaning Sea queen denoting the Kshatriya sea faring lineage)

16 th century

The Portuguese Period

- Arrival of Portuguese followed by the subsequent division of the Karava community into two rival groups - one fighting with the Portugese and the other fighting with the local rulers against the Portugese occupation.

-The Portuguese described the Patabändas / PatangatimsKinglets (subkings) of the Karávas who controlled not only one village but sometimes the whole coast as a master or ruler” (Valignano 1577. Perniola 82).

-Other Portuguese writers, Joaõ de Barrows (1520) and Castan Heda (1528), refer to five Kings stationed at important coastal towns, their ears laden with jewels and claiming relationship with the King of Kotte. (Ferguson 1506, JRASCB XIX.283 -400)

- The Portuguese historian Fr. Queyroz describes an early Portuguese battle in Sri Lanka as follows: “At that time the Kinglet of the Careas appeared with the whole might of that kingdom which exceeded 20,000. .” (Queyroz 631).

-Valentyn too notes that the chiefs of Sri Lanka were from among the Karávas (Valentyn 1726). During this period, Chem Nayque and other Karavas were the Naval commanders of the Nayaks of Tanjore (Queyroz, 638).

- Collapse of the Vijayanagar empire with adverse consequences to its army and navy which had many Karavas.

- The Vijayanagar Rulers had the practice of appointing provincial governors or viceroys such as the Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Tanjore to administer provinces. They regained independent authority in the areas governed as the power of the Vijayanagar empire waned. (See Vaduge ). The 17th century Portuguese historian Queyroz’s observation that Chem Nayque, the naval commander of the Nayque of Tanjore, was a Karáva (Queyroz, 638).

1509 – Son of Jayabahu (Jayasuriya) comes from the Karava port city of Dondra in the south and ascends the Kotte throne as Vijayabahu VII (Vijayasuriya – Bahu is another word for Sooriya, the Sun. Sri Lankan monarchs had used it to denote their solar ancestry. It did not mean a one arm as some suggest. )

1511 - Kirawelle Ralahami a Karava commander in chief of the Kotte kingdom invades Jayaweera Bandara's Kandyan territories to restore tributory status. According to the Rajavaliya he received 2 lacs of Fanams, 2 elephants and king Jayaweera's daughter in marriage.

1521 -The three princes Máyadunne, Bhuvanekabahu and Raigam Bandára, sons of King Vijayabáhu VII (AD 1509 -1521) of Kotte seek refuge in the home of a Kauravadhipathi -a Patabenda in Jaffna. (Rajavaliya 225). This ruler described as a Patabenda in the Rajavaliya could very well be king Sankili Segarajasekaran VI 1519-1560 (Chankili I) of the Karava Singhe Dynasty of Jaffna. And hence the name Yapa Pattana as it's ruler was referred to as a Pattangatti (Patabenda).

1521 - Prince Mayadunne seeks assistance from King Jayaweera Bandara of Kandy who is married to Mayadunne's cousin, a Karava Keerawelle princess.

1521 - Prince Bhuvanekabahu ascends the throne of Kotte as Bhuvanekabahu Vii and rules for 30 years.

1551 – Prince Dharmapala (baptised as Dom Joao), son of Vidiya Bandara (Vedaya - expert in the Vedas as in Karava family names) and Samudra Devi (meaning Sea Queen), ascends the Kotte throne.

1591 - The Kingdom of Jaffna passes from Karava Singhe Dynasty to the Portuguese by the 'Nallur convention' signed by Karava nobles.

1591 - Karava princess Maha Patabendige Dona Catherina (Kusumasana Devi) is the sole heiress of Sri Lanka. She is the d aughter of Karav-liyadde Bandara, the ruler of Kandy (1579-1581). She had been brought up by Catholic nuns in a convent in Mannar

- Karava prince Konappu Bandara (Koon+Appu from the Koon Karava clan, previously baptised as Dom Joao of Austria) marries Dona Catherina and ascends the Kandyan throne as Wimaladharmasuriya I (1591-1604). Possibly due to the extensive use of flags by Karava princes and generals, the Portuguese refer to them as Banderas. (Bandeira is the Portuguese word for flags - Bandera in Spanish)

1597 - The Kingdom of Kotte passes from Karava kings to the Portuguese by the 'Malwana convention' signed by Karava nobles.One of the three local nobles was Karava Patangatim Thome Rodrigo. Francisco Bethencourt refers to the leading men of Kotte who signed the Malvana convention as Korales – a mispronunciation of Karava.

It is interesting to note that the Dutch Thombo of 1765 lists the hereditory owners of the Kotte palace and treasury land as hailing from Magalle, A Karava village south of Galle. During the early 20th century a Govigama Mudaliyar had transported cartloads of carved stones from the Kotte ruins to building sites in Colombo. The post-independence Govigama dominated governments have shown no interest in conserving the remains of the Kotte kingdom. During the J. R. jayawardene's government, he built 'Sirikotha', the headquarters of his political party, on the Kotte rampart and filled part of the moat for parking vehicles. The few remaining archaeological ruins are fast dissapearing.

17th century

1604- Wimaladharmasuriya's death. His cousin Senerath (1604 -1635) marries queen Dona Catherina and ascends the throne.

1606- Portuguese missionaries first concentrate on converting the Karava Patabändas as they were the leaders and rulers of the people. They are used as examples for other gentiles to follow (Jesuit annual letter of 29/12/1606 from Cochin, Perniola II.254). They belived that " . by the conversion of the great, that of the lesser would be more easily obtained" (Queroz 209)

1612- Murder of king Wimaladharmasuriya's son, the crown prince Mahasthana (The Rajavaliya gives his real name as Rajasuriya)

1613- Near death, the grieving Dona Catherina appoints her relative, the Karava prince Kuruvita Rala, (the Prince of Uva) and the Prince of Negombo as Guardians of her remaining sons. King Senarath reconfirms the appointment later. One of them, Devarajasinghe, succeeded Senerath and rules as Rajasinghe II from 1635 to 1685. Marriages for the other two princes arranged with two princesses from the Karava Singhe dynasty of Jaffna.

1623- Baptism of Jaffna's King Pararajasekaran’s two queens as Dona Clara da Silva and Dona Antonia da Silva, several nephews of the king, nine Patangatims and all other chief persons of the Karava caste.(Perniola Portuguese period III)

- The locals adopt Portuguese modes of dress, But in keeping with the local custom of only the upper classes were permitted to cover the upper body. (For example the Govigama Siyam Nikaya monks still customarily keep one shoulder exposed). Until recent times the 'Kabakuruttu', a tight fitting white blouse with long sleeves, lace trimmings and a V neck-line, was worn only by Karava women. Women of other castes wore 'Hette' (blouses).

1630s- The Portuguese violate traditional caste rules. They appoint hundreds of loyal locals of any caste as petty revenue collection officer. These officers extort the population and demand traditional honors previously due only to the royal caste. Karava, Salagama and other Lascorins complain to the Portuguese Captain about these violations. (A copy of this Memorandum can be found in Queyroz )

1638 -1658 – Arrival of Dutch fleets, Portuguese rule replaced by Dutch in the coastal provinces

– Dodda Deva Raja (1659-1672) of Mysore claims to have subjugated the Kurus (Rice 128)

- Many Karavas refuse to give up Catholicism. Persecution of Karava Catholics by the Dutch, loss of life, livelihood displacement and large numbers from the Karava community taking to non traditional occupations. Loss of warriors and leaders on both sides in the many Dutch wars.

1660s - Lands of many Karava chiefs are acquired by the Dutch. The few Chiefs who co-operate with the Dutch have their lands restored (see document). Others lose theirs.

- The Dutch seek the assistance of several Karava Adigars and Mudaliyars and their armies to attack and capture Cochin (see extracts of Dutch minutes 12 to 16 Jan., 1660). As can be seen from that extract, The Dutch also seek the assistance of Karava Adigars to control the rebel subjects of King Rajasinghe II (Secret minutes of the Dutch Council 15-11-1668)

18th century– The Kshatriys Vaduga Dynasty rules the Kandyan kingdom. (See Vaduge) Pybus notes that the Cloth worn by the chiefs is called Karaveniya.

Most of the Karava Generals had fought with the Portuguesse against the Dutch or were with the local kings.

The few Karava Generals who fight with the Dutch are the only Karava chiefs to get into the Dutch administrative structure. As such the Dutch appoint their Interpreters and guides from other castes as Mudaliyars and chiefs.

When Valentyn wrote in the early 1700s on the social structure of the coastal region (which was after over 2 centuries of European rule and the above changes) he notes that the Raja, Bamunu, Velenda and Govi four fold classification was still very much alive. He ranks the Karava as the highest caste and the caste from which chiefs and other important officials were appointed.The Durava caste is ranked second highest whist the Govi is last as it is in the lowest and last quartile. (Valentyn 76 to 80).

-By the middle of the 18 th century this new class of Mudaliyars had become Lords in the provinces and were secretive and corrupt (Burnand 156)

Late 18th century- A De Saram family of mixed origin Sinhalises itself by posing as the representatives of the masses and subsequently convinces the British rulers that they are from the numerous Govigama caste. (However Sri Lankan peasantry was only a generic group at this time and it had yet not consolidated into a group with its own leaders or a common group culture. That transformation takes place only in the 20th century to serve the political needs of the leaders of that time.)

The De Saram family gains power and position by loyalty, religious conversion and collaboration with the Dutch and British rulers and succeeds in marginalizing the traditional ruling class. The British notion of an inverted caste hierarchy in Sri Lanka is easily traceable to the spurious documents on 'local customs' produced by this family.

The British naturally favor the subservient De Saram family against the belligerent Kshatriya nobiliy . The De Saram family is given increasing patronage and high chiefly appointments. The family grows in power and influence. See Sri Lankan Mudaliyars

According to Karava lore some of these families have Karava connections but were disowned by the clan for marrying beneath their status. For example Leander de Saram, son of Anthonan the original de Saram who accompanied the Dutch Embassy of 1731 – 1732 to Kandy, was made a Mudaliar by the Dutch and he married Muhandiram Louis Perera’s daughter.in 1754. The progenitor of the Bandaranaike family had married the daughter of Bandaranaike Suriya Patangatim of Dondra and taken the name and the Corea family of Chilaw is said to descend from Domingus Corea Patangatim of Negombo. The first Obeysekera is said to be a Karava from Gandara

The region bordered by Kurunegala , Colombo and Puttalam still has a high concentration of Karavas. It was the region usually administered by the Prince regent and was the base region of the Navies that protected Sri Lanka's coasts

Click for larger image of South India and Kuru-Mandala ( Coromandal ) . Note that the Coromandel coast is up the western coast of India and that the fishery coast is the part further down and closer to Sri Lanka.

The extent of the Pandya kingdom in 1250

An 11th century mural at Brihadeesvara temple believed to be that of king Rajaraja Chola (in the background) and his guru Karuvurar.

Two inscribed swords of Karava kings from the Colombo Museum. The owners of these swords gifted them to the Colombo museum in the mid 20 th century. The descriptive plaque with the translation of the inscriptions installed at the time of gifting disappeared soon after. The swords are still on display but without a translation plaque and as such viewers are kept unaware of their Karava connection.

Vijayanagar Empire

Karava Queen Maha Patabendige Dona Catherina, the sole heiress of Sri Lanka (Illustration from Baldaeus 1672)

Above: the Hanguranketha palace of king Senerath and queen Dona Catherina. This palace has since been destroyed without a trace. The four wooden pillars of the British period built Godamune Ambalama (illustrated below) are said to be from this palace.

Above: an ancient Marakkar (war-paroe) from the region illustrated on an Indian stamp. See Marakkalage for more information on the Naval heritage of the Karavas.

Above: An ordinary Karava woman from the distant past in the traditional Kabakuruttu. . Until recent times the 'Kabakuruttu' a tight fitting white blouse with long sleeves, lace trimmings and a V neck-line, was worn only by Karava women. Women of other castes wore 'Hette' (blouses).

The more affluent form of the dress

Above and below: Gold 'Siri-Bo Mala' wedding necklaces worn only by Karava brides. See Karava customs

17th century
– Dodda Deva Raja (1659-1672) of Mysore claims to have subjugated the Kurus (Rice 128)

- Many Karavas refuse to give up Catholicism. Persecution of Karava Catholics by the Dutch, loss of life, livelihood displacement and large numbers from the Karava community taking to non traditional occupations. Loss of warriors and leaders on both sides in the many Dutch wars.

18th century

– The Kshatriys Vaduga Dynasty rules the Kandyan kingdom. (See Vaduge) Pybus notes that the Cloth worn by the chiefs is called Karaveniya.

1764 – A conspiracy by Govigama monks converts the 'Siyam Nikaya' Buddhist monastic sect into a 'Govigama caste only' Nikaya. This sect had been established by King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe (1747 - 1782) just a few years ago. The monks who opposed this parody are banished to Jaffna by the conspiring casteist moks. (see Mandarampura Puvatha from the period)

1772- The 'Govigama caste only' Nikaya is quickly challenged by other castes in 1772 and 1798 by performing higher ordination ceremonies, respectively in Totagamuwa and Tangalle. However the validity of these ordinations was questioned on the grounds of unbroken pupillary succession.

1799- Therefore a Buddhist monk from the Salagama caste proceeded to Burma and obtains higher ordination, returned to Sri Lanka and established the Amarapura Nikaya sect. He was followed by Karava and Durava caste monks and by 1810 all three castes had regained the higher ordination denied to them in 1764 by the conspiring Govigama monks.

Late 18th century- A De Saram family of mixed origin Sinhalises itself by posing as the representatives of the masses and subsequently convinces the British rulers that they are from a caste called the Govigama caste. This new Govigama caste is portrayed as a segment of the numerous Govi caste, which was traditionally the last of the four fold caste division. The peasantry of Sri Lanka even at this time was merely a generic group and although referred to as the 'Govi caste' from time immemorial, it didn't have a unifying culture or any leaders. The thousands of scattered village communities were not linked to each other through matrimonial or other kinship ties either. The generic Govi caste traditionally included all castes such as the Vahumpura, Batgama, Rajaka etc. who between their other duties were also rice cultivators .

The De Sarams appear to have derived their Govigama identity rom the Kandyan monks who staged a Govigama only coup in the Kandyan sangha in 1764. The De Sarams help these Kandyan 'Govigama only' Siyam Nikaya to establish itself in the British maritime region. Mudaliyar Don David De Saram organises an unprecedented Buddhist ceremony lasting for a week on a flotilla on the Nilwala river in Matara and gives the Govigama Nikaya his full official patronage.

- During this period, the De Saram family gains power and position first by loyalty to the Dutch and then to the British, switching religions From Dutch Protestantism to British Anglicanism and collaborating with the invaders. They succeeds in marginalizing the traditional ruling class. The British notion of an inverted caste hierarchy in Sri Lanka is easily traceable to the spurious documents on 'local customs' produced by this family.

- Although the De Saram family presents itself to the British as the representatives of the numerous Govi caste, the family is yet to integrate with or be accepted as one of theirs by the peasant masses. The De Sarams however appears to consider Mudaliyars of other castes as peers. An example is the appointment of Karava Mudaliar d'Andrado along with his own kith and kin Mudaliyars as executors of his last will by Govigama Gate Mudaliyar Nicholas Dias Abeyesinghe.

- Tippu Sultan converts Koravas of Coorg to Islam - as much as 70,000 according to some researchers (Chikkarangegowda)

The British Period

The British naturally favor these subservient so called Govigama families (working for the British as interpreters and guides, thereby controlling what their masters hear ) over the belligerent Kshatriya nobility . The De Saram family is given increasing patronage and high chiefly appointments. These families grow in power and influence. See Sri Lankan Mudaliyars

According to folklore some of these families were founded by Karavas disowned by the clan for marrying beneath their status. For example the Illangakoone, Bandaranaike and Corea families are said to have Karava Patangatim ancestors, Respectively Illangakoone Mudali of Matara, Bandaranayaka Suriya Patangatim of Dondra and Domingus Corea Patangatim of Negombo. And the first Obeyesekere is said to be a Karava from Gandara (according to some sources he was a Spaniard - Daily News 21 Jan 2008).

- British methods of administration, divide and rule policies, census taking methods and mandatory declaration of one’s ‘Race’ on official documents forces the Sri Lankan population of diverse ethnic origins to become either Sinhalese or Tamils based on the language they spoke at that point in time. This splits the Karava community into two so called races. The European concept of ‘Race’ was an alien concept for Sri Lanka. The Sinhala language previously did not even have an equivalent word to convey the meaning of ‘race’ and the Sinhala word Jaathi now used for that purpose previously only meant ‘caste’ or ‘birth’. The words 'Jaathi' or 'Jaathiya' has never been used in Sri Lankan history to refer to a mega Sinhala race.

