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Nopatin SP-2195 - History

Nopatin SP-2195 - History


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Nopatin
(SP-2195: t. 3,539; 1. 320'2"; b. 48'1", dr. 16'; s. 23 k.)

Nopatin a transport built in 1913 by Harlan & Hollingsworth, Wiimington, Del. aB Manhattan, waB acquired by the Navy aB Nopatin from Central Vermont Transportation Co. 11 January 1918 and commissioned 28 January 1918, Lt. Comdr. Alexander Smart in command.

Operating in the English Channel during the waning months of the war, Nopatin steamed between Southampton, England and France in the hazardous duty of transporting men and supplies through waters infested with enemy submarines. After war-time service and decommissioning, she was ordered sold 15 August 1919.


Nopatin SP-2195 - History

S.S. President Grant , a 18,072 gross ton passenger liner, was built in 1907 at Belfast, Ireland, for the Hamburg-Amerika Linie. She shared a distinctive split-superstructure and six-mast configuration with her sister ship, the President Lincoln . After seven years of commercial operation, she took refuge at New York when the August 1914 outbreak of World War I made the high seas unsafe for German merchant ships, and remained inactive until the United States entered the conflict in April 1917. Seized at that time by the U.S. Government, she was turned over to the Navy and, in early August 1917, placed in commission as the transport President Grant (later given registry ID # 3014). During the rest of the First World War, she made eight round-trips across the Atlantic, transporting nearly 40,000 passengers (mainly U.S. troops) to the European war zone. Following the 11 November 1918 Armistice, President Grant brought home over 37,000 war veterans and other persons in the course of another eight round-trip voyages. She was decommissioned in October 1919 and transferred to the U.S. Army.

In 1920-1921 the ship served briefly as an Army transport, and in 1921 was returned to the U.S. Shipping Board and laid up. She was renamed President Buchanan in 1922 or 1923, then renamed Republic and rebuilt with an enlarged superstructure and oil-fired boilers. During the later 1920s and early 1930s the United States Lines operated her commercially. Republic resumed Army service in 1931, served as USS Republic (AP-33) in 1941-1945 and was again an Army ship in 1945-1946.

This page features, and provides links to, all the the views we have concerning USS President Grant (ID # 3014), which later became USS Republic (AP-33).

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

At Brest, France.
This original photograph bore a date of 18 July 1919. However, the "dazzle" camouflage worn by President Grant indicates that it was actually taken in 1918.

Collection of Peter K. Connelly. Courtesy of William H. Davis, 1967.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 39KB 740 x 575 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the ship in pattern camouflage, circa mid-to-late 1918. It was published by A.M. Simon, 324 E. 23rd St., New York City, in 1919 as one of ten images in a "Souvenir Folder" concerning USS President Grant .

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 79KB 740 x 490 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

At New York City, circa spring or summer 1918, after being painted in pattern camouflage.
Photographed by the New York Navy Yard.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 71KB 610 x 765 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

At New York City, circa spring or summer 1918, after being painted in pattern camouflage.
Photographed by the New York Navy Yard.
Camouflaged ship beyond President Grant 's stern is USS Nopatin (ID # 2195). See Photo # NH 41747-A for a cropped version of this image, emphasizing that ship.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 88KB 630 x 765 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

Steaming in convoy with other ships, 1918. She is wearing "dazzle" camouflage.
The original image is printed on postcard ("AZO") stock.

Donation of Charles R. Haberlein Jr., 2007.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image size: 42KB 740 x 445 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

In New York Harbor, 1919.
Photographed by E. Muller Jr., New York.

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2008.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 96KB 900 x 500 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

In New York Harbor, 1919.
The original photograph, taken by E. Muller Jr., of New York, is printed on post card ("AZO") stock.

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2007.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 64KB 740 x 490 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

Moored to a buoy in port, circa 1919.
Photographed by "HF Co".
The original image is printed on postcard ("AZO")stock.

Donation of Charles R. Haberlein Jr., 2007.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image size: 71KB 740 x 465 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

In port, probably at Newport News, Virginia, 1919.
Photograph copyrighted at that time by Holladay.
The original image is printed on post card ("AZO") stock.

Donation of Charles R. Haberlein Jr., 2008.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 67KB 740 x 480 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

Photographed in 1919 (perhaps on 2 April), while employed bringing U.S. troops home from Europe.
The original image is printed on post card ("AZO") stock.

Donation of Charles R. Haberlein Jr., 2008.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image size: 64KB 740 x 495 pixels

USS President Grant (ID # 3014)

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the ship steaming in convoy with other troop transports, 1918. It was published by A.M. Simon, 324 E. 23rd St., New York City, in 1919 as one of ten images in a "Souvenir Folder" concerning USS President Grant .
Based on their camouflage patterns and general physical appearance, the three ships closest to the camera are (from left to right) : USS Zeelandia (ID # 2507) USS President Grant and USS Huron (ID # 1408).

Donation of Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 61KB 740 x 475 pixels

"The Original U.S. Troop Transports"

Chart compiled 16 August 1919, showing the number of trans-Atlantic "turn arounds" and their average duration for thirty seven U.S. Navy troop transports employed during and immediately after World War I.

Collection of the USS Pocahontas Reunion Association, 1974.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 157KB 690 x 655 pixels

Click here to rotate chart 90 degrees clockwise

Note: The ship seen in Photo # NH 43544 was originally, and quite incorrectly, identified as USS President Grant , and has been published as such. The ship in that view is actually USS Susquehanna (ID # 3016), which had a very different appearance.


History of Virginia - Charles R. Adair

For discussion of history and genealogy of the New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia you are welcomed to join the New River History and Genealogy Discussion Group.

Welcome and we hope you join the discussions.

WhatsNew:

New River Notes &mdash Complete

January 21, 2014

After about two years of work we have completed a major upgrade to New River Notes. On January 21, 2014 we switched in the last of the updated files and final page revisions.

In January 2013 we introduced the new site layout but because there were many pages left to do there was a big red Under Construction on the front page. A year later we've finished all of the pages that were on the original site. Construction is complete. We have a great looking site full of material to help you in your research and possibly entertain you.

New River Notes

January 6, 2013

New River Notes, a leading genealogy resource for the New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia, launched its new look website today.

New River Notes was originally launched in 1998 by Jeffrey C. Weaver providing New River Valley researchers with a new wealth of information and that tradition is continued today by the Grayson County, Virginia Heritage Foundation, Inc.

Welcome and we hope you enjoy our new look.

Charles R. Adair

CHARLES R. ADAIR, who in the past several years has built up a large and successful general insurance business at Narrows in Giles County, is still a comparatively young man, and yet has had a range of experience such as few men achieve.

His grandfather, James Adair, was born June 4, 1807, in County Down, Ireland. He came to the United States with his father's family, William, Jane, .Mary and Robert Adair, arriving at Norfolk after being on shipboard fifty-one days. James Adair married Jane Swart, daughter of William R. Swart. The wife of William R. Swart was Elizabeth Rogers, who was a daughter of Hugh and Mary (Combs) Rogers. The father of Hugh Rogers was Arthur Rogers, who spent his early years in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and afterward moved to Loudoun County, Virginia. Arthur Rogers was a son of William Rogers, who came to the United States about 1720. William Rogers represented :in old Presbyterian Scotch-Irish family of County Antrim, Ireland, and one that was established in Ireland by migration from Scotland about the middle of the sixteenth century.

James Adair was an early settler in Giles County, Virginia, conducting a large farm with the aid of slaves. He (lied at Bell Point, Giles County, August 20, 1868. His wife, Jane A. Swart, was born in Fauquier County, September 30, 1813, and died at Bell Point, March 10, 7865. They had a large family of seven sons and two daughters: William, born March 24, 1844 Ellen Adair, born March 30, 1845 Asa Rogers, born March 20, 1846, died January 24, 1923 Robert Wallace, born April 3, 1848 Hugh T., October 7, 1849 John A., mentioned below Mary Jane, born March 10, 1854 James Arthur, born April 9, 1857 and Menelius Chapman, who was born June 30, 1862, and was drowned at the mouth of the Yukon River in Alaska, June 10, 1900.