1797- By proclamation of 16 August 1797 the British decree that Headmen appointment will be made only from the Govigama and Vellala castes (CO 55.2).This led to an immediate rebellion in the coastal areas.

1799- British Governor Frederic North establishes a Seminary in Colombo to educate selected Govigama, Radala and Vellala youth. These youth are appointed as Mudaliyars and other public officials. Other communities are excluded.

19th century

1805- British Governor Thomas Maitland notes with dissatisfaction that his Predecessor has virtually handed over all administrative powers of the Colombo, Galle and Matara districts to Mudaliyar Illangakoone and members of his family. (CO.54.18.19 October 1805). However, Maitland's attempts to rectify the position further strengthens the position of both these families as the cosmopolitan de Saram family in an effort to Sinhalize itself in the south of the country, had already solemnized several marriages with the rural Illangakoones and were responsible for the expanding power of that family (see de Saram, Illangakoon, Obeyesekera & Bandaranaike genealogy )

1828- The first ever Bank in Sri Lanka,The Bank of Kandy, is established by Karava entrepreneurs, Jeronis and Louis Peiris

1829- Karava inhabitants of Weligama petition the British government against placing Govigama headmen over them (CO. 416.29).

1831- The Karavas lose their last remaining Mudaliyar with the retirement of Mudaliyar Thomas de Andrado Arasakulasooriya Wijeratne.

1832- The Colonial office orders the government in Ceylon to abandon it's caste favouritism. This re-opens headmen positions to all castes. However British Governors and officials continue to be influenced by the Govigama interpreters who surround them and as such the same Govigama families continue to be favoured.

1832 to 1835 - British administrative reforms in effect strengthen the power of the Govigama Mudaliyar families by appointing them to the newly created Legislative Council and judiciary. Juries are stacked with members of the interconnected Illangakoone and de Saram families. These Juries function as family groups and most judgments go against other communities and in favour of the extended network of these families.

1845- Based on the 1832 order from the Colonial office to reinstate other castes as Mudaliyars, P. E. Woodhouse, the Government Agent for the Western Province selects Manuel de Fonseka, a Karava, as the most suitable candidate for the Mudaliyarship of Raigam Korale and Kalutara. Influenced by the Govigama loyalists, the Governor refuses to ratify it. (SLNA 22, 93, No. 55 old)

1848 – A rebellion against British rule in the Kandyan provinces led by Puran Appu, a Karava from Moratuwa. He was crowned on July 28 1848 as the king of Kandy by the high priest of Dambulla and chiefs such as Dullewa, Godahella, Ukuwela, Kongoda and Ratwatte Banda.

1849 - The British appoint their New Radala followers as Maha Vanniyas, thus depriving the Karava Vanni Kula (Varna Kula) chiefs who held those positions up until then. Ralapanave Punchirala to the Nuwaragam Palatha, followed by other outsider appointments to Vanni positions Ratwatte Loku Banda in 1878 and Ratwatte Dingiri Banda in 1892.

1853 – Jeronis de Soysa is to be appointed as a 'Mudaliyar of the Governor's Gate'. The Govigama Maha Mudaliyar Ernest de Saram uses his influence with the Governor and attempts to lower it to "Mudaliyar of Moratuwa'. If not for the intervention of two British Civil Servants, Jeronis Soysa's Gate Mudaliar appointment would not have gone through (Peebles 162) . Jeronis de Soysa was the first to receive such an honourary title purely for philanthropy. All previous appointments had been purely for loyal service to the British government.

1870 – The Karava de Soysa family hosts a lavish banquet of unprecedented scale to welcome the Duke of Edinburgh. It was held at 'Alfred House' and solid gold plates are said to have been used. The leading Govigama Mudaliyars of the period neither had the resources nor the space in their residences to host a banquet of such magnitude. But the event triggered much jealousy and more attacks on the Karava community.

Charles and Susew de Soysa dominate ceremonies and receptions for royal visitors and therefore several Govigama leaders boycott the ceremonies (Ceylon Observer 23 April 1870, Examiner 27 April 1870)

1870 – Many Govigama employees who do menial work for British civil servants get rewarded with Muhandiram/ Mudaliyar appointments on their retirement. For example the Muhandiram of Siyana Korale West had been appointed purely for rendering domestic service for eight years to Mrs. Layard, the British Government Agent’s wife and bringing good meat for her from the public market.( The Examiner’ 30th March 1870)

1873 - Buddhist / Christian religious controversies (such as the 'Panadura Vadaya' - Panadura debate of 1873) are engineered by a few ambitious Govigama politicians. These plots sharply divide the Buddhist and Christian Karavas, Salagamas and Duravas and they all waste their wealth on infighting. A sharp wedge is driven to steer the Karava, Salagama and Durava away from uniting as strong communities.

The Buddhist participant at the 'Panadura Vadaya' was Migettuwatte Gunananda, a Salagama monk. And the research and logistics were by Weligama Sri Sumangala Maha Thero, an extremely competent Karava monk. The expenses of the debate were borne by the philanthropist Karava family of Jeremias Dias. The recent conversion of Arnold Dias (the younger brother of Jeremias Dias) to Christianity following his marriage to Apalonia Soysa was exploited by interested parties to divide this family. The plot also effectively split the Karava and Salagama communities as Buddhists and Christians. The Karavas and the Salagamas were two communities that were the only threat to the emerging Govigama clique.

It was not unusual for families of the period to have Buddhist and Christian branches and to marry across religions as long as the caste and social status matched. For instance Dodanduwe Piyaratane Tissa Thero who initiated the Poruwa custom at Buddhist weddings (and popularized it through the 'Lakmini Pahana' newspaper) was an uncle of Arnolis Weerasooriya (1857-1888), Colonel of the Salvation Army (and second in command on the Indian sub-continent). The Karava Weerasooriya family of Dodanduwa has always managed to unite around religious and other differences (see web site of Weerasooriya family). And the Headmaster of the first Buddhist school in Dodanduwa was a convert from Christianity to Buddhism. There are several other Karava families too with both Buddhist and Christian branches.

In the 'Panadura Vadaya' the Christian side is generally believed to have been defeated. As such it is extremely interesting to note that E. F. Perera, (a staunch Christian and the father of E. W. Perera, a member of the upstart Govigama clique plotting to gain political power) was instrumental in printing and distributing the proceedings of the debate. E. W Perera would later introduce the spurious lion flag that divided the nation racially and while still very much an Anglican Christian, become the Administrator of the Buddhist school Ananda College, a pivotal centre of the Buddhist revival.

1880- A spurious publication titled 'Niti Nighanduva' is published with government patronage. It purports to be a authentic record of the laws and customs but is really a book attempting to say that the Govi caste is the highest caste and all other castes are low. (see Govigama for historical references spanning the entire history of Sri Lanka - they all confirm that in fact the Govigama was the lowest caste in the pre-colonial Sri Lankan social structure)

1881 - Karava Lawyers S. R. de Fonseka and G. A. Dharmaratne present themselves to be appointed to the Legislative Council but the Governor nominates his favourite Govigama candidate.

1888 - Walter Pereira (Durava), T. E. de Sampayo (Navandanna) and two Karavas James Peiris and Jeronis Pieris offer themselves for appointment. But the Governor adamently reappoints from his favoured Obeyesekere family. (Roberts 166)

1889- To prevent the Radalas from coveting the seat reserved for his favoirite Govigama family, a New Radala (Govigama) is appointed by Governor Gordon to the Legislative Council. This is done on the pretext of giving Buddhist a place in the Council.

1889- Director of Public Administration H. W. Green decides to recruit school teachers only from the Govigama caste. (CO. 54.583, No.312, 3 August 1889).

1890- Advocate Dharmabandu, A Karava, publishes 'Kara-Goi contest' in reply to the Niti Nighanduwa published by the government in 1880.

1890- and again in 1905, British qualified Barrister James Peiris, a Karava, was the main contender for the unofficial Sinhala seat in the Legislative Council. Pieris had the support of the Karava elite, The Salagama elite such as: J. de S. Rajapakse, Peter de Abrew, A. E. de Silva and Dandris de Silva Gooneratne, Govigama elite such as A. A. Wickremesinghe and D. W. Subasinghe and Navandanna elite such as Dr. A. E. Roberts (Roberts 167)However on both occasions the British Governor nominated S. E. Obesekera from his favored Govigama network.

1891- After several unsuccessful attempts, Dharmarane a qualified candidate accuses the British Government of overlooking his application for the position of District Judge solely because he was from the Karava caste and says "Shrewd men of one caste alone have the ears of Her Majesty's Representatives" (CO. 54.597, No.421, 1 November 1891).

- E. L. F. Soysa a grandson of C. H. de Soysa was the first Sri Lankan to own a motor car.

- The first ever agitations for political reforms, which eventually led to adult franchise and self-governance for Sri Lanka, are initiated by Karava leaders.

20th century

-Temperance movement, targetted against the Karavas who by then were dominating the liquor industry. Movement led by D. R. Wijewardene , D.S. Senanayake and his two brothers F.R and D.C from families that had risen through arrack renting but were out of the liquor trade by then. Interestingly the leaders of the movement are not Teetotallers. The Senanayake brothers were quite fond of both local and imported liquor. They nevertheless get Buddhist Karavas to fund the movement. This campaign enables D. B. Jayatilaka to enter politics.

1905- Govigama politicians exploit the inherent pride of the Karavas and get them to contest each other in elections and draw substantial donations for the Govigama led political projects. Eg. Danister Perera Abeyewardena and Thomas de Silva Amarasuriya contesting for a ward in the Galle Municipality. Govigama leaders are quoted as saying "the money tree is being shaken go pick up all you can". Similar divisive contests were orchestrated in other Karava centres too. Pitting Karava politicians against each other continued into the modern era.

1911- Dr.Marcus Fernando, a Karava candidate, comes forward for the Educated Ceylonese seat in the Legislative Council. he has the support of the Karava elite as well as Govigama elite such as P. B. Ratnayake, L. B. Ranaraja, Hewavitharanas and Emmanuel G. Jayawardena. The Senanayake and Jayewardene brothers promptly bring down 60 year old Ponnambalam Ramanathan who was in retirement in India and create a Govi- Vellala nexus and a caste divide between the Govigamas and the Karava candidate. (Roberts 170) Ramanathan, a Vellala, had recently been forced to retire from the post of Solicitor General for unprofessional conduct (CO.54.693 confidential minute of Cox). Govigama leaders unite at the Legislative Council elections for the Educated Ceylonese seat , support Ponnambalam and defeat Marcus Fernando. They respectively poled 1645 and 981 votes.

1912 - Finally, A. J. R Soysa, a Karava ,is nominated as a Legislative Council member.

1915 - Anti-Muslim riots in Colombo. The Senanayaka brothers and D. R. Wijewardene are among those arrested for inciting the riot. E. W. Perera carries a Memorandum to England. This act has been promoted as a great patriotic act but in Perera's own words, "Everyday on board ship was a day of anxiety, for I did not know whether my friends had not already been marched out of their cells, placed against a wall and shot as had been done to others. "he was doing it to save his friends.

Although E. W. Perera' was neither a Historian nor an expert on flags, permission for his trip to England had been obtained by stating that it was for research at the British Museum. As such he returned with much publicity about 'discovering' a Lion Flag in England, which he said was the 'Royal Flag of Sri Lanka'. D. R. Wijewardene used his newspapers and widely promoted this spurious lion flag as the royal flag of Sri Wickrema Rajasinghe. Thereby they obliterated the real royal symbols of Sri Lanka, the Sun and the Moon, the symbols traditionally also used by the Karava community and introduced a racist flag which has divided Sri Lankans from that day on. See Lion myth.

Dr. Solomon Fernando (1850-1915), a Karava Roman Catholic, addresses the public meeting organised in protest of the arrest of Buddhist leaders. He daringly criticizes the British rulers for imprisoning Buddhist leaders and dies of a heart attack while addressing the meeting. His name is not even mentioned anymore but the person who took a memorandum on these arrests to England, hidden in a shoe, is hailed as the great hero.

1918- Village businessmen of diverse origins tag onto the Govigama identity. The founder of Harischandra Mills Matara, Canda uda Aacharige Odiris de Silva (after changing his ge name to Canda uda Arachchige) recruits employees only from the Govigama caste and publicises his policy with a public sign at his mills.

Around this period, successful Govi caste individuals built Ambalamas (traditional rest houses) at their own costs and introduced a novel concept of having higher seats in them for the Govi caste. The ambalamas at Naranwala and Getakulapadura are two such examples (Dassanayaka 65 & 67)

The rise of the above mentioned, so called 'Govi caste' politicians, the wealth amassed by these families in recent years, the island wide propaganda campaigns by these individuals and the success of petty Govigama traders in regional towns consolidates the peasants throughout the country as one Govigama caste. Caste consciousness of the peasant masses develop and they are told by their leaders that they are the highest caste. (see the traditional low status of this widely dispersed generic group in traditional Sri Lankan society in Govigama)

Consolidation of the Govi caste gathers momentum. Individuals from many castes - anonymous migrants in urban centres - join its ranks. It becomes the default caste open to all who wish to get absorbed into this rising caste. However the political Govigama families of the period (and even their descendants in later times) just exploit the voter base of the Govigama masses but do not share power with them.

it's near impossible for outsiders to similarly enter castes with strong cultural and kin networks such as the Karava, Salagama, Durava, Navandanne etc without detection by their members. These castes also do not experience defections.

1920 - Electoral reforms granting limited franchise brings in a few more Karavs into the legislature. However in 1925 these numbers are reduced by expanding the territorial representation.

1924 – Based on the campaign led by James Pieris demanding a Royal commission of inquiry into the atrocities of the Brtissh Governor Sir John Anderson, the Governor is recalled and the Legislative Council is reconstituted to have a majority of elected representatives. James Pieris gets easily elected now as the Vice President of the Legislative Council (the President was the British Governor) and holds the position until his death in 1930.

1926 – F. R. Senanayake dies and his brother D. S. Senanayake takes his place in the Legislative Council.

1928 – The Donoughmore Commission with hand picked commissioners appointed by Sydney Webb the well known admirer of Trotskyt, arrives in Ceylon. Desiring an equitable and socialist British empire they set up a State Council system for Ceylon and pilot universal adult franchise and general elections - a first for a British colony. Ceylon thereby became increasingly self-governing in its internal affairs. There were two State Councils 1931-1936 and 1936-1947. Sinhala and Tamil elite politicians opppose universal adult franchise.

1931 - of the 50 elected members in the 1931 State Council 10.5% were Karavas.

1936 -The 1936 Board of Ministers had only one Karava Minister, Dr W. A. de Silva.

1942 - From 1942 to 1947 (under D. S. Senanayake), Karavas were denied any ministerial posts. and thereafter in 1948 there was just one, Henry Amarasuriya and his wealth was drained.

1943 - D. S Senanayake who was only semi-educated, enlists the support of Oliver Goonetilleke, the son of a Govigama Post Master and a brilliant strategist. Goonetilleke was a successful Civil servant who had served on the WWII War Cabinet of Ceylon with Sir Ivor Jennings. He was well respected by the British officers stationed in Ceylon

1944 – Viscount Soulbury arrives in the country heading a Royal Commission appointed by the British government to institute constitutional reforms. The Board of Ministers headed by D. S Senanayake boycotted the commission, but Senanayake and Goonetilleke meet Soulbury in private. Thereby creating a helpful and cooperative impression to Soulbury. This strategy also kept the other Ministers out of the discussions and with the help of Sir Ivor Jennings Senanayake promoted his own agenda. Goonetilleke virtually becomes the unofficial Secretary of the Commission.

1947 – On 20 February 1947, the Labour government of England decides to grant independence to India. This is followed by the inevitable grant of independence to Ceylon. The official British announcement is made on 18th June 1947, expedited by Oliver Goonetilleke who was in England on Senanayake’s behalf.

Riding on the Independence announcement D. S. Senanayake wins the General election of 14 October 1947

1948- Britain grants Independence to India and divests Sri Lanka as Sri Lanka without India is a liability to them. Without shedding a drop of blood, without ever opposing British rule and without ever risking their lives, D. S. Senanayake and his clique, promoted by kinsman D. R. Wijewardene and his press, become ‘heroes of independence’ to the gullible Sri Lankan public.

Post independence period -

1948 - Senanayake rewards Oliver Goonetilleke by appointing him as the first High Commissioner to England, the best and most important station. Goonetilleke continues to promote Senanayake's interests and remains there until 1951.