John A. Adair, father of Charles R., was born at Bell Point, now called Lurich, in Giles County, June 20, 1851, and is now practically a retired resident of Narrows. He was reared in Giles County, completing his education under Professor Humphrey at White Gate Academy, and his active years have been devoted to farming. Ile still owns considerable property at Narrows. His home has been in Southwestern Virginia, except for three years when he tried pioneering in what was then the frontier country of Kansas, Sumner County, where lie and his family lived for three years, 1878-80. He is a democrat and served as deputy sheriff of Giles County under Sheriff John D. Snidow four years. Ile is an active member of the Missionary Baptist Church. His first wife, Virginia McClaugherty, was born near Pearisburg in 1852 and died in 1890. She was the mother of four children: James, an employe of the Narrows Extract Works Charles R., Janie, wife of Percy O. Ivery, an accountant living at Langeloth, Pennsylvania and Miss Ellen Kyle, living with her father. John A. Adair married for his second wife, Fannie W. Peck. There are three children of this union. Arthur C., a civil and mining engineer with the United States Steel Corporation at Gary, West Virginia., was in the World war for one year, being stationed at Camp Meade, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Quartermaster's Department. Bennett F., the second son, is postmaster, merchant and automobile dealer at Rich Creek in Giles County, and is also a World war veteran. He was a first class fireman on the U. S. S. Nopatin, and throughout the period of the war was engaged in transporting English and American troops across the English Channel. The third son, John Alexander, Jr., has a position in the engineering department of the Steel Corporation at Gary, West Virginia.

Charles R. Adair was born February 3, 1880, while his parents were living near Wichita in Sumner County, Kansas. He was an infant when they returned to Virginia, and was reared in Giles County, attending the country schools and the graded schools of Pearisburg, and completing his high school course there at the age of eighteen. Born in the Southwestern country, he may have inherited a taste of frontier existence, since on leaving school he went to Western Texas, became a cowboy, remaining on the ranch near Barstow four months, and went on to Deming, New Mexico, in the Trasermanus Mountains, where he was employed in the silver mines four months. Leaving there, he made an extended tour of the Western States, working in mines, getting out timber, also helping in the wheat harvest, and as the culmination of his western experience he made a run for a homestead in Oklahoma, at the land opening there in 1901, but did not succeed in getting a location. Having had three years of rough and tumble existence, he returned in the fall of 1901 to Giles County. For a few months he was timekeeper and right of way man for the Bell Telephone Company, then became buyer for a large coal corporation at Flat Top Coal Fields, following which he learned and followed the baker's trade at Cincinnati and in the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway coal fields. In 1906 he went on the road as salesman for the Brown Manufacturing Company of Greenville, covering southern territory until 1908. The following year he was chief inspector for the Motive Power Department of the Norfolk & Western Railway, with headquarters in Roanoke, and for one year traveled for a wholesale grocery house in Virginia and West Virginia.

Since leaving the road Mr. Adair's interests have been concentrated at Narrows, where lie was a merchant until April, 1916. He then engaged in the general insurance business, and handles the insurance for a large community around Narrows. Mr. Adair owns a modern home in that town, also a store building, and since September 1, 1922, has been police justice of the town. lie takes :in active part in social and civic affairs, and is himself a very popular and congenial man. He is a democrat, a deacon of the Presbyterian Church and superintendent of the Sunday school, and is affiliated with Giles Lodge No. 106, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons Pearisburg Chapter No. 29, Royal Arch Masons Graham Commandery No. 22, Knights Templar, Kazim Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Roanoke, and is also a member of the United Commercial Travelers. His influence and church -were at the disposal of the Government during the World war, and he actively assisted in all Liberty Loans and other drives.

On October 30, 1907, at Fork Union, Fluvanna County, Mr. Adair married Miss Margaret M. Davis, daughter of Henry and Nettie (Thomas) Davis, her mother now deceased. Her father is a farmer in Fluvanna County. Mrs. Adair is a graduate of the Hill Grove High School at Fork Union. They have two children, Mary Davis, born May 26, 1909, and Charles Robert, born September 29, 1914.


This hotfix contains updates for the MIM Service, MIM Portal and PAM components.

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Make sure to read MIM deployment guide for updated list of pre-requisites and limitations related to TLS 1.2 only environments, Group Managed Service Accounts support and the upgrade path from previous MIM and FIM versions.

A Service Pack 2 (SP2) rollup package (build 4.6.34.0) is available for Microsoft Identity Manager (MIM) 2016. It is a cumulative update that replaces earlier MIM 2016 SP1 updates 4.4.1302.0 through build 4.5.412.0.

Updates in MIM 2016 Service Pack 2

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Steamship NEW YORK, HUDSON RIVER DAY Line 1908 Naval Cover ROCKY MOUNT, NC

Steamship NEW YORK, HUDSON RIVER DAY Line 1908 Naval Cover ROCKY MOUNT, NC It was sent 30 Jan 1908. It was franked with stamp "Franklin". It was sent from to Wright of Ashland, VA. This post card is in good, but not perfect condition. Please look at th . Read More

Item Specifics
Item Description

Steamship NEW YORK, HUDSON RIVER DAY Line 1908 Naval Cover ROCKY MOUNT, NC

It was sent 30 Jan 1908. It was franked with stamp "Franklin". It was sent from to Wright of Ashland, VA.

This post card is in good, but not perfect condition. Please look at the scan and make your own judgement.

Member USCS #10385 (I also earned the stamp collecting merit badge as a boy!). Please contact me if you have specific cover needs. I have thousands for sale, including navals (USS, USNS, USCGC, Coast Guard, ship, Maritime), military posts, event, APO, hotel, postal history, memorabilia, etc. I also offer approvals service with FREE SHIPPING to repeat USA customers.

Articles were published in the greene county news from december 1963 to april 1966 and were written by f. Van loon ryder.

Transcribed by Sylvia Hasenkopf
JANUARY 14, 1965

the Fulton Boats
Pictures of the fulton and paragon from the "annals of steamboating on the hudson river", by charles hallenbeck, located at the new york state library, albany

Newspaper ad from the catskill recorder, march 1815, vedder research library

To continue with the fulton boats. Following the richmond there were several ferries, which i will cover in a separate article, and then -- the empress of russia! Successful with his steamboats in this country, in 1811 he began negotiations to secure an exclusive right in russia, provided that within three years he run a vessel between st. Petersburg (leningrad) and kronstadt, through a sheltered arm of the gulf of finland. For this purpose he started to build the empress of russia, but he died before the boat was completed and the scheme fell through according to seymour bullock (journal american history, vol. 1, 1907, number 8, page 34), "although not completed until after fulton's death, this vessel subsequently became the connecticut, which operated on long island sound routes until dismantled in 1836."

The olive branch (not to be confused with a ferry of that name) was built the same year, 1816, that the connecticut was completed. This vessel, 124' in length spent most of her career on the new york - new brunswick route and was abandoned in 1827.

The washington completed in 1813, was built for potomac river service, was 165 feet in length and was dismantled in 1828.

When the horrors of the war of 1812 became a dread reality fulton contracted to build the world's first steam battleship at an estimated cost of $320,000. The demelogos, also known as fulton the first, was to be a floating fort for harbor defense. War scare and propaganda was the same then as now. The edinburgh evening courant reported her dimensions as 800 feet in length with a beam of 200 feet! Further, that "to annoy an enemy attempting to board she can discharge 100 gallons of boiling water in a minute and by mechanism brandishes three hundred cutlasses with the utmost regularity over the gunwales. " actually her measurements were 150 feet in length, 56 foot beam and 20 feet depth. The tonnage, 2,475, was the largest by many hundreds of tons than any steamer built up to that year. Armament consisted of 44 guns of which four were 100 pounds. The large protected paddlewheel was mounted in a center well amidships. The vessel made three trial trips which were successful and the war having ended, was then laid up in the brooklyn navy yard. On the night of june 4th, 1829, fifteen years after her keel was laid, she was accidentally or purposely blown up, killing 24 men, one woman and injuring many others.