As a priority, Senanayake visits the Sri Lankan High Commissions, purchases residential and office premises for them at questionable prices and personally handles the negotiations.

1949 - Karava politician Sir Susantha de Fonseka is sent off to Burma in 1949 as the High Commissioner and from there to China in 1952, keeping him safeley out of the local political stakes.

1949 - Senanayake invites Soulbury to be the Governor General of Ceylon, possibly a component of the overall Independence plan. Soulbury enjoys the perks of the position until his retirement in 1954.

D. S. Senanayake’s son Robert, exploits the rising political power of the family to thrive as a businessman importing anything from essential food items and vehicles to tyres, exporting local produce such as rubber and end enters the shipping business as well.

1952 –D. S. Senanayake falls off a police horse and dies unexpectedly. His family controlled United National Party sidelines all suitable successors, and appoints DS’s son Dudley who lacked any competence.

1953 – The next choice of the family for the Prime Minister’s post is DS’s close relative John Kotelawela. He gets an opportunity only in 1953, after Dudley resigns, unable to govern the country. Kotelawala is notorious for his contempt for non-govigama castes (Peebles 2006 p104)

- Paddy Lands Act enacted. It empowered the cultivators and made paddy lands useless to the owners - In 1953 the UNP government passed a targeted Paddy Land Act applicable only to the Hambantota and Batticaloa districts. It didn’t apply to the rest of the country. The act required the tenancy agreements between the land lord and the cultivator (ande Goviya) to be written and registered. Ejection of tenant cultivators was permitted only under a few stipulated conditions and eve then a court order was required for ejection. The Act thereby made the landlord powerless and rendered the Paddy Lands useless to the owner. Many Karava land owners such as the Wickremasuriya families of the south lost control of their paddy lands.

1954 – Oliver Goonetilleke is made the first native Governor General of Ceylon on Kotelawala’s recommendation. After the aborted coup of 1962 he retires to England. Interestingly, by then he was affluent enough to become an underwriting 'name' of Lloyds.

1958- The Paddy Lands Act of 1958 limited the Patron-owner’s share from rice paddy lands to a just a quarter of the harvest (Jayannth page 28) This made paddy lands even more worthless to the Karava paddy land owners. Many Karava landlords allowed the ownership of paddy lands to lapse to the Govigama tenant farmers who were cultivating them.

1959- SWRD Bandaranaike is assassinated. The most suitable successor in the SLFP is C. P. de Silva of the Salagama caste. The 'kitchen cabinet' of the SLFP conspires to deny him the leadership and instead gives it to Dahanayake of the Govigama caste (who is not a prominent national figure) as a stop gap and thereafter brings in SWRD’s widow Sirima, an absolute greenhorn to politics, as the party leader.

1962- a blotched coup enables Sirima to appoint more of her relatives to important positions, bypassing the seniority and capability of others.

William Gopallawa, a relative of Sirima is appointed as the Governor General.

  • Establishing the Fisharies Corporation and undermining the businesses, power and influence of Karava fish wholesalers, transporters, boat owners, ice manufacturers and other connected enterprises (Jayannth page 21)
  • Establishing the Peoples Bank and undermining the influence of Karava capitalists(Jayannth page 21)
  • State acquisition of Karava owned Bus companies
  • State control of the liquor industry
  • Private Schools established by Karava philanthropists in predominantly Karava regions taken over by the state and then neglected. Educational opportunities thereby deprived to rural Karava youth.
  • State sponsored propaganda by Govigama dominated governments to falsely say that the Govi caste was historically a high caste (See Govi Supremacy Myth)
  • Premier ecclesiastic status (and thereby power)given by Govigama dominated governments to the Govigama only Siyam NikayaBuddhist sect .
  • The principal places of Buddhist worship in Sri Lanka including the Temple of the Tooth Relic, Adam’s Peak, Kelaniya and over 6,000 other temples are under the control of the 'Govigama only' Siyam Nikaya. It brings political power and vast income to their Govigama monks. Other castes are denied and deprived this income or the right to control these sites. Patronage by Govigama-dominated governments perpetuate this discrimination.
  • Electoral divisions redrawn many times. The new divisions return more Govigama candidates than before

1971- Insurrection in the south of the country by youth from several minority castes. The movement is led by Rohana Wijeweera, a Karava revolutionary. Summary execution by the government of large numbers of future Karava and other minority caste leaders involved in the insurrection.

  • State acquisition of plantations targeting the Karava landed gentry class and the overnight impoverishment of that class. - The Land Reform Act of 1972 imposed a ceiling of twenty hectares on privately owned land. It excluded land owned by foreign and local companies and targeted individual holdings. 228,000 hectares were seized and handed over to newly created state institutions staffed mostly by inexperienced relatives of Sirimavo, the Prime Minister. . If genuine Land reform was the intent of the State, the owners could have been given time to divest their properties rather than surreptitiously bringing the reform act overnight. Compensation was meager and delayed by years thus depriving them of other business opportunities. Only a few acres were distributed among the masses to broad base land ownership. The rest of the Land remained with the state. As such the malicious anti-Karava intent of the Land Reform act is obvious. Most estates were later sold off by the state to others..
  • State acquisition of additional houses targeting Karava residential property owners. See an exampleof a Karava mansion that had to be disposed to comply with the law.
  • Enactment of a Rent Act which makes it near impossible to evict tenants. See an example of how a Karava mansion was lost as a result.
  • State acquisition of Karava businesses
  • Neglect of Karava majority regions with no development and no opportunities for the people
  • Discreet maneuvers to keep Karava politicians from reaching the top.

1980s onwards -

  • Separatist movement in the north of the country led by several Tamil speaking minority castes against the rule of the above Govigama (and cohabiting Vellala) families. The movement was led by Prabhakaran, a Karava from Velvettiturai. The decimation of fearless Karavas on both sides of the ethnic war as commanders and soildiers of the Sri Lankan army and the LTTE. Some of the Karava Commanders and Generals who led the Sri Lankan Army against the LTTE are : Srilal Weerasooriya, Rohan Daluwatte and Sarath Fonsekawho finally defeated the LTTE. However Fonseka was removed from his post, within a few days of winning the war, wasn't celebrated as the hero of the war and is not even mentioned anymore.
  • Govigama families began to dominate Sri Lankan politics during the 1930s State Council days and since then the representation of non-Govigama castesin parliament has dropped drastically and fallen well below their population percentages.
  • Since independence, Sri Lankan governments have not even tried to share power with or integrate the Govigama masses, the non-Govigama castes and the religious and ethnic minorities into the government. As such the non-Govigama castes see it as a Govigama government, the Tamils see it as a Sinhala government, the Christians, Hindus and Muslims see it as a Buddhist government and the poor see it as a government of the rich and powerful.
  • Also since independence the checks and balances of democracy have been made inoperative and all aspects of society have been politicized.
  • The domination of the SLFP by the 'so called Govigama' Bandaranaike family appears to have been ended with the ascension of Mahinda Rajapakse from a family that joined the Govigama identity group during the 20th century. Is Mahinda Rajapakse, who comes from a political family that battled three generations of southern Karava politicians, against the Karava community ? Judge for yourself - his Cabinet of over a hundred ministershas only one Karava minister.
  • The UNP is however still controlled by a descendant of the 'so called Govigama'Wijewardene/Senanayake family. These two main political parties seem to be either uninterested or incapable of introducing democratic procedures within their party structure to elect the party leaders and representatives. Such decisions appear to be made by an inner core of (unelected) personal supporters and ratified by a show of hands by committee members. Voting within the parties is never by secret ballot. As such until the two main political parties introduce/practice democracy within their parties and empower their party members, democracy in Sri Lanka will continue to be a mockery, limited to merely holding periodic elections and fielding candidates chosen by an inner core of people without a public mandate. Democratic choice for Sri Lankans is, and will be, the right to "choose" candidates from a list that has already been chosen by an unelected inner core of these parties.
  • Is President Mahinda Rajapakse, who comes from a political family that battled three generations of southern Karava politicians, against the Karava community ? Judge for yourself - his Cabinet of over a hundred ministershas only one Karava minister.
  • Army General Sarath Fonseka, A Karava from Ambalangoda defeats the LTTE. Within a few days of winning the war ,President Mahinda Rajapaksa removes General Fonseka from his post . The General isn't celebrated as a hero. The President and his brother Gothabhaya Rajapakse attempt to take all the credit. A million dollar media campaign promotes the President.
  • October ཅ - Karava Vs Karava politics are used by the two main political parties - October ཅ Southern provincial council election - trickery on Galappaththi in Matara and Galle candidates in Island politicsThe Karavas foolishly fall prey to such schemes without realising that they are being used and that they will never be allowed to reach the top.
  • General Sarath Fonseka retires from the army. The government removes his security and gives him only a few days to vacate his official residence. Listen to his interview in which he speaks about how the Government treated the war hero.
  • The general is accepted by the joint opposition including the UNP and the JVP as their common Presidential candidate. Since independence, this is the first time a person from the Karava community, or for that mater from any other significant non-Govigama community (President Premadasa wasn't a Goigama either. But he was from a miniscule caste without numerical strength) got an opportunity to be elected as the Head of state of Sri Lanka.

Jayannth Dilesh 2006 Electoral Allegiance in Sri Lanka, Cambridge University Press

JRASCB - Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch)

Paranavithana S. 1970 Inscriptions of Ceylon Vol I Early Brahmi Inscriptions

Karava of Sri Lanka

The Maha Janapada of India (including Kuru kingdom of the Kauravas) thrive in India. This period is generally considered the beginning of the historical period of the region.

The ancient Kuru kingdom of India - , the original kingdom of the Kauravas. Click map to zoom

According to chronicles written many centuries later, prince Vijay sets sail from NE India, lands on NW coast of Sri Lanka. His putative port of landing Tammanna is in Kuru Rata near Puttalm of today

Vijay, obtains royal maidens from the Pandyan kingdom as queens and sets up a royal dynasty

According to the Janavamsaya, prince Vijaya was accompanied by the Karava price Karavanti and his retinue. They all land at a port on the north-west coast of Sri Lanka a region contiguous with the region later known as Kuru Rata named after the legendary kingdom of the Kauravas

This early migration of Karava royalty explains the prevalence of the 'Pandu' prefix in the names of Panduvasdeva, Pandukhabaya and other early Sri Lankan kings

During the reign of king Devanampiyatisa more Kauravas arrive with Theri Sanghamitta. See arrival of the Bodhi tree.

Karavas are well established throughout Sri Lanka as shown by their Barata , Kuruvira, Karava inscriptions, grants and bequests etc. from this period

Karava kings (known now as Kataragama Kshatriyas) rule the Ruhuna kingdom in the south. Their royal symbols were a Ship and a fish, both Karava symbols and found on ancient Karava flags These Kataragama Kshatriya kings describe themselves in their pre Christian inscriptions as " Gamini puta dasa kathikana Kedhate . " (Bovattegala inscription Inscr of Ceylon part I p 41 # 549) Kedhate was the early form of Kevatta meaning 'mastery over water'. Over a thousand years later, when Kevatta also meant a fisherman, chroniclers have used prefixes to distinguish Dunu-kevatta vamsa warrior royalty (Ariyapala p 113) from Vedi-kevatta tribal fishermen.

The word Dheega meaning water is frequently used by these kings in their personal names such as Dheegha-Gamini, Dheega-Jantu etc. and in place names such as Dhiga-Vapi, Dhiga-Mandala etc. The word Kataragama too in its original form was Kachara (Ka +Chara) where Ka meant water and Chara meant 'travelling on', meaning sailing and naval power. (Yatala Vehera p 19)

. 2nd century AD

According to Rajavaliya, Janavamsa, Kadaim-Poth and other old texts, Karava King Gajabahu brought back 24,000 Karavas and settled them in Kuru Rata. ( Although Govigama historians with other motives have attempted to misidentify the king as Gajabahu I and place the event in the 2nd century, the king in reality is Gajabahu II who ruled Sri Lanka in the 12th century. The story which has been displaced and thereby discredited by these historians makes much sense when it is placed in it's rightful context in the 12th century)

Sri Lanka continues to be ruled by Kshatriya kings and queens from the intermarried Solar (Surya) and Lunar (Chandra kula) dynasties. See Royal symbols

10th century AD

King Mahinda IV (956-972) marries Indian princess Sundari of the Kalinga dynasty. This opens the door for Kalinga and Pandya dynastic skirmishes for the Sri Lankan throne over the next several centuries.

Rajendra Chola invades Sri Lanka

in 993. Chola armies led by Generals such as Aditya Karikalan

11th century AD

The Kurus from the Kurumandal region gain power on the east coast of India . According to evidence from inscriptions, there are many Kurukularajas all over the Tamil country

Jagatipala, a Kshatriya from Ayottipattanam on the Kurumandal coast rules Sri Lanka from 1043 to 1046

The commander of Sri Lankan king Vijayabahu I was Kurukulattarayan

Chola inscriptions too refer to several Kurukulattarayans and Kurukularayans

11 - 13th centuries AD

Continuous internecine wars between the Kalinga and Pandya dynasties for the throne of Sri Lanka destabilizes the country and powerful Army commanders select and place kings and queens of their choice on the throne

According to Rajavaliya, Janavamsa, Kadaim-Poth and other old texts, Karava King Gajabahu brought back 24,000 Karavas and settled them in Kuru Rata.(See Karava migrations.) Both Gajabahu and his father seem to have been Hindus because the Mahavamsa blames them for bringing troops from India and settling them on temple lands- Mv 61:48-62 (Although Govigama historians with other motives have attempted to misidentify the king as Gajabahu I and place the event in the 2nd century, the king in reality is Gajabahu II (1131 -1153), son of Wikramabahu I who ruled Sri Lanka from 1111 to 1132. The story which has been displaced and thereby discredited by these historians makes much sense when it is placed in it's rightful context in the 12th century)

Commencement of the Karava 'Siri Sangabo' dynasty by princes from Karava families that arrived with the sacred Bodhi tree. This dynasty is from 'Sangha-Bodhi', 'Sangabo' in light Sinhalese. Not from the mythical king who gave away his head to a wayfarer as some try to say. See Karava migrations for Bodhi tree connections.

Although now removed from history books, this Karava ‘Sri Sangha Bodhi’ dynasty appears to have been recognized as the rightful heirs to the Sri Lankan throne right up to the time of the kandyan kingdom. The Asgiri Thalpatha, an ola book from the kandyan period says that “ a prince from the Sri Sanghabodi family went to Colombo and then to Goa during the reign of King Rajasinghe and returned with a large army defeated the king of Kotte and king Rajasinghe and became as the king of Sri Lanka in BE 2135( Rohanadeera 1997 pg 15 n)

Kaurava Adittya ( meaning Kurukula suriya) Arasa Nila Yitta (bearing kingly position) Elenaga, Mahanaga and other Patabenda Karava kings ruled regional kingdoms of Sri Lanka during this period. See Karava kings

14th century AD

Nissanka Alakeshvara and the Alagakkonara family (a Koon Karava clan) rule of Kotte. They too are from Kanchipuram as the Karava Generals of the Mukkara Hatana. The 'Vaniya Kula' (Varna Kula, as in the Karava Warnakulasuriya clan and the Vanni Kula Kshatriyas of that part of India) ancestry of the Alagakkonaras is misinterpreted by modern historians as a 'trade' ancestry. See Mukkara Hatana for copy of king Parakramabahu's Sannasa

The Karava Singhe dynasty kings take over Jaffna kingdom

Virabahu / Weerasuriya II (1391 – 1397) ascends the throne and rules from Raigama near Panadura

15th century AD

A Chinese expedition attacks Kotte and takes king Alakeshvara and his family to China

A Karava Kurukule prince ascends the throne as Parakramabahu VI (1412-1467) - See timeline of Karava for references

Parakrama Bahu VI seeks assistance from his Karava kinsmen and invites several Suriya clans of the Karavas as documented in the Mukkara Hatana and settle them in Aluth Kuru Rata

King Parakramabahu adopts both sons of Karava General Manikka Thalevan. The elder prince known as Prince Sapumal ascends the throne of Sri Lanka as Bhuvanekabahu VI (1470 1480)

The second son, Prince Ambulugala ascended the throne as Vira Parakramabahu VII ( Sirisangabo Vira Parakramabahu)

The Kshatriya family of Keerawella resident in the Parana Kuru Rata (originaly from Keelakkare / Karikal, the home of some of the Karawas of Mukkara Hatana) is the only source of royal maidens for the rulers of this period.