There was another fulton carrying as a figurehead the likeness of the builder, fulton built in 1813. This steamboat, sloop rigged, was 134 feet in length and had a tonnage of 327, the greater part of her career was on the new york - new haven and providence runs. Lasting longer than most of her predecessors she was finally dismantled in 1838.

In 1811 fulton turned his attention to the west and established a small shipyard in pittsburgh. New orleans was his first vessel quickly followed by the aetna, vesuvius and buffalo. New orleans was placed on the natchez - new orleans run and was the first steamboat on western waters. All proved money makers. In 1814 new orleans struck a snag below natchez, filled, sank, becoming a total loss.

Exclusive of ferryboats, fulton built or had built, no less than sixteen steamboats - those built expressly for hudson river service being the clermont, 1807 car of neptune, 1809 paragon, 1811 fire fly, 1812 and the richmond, 1812. The chancellor livingston, although built for long island sound service, spent practically her entire career on the hudson.

The paragon replica of the clermont, later renamed the north river

January 21, 1965

the Fulton Ferryboat
The fulton steamboats were covered in this series and we now come to his ferryboats.

On july 2, 1812, fulton's first ferryboat, the jersey, was placed in operation between paulus hook (jersey city) and new york. The vessel was of the catamaran type, having two hulls with the paddlewheel between. In his us patent specification of 1809 fulton described this vessel as follows: ". Ferry boat composed of two boats each of which is a segment of a circle. They are separated ten feet and have a platform built over, the wheels and machinery being in the center, the carriages and passengers enter or land from each end, passing to the right or left of the machinery. There are two rudders at each end, the tillers of the two at either end are united by a bar, so that they act by one movement. As the boat is not designed to put about, either end may run foremost, in which case the end that acts as the bow has the rudder pinned. "

In a letter to dr. David hosack he gave a further description: "she is built of two boasts each 10 feet beam, 80 feet long, five feet deep in the hold which boats are distant from each other 10', confined by strong knees and diagonal braces, forming a deck 30' wide, 80' long. By placing the propelling waterwheel between the boats it is guarded from injury from ice or shocks on approaching it entering the dock. The whole of the machinery being placed between the two boats leaves 10 feet on each side on the deck of each boat for carriages, horses, and cattle, etc. the other having neat benches and covered with an awning, is for passengers, and there is also a passage and stairway to a neat cabin, which is 50 feet long and five feet clear from the floor to the beams, furnished with benches and a stove in winter. Although the two boats and space between them five 30 foot beam, yet they present sharp bows to the water, and have only the resistance in the water of one boat of 20 foot beam, which diminition of resistance gives speed in crossing."

In 1813 the jersey being a success, was followed by a sister ship, the york. Both the jersey ad the york had the typical fulton bell crank type engines of 20 horse power each with cylinders of 20 inch diameters with four foot stroke. Each drove a single paddle wheel, 12 feet in diameter with buckets or paddles four feet long and two feet wide. Steam was supplied by a boiler 20 feet long, nine feet high and with nine foot front.

Although these ferries were supposed to run every half hour from sunrise to sunset, frequently an hour was consumed in making the trip. It is said that when they passed close o one another in the river, passengers on the two boats could hold quite a lengthy conversation before they got beyond talking distance.

These ferries were a great improvement over the old horse or team ferryboats, in both "speed" and in comfort. One made the trip across the river loaded with eight four wheeled carriages, 29 horses and 100 passengers, which was considered quite a feat at that time.