Prince Nallurutun from the Karava Singhe dynasty of Nallur marries Ulakudai Devi (daughter of Parakramabahu VI). Their son Prince Jayabahu ( = Jayasuriya) ascended the Kotte throne as Vira Parakramabahu VII (1467-1470)

Vanni kula (Karava Varna Kula clan) princes rule the Vanni region and lend their name to the region

16th century AD

The Nayques of Tanjore, the kings of Sri Lanka and their naval and army commanders are all from the same Kuru, Karava Kshatriya Solar dynasty kin group.

Kotte, Kandy and Jaffna kingdoms are ruled by these Karava royal dynasties

Arrival of Portuguese. Many wars and conspiracies

The Kingdoms of Jaffna and Kotte pass from Karava royal dynasties to the Portuguese, respectively by the 'Nallur convention' and the 'Malwana convention' signed by Karawe nobles.- See timeline of Karava for references

17th century AD

Portuguese rule replaced by Dutch East India Company rule in the coastal provinces

Many Karawa chiefs killed in numerous wars. Traditional social structure subverted by the Dutch. Karawas weakened in the coastal provinces

18th century AD

The Karava Vaduge dynasty rules the Kandyan kingdom

19th century AD

The capture of the Kandyan kingdom by the British, deportation of all direct descendants and the end of Karava royal succession in Sri Lanka

The region bordered by Kurunegala , Colombo and Puttalam still has a high concentration of Karavas. It was the region usually administered by the Prince regent and was the base region of the Navies that protected Sri Lanka's coasts

Above: map of South India and Kuru-Mandala ( Coromandal ).Click on image to zoom. Note that the Coromandel coast is up the western coast of India and that the fishery coast is the part further down and closer to Sri Lanka.

Above and below: The ports of Karava (Kuru Kula) migration on Kuru-Mandal coast. : Note the difference between the 'fishery coast' which is in the proximity of Mannar and Jaffna and the 'Coromandel Coast' with its Kanchi , Kilakarai and Kaveri pattanams which are further north up the coast. (click image to zoom)

The extent of the Pandya kingdom in 1250

The territory where the events took place and in which the Dambadeniya Kindgon was also located. This region was called the Aluth Kuru Rata meaning 'New Kuru Country' and is to date known as Aluth Kuru Korale.

Two inscribed swords of Karava kings from the Colombo Museum. The owners of these swords gifted them to the Colombo museum in the mid 20 th century. The descriptive plaque with the translation of the inscriptions installed at the time of gifting disappeared soon after. The swords are still on display but without a translation plaque and as such viewers are kept unaware of their Karava connection.

Karava Queen Maha Patabendige Dona Catherina, the sole heiress of Sri Lanka (Illustration from Baldaeus 1672)

Above: an 18th century etching of the Karava Vaduga King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe (1747-1781) of the Kshatriya Surya Vamsa with his courtiers paying obeisance to him.

The objects carried in honour of the king are: Mutukuda (royal white umbrella), Álawattam (disks with sun emblems representing the king’s descent from the solar race), Wadanatalathu (ceremonial palm leaf shades), Válavíjani ( yak tail whisks), Sak paliha ( white conch shields) and ceremonial weapons.

These royal symbols are used todate only by the Karavas at their family ceremonies and are also found on most old Karáva flags.

This king was only 13 years old when he ascended the throne. Therefore his father, Nárenappa had ruled the kingdom with assistance from the Karava Mudaliar of Jaffna, Dom Andrado.

Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe (AD 1798 - 1815) the last king of this Vaduga dynasty and the last king of Sri Lanka

A sheet gold Kandyan crown in a Sri Lankan museum. The real symbol of royalty, the golden forehead plates (Nalal pata) used by Sri Lankan kings and Karava chiefs (patabendas) is not even mentioned by official Sri Lankan sources anymore. The gold forehead plates of the Kandyan kings have been auctioned in England in 1820. See Karava kings .

Kauravas Timeline - History

"To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life's good comes not from others' gift, nor ill
Man's pains and pains' relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
- Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C

Comment by tamil nation . org : The Hindu Timeline published in Hinduism Today has attracted controversy. The timeline mixes historical dates with dates from mythology and there may be a need to sift historical fact from myth, with greater care. The time line contains obvious errors such as ' Tolkappiyar writes Tolkappiyam Purananuru'. It was rightly pointed out in a Forum Hub discussion on Tamil Literature that "No single author wrote puRanAnURu. It is an anthology of 400 poems by various poets. We don't know the identity of the editors who put this together. While the puRanAnURu poems themselves are old, the anthology may have been put together much later. In any event, Tolkappiyar had nothing to do with that. We do have some poems that are purported to be remnants of Agathiyam. Scholars who have studied these remnants are of the opinion that these are crude creations and were perhaps created very recently. There is no internal reference to Agathiyam in Tolkappiyam nor is there one in the ciRappup pAyiram composed by panampAranAr who according to the Agathiyar legends studied under Agathiyar with Tolkappiyar. In addition to that, the Agathiyar legend associated with Tamil itself seems to be quite late. Does it conclusively prove that there was no Agathiyar or Agathiyam in Tamil country? Well, all we can say is that without any evidence, we have to treat Agathiyar as a mythic character in Tamil country."

Much of what India and Hinduism are today can be understood by examining their origins and history. Here is a humble chronology that tells the story of the sages, kings, outside invaders and inside reformers who contributed to the world's oldest living civilization and largest modern-day democracy. Remarkably, Hindu India has been home to one-fourth of the human race since the dawn of recorded time. Its story, summarized here, is crucial to human history.

The emphasis on spirituality in India's thought and history is unparalleled in human experience. The king in his court, the sage on his hill and the farmer in one of Bharat's 700,000 villages each pursues his dharma with a common ultimate purpose: spiritual enlightenment. This perspective is the source of Hinduism's resilience in the face of competing faiths and conquering armies. No other nation has faced so many invaders and endured. These invasions have brought the races of the world to a subcontinent one-third the size of the United States. There are many feats of which the ancient Hindus could be proud, such as the invention of the decimal system of numbers, philosophy, linguistics, surgery, city planning and statecraft. And most useful to us in this particular timeline: their skill in astronomy.

Dates in Hindu history after Buddha are subject to little dispute, while dates before Buddha have been decided as much by current opinion and politics as by scientific evidence. An overwhelming tendency of Western scholarship has been to deny the great antiquity of Hinduism.

Indian scholar S.B. Roy points out that the commonly accepted chronology of German linguist Max Muller (1823-1900) is based solely "on the ghost story of Kathasaritasagara." Historian Klaus K. Klostermaier agrees: "The chronology provided by Max Muller and accepted uncritically by most Western scholars is based on very shaky ground indeed." While making crucial historical contributions in bringing India's wisdom to the West, Muller admitted his covert intention to undermine Hinduism. In a letter to his wife in 1886 he wrote: "The translation of the Veda will hereafter tell toa great extent on the fate of India and on the growth of millions of souls in that country. It is the root of their religion, and to show them what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last 3,000 years.''

Contemporary researchers, such as Dr. B.G. Siddharth of B.M. Birla Science Centre, Dr. S.B. Roy, Professor Subhash Kak, Dr. N.R. Waradpande, Bhagwan Singh and Dr. David Frawley, Vedacharya, have developed a more accurate picture of ancient India, assembling new chronologies based on a highly reliable method: dating scriptural references by their relationship to the known precession of the equinoxes. Earth's axis of rotation "wobbles," causing constellations, as viewed from Earth, to drift at a constant rate and along a predictable course over a 25,000-year cycle.

For example, a Rig Vedic verse observing winter solstice at Aries can be correlated to around 6500 bce. Frawley states, "Precessional changes are the hallmark of Hindu astronomy. We cannot ignore them in ancient texts just because they give us dates too early for our conventional view of human history." Besides astronomical references from scripture, there is much to support their dates, such as carbon-14 dating, the discovery of Indus-Sarasvati Valley cities and the recent locating of the Sarasvati River, a prominent landmark of Vedic writings.

Much of the dating in this timeline prior to 600 bce derives from the work of Dr. S.B. Roy (Chronological Framework of Indian Protohistory-The Lower Limit, published in The Journal of the Baroda Oriental Institute, March-June 1983) and that of David Frawley Ph.D. (Gods, Sages and Kings). For technical enhancements to the timeline we depended on Prof. Shiva G. Bajpai PhD., Director of Asian Studies at California State University, who co-authored "A Historical Atlas of South Asia" with Prof. Joseph E. Schwartzberg and Dr. Raj B. Mathur.

Max Muller is the primary evangelist of another, more invidious, dogma imposed on Hindu history: the "Aryan invasion" theory. Originally a Vedic term meaning "noble," then applied to the parent-language of Greek, Sanskrit, Latin and German, the term Aryan soon referred to those who spoke it, a supposed race of light-skinned Aryans.

The idea of a parent race caught the imagination of 18th and 19th century European Christian scholars, who hypothesized elaborate Aryan migrations from Central Asia, west to Europe, south to India (ca 1500 bce) and east to China-conquering local primitive peoples and founding the world's great civilizations. This theory states that the Vedas, the heart and core of Sanatana Dharma, were brought to India by these outsiders and not composed in India.

Although lacking supporting scientific evidence, this theory, and the alleged Aryan-Dravidian racial split, was accepted and promulgated as fact for three main reasons. It provided a convenient precedent for Christian British subjugation of India. It reconciled ancient Indian civilization and religious scripture with the 4000 bce Biblical date of Creation. It created division and conflict between the peoples of India, making them vulnerable to conversion by Christian missionaries.

Scholars today of both East and West believe the Rig Veda people who called themselves Aryan were indigenous to India, and there never was an Aryan invasion. The languages of India have been shown to share common ancestry in ancient Sanskrit and Tamil. Even these two apparently unrelated languages, according to current "super-family" research, have a common origin: an ancient language dubbed Nostratic.

Still confused? Here's a guide to competing theories of Indian history

Credits India's culture to foreign invaders. Hypothesis, first proposed by German Max Muller (1823-1900), is still accepted in most historical textbooks. Supporters: Sir William Jones, Thomas Young, Joseph de Goubinau, Dwight Witney, Sir Mortimer Wheeler, A.L. Basham.

Offers astrological and archeological evidence to discredit invasion theory, pushes Indian history back several thousand years. Supporters: B.G. Tilak, P.C. Sengupta, S.B. Roy, Pargiter, Jagat Pati Joshi, Dikshit, K.N. Shastri, Sri Aurobindo, Hermann Jacobi, S.R. Rao, Dayananda Saraswati, Subash Kak, David Frawley, B.G. Sidharth, and others.

Conquering legions of blue-eyed, white "Aryans" from Eastern Russia invaded North India on horseback around 1500bce and ultimately displaced most of India's unsophisticated Dravidian tribals. They brought civilization and the refined Sanskrit language into India, built the expansive Indus Valley complex, wrote the Vedas and other sacred texts. The Sarasvati River, prominent in the Vedas, is mythical, or lies outside of India somewhere. Claims no astronomical references are found in the Rig Veda. The New Model There was no invasion at all. India's native peoples founded the Indus/Sarasvati River civilization, developed Sanskrit and wrote all her ancient texts. uropean ates are all wrong. Rig Veda verses belie the old chronology (VI.51.14-15 mentions the winter solstice occurs when the sun rises in Revati nakshatra, only possible at 6,000bce, long before the alleged invasion.) Carbon dating confirms horses in Gujarat at 2,400bce, contradicting old model claim Aryans must have brought them. NASA satellite photos prove Sarasvati River basin is real, not a myth. Fire altars excavated at Kali Bangan in Rajasthan support existence of Rig Veda culture at 2,700 bce. Kunal, a new site in Haryana, shows use of writing and silver craft in pre-Harappan India, 6-7,000bce.

India's native peoples were primitive and her foundational culture and religion were imported. All the good stuff came from Eastern Europe, of course, and the rest is a vestige of conquered dark-skinned aboriginals. The Vedas are, at most, 3,500 years old.

India's history goes back much farther than anyone knew, perhaps 10,000 years. India need not be indebted to others for her rich and ancient traditions. The Vedic texts, thought to be part mythology, are being vindicated by scientific evidence to be the world's oldest factual account of human experience.

New Finds and Intriguing Theories Conspire with Scholars To Rewrite India's History

When you learned Indian history, a startling amount of myth may have inadvertently been mixed in the masala with fact. The "official" history of India and Hinduism was set down by Western scholars more than a hundred years ago, a history based on the now-disputed principle that an outside group of "Aryans," not her indigenous peoples, were responsible for most of India's civilization. Subsequent discoveries, research and analysis have unearthed major flaws in that history. Still, to this day, virtually every textbook and encyclopedia in the world contains the same century-old conjectures.

"Early Indian history is on the brink of a change," says Professor Shiva G. Bajpai, co-author of the monumental work A Historical Atlas of South Asia. He told Hinduism Today that "Archaeological explorations taking place in the recent decade have changed many of the views we used to hold as being very historical. Many do not even know what they have excavated so far."

Revising India's history is practically a cottage industry today. Archaeologists and historians are forming strategic partnerships, even teaming up with astronomers who turn Rig Veda observations of the stars into firm dates for recorded events. Two conferences were held already this year-January in Hyderabad and April in Sringeri. A third, the World Archaeology Congress, is scheduled in New Delhi on December 4-11, where the latest, most significant findings will be revealed.

Author and Vedic scholar, David Frawley, reports,

"The conferences featured S.R. Rao, Subash Kak, Rajaram and others working in this field. Nobody was really upholding the old model. The issue wasn't so much whether the old model is working, but how the new model is going to be formed. It's no longer just Hindus claiming their faith in what their holy books say. All the archaeological and scientific evidence is pretty much in agreement with them."

The "Aryan invasion" of India is taught as fact everywhere, but many modern researchers don't support it. Establishment historians aren't ready to accept any wholesale revision, and are slow to explore discoveries which necessitate such a revision. Nor is Indian history the only one undergoing rethinking. Just a few years ago the Egyptian sphinx was suddenly dated thousands of years earlier by new technology, turning Egyptian history on its head.

Hinduism Today has been following the dramatic events among historians, and our staff has assembled a new Timeline of Hinduism, a chronology that incorporates recent findings and tempers the anti-Hindu bias undergirding previous histories of India. Beginning on page four, we present 600,000 years in 585 entries.

Our seven-page timeline is generous toward Hinduism, listing the earliest possible dates for events and scriptures. Bajpai does not mind, "The Hinduism Today Timeline is extremely important because it highlights the Hindu heritage. This is both its greatest strength and, others might say, its weakness. No timeline can be wholly satisfactory for everyone, as is the case with any encyclopedia."

Hindu Timeline #1 -2.5 m to -1000

The thick line represents the flow of time from the date on the top to dates on the bottom. The thinner lines to the left indicate the duration of major ruling dynasties. Not all are included, for at times India was divided into dozens of small independent kingdoms. Approximate dates are preceded by the letter "ca," an abbreviation of the word "circa," which denotes "about," "around" or "in approximately." all dates prior to Buddha (624 bce) are considered estimates.

bce: Abbreviation for "before common era," referring to dating prior to the year zero in the Western, or Gregorian calendar, system. ce: Abbreviation for "common era." Equivalent to the abbreviation ad. Following a date, it indicates that the year in question comes after the year zero in the Western, or Gregorian calendar, system.

-2.5 m: Genus Homo originates in Africa, cradle of humanity.

-2 m: Stone artifacts are made and used by hominids in North India, an area rich in animal species, including the elephant.

-500,000: Stone hand axes and other tools are used in N. India.

-470,000: India's hominids are active in Tamil Nadu and Punjab.

-400,000: Soan culture in India is using primitive chopping tools.

-360,000: Fire is first controlled by homo erectus in China.

-300,000: Homo sapiens roams the earth, from Africa to Asia.

-100,000: Homo sapiens sapiens (humans) with 20th-century man's brain size (1,450 cc) live in East Africa. Populations separate. Migrations proceed to Asia via the Isthmus of Suez.

-75,000: Last ice age begins. Human population is 1.7 million.

-45,000: After mastery of marine navigation, migrations from Southeast Asia settle Australia and the Pacific islands.

-40,000: Groups of hunter-gatherers in Central India are living in painted rock shelters. Similar groups in Northern Punjab work at open sites protected by windbreaks.

-35,000: Migrations of separated Asian populations settle Europe.

-30,000: American Indians spread throughout the Americas.

-10,000: Last ice age ends after 65,000 years earliest signs of agriculture. World population 4 million India is 100,000. -10,000: Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra's rising due east, a phenomenon occurring at this date (Dr. B.G. Siddharth of Birla Science Institute), indicating the earliest known dating of the sacred Veda.

-10,000: Vedic culture, the essence of humanity's eternal wisdom, Sanatana Dharma, lives in the Himalayas at end of Ice Age -9000: Old Europe, Anatolia and Minoan Crete display a Goddess-centered culture reflecting a matriarchial order.

-8500: Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism at winter solstice, suggesting the antiquity of this Veda.

-7500: Excavations at Neveli Cori in Turkey reveal advanced civilization with meticulous architecture and planning. Dr. Sri B.G. Siddharth believes this was a Vedic culture.

-7000: Proto-Vedic period ends. Early Vedic period begins.

-7000: Time of Manu Vaivasvata, "father of mankind," of Sarasvati-Drishadvati area (also said to be a South Indian Maharaja who sailed to the Himalayas during a great flood).

-7000: Early evidence of horses in the Ganga region (Frawley).

-7000: Indus-Sarasvati area residents of Mehrgarh grow barley, raise sheep and goats. They store grain, entomb their dead and construct buildings of sun-baked mud bricks.

-6776: Start of Hindu lists of kings according to ancient Greek references that give Hindus 150 kings and a history of 6,400 years before 300bce agrees with next entry.

-6500: Rig Veda verses (e.g., 1.117.22, 1.116.12, say winter solstice begins in Aries (according to Dr. D. Frawley), indicating the antiquity of this section of the Vedas.

-6000: Early sites on the Sarasvati River, then India's largest, flowing west of Delhi into the Rann of Kutch Rajasthan is a fertile region with much grassland, as described in the Rig Veda. The culture, based upon barley (yava), copper (ayas) and cattle, also reflects that of the Rig Veda.

-5500: Mehrgarh villagers are making baked pottery and thousands of small, clay of female figurines (interpreted to be earliest signs of Shakti worship), and are involved in long-distance trade in precious stones and sea shells.

-5500: Date of astrological observations associated with ancient events later mentioned in the Puranas (Alain Danielou). -5000: World population, 5 million, doubles every 1,000 years.

-5000: Beginnings of Indus-Sarasvati civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. Date derived by considering archeological sites, reached after excavating 45 feet. Brick fire altars exist in many houses, suggesting Vedic fire rites, yajna. Earliest signs of worship of Lord Siva. This mature culture will last 3,000 years, ending around

-1700. -5000: Rice is harvested in China, with grains found in baked bricks. But its cultivation originated in Eastern India.

Traditional dating for Lord Rama's time.

-4000: Excavations from this period at Sumerian sites of Kish and Susa reveal existence of Indian trade products.

-4000: India's population is 1 million.

-4000: Date of world's creation (Christian genealogies).

-3928: July 25th, the earliest eclipse mentioned in the Rig Veda (according to Indian researcher Dr. Shri P.C. Sengupta).

-3200: Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic textstheir observations of full moon and new moon at the winter and summer solstices and spring and fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly equally on the moon's ecliptic or apparent path across the sky. The precession of the equinoxes (caused by the wobbling of the Earth's axis of rotation) causes the nakshatras to appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a 25,000-year cycle. From these observations historians are able to calculate backwards and determine the date when the indicated position of moon, sun and nakshatra occurred.

-3102: Kali Era Hindu calendar starts. Kali Yuga begins.

-3100: Reference to vernal equinox in Rohini (middle of Taurus) from some Brahmanas, as noted by B.G. Tilak, Indian scholar and patriot. Traditional date of the Mahabharata war and lifetime of Lord Krishna.

-3100: Early Vedic period ends, late Vedic period begins.

-3100: India includes Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

-3100: Aryan people inhabit Iran, Iraq and Western Indus-Sarasvati Valley frontier. Frawley describes Aryans as "a culture of spiritual knowledge." He and others believe 1) the Land of Seven Rivers (Sapta Sindhu) mentioned in the Rig Veda refers to India only, 2) that the people of Indus-Sarasvati Valleys and those of Rig Veda are the same, and 3) there was no Aryan invasion. This view is now prevailing over the West's historical concept of the Aryans as a separate ethnic or linguistic group. Still others claim the Indus-Sarasvati people were Dravidians who moved out or were displaced by incoming Aryans.

-3000: Weaving in Europe, Near East and Indus-Sarasvati Valley is primarily coiled basketry, either spiraled or sewn. -3000: Evidence of horses in South India.

-3000: People of Tehuacan, Mexico, are cultivating corn.

-3000: Saiva Agamas are recorded in the time of the earliest Tamil Sangam. (A traditional date.)

-2700: Seals of Indus-Sarasvati Valley indicate Siva worship, in depictions of Siva as Pashupati, Lord of Animals.

-2600: Indus-Sarasvati civilization reaches a height it sustains until 1700 be. Spreading from Pakistan to Gujarat, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, it is the largest of the world's three oldest civilizations with links to Mesopotamia (possibly Crete), Afghanisthan, Central Asia and Karnataka. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro have populations of 100,000.

-2600: Major portions of the Veda hymns are composed during the reign of Vishvamitra I (Dating by Dr. S.B. Roy).

-2600: Drying up of Drishadvati River of Vedic fame, along with possible shifting of the Yamuna to flow into the Ganga. -2600: First Egyptian pyramid is under construction.

-2500: Main period of Indus-Sarasvati cities. Culture relies heavily on rice and cotton, as mentioned in Atharva Veda, which were first developed in India. Ninety percent of sites are along the Sarasvati, the region's agricultural bread basket. Mohenjo-daro is a large peripheral trading center. Rakhigari and Ganweriwala (not yet excavated in 1994) on the Sarasvati are as big as Mohenjo-daro. So is Dholarvira in Kutch. Indus-Sarasvati sites have been found as far south as Karnataka's Godavari River and north into Afghanistan on the Amu Darya River.

-2500: Reference to vernal equinox in Krittika (Pleiades or early Taurus) from Yajur and Atharva Veda hymns and Brahmanas. This corresponds to Harappan seals that show seven women (the Krittikas) tending a fire.

-2300: Sargon founds Mesopotamian kingdom of Akkad, trades with Indus-Sarasvati Valley cities.

-2300: Indo-Europeans in Russia's Ural steppelands develop efficient spoked-wheel chariot technology, using 1,000-year-old horse husbandry and freight-cart technology.

-2050: Vedic people are living in Persia and Afghanistan.

-2051: Divodasa reigns to -1961, has contact with Babylon's King Indatu (Babylonian chronology). Dating by S.B. Roy.

ca -2040: Prince Rama is born at Ayodhya, site of future Rama temple. (This and next two datings by S.B. Roy.)

-2033: Reign of Dasharatha, father of Lord Rama. King Ravana, villain of the Ramayana, reigns in Sri Lanka.

-2000: Indo-Europeans (Celts, Slavs, Lithuanians, Ukranians) follow cosmology, theology, astronomy, ritual, society and marriage that parallel early Vedic patterns.

-2000: Probable date of first written Saiva Agamas.

-2000: World population: 27 million. India: 5 million or 22%. India has roughly G of human race throughout history.

-1915: All Madurai Tamil Sangam is held at Thiruparankundram (according to traditional Tamil chronology). -1900: Late Vedic period ends, post Vedic period begins.

-1900: Drying up of Sarasvati River, end of Indus-Sarasvati culture, end of the Vedic age. After this, the center of civilization in ancient India relocates from the Sarasvati to the Ganga, along with possible migration of Vedic peoples out of India to the Near East (perhaps giving rise to the Mittani and Kassites, who worship Vedic Gods). The redirection of the Sutlej into the Indus causes the Indus area to flood. Climate changes make the Sarasvati region too dry for habitation. (Thought lost, its river bed is finally photographed from satellite in the 1990s.)

-1500: Egyptians bury their royalty in the Valley of the Kings. -1500: Polynesians migrate throughout Pacific islands.

-1500: Submergence of the stone port city of Dwarka near Gujarat, where early Brahmi script, India's ancient alphabet, is used. Recent excavation by Dr. S.R. Rao. Larger than Mohenjo-daro, many identify it with the Dwarka of Krishna. Possible date of Lord Krishna. Indicates second urbanization phase of India between Indus-Sarasvati sites like Harappa and later cities on the Ganga. -1500: Indigenous iron technology in Dwarka and Kashmir.

-1500: Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.

-1472: Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas. Reign of Yudhisthira, king of the Pandavas. Life of Sage Yajnavalkya. Date based on Mahabharata's citation of winter solstice at Dhanishtha, which occurs around this time.

-1450: End of Rig Veda Samhita narration.

-1450: Early Upanishads are composed during the next few hundred years, also Vedangas and Sutra literature.

-1424: Bharata battle is fought, as related in the Mahabharata. (Professor Subash Kak places the battle at -2449. Other authors give lower dates, up to 9th century bce)

-1424: Birth of Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, and next king.

-1350: At Boghaz Koi in Turkey, stone inscription of the Mitanni treaty lists as divine witnesses the Vedic Deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas (Ashvins).

-1316: Mahabharata epic poem is composed by Sage Vyasa.

-1300: Panini composes Ashtadhyayi, systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000 terse rules. (Date according to Roy.)

-1300: Changes are made in the Mahabharata and Ramayana through 200 bce. Puranas are edited up until 400 ce. Early smriti literature is composed over next 400 years.

-1255: King Shuchi of Magadha writes Jyotisha Vedanga, including astronomical observations which date this scripture-that summer solstice occurs in Ashlesha Nakshatra.

-1250: Moses leads 600,000 Jews out of Egypt.

-1200: Probable time of the legendary Greek Trojan War celebrated in Homer's epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey (ca -750).

-1124: Elamite Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar (-1124-1103) moves capital to Babylon, world's largest city, covering 10,000 hectares, slightly larger than present-day San Francisco.

-1000: Late Vedic period ends. Post-Vedic period begins.

Hindu Timeline #2 -1000 to 1000

-1000: World population is 50 million, doubling every 500 years.

-975: King Hiram of Phoenicia, for the sake of King Solomon of Israel, trades with the port of Ophir (Sanskrit: Supara) near modern Bombay, showing the trade between Israel and India. Same trade goes back to Harappan era.

-950: Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon's merchant fleet. Later Jewish colonies find India a tolerant home. -950: Gradual breakdown of Sanskrit as a spoken language occurs over thenext 200 years.

-925: Jewish King David forms an empire in what is present-day Israel and Lebanon.

-900: Iron Age in India. Early use dates to at least -1500.

ca -900: Earliest records of the holy city of Varanasi (one of the world's oldest living cities) on the sacred river Ganga.

-900: Use of iron supplements bronze in Greece.

-850: The Chinese are using the 28-nakshatra zodiac called Shiu, adapted from the Hindu jyotisha system. ca -800: Later Upanishads are recorded.

-800: Later smriti, secondary Hindu scripture, is composed, elaborated and developed during next 1,000 years.

-776: First Olympic Games are held in Greece.

-750: Prakrits, vernacular or "natural" languages, develop among India's common peoples. Already flourishing in 500 bce , Pali and other Prakrits are chiefly known from Buddhist and Jain works composed at this time.

-750: Priestly Sanskrit is gradually refined over next 500 years, taking on its classical form.

-700: Life of Zoroaster of Persia, founder of Zoroastrianism. His holy book, Zend Avesta, contains many verses from the Rig and Atharva Veda. His strong distinctions between good and evil set the dualistic tone of God and devil which distinguishes all later Western religions.

-700: Early Smartism emerges from the syncretic Vedic brahminical (priestly caste) tradition. It flourishes today as a liberal sect alongside Saiva, Vaishnava and Shakta sects.

-623-543: Life of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, born in Uttar Pradesh in a princely Shakya Saivite family. (Date by Sri Lankan Buddhists. Indian scholars say -563-483. Mahayanists of China and Japan prefer -566-486 or later.)

ca 600: Life of Sushruta, of Varanasi, the father of surgery. His ayurvedic treatises cover pulse diagnosis, hernia, cataract, cosmetic surgery, medical ethics, 121 surgical implements, antiseptics, use of drugs to control bleeding, toxicology, psychiatry, classification of burns, midwifery, surgical anesthesia and therapeutics of garlic.

ca -600: The Ajivika sect, an ascetic, atheistic group of naked sadhus reputated for fierce curses, is at its height, continuing in Mysore until the 14th century. Adversaries of both Buddha and Mahavira, their philosophy is deterministic, holding that everything is inevitable.

ca -600: Lifetime of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism in China, author of Tao-te Ching. Its esoteric teachings of simplicity and selflessness shape Chinese life for 2,000 years and permeate the religions of Vietnam, Japan and Korea.

-599-527: Lifetime of Mahavira Vardhamana, 24th Tirthankara and revered renaissance Jain master. His teachings stress strict codes of vegetarianism, asceticism and nonviolence. (Some date his life 40 years later. )

-560: In Greece, Pythagoras teaches math, music, vegetarianism and yoga-drawing from India's wisdom ways.

-551-478: Lifetime of Confucius, founder of Confucianist faith. His teachings on social ethics are the basis of Chinese education, ruling-classideology and religion.

-518: Darius I of Persia (present Iran) invades Indus Valley. This Zoroastrian king shows tolerance for local religions.

ca -500: Lifetime of Kapila, founder of Sankhya Darshana, one of six classical systems of Hindu philosophy.

ca -500: Dams to store water are constructed in India.

-500: World population is 100 million. India population is 25 million (15 million of whom live in the Ganga basin).

ca -500: Over the next 300 years (according to the later dating of Muller) numerous secondary Hindu scriptures (smriti) are composed: Shrauta Sutras, Grihya Sutras, Dharma Sutras, Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas, etc.

ca -500: Tamil Sangam age (500 bce-500 ce) begins. Sage Agastya writes Agattiyam, first known Tamil grammar. Tolkappiyar writes Tolkappiyam Purananuru, also on grammar, stating that he is recording thoughts on poetry, rhetoric, etc., of earlier grammarians, pointing to high development of Tamil language prior to his day. He gives rules for absorbing Sanskrit words into Tamil. Other famous works from the Sangam age are the poetical collections Paripadal, Pattuppattu, Ettuthokai Purananuru, Akananuru, Aingurunuru, Padinenkilkanakku. Some refer to worship of Vishnu, Indra, Murugan and Supreme Siva.

ca -486: Ajatashatru (reign -486-458) ascends Magadha throne.

-480: Ajita, a nastika (atheist) who teaches a purely material explanation of life and that death is final, dies.

-478: Prince Vijaya, exiled by his father, King Sinhabahu, sails from Gujarat with 700 followers. Founds Singhalese kingdom in Sri Lanka. (Mahavamsa chronicle, ca 500.)

-450: Athenian philosopher Socrates flourishes (ca -470-400).

-428-348: Lifetime of Plato, Athenian disciple of Socrates. This great philosopher founds Athens Academy in -387.

ca -400: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi. (Date accepted among most Western scholars.) ca -400: Lifetime of Hippocrates, Greek physician and "father of medicine," formulates Hippocratic oath, code of medical ethics still pledged by present-day Western doctors. ca -350: Rainfall is measured by Indian scientists.

-326: Alexander the Great of Greece invades, but fails to conquer, Northern India. His soldiers mutiny. He leaves India the same year. Greeks who remain in India intermarry with Indians. Interchanges of philosophy influence both civilizations. Greek sculpture impacts Hindu styles. Bactria kingdoms later enhance Greek influence.

300: Chandragupta Maurya, founder of first pan-Indian empire (-324-184), defeats Greek garrisons of Seleucus, founder of Seleucan Empire in Persia and Syria. At its height under Emperor Ashoka (reign -273-232), the Mauryan Empire includes all India except the far South.

ca -302: Kautilya (Chanakya), minister to Chandragupta Maurya, writes Arthashastra, a compendium of laws, administrative procedures and political advice for running a kingdom. -

302: In Indica, Megasthenes, envoy to King Seleucus, reveals to Europe in colorful detail the wonders of Mauryan India: an opulent society with abundant agriculture, engineered irrigation and 7 castes: philosophers, farmers, soldiers, herdsmen, artisans, magistrates and counselors.

ca -300: Chinese discover cast iron, known in Europe by 1300 ce.

ca -300: Pancharatra Vaishnava sect is prominent. All later Vaishnava sects are based on the Pancharatra beliefs (formalized by Shandilya around 100 ce).

ca -300: Pandya kingdom (-300-1700 ce) of S. India is founded, constructs magnificent Minakshi temple at its capital, Madurai. Builds temples of Shrirangam and Rameshvaram, with its thousand-pillared hall (ca 1600 ce).

-297: Emperor Chandragupta abdicates to become a Jain monk.

-273: Ashoka (-273-232 reign), greatest Mauryan Emperor, grandson of Chandragupta, is coronated. Repudiating conquest throgh violence after his brutal invasion of Kalinga, 260 bce, he converts to Buddhism. Excels at public works and sends diplomatic peace missions to Persia, Syria, Egypt, North Africa and Crete, and Buddhist missions to Sri Lanka, China and other Southeast Asian countries. Under his influence, Buddhism becomes a world power. His work and teachings are preserved in Rock and Pillar Edicts (e.g., lion capital of the pillar at Sarnath, present-day India's national emblem).