A short time later, fulton and william cutting, his brother-in-law, formed the new york & brooklyn steamboat ferry association, their first boat being the nassau, built in 1813. A trusted assistant of fulton's, the principal engineer of the company, by name of louis rhoda, was crushed to death in the machinery of the nassau on the brooklyn crossing may 10th 1814, when that ferry made her first trip. This trip, across the east river averaged 10 minutes and as many as 30 trips were made daily. The vessel was also often employed after business hours by pleasure parties on excursions up the river. Around 1840 the nassau as a ferry ended her career. The hull was acquired by the seaman's friend society, for a floating bethel at the foot of pike street in new york.

In 1827 (after fulton's death) a new ferry was built and placed on the crossing with the nassau. This was the william cutting, similar in construction to the nassau, which operated until 1840 when dismantled.

Steamboats was but one interest of fulton. Canal improvements, torpedo warfare and submarines were others. His earlier interest was miniature oil painting and while in london studied under benjamin west. One of his minor inventions was a pontoon affair of a floating bridge-dock that rises and falls with the tides and makes it possible for carriages and wagons to drive on and off the ferryboats which he designed. This ferry slip ramp , which actually is what it was, has been little changed through the years.

There was another great steamboat "inventor" who preceded fulton and his clermont by 17 years. This was john fitch who will be the subject of next weeks article.

January 28, 1965

John Fitch and His Steamboat
Part 1

Historian agree that a steamboat was successfully operated on the delaware river 16 years before robert fulton's clermont steamed up the hudson.

This steamboat was the thornton, built by john fitch. After several noteworthy but for the most part fruitless attempts, including a vessel built and launched in 1787 in which the engine manipulated sets of paddles, his steamboat of 1790 was a success.

Named the thornton in honor of fitch's friend and principal backer, dr. William thornton, the vessel was built in philadelphia. But unlike its predecessors, the thornton was propelled by three large spade-shaped paddles at the stern. The forward third of the boat was decked over and supported a small cabin, immediately aft of which was the boiler and a tall stack. From here to the transom stern was an open well containing the engine and auxillary machinery. This engine had an 18 inch diameter cylinder, the casting of which at that time was a small miracle in itself.

The 1787 boat was 60 feet in length with a nine foot beam and a draft of four feet. No dimensions are available for the 1790 vessel but judging from contemporary sketches it was slightly longer with considerable beam. The "phenomenal" speed of six to seven mph was attained consistently with eight mph under ideal conditions.

After the thornton's trial trip april 16th, 1790, fitch wrote:

"although the wind blew very fresh at the northeast we reigned lord high admirals of the delaware and no boat on the river could hold with us, but all fell astern, although several sail boats which were very light with heavy sails that brought their gunwales down to the water, came out to try us."

Heretofor fitch's greatest problem had been in financing his experiments but after this more recent groups of stock holders by mutual agreement united onto one company. Steps were taken immediately to place the steamboat in commercial operation, and beginning june 14th, 1790, advertisements were run in the federal gazette and the philadelphia packet as follows:

"the steamboat is now ready to take passengers and is intended to set off from arch street ferry in philadelphia, every monday, wednesday and friday for burlington, bristol, bordentown and trenton to return tuesdays, thursdays and saturday. Price for passengers 2-6 to burlington and bristol, 3-9 to bordentown and 5s to trenton."

For the first time in history a steamboat was making regular trips carrying passengers on a published schedule and during its brief season of operation covered between 2000 and 3000 miles, unquestionable an impressive performance when it is realized that this was 16 years earlier than the clermont.

On june 16th, 1790, during one of thornton's regular trips, governor miflin and the supreme executive council of pennsylvania, took passage unannounced and were so pleased with the efficiency of the vessel that a colorful set of flags, costing more than 5 pounds was presented to the steamboat company.

There were myriad reasons why the thornton operated only one season. Probably the prime factor was the timidity and inherent conservatism of the people who preferred traditional methods of travel and who lacked confidence in so novel an innovation as a steamboat. Then too, the rivermen initiated intense enmity against both fitch and his steamboat, looking with much logic at a steamboat as a distinct threat to their economic existence, the same problem that fulton faced later with his clermont. A further reason was that the stage coaches generally made better time than the steamboat, although passengers often arrived "all shook up".