-251: Emperor Ashoka sends his son Mahendra (-270-204) to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka, where he is to this day revered as the national faith's founding missionary.

ca -250: Lifetime of Maharishi Nandinatha, first known satguru in the Kailasa Parampara of the Nandinatha Sampradaya. His eight disciples are Sanatkumar, Shanakar, Sanadanar, Sananthanar, Sivayogamuni, Patanjali, Vyaghrapada and Tirumular (Sundaranatha).

ca -221: Great Wall of China is built, ultimately 2,600 miles long, the only man-made object visible from the moon.

ca -200: Lifetime of Rishi Tirumular, shishya of Maharishi Nandinatha and author of the 3,047-verse Tirumantiram, a summation of Saiva Agamas and Vedas, and concise articulation of the Nandinatha Sampradaya teachings, founding South India's monistic Saiva Siddhanta school.

ca -200: Lifetime of Patanjali, shishya of Nandinatha and gurubhai (brother monk) of Rishi Tirumular. He writes the Yoga Sutras at Chidambaram, in South India.

ca -200: Lifetime of Bhogar Rishi, one of eighteen Tamil siddhas. This mystic shapes from nine poisons the Palaniswami murti enshrined inpresent-day Palani Hills temple in South India. Bhogar is either from China or visits there.

ca -200: Lifetime of Saint Tiruvalluvar, poet-weaver who lived near present-day Madras, author of Tirukural, "Holy Couplets," the classic Tamil work on ethics and statecraft (sworn on in today's South Indian law courts).

ca -200: Jaimini writes the Mimamsa Sutras.

ca -150: Ajanta Buddhist Caves are begun near present-day Hyderabad. Construction of the 29 monasteries and galleries continues until approximately 650 ce. The famous murals are painted between 600 bce and 650 ce.

-145: Chola Empire (-145-1300 ce) of Tamil Nadu is founded, rising from modest beginnings to a height of government organization and artistic accomplishment, including the development of enormous irrigation works.

-140: Emperor Wu begins three-year reign of China worship of the Mother Goddess, Earth, attains importance.

-130: Reign ends of Menander (Milinda), Indo-Greek king who converts to Buddhism.

-58: Vikrama Samvat Era Hindu calendar begins.

-50: Kushana Empire begins (-50-220 ce). This Mongolian Buddhist dynasty rules most of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

ca -10: Ilangovadikal, son of King Cheralathan of the Tamil Sangam age, writes the outstanding epic Silappathikaram, classical Tamil treatise on music and dance. Western Calendar Begins. C.E. - Common Era -4: Jesus of Nazareth (-4-30 ce), founder of Christianity, is born in Bethlehem (current Biblical scholarship).

10: World population is 170 million. India population is 35 million: 20.5% of world.

ca 50: South Indians occupy Funan, Indochina. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin, is first king. Shaivism is the state religion.

53: Legend records Saint Thomas' death in Madras, one of the twelve Apostles of Christ and founder of the Church of the Syrian Malabar Christians (Syrian Rite) in Goa.

ca 60: Buddhism is introduced in China by Emperor Ming Di (reign: 58-76) after he converts to the faith. Brings two monks from India who erect temple at modern Honan. ca 75: A Gujarat prince named Ajishaka invades Java.

78: Shaka Hindu calendar begins.

ca 80: Jains divide, on points of rules for monks, into the Shvetambara, "white-clad," and the Digambara, "sky-clad."

ca 80-180: Lifetime of Charaka. Court physician of the Kushan king, he formulates a code of conduct for doctors of ayurveda and writes Charaka Samhita, a manual of medicine.

ca 100: Lifetime of Shandilya, first systematic promulgator of the ancient Pancharatra doctrines, whose Bhakti Sutras, devotional aphorisms on Vishnu, inspire a Vaishnava renaissance. The Samhita of Shandilya and his followers, the Pancharatra Agama, embody the chief doctrines of present-day Vaishnavas. By the 10th century the popular sect leaves permanent mark on many Hindu schools.

100: Zhang Qian of China establishes trade routes to India and as far west as Rome, later known as the "Silk Roads."

105: Paper is invented in China.

117: The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.

125: Shatakarni (ca 106-130 reign) of Andhra's Satavahana (-70-225) dynasty destroys Shaka kingdom of Gujarat.

ca 175: Greek astronomer Ptolemy, known as Asura Maya in India, explains solar astronomy, Surya Siddhanta, to Indian students of the science of the stars.

180: Mexican city of Teotihuacan has 100,000 population and covers 11 square miles. Grows to 250,000 by 500 ce.

ca 200: Lifetime of Lakulisha, famed guru who leads a reformist movement within Pashupata Saivism. ca 200: Hindu kingdoms established in Cambodia and Malaysia.

205-270: Lifetime of Plotinus, Egyptian-born monistic Greek philosopher and religious genius who transforms a revival of Platonism in the Roman Empire into what present-day scholars call Neoplatonism, which greatly influences Islamic and European thought. He teaches ahimsa, vegetarianism, karma, reincarnation and belief in a Supreme Being, both immanent and transcendent.

ca 250: Pallava dynasty (ca 250-885) is established in Tamil Nadu, responsible for building Kailasa Kamakshi Temple complex at their capital of Kanchi and the great 7th-century stone monuments at Mahabalipuram.

ca 275: Buddhist moastery Mahavihara is founded in Anuradhapura, capital of Sri Lanka.

350: Imperial Gupta dynasty (320-540) flourishes. During this "Classical Age" norms of literature, art, architecture and philosophy are established. This North Indian empire promotes Vaishnavism and Saivism and,at its height, rules or receives tribute from nearly all India. Buddhism also thrives under tolerant Gupta rule.

ca 350: Lifetime of Kalidasa, the great Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of Shakuntala and Meghaduta. (The traditional date, offered by Prof. Subash Kak, is 50 bce.)

ca 350: Licchavi dynasty (ca 350-900) establishes Hindu rule in Nepal. Small kingdom becomes the major intellectual and commercial center between South and Central Asia

358: Huns, excellent archers and horsemen possibly of Turkish origin, invade Europe from the East.

375: Maharaja Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, greatest Hindu monarch, reigns to 413, expanding the prosperous Gupta empire northward beyond the Indus River.

391: Roman Emperor Theodosius destroys Greek Hellenistic temples in favor of Christianity.

ca 400: Laws of Manu (Manu Dharma Shastras) written. Its 2,685 verses codify cosmogony, four ashramas, government, domestic affairs, caste and morality (others date at -600).

ca 400: Polynesians sailing in open outrigger canoes reach as far as Hawaii and Easter Island.

ca 400: Shaturanga, Indian forerunner of chess, has evolved from Ashtapada, a board-based race game, into a four-handed war game played with a die. Later, in deference to the Laws of Manu, which forbid gambling, players discard the die and create Shatranj, a two-sided strategy game.

ca 400: Vatsyayana writes Kamasutra, famous text on erotics.

419: Moche people of Peru build a Sun temple 150 feet high using 50 million bricks.

438-45: Council of Ferrara-Florence, Italy, strengthens Roman Catholic stance against doctrine of reincarnation.

ca 440: Ajanta cave frescoes (long before Islam) depict Buddha as Prince Siddhartha, wearing "chudidara pyjama" and a prototype of the present-day "Nehru shirt."

450-535: Life of Bodhidharma of South India, 28th patriarch of India's Dhyana Buddhist sect, founder of Ch'an Buddhism in China (520), known as Zen in Japan.

ca 450: Hephtalite invasions (ca 450-565) take a great toll in North India. These "white Huns" (or Hunas) from China are probably not related to Europe's Hun invaders.

ca 450: As the Gupta Empire declines, Indian sculptural style evolves and continues until the 16th century. The trend is away from the swelling modeled forms of the Gupta period toward increasing flatness and linearity.

453: Attila the Hun dies after lifetime of plundering Europe.

499: Aryabhata I (476-ca 550), Indian astronomer and mathematician, using Hindu (aka Arabic) numerals accurately calculates pi () to 3.1416, and the solar year to 365.3586805 days. A thousand years before Copernicus, Aryabhata propounds a heliocentric universe with elliptically orbiting planets and a spherical Earth spinning on its axis, explaining the apparent rotation of the heavens. Writes Aryabhatiya, history's first exposition on plane and spherical trigonometry, algebra and arithmetic.

ca 500: Mahavamsa, chronicling Sri Lankan history from -500 is written in Pali, probably by Buddhist monk Mahanama. A sequel, Chulavamsha, continues the history to 1500.

ca 500: Sectarian folk traditions are revised, elaborated and reduced to writing as the Puranas, Hinduism's encyclopedic compendium of culture and mythology.

500: World population is 190 million. India population is 50 million: 26.3% of world.

Astronomical Proof of the Mahabharata War and Shri Krishna: Part I

Why one more date based on the astronomical evidence quoted from the Mahabharata? I have made this effort for the following reasons:

  • All the previous dates by various scholars are from misunderstood quotes, incorrect translations and incorrect conversions between the Gregorian calendar and the Indian astronomical calendar. These scholars here spent a lot of effort to come up with theses dates, and must be commended. However, these dates, if they do not match with all of the original quotes, cannot be accepted.
  • Mahabharata & Krishna have been declared as mythology by the Western Indologists from the 19th Century until now. Some Indian scholars and leaders also believe the same. Therefore, I decided to investigate further. I believe in the saying, &ldquoinvestigate before castigate,&rdquo and Ronald Regan&rsquos famous quote, &ldquotrust but verify.&rdquo

Without relying on the stories and myths, I wanted to investigate purely on astronomical and scientific facts and phenomena like the conjunctions, eclipses, earthquakes, meteor showers and comet sightings. Since the powerful PCs with very accurate astronomical programs like Planetarium have become available, it is possible to construct the sky map of any day and time in the past and review the positions of the planets and other astronomical events. A whole new science called &ldquoArchaeoastronomy&rdquo has now evolved. Eclipses have become very predictable and accurate now, and are a great tool to date the past events. There may be no written or archeological evidence of the ancient past, but the sun, moon and stars are still the same and move per the same natural rules. Therefore, I decided to research the past astronomical phenomena and verify if the epic is history or fiction.

Mahabharata is the closest epic to our time and is replete with many references to the astronomical phenomena. Krishna&rsquos Bhagvat Gita is the most unique philosophical gem but it would be interesting to see if it came from a real person and time.

My research took me about 2 years of continuous study of the original critical Sanskrit Mahabharata (published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Studies Institute in Pune after 60 years of research).

I used 4-5 different computer programs to compare the accuracy before I finalized on the latest Cyber Sky Planetarium program based on JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) ephemeris 404, with an accuracy of ½ to 1 arc seconds for the periods 3000 BCE and older, and the Delta T value of less than 23 hours.

The full results of my research will be published in a forthcoming book entitled Astronomical Proof of the Mahabharata War and Sri Krishna. The book will include the original Shlokas (stanzas) with translation, detailed computer maps of each event, and its Panchang (Indian astronomical ephemeris) positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and comets.

This current article is a summary of the salient features in the book. I wish to take the readers on the same journey I took while researching.

The first item of the task was to find the century of the Mahabharata War. The Mahabharata epic is full of the time references right up to the war that Dwapar Yuga (the 3rd part of the 4 Yuga system) is ongoing and the Kaliyuga (the 4th part) would be coming soon. The Surya Sidhanta, a very ancient treatise on the Indian astronomy, mentions that when a new Yuga starts, all 7 planets will line up along the ecliptic (the Earth&rsquos annual path) in the constellation Pisces, just before Aries on a Phalguni Amavasya day (the last day of the year).

There could be a solar eclipse on that day. The Prajapati Smriti and the Matsya Puran provides the same prediction. Western translators of these scriptures doubted this because it does not make sense that so many planets moving in their own orbits millions of miles apart at high speeds, can line up in one sign on the ecliptic line on a specific day and time.

The Gregorian calendar date for this event is February 18, 3102 BCE at 2:27:30 AM. Anybody with a good astronomy software can verify that this event if did indeed occur. Now, the eastern as well as the western astronomers have all accepted this date for the start of the Kaliyuga. A map on the last page will verify this. It does not show the North Node (Rahu), but both Rahu and Ketu (the south node) were in the same line 180 degrees apart.

This event has not happened for thousands of years before or thereafter. The closest recorded grand conjunction recorded, was in China in 1953 BCE, of 5 planets. With the establishment of the accepted Kaliyuga start date, the dates for Mahabharata War which were after 3102 BCE, are not applicable.

These include Professor N. Achar (3067 BCE), Dr. Balkrishna (2559 BCE), Dr. K.S Raghvan and Dr. Iyengar (3067 BCE), R. Vaidya (2789 BCE). Only scholars Dr. P.V. Vartak (5561 BCE) and Dr. P.V. Holay (3143 BCE) had dates earlier. Out of the two, Dr. Vartak&rsquos date is almost 2500 years earlier and so may not be acceptable. Now, shlokas (stanzas) in the Vishnu Puran, 38th chapter (5.38.8), Bhagvat Puran (1.18.6) and Brahma Puran (212.8), all state that the Kaliyuga started the moment Sri Krishna died.

In Mahabharata Stri Parva, Queen Gandhari, mother of Kauravas had cursed Sri Krishna that in spite of being cable to prevent it, he watched the terrible slaughter of all of her sons and relatives, Therefore, Krishna would die in similar circumstances with his kith and kin, alone, wandering in a deserted place from a very frivolous weapon in 36 years.

The Kaliyuga start date of 2-18-3102 BCE did also have a solar eclipse and a back to back lunar eclipse in two weeks similar to the Mahabharata War. There were earthquakes with meteor showers on both dates, and on the lunar eclipse day, a giant tsunami drowned the Dwarka city, which Krishna had advised to vacate.

With Krishna&rsquos death also established now on 2-18-3102 BCE, his birth dates by scholars Dr. Vartak (5626 BCE), n. Achar, Sampath Ayengar and Sheshgiri (3112 BCE), are no more applicable.

Now we will proceed to place the Mahabharata War start&rsquos month and day. Again, as written in Mahabharata, Bhishma, the grandfather of both the Kauravas and Pandavas, passed away on a winter solstice day at midnight, when the moon was in Rohini (Alderberan) star.

Bhishma declares that it has been 68 nights since the war started, and 58 nights, since he was lying on the bed of arrows. As the Sun has turned to go north, he is ready to die. The winter solstice was on January 14 in that time period. The day was Magh month (bright half, eight&rsquoth day per the Indian calendar).

Counting backwards, 7 nights of Magh month, plus 30 days of Pousha month plus 30 days of Margashirsha month, the 68 night and the war start day would be the Kartik month Amavasya (new moon day).

This would be on November 6th.

It is well known from the Mahabharata quote in which Krishna gives the message to Karna, that the month of Margashirsha was very suitable and so the war should start on a Shakra Amavasya day (the day when the moon would be in Indra&rsquos star of either Vishakha or Jyeshtha). The night before the war, Sage Vyas, who made several astronomical observations, mentions that he has seen the Lunation periods 14, 15, 16 days apart but never 13 days apart (tithis to be exact.

A day is not a tithi, since a tithi is based on the lunar phase at the sunrise and when the difference between the Sun and the Moon is 12 degrees). He also mentions it to be an Amavasya with an unseen solar eclipse, followed by a lunar eclipse in 13 tithis.

Like all scholars, I also took 36 years per the Gandhari&rsquos curse, added to 3102 BCE to find the eclipses around November, from the program, &ldquoLunar Phases and Eclipses&rdquo. However, there were no back to back November eclipses found in years from 3102 to 3140.

The only year which met all the eclipses criteria was year 3126 BCE, when there was Amavasya on 5th and 6th November (Amavasya and solar eclipse started at 8:37 PM on 5th) and the following full moon in 13 tithis (not days) on November 19-20, both days. The earlier lunation also had occurred 13 tithis before on October 21-22 (Kartik Purnima).

Since all these events matched except the 36th year, I revisited the original verse, and found out that there were two different letters used in the Sanskrit word for 36th. One which all scholars had accepted was &ldquoshati trimshe&rdquo (in the 36th year). But the Bhandarker critical edition gave the word &ldquoshati trymshe,&rdquo meaning in the part of 36 years. (When people write down words recited by rote memory for generations such mistakes are normal). So the curse did have finite circumstances but not the finite time. Thus our war start date of November 6th, 3126 BCE matched of all the quotes and criteria. In those days, large number of years was grouped as Tapas or 12 years. 36 years represented the maximum 3 Tapas time, which actually happened in 2 Tapas or 24 years or 2/3rd part of 36 years.the

I proceeded further to check the dates of all associated events for a match with computer generated sky maps, planet by planet. They all did match including two surprise observations about Neptune and Uranus! There would be more interesting information about the Rohini Shakat Bheda (piercing the star Alderberan Cart) by Saturn, which is indicative of terrible manslaughter.