Before fully evaluating these discouraging facts the company had already projected the construction of a new and larger boat upon which fitch had begun construction. Although never completed this vessel was launched and christened the perseverance. While the cabin was being completed and the machinery was being installed a violent northeaster tore the boat from its wharf on the delaware and drove it across the river standing it on petty's island, opposite philadelphia. Before being refloated, alterations to the air pump and other parts of the machinery were made at the insistence of certain stockholders against fitch's better judgement. Irreparable damage resulted and the company soon found itself deeply in debt. Unable to further finance the venture, the entire project was abandoned. (continued next week)

February 4, 1965

the Fitch Steamboats
(Continued From Last Week)
The indominable fitch refused to give up and spent several years in a vain attempt to interest the government in steam navigation on the mississippi. Finally in 1793 he took passage to france but that country still in the throes of social and political upheaval, was more interested in the bores of cannon than in engine cylinders. He met with equally discouraging results in england and the following year returned to america.

Thoroughly disheartened he left new york in 1794 for kentucky where early in his career as a surveyer he had invested in land warrants. Arriving there he discovered that much of his thirteen hundred acres had been preempted by squatters and now, further discouraged, he went to the home of his friend, alexander mccowan, at bardstown, kentucky. Yet even toward the end of his career and in failing health, fitch continued to carry on the steamboat experiments and at bardstown built a three foot model with side paddlewheels and a brass cylindered engine, which he operated on beech fork, a branch of the salt river.

A number f books state that fitch built and experimented with a small steamboat on collet pond, new york city, in 1796. The vessel had both side wheels and a screw at the stern, this claim is based upon a broad side, with wood cuts, published in 1846 -- nearly fifty years after fitch's death -- and by john hutchins entitled "honor to whom honor is due". The author states that as a boy he rode with fitch in this boat and that fulton and livingston were aboard. The fact that fulton was in england at this time studying painting under the great benjamin west, rather discredits this story and modern scholars are inclined to believe hutchin's memory erred and that the vessel described was one built by samuel morey. It is known that morey and was in new york in 1796 and in a letter to his friend william duer, relative to his latest experiment says, ". Having made sundry improvements in the engine i went again to new york and applied the power to a wheel in the stern by which the boat was impelled by a speed of about five miles an hour." the affadavit of two other individuals quoted by hutchins speak of seeing the boat, but do not mention fitch's name. Not a shred of evidence other than this broadside, exists to substantiate hutchin's statement.

Following the termination of fitch's delaware river venture there is a vast hiatus of steamboat chronology. More than 16 years passed during which period no steamboats operated despite numerous attempts, all were abortive and failed universally. Then, in 1807, robert fulton triumphed in the hudson with his steamboat commonly called the clermont, this was quickly followed by colonel john and robert steven's phoenix and the stable advancement of the steamboat from this time onward was assured.

John fitch was born on his father's farm in windsor township, hartford, connecticut, and led an eventful life, although frequently tormented by misfortune. In turn, he became a surveyor, silversmith, watchmaker, and in the revolution a gunsmith at valley forge. In 1782, while a trader on the ohio river, he was captured by the indians, delivered to the british in detroit and later released in exchange of prisoners.

It was not until 1785 that he became obsessed with the idea of propelling a boat by steam and devoted the rest of his life toward this achievement. After a long illness his death occurred at bardstown on july 1st, 1798. In his autobiography he states this touching and prophetic thought: " the time will come when all our great lakes, rivers and oceans will be navigated by vessels propelled by steam when some more powerful man will get fame and riches from my invention but nobody will believe that poor john fitch can do anything worthy of attention."

In the state capitol at hartford, a tablet dedicated to fitch reads: "this tablet erected by the state of connecticut commemorates the genius, patience and perseverance of john fitch a native of the town of windsor and first to apply steam successfully to the propulsion of vessels through water."

There is little doubt that if john fitch's steamboat of 1790 had continued in operation, the name fitch