I will present the summary of this information in the next article to follow. I will provide more information about why the western scholars, as well as Indian scholars, missed these dates and how Archaeoastronomy in this computer age, works (when the times are converted properly).

Kaliyuga map with alignment of 7 planets along Earth&rsquos ecliptic (the Earth&rsquos annual path) in the constellation Pisces

The Mandala Stands Strong: An Ancient Timeline.

Master of Asia I know not, but Master of Paurava I am.

Early 327 BCE (OTL January 3rd 327 BCE)

Ekaveer sighed as he looked at the letter in front of him written in Persian cuneiform. It was a letter, from the Yavana. The one who toppled the Iranians from power. The one who slew Darius III of Persia. Ekaveer sighed as he read through it…..again, for disbelief was evident in his features, also thank goodness for Buddha, that Ekaveer had studied Persian, their language and writing.

A stone obelisk in Sagala of the letter sent to Ekaveer the Great.

High King Ekaveer of the Nepala Mandala

I am Alexander III of Makedonia. You may have heard of me. People call me Alexander the Great. The Lord of Persia, the Pharaoh of Egypt. The Conqueror. I personally wish they stopped embellishing me with such titles, but we are not here to chit chat. I have heard rumors and legends, even myths about the kingdom you rule over. And I, being pragmatic, know that despite my thrill for war, I cannot win over everyone. I need an ally in the vicinity. Much tribes bow down to me. Yet that is what they are tribes, not kingdoms or powerful nation states. I am willing to start an alliance with the Nepala Mandala with you. And to seal the deal, like they say, and to seal an eternal alliance between Makedonia and Nepala, I am willing to give my sister, Thessalonike, to you as a bride. She is a warrior princess, proven herself in combat in many of my campaigns, and if I am not mistaken, exactly your age. As I write this, I am about to go on a campaign against the Kingdom of the Pauravas. In good time, within a few moons meet me in Sagala, the capital of the Pauravas. There, we shall parley.

Alexander III of Makedonia.

And it was true. From what Ekaveer had found out through spies and intelligence networks in the Northern Plains, this Alexander had smashed through the armies of King Porus, a respected and venerated king of the Kauravas and was most probably already lounging in Sagala. Ekaveer bit his lips. The offer was tempting……so tempting. And well, his advisors did advise him that the offer was genuine if this person was willing to give his sister to him in marriage.

Ekaveer sighed. He put his writer in the ink for a bit before starting to write.

King Alexander III of Makedonia

I am Ekaveer of the Nepala Mandala. It is my honor to be speaking with the Sovereign of Iran, a nation state that has held the respect of the Mandala for so long and for perhaps its entire existence. I must confess, I find myself intrigued with your offer. And after much deliberation I have agreed to meet you in Sagala. My messenger will probably reach you with this letter ahead of me. I shall bring my Royal Guard with me, for protection. I am interested in this offer you make of an alliance and marriage.

Ekaveer wrapped the letter and handed it to his servant. “Give this to the messenger who arrived earlier.”

The servant bowed and said “Yes my lord.”

Ekaveer stood up and stretched his limbs. “Well, at least it seems I get some kind of exercise.”

Thessalonike’s POV (Point of View)

I was well, nervous. Brother was standing proud and tall as King Porus, stood behind him, slightly hunched in deference to Brother. Oh how the proud king I saw in battle had been humbled. Brother had hurried the invasion plan. His eagerness to meet this High King of the mountains had made him impatient in regards to the Kauravas. Their bravery in battle had impressed brother, who allowed them to rule as landlords.

I sneaked a look at the decorations. Makedonian, even a tinge of Athenian and Spartan decoration filled the room. Persian and Indians ones were there as well and well…..I knew this tactic. This was a subtle snub move from brother basically stating that our culture back home in Makedonia was better and more civilized than these.

I swallowed by spit in my throat as I saw the entourage of the High King in the distance. A pitch red flag, as deep red as blood. In the middle of it a sword colored in white. Simple, yet elegant. I shook myself, well, perhaps it would be good to try and look at my future husband.

It was a few minutes before I saw him. And well….I am embarrassed to say, like the giggling court maids back in Babylonia and Makedonia, I blushed when I saw his face. He had powerful golden brown eyes with curly brown hair draped over his back and tied back into a ponytail. He wore nothing on his forehead, not even a crown. However his posture, his riding technique on his horse….well made it evident. He was tall for an Asian, around a few inches taller than me, which was an accomplishment in these parts of the world. And his light skin, though not as light as Alexander’s or mine, shone in the morning sun. His face was set in a polite neutral face.

His horse and his entourage, most of whom were guards it seemed, came forward for a few minutes before he slapped the hind of his horse, and the horse stopped. And so did the entourage. Brother strode forward as my future husband slid down from his horse and looked at each other, sizing each other up for a moment. Alexander’s height, which was at least a head taller than him, didn’t seem to faze him, sternly looking back. It was quiet for a few minutes again, enough to make me fidget slightly as I tried to stand perfectly before Alexander broke out in a grin and spoke in Avestani (Old Persian).

“King Ekaveer, an honor to meet you!” Brother proclaimed.

Ekaveer seemed to be taken back when brother spoke in Avestani. He hesitantly replied back in Avestani. “It is an honor to meet the conqueror of Iran as well.”

“Thank you, you flatter me.” Brother huffed in pride as he strut his chest out. No matter how many times, brother said that, it was obvious he liked hearing that, and well, by the weird-ed expression of Ekaveer, it seemed he had garnered that much as well. Brother spread his hands and gestured back to the palace. “Let us go inside, take shelter from this sweltering heat!”

“Indeed.” Ekaveer mumbled back. He walked forward. He stopped when he saw King Porus. He smiled and bowed slightly to the king much to mine, and from the slight gasp, brother’s surprise as well.

“King Porus, an honor to meet you once again.” Ekaveer spoke in Avestani.

Porus smiled as he replied in the same language. “Yes, you were a little child when I visited Kasthamandap, that city was much more beautiful than Sagala. I was saddened to hear your father’s death.”

“Not much for me.” Ekaveer mumbled, and though it seemed no one else heard it, I did, and well it intrigued me a lot.

A few minutes later we were lounging in the main courtyard of the palace with brother telling Ekaveer about his conquests and stories, about the gods of Olympus when Ekaveer asked “You spoke of an alliance and of a marriage. Can we discuss that before we go on to the festivities and frivolities?”

Alexander stopped and smiled. “Ah yes, down to business eh? Well, Thessalonike come forward.”

My heart hammered in my ribcage. And I stood forward.

A Painting of Queen Thessalonike, drawn by Leonardo Da Vinci, circa 1490 AD.

Shakambhari Chauhans

The chronology of Harshanath Inscription of Chauhan rulers is supported by their Bijolia Inscription of v.s. 1226 (1169 AD). As per record of Bards the place of origin of Chauhans is Mahishmati on the banks of Narmada River. Ahichhatrapur and Shakambhari were their first and second capitals.Their state was known as Sapadalaksha which included one lakh villages. As per Ojha Sapadalaksha was the name of Nagaur. Shakambhari was the ancient name of Sambhar. Β]

Till the middle of 8th century Chauhans were the rulers of Sambhar. Guvaka I was probably the first independent ruler. Chauhans were Shaivas and Harshadeva was their kuladevata. Γ] In other inscriptions of Chauhans we get information about a place named Purnatallakapura (पूर्णतल्लकपुर), a very well developed and rich city. Sakrai inscription of s.v. 1155 which mentions terms like 'पूर्णतल्लकपुर: प्रथित: पृथ्वीव्याम्' & 'वेश्मजालै:'. It appears that Purnatallakapura, which has been identified with village Pulota or Pundlota near Degana, has been the capital of Chauhans. Probably the line of rulers starting from Vasudeva to the predecessor of Guvaka were rulers here in Pulota. Later when their state expanded Chauhans made Harsh as their capital or sub capital and Guvaka was the first ruler of Harsha. This is probably the reason for Harshanath inscription starts Chauhan line of rulers from Guvaka. Δ]

Vasudeva, Samanta, Naradeva, Durlabharaja I, Guvaka I, to Guvaka II, Chandraraj II, Guvaka II

1.Vasudeva (551 A.D.) : The earliest ruler of the Sapadalaksha line mentioned in our records is Vasudeva. He was, in some way, connected with the Salt Lake of Sambhar. According to the mythical account in the fourth canto of the Prithwirajavijaya, he received the gift of the Salt Lake of Sambhar from a Vidyadhara :whom he had befriended. In the Bijolia inscription, the lake is said to have been born of him. Ε] The Prabandhakosa genealogy puts him in V. 608 or 551 A.D. As the number of generations, however, which scparated him from Vigraharaja II (V. 1030), the first ruler of Sambhar with a definite date, is unknown, it is not easy to decide whether the date V. 608 for Vasudeva’s reign is right. Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar would, on the basis of coin of Vasudeva Bahman, identified by him with this ruler (Vasudeva Chahamana), put him in V. 627 A.D. This view is untenable has been shown above. Ζ] Dasharatha Sharma Η] referes Prithvirajavijaya and writes that the description there shows that Vasudeva passed the night in the temple of Sakambhari. (See the last verse of Canto IV.) Early in the morning, he started from there for his capital which he reached a little after sunrise. So naturally Vasudeva's capital could not have been at a hard day's ride from Sambhar, at least according to the Prithvirajavijaya.

2. Samanta. In Vasudeva's family was born Samanta who is described in the Bijolia inscription as a Brahmana noble or Ananta (the tract near Harsha in Shekhawati) born in the Vatsa gotra at Ahichchhatrapura. ⎖] It is not now easy to identify the town. But, as already pointed out above, it might once have been the capital of the Ananta Province. ⎗] Samanta's exact date is uncertain. But as he preceded Guvaka I, a contemporary of Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II (V. 872) by six generations, his reign might be assumed to have ended about V. 725. The same date will also be arrived at, if we assign 25 years for each reign and count backwards from Vigraharaja II (V.1030)

3. Naradeva : The next ruler was Naradeva who ruled at Purnatalla, most probably the village Puntala in the Jodhpur state. He is mentioned by the name Nripa in the Bijolia inscription ⎘] and as Naradeva in Hammiramahakavya, the Sujanacharita, and the Prabandhakosha genealogy. Dr. R.C. Bhandarkar and Mr. Akshaya Keerty Vyasa put one Puranatalla as successor of Samanta. ⎙] But actually Purnatalla of the Bijolia inscription, wherein alone the name is mentioned, as the name of a person but of a locality where Nripa or Naradeva flourished. (V.12:Purntalle Nripastatah) The well known Jaina scholar Hemachandra belonged to Purnatalla-gachchha, i.e. branch which had its origin at Purnatalla or Puntalla in Jodhpur state. The real succession of the next four rulers after Naradeva, who are no more than mere names to us, can be tabulated as follows:

4. Jayaraja, son of Samanta > 5. Vigrharaja I > 6. Chandraraja I > 7. Gopendraraja or Gopendraka

8. Durlabharaja I (788 AD): Gopendraka’s son Durlabharaja I achieved greater fame than his immediate predecessor. According to the prithvirajavijaya, he bathed his sword at the confluence of the Ganga and the Ocean and enjoyed the Gauda land. As his son Guvaka-I was an honoured courtier of the- Imperial Pratihara Nagabhatta II.

9. Guvaka I ( 809-836 A.D.): He is also known as Govidraj I. He was the Samanta of Nagabhata II and according to Nagavaloka he had been honoured in the court of Nagabhata.It is learned from `Prithviraj-vijay` that Guvaka had married his sister Kalavati with king Nagabhata II of Kannauj. According to Gwalior inscription Guvaka had fought against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa. The temple of Hashanatha, the family deity of the Shakambhari Chauhans, was perhaps built by this ruler , though it was added to a good deal by his successors. ⎚] ⎛]

10. Chandraraj II (836-890 A.D.): After Guvaka, his son Chandraraj II, grandson Guvaka II and grand son-in-law Chandana ruled over his kingdom. Chandana had defeated and killed Tomara king Rudradeva. At that time Tomara dynasty ruled over Delhi. This indicates that after Rudradeva, Chahamana dynasty established its authority over Delhi.

11. Guvaka II (863-890 A.D.)(880 AD) :Guvaka II is described as a great warrior in , as great as Guvaka I. ⎜] According to Prithvirajajaya, he gave his sister Kalavati in marriage to the paramount sovereign of Kanyakubja, even though she had twelve other suitors for her hand. The Kanyakubja ruler was probably Bhoja I (V. 893-950), who in the Pratapgarh Inscription of Indraraja, is described as having attained to his high position with the help of the Chahamana family. ⎝] ⎞]

Chandanaraja, Vakpatiraja I, Singhraja, Vigraharaja II, Durlabhraja II, Prithviraja I

12. Chandanaraja (890-917 A.D.) was succeeded by his son Vakapatiraja I and started opposing the Pratihara dynasty i.e. Mahipala I. The chief achievement of Chandanaraja was the slaying of the Tomara chief Rudra. ⎟] Chandana's queen was Rudrani, known also as Atmaprabha on accpunt of her yogic powers. She is said to hae lighted 1000 lamps daily before the lingama at Pushkara.

13. Vakpatiraja I (917-944 A.D.) was a Shaiva and had built a Siva temple in Pushkar. He is credited with 188 victories by PrithvirajavijayaThe Harsh inscription confirms that Harsha Nagari was central place for the later Chauhan rulers. Verse 16 reveals that a representative of Pratiharas named Tantrapala came to see Vakpati, who was present at Anantagochar. Dr Dasharath Sharma considers Anantagochar as the area around Harshagiri. The successor of Guvaka II was Chandana who was very illustrious. He killed a Tomar Raja named Rudrena. (verse-14). Chandana's son was Vakpatiraja, who was most illustrious among earlier Chauhan rulers, who defeated Tantrapala. His son was Lakshamana who founded Nadol branch of Chahans in Sirohi. ⎠] The attack of tantrapala Kshmapala on Vakapatiraja I, mentioned in Harsha Inscription reveals that proud of the authority he held from his master, this tantrpala reached Ananta, the homeland of the Chauhans. He was fully confident of success but Vakpati with his fine cavalry proved more than a match for the elephant force of his adversary who, after trying fruitlessly to overtake him, had to retire from the field thoroughly humiliated and dejected. This victory over the Pratihara arms must have greatly increased the prestige of the Chauhana ruler and strengthened over his new conquests. ⎡]

14. Singharaja (944-964 A.D.?) : Vakapatiraja I was succeeded by his son Singhraj :the first maharajadhiraja. He was the first of the Chahamana dynasty who adopted the title of maharajadhiraja. This also indicates that he had declared himself independent from the Pratihara dynasty. Harsha inscription indicates that Singhraj had defeated Tomara leader Salban and had made many princes and samantas as his prisoner. Pratihara king had come to Singhraj for the release of the said provinces and samantas. Singhraj was a very generous and charitable man. He had donated several villages to the temple of Harshanath.

The overlord mentioned in the Harsha inscription as Raghukule bhuchakravarti (the emperor belonging to the Raghu family) can be identified with Paramabhattaraka-Maharajadhiraja-Parameshvara Vijayapaladeva of the Rajorgarh inscription (V. 1016), a weak Pratihara ruler incapable of controlling the vast territories of the empire of Kanauja. ⎢] For Simharaja's reign we have the Thamvala inscription of V. 1013. Its transcript shows that Simharaja bore the title Maharajadhiraja. His father, Vakpati, had to remain content with the title of Maharaja, though he won 188 victories. Further, the inscription testifies to his mastery over the territory that included Merta and probably, also Pushkar. That Simharaja was a Saiva is known from the Harsha inscription of V. 1030 (973 A.D.). From this inscription, we further gather that he was a worshipper also of Aditya, i.e., the Sun.

Simharaja 's son, Vigraharaja II, is described in the Harsha inscription as "rescuing the, fortune of his family and the Goddess of Victory from the distress that had befallen them". ⎣] Simharaja's end therefore might have been rather tragic. Perhaps he ultimately succumbed to a strong combination of his numerous enemies among whom might perhaps be included also the incensed Pratiharas of Kannauj.

15. Vigraharaja II: Simharaja was succeeded by his son Vigraharaja II, the greatest of the early Chauhans of Sakambhari, for whom we have the Harsha inscription of V.1030 (973 A.D.). I t is obvious from the description given therein that not only had the danger to his dynasty passed away by that time but that the new ruler had probably made some new conquests and was being served by feudatories. ⎤] The record, however, does not say anything about his most talked of achievement, the one that captured the imagination of all the Chauhan eulogists from Jayanaka to Chandrasekhara and has been recorded even by the chroniclers of Gujarat. This great feat was the defeat of Mularaja Chaulukya. The omission is, perhaps, to be explained by its having occurred after V.1030 and before V.1055.

He was a very powerful ruler. He had attacked king Mularaja I of Chalukya dynasty and after conquering Sarasvat Mandala and later he had extended his empire up to river Narmada. But according to Hamiramahakavya of Nayachandra Suri, Vigraharaj had killed Moolaraj. This does appear to be correct. According to Prithvirajavijaya, Vigraharaja II forced the Gujarat ruler Mularaja to shut himself up in the Kantha fort and carried his arms upto Bhrigukachchha where Vigraharaj had built a temple of Ashapuri Devi in Bhrigukachchha at the bank of river Narmada. ⎥]

Firishta ⎦] , if believed in, would lead us o conclude that Vigraharaja II fought also against the Muslims and the Ray of Ajmer sent a contigent to join the league organized by the ruler of Lahore against Subuktigin in the year 997 AD. Vigraharaja II was, without question, the greatest of the early Chauhan rulers of Sapadalaksha. He came to the throne when the Chauhan kingdom lay prostrate at the feet of his enemies. That he could within a few years restore his family merely to its former glory but also add to its greatness by exacting tributes from many princes and humbling the pride of Mularaja, the strong ruler of Gujarat, speaks volumes for his resourcefulness and excellent generalship. Like his grandfather Vakpati I, he was a great cavalry leader the title Khuranajondhakara connotes well the great reputation that he must have enjoyed as a campaigner.

16. Durlabhraja II (999 AD) : After the death of Vigraharaj his younger brother Durlabhraj ascended the throne and he defeated Chahamanas of Naddul branch and incorporated Rasoshittan Mandal into his empire. At the end of 10th century Durlabharaja was a powerful Chauhan ruler. It is said that his empire extended to Jaipur in the east, Jodhpur in the west, Sikar in the north and Ajmer in the south.

The earlier reference to Durlabharaja II is in the Harsha Inscription (Verse 26) where in his elder brother Vigraharaja II is said to have been adorned by him as was Rama by Lakshmana and Balarama by Krishna. As his two other brothers Chandraraja and Govindaraja do not find a place in the prasasti portion of the inscription, it might be assumed that even as early as V. 1030, Duriabharaja held a higher, position than his two other brothers and had perhaps been recognised as an heir-apparent. The other references to him are in Rashtrakuta Dhavala’s inscription of V. 1053 and the Kinsariya and Sakrai inscriptions of his own reign, both dated in V. 1056. [ EI ., XII, p.59] In thc former of these, he is mentioned as holding undisputed sway over the earth and as attacking and over-powering Mahendra, who is rightly identified by Kielhorn with Mahendra Chauhan of Nadol. Dhava1a is said to have used both diplomacy and force in relieving the beleaguered monarch.[Verse-11] but considering the strength or the kingdom of Sakambhari at the time and the terms in which Durlabharaja himself is referred to, there is greater possibility of Dhavala's having used more the former than the latter means against the aggressor. The reason for which Mahendra was attacked, in spite of being a Chauhan, was probably his alliance with Durlabharaja's rivals, the Chaulukyas of Anahillapattana, to whose ruler Durlabharaja II is known to have given his sister in marriage. The Kinsariya inscription states that Durlabharaja was known also as Durlanghyameru on account of his orders being never transgressed by others. The Sakrai inscription calls Durlabharaja as a Maharajadhiraja. ⎧]

17. Govindaraja III: Durlabhraj was succeeded by his son Govindaraj III, known also as Gandu. During his reign the attack of Mahmud Ghaznavi had started and they were getting prominence. He suffered not much loss. Firishta records that Mahmud had to return to Ghazna by way o Sindh, because the route through Marwar lay blocked by large forces uder the ruler of Ajmer. For Ajmer, of course, one should substitute Shakambhari, as there was no Ajmer in existence at that time. ⎨]

18. Vakapati II: After Govindaraj II two other kings, Vakapati II and Viryarama came. Vakapati II slew, in battle, Ambaprasada, the ruler of Aghata. (then capital of Mewar).

19. Viryarama was defeated by king Anahilla of Naddul branch of Chahamana and later was killed in war with Paramara Bhoja, the ruler of Avanti (c.1010-1055 AD). The Paramara forces perhaps occupied Shakambhari for a while as a result of this victory.

20. Chamundaraja: After Viryarama three other rulers, Chamundaraj, Singhatdushala and Durlabhraj III came one by one. Viryarama's brother Chamundaraja built a temple of Vishnu at Narapura. Narapura is Narwar Ajmer situated in Kishangarh territory about 16 miles from Ajmer. His greatest achievement was the freeing of Shakambhari with the help of clansman , Anahilla of Nadol. Bijolia Bhilwara inscription puts one Simhata between Chamundaraja and his son Dusala or Durlabharaja. He might have been Dusala's elder brother. ⎩] ⎪]

21. Durlabharaj III was killed while fighting against the Matangas or mlechchas. Matangas were Muslim invaders. Other kings who came after him were Vir Singh and Vigrharaja III.

22. Vigrharaja III (1079 AD) : Vigrharaja III is said to have given military help to Parmara king Uditaditya against Chalukya king. Vigrharaja III most probably ascended to throne about V. 1136.

23. Prithviraja I (1105 A.D.) : Vigradharaja III was succeeded by Prithviraj I. He ruled in 1105 A.D. Prithviraj I had killed 700 Chalukyas who had come to loot the brahmanas of Pushkar. Prithviraja I was the son of Vigrharaja III and husband of Rasaladevi. An inscription of vikrama year 1162, engraved on a pillar of sabhamandapa of Jeenmata temple in Shekhawati, calls him Paramabhattaraka-Maharajadhiraja-Parmeshvara, showing thereby his independent position as a ruler of great power. ⎫] He was succeeded by his son Ajairaj.

Is history actually written by victors ?

It's often said that history is written by the victors. My taking on this whole subject is it might be partially true but not entirely. History written by scholars are written way after the events of victory and defeat , who revisit the era incorporating all sides and aftermath of the effects in consideration.

Like the victors the losers have equal motive to paint the picture with their using their own brush and canvas. The bigger difference between written history and studied history needs to be taken into consideration when we evaluate an historical event. All the version of history written by the victors need not be untrue by default.

Gentleman what do you say when you read an historical piece in the modern era , do you consider the timeline the immediate past or future or go along with the writer's notion.


Why do you say so ?
Modern history is almost scientifically researched and becomes even more difficult to alternate.

The propaganda parties might have a short term gain but over a period of time ,things become clearer.


Well-Known member


Why do you say so ?
Modern history is almost scientifically researched and becomes even more difficult to alternate.

The propaganda parties might have a short term gain but over a period of time ,things become clearer.

When you find historians, specially Indian historians, those who write, those who got promoted as "Intellectuals" all have a particular ideology. One of them very renowned one said that Modi becoming PM is darkest moment in Indian history after 1947 partition!

This is the objective approach by historian! literally discarding millions of Indians opinion just because he was promoted by 60 years rule. They are pampered in a certain environment, paid well, nurtured, cared for, no wonder power got to their heads. How can you expect them to write history objectively?

1991 reforms are hailed as greatest reforms of India, Manmohan singh was made hero out of it but nobody asked who put India into that situation?

First you take a nation to the verge of bankruptcy and then hail yourself (falsely) as reformer! Not a single person will ask why we reached that state? Who was responsible? Why no action was taken? Why they kept sleeping.

The reason I used the word "falsely" above is cuz those intellectuals who did the reforms were under IMF pressure. When a country reach the bankruptcy status the only institution that can bail them out is IMF, and IMF then take control of policy of country so as not to lose the money loaned. They dictate the terms, they tell what to do and you have to do it, the most recent example in neighbourhood was Pakistan, when they reached IMF and if people missed that within few months they will again goto IMF for bailout and you will see their remarks and Pakistan's conduct after that. They shove the reforms down the throat.

This is one of the biggest fraud done with common man, they are feed that those were economic reforms done by Manmohan but actually they were compulsions, literally dictated in writing, point by point, the only option you had was to say "yes sir".

When you find historians, specially Indian historians, those who write, those who got promoted as "Intellectuals" all have a particular ideology. One of them very renowned one said that Modi becoming PM is darkest moment in Indian history after 1947 partition!

This is the objective approach by historian! literally discarding millions of Indians opinion just because he was promoted by 60 years rule. They are pampered in a certain environment, paid well, nurtured, cared for, no wonder power got to their heads. How can you expect them to write history objectively?


Red Devil


Active member


You will never find the barbarism done to Sikh gurus by Aurangzeb, one of them was of them was burned alive, another sawn into two, the third one was boiled alive as they said no to converting to Islam. All three were companions of Guru Teg Bahdur ji.

These facts are always expunged, you also wont find 1962 war in text books as it will put Nehru in bad light. There is no history but an ideology promoted systematically.



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It's often said that history is written by the victors. My taking on this whole subject is it might be partially true but not entirely. History written by scholars are written way after the events of victory and defeat , who revisit the era incorporating all sides and aftermath of the effects in consideration.

Like the victors the losers have equal motive to paint the picture with their using their own brush and canvas. The bigger difference between written history and studied history needs to be taken into consideration when we evaluate an historical event. All the version of history written by the victors need not be untrue by default.

Gentleman what do you say when you read an historical piece in the modern era , do you consider the timeline the immediate past or future or go along with the writer's notion.

Reminds me of Churchill and Hitler.
My school books were all praise for Churchill & Roosevelt, they were called men of honour while Hitler was shown in a bad light. My opinion hasnt changed much about Hitler albeit Churchill’s image has taken a setback. After all he was the man who left millions of Indians starving and caused the biggest artificial famine in modern history.
Lets not forget that Roosevelt was the man behind the nuclear bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
So upto this it pretty much proves that victors get an upper hand in manipulating history.
Now the fact that commoners like me have found out that Churchill wasnt the god that he was made out to be is enough to prove that over a period of time HISTORY CHANGES.
Yes it does!

This so because over a period of time the minority which was aware of the other side of history worked hard and stumbled upon certain compelling evidences to prove popular beliefs wrong.
So i believe that ppl evaluate the past with the same set of filters they use when watching the TV news. Most of them will listen to the versions that flatter their prejudices and received opinions and a handful will do some extra homework, seek out new data and form their own conclusions and largely get ignored by people who don't want to be bothered and like a simpler story in which their side is the good guys.
But over a period of time as more and more evidences come to light every version of history gets scrutinised.
So ultimately its only the truth that comes out.

But then it is NOT applicable to every incident in history. Only the more popular stories get an audience where digging evidences becomes a necessity.

So the history is written by victors is just half as true as HISTORY itself.
Just my humble opinion!

Kaaba Sharif is Captured by Kauravas

Sly muslim clerics often compare Vedic Hinduism with islam to show antiquity of newest cult islam but they end up exposing roots of islam to Vedic Sanatan Dharma, Hinduism. Kaurav clan does have some connection to pre-historic emergence of several cults which later gave birth to islam.

After end of Mahabharat war , clans and kings of Kaurava dynasty were ridiculed by the locals for their adharmic karma leading to the death of millions of people. They moved towards South (Kerala) from there, they proceeded to Arabian Sea and Middle east, forming small tribes and regimes. They fragmented in to different groups, travelled different places, sometimes hiding their identities other times winning over confidence of locals to reform their existence which was on the verge of extinction due to bloodiest war of Dwapar Yug.

Kauravas got a lunatic person in Mohammed to spread terror forming mafia cult islam. Kauravas were evil criminals that is why they legalized all crimes against humanity – rape, loot, killing, meat eating and corruption. They used veil of islam to exercise criminal activities against non-muslims. To enjoy few generations of shallow RESPECT and COMMAND among people around, Kauravas ruined humanity giving a mafia cult to the world.

Moving to different places, they were vociferously rejected by local leaders and people for their evil deeds of causing Mahabharat war due to their inclination towards anti-Vedic activities. Until they reached Kerala, the end of landing zone of Bharatvarsha, left with no choice, they released their resources and wealth to Keralites to win over confidence of the people. They were remnants of the most opulent and richest royal family of the world. They inherited immense wealth but lacked public support and respect.

To gain respect of Kerala locals, Kaurav clans gifted wealth and acres of land to the people. That is the reason (Suyodhan) Duryodhan is worshipped in Malanada, (Susashan) Dusasanan in Ennasseri, Shakuni in Kollam and sister (Susala) Dussala at Kunniradath Malanada. There are 101 temple for Kauravas in the surrounding places of Malanada (Kerala).

Migration of Kauravas (Kauraysh) prospered the places around present Jazīrat al Arab. Before their movement, the places were sparsely populated due to worst climatic conditions, limited natural resources, most of the rejected people of Bharatvarsh formed small tribes and resided peacefully. Enriched with knowledge and wealth, Kauravs (Kauraysh) soon started heading and directing the tribes who were looking forward to reformation and better life.

Immediate scions of Kauravas or Kauraysh (Kuraysh) of middle east (now UAE, Iran etc) were staunch Shiv Bhakts. One of their offsprings was Mohammed who formed cult islam. There were several tribes and cults created by Kaurav dynasty in the middle east. The same Kaurav (Quraysh) clan later requested Keralaputra kings to create world’s first mosque, The Cheramaan Juma Masjid in Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur District in the Indian state of Kerala. The concept of Mosque did not exist in Quran but Kaurav clan (Kurayshis) wanted to promote Islam (anti-Vedic cult) to diminish Vaishnavite and HariBhakts, followers of Bhagwan Krishna.

Hindus have several pious pilgrimages of worship. Christians and Jews have their own. When cult islam was found by Mohammed he badly needed a place to claim prominence of his cult. Kaaba had a temple constructed by Kauravs (Kurayshis) surrounded by 360 idols whose central supreme God was Bhagwan Shiv. One of the deities was moon god, Allah. Mohammed desperately wanted a binding place to unify islamists, it was then under his guidance, several temples in and around Kaaba were destroyed.

Masjid was created in the lines of Hindu temple to promote islam. The concept of constructing mosques is after thought of Kuru slaves and super lift off from Hinduism, did not exist in Kuran (Quran). They hated Bhagwan Krishna whose blessings caused destruction to evil rule of Kauravs re-establishing peace and Dharma in Bharatvarsh. Post embracing islam, they wanted to spread its base so unquranic concept of constructing mosques was introduced by descendants of Kauravs (Quraysh).

Mohammed and his other family members were from Kaurav (Kuraysh) clan so they gave their lasting impression in major aspects of islam leaving their Vedic footprints in paradoxically opposing Sanatan Dharma. ShivBhakt Uncles of Mohammed Abu Talib and Umar-Bin-E-Hassham knew Vedic roots and considered him a lunatic illiterate person. They knew him closely so they never converted to islam and died as Hindus.

The original and evil theme of Mohammed to make Kaaba the ONLY and MOST sought after islamic place got diminished to large extent due to emergence of mosques around world. Muslims founded several houses of allah in the form of masjids in different places. The adoption of Vedic Hindu concept of constructing mandirs (temples) for connection with Bhagwan decimated the actual importance of Kaaba for which it was captured from Hindus. Being pirated and blended version of Hinduism, Judaism and Christianity, Islam is filled with ironies and confusions making its followers bunch of fearful and bewildered people.

Black stone in the form of Shiv Ling represents unmanifested form of Bhagwan, the same concept is pirated by creators of islam. Moon god allah was populated as unmanifested, unseen form. Broken statues and Shiv ling were re-assembled to be called Sanghey Aswad (Black stone). It was always black, when non-muslims started questioning roots of islam to pagan polytheism tradition of Kauravs, muslim clerics came with the concept of white stone turning black due to soaking sins of stone kissers.

True to its name Kuran, Kuru + Aan (means Respect of Kurus, Kauravas) restored Kuru glory among illiterates of Arab, till the time islam exists and Shukra do not create another cult. It should be noted that lunatic Mohammed openly advocated that teachings of Kuran is for illiterates and ridicules and not for literates. It is easy to bluff and mind condition stupid illiterates so Kuran is by illiterate radicals, of uncivilized radicals and for lunatic radicals.

Watch the video: Χρονολόγιο Μαχών Βαλκανικών Πολέμων, Αναλυτικό (August 2022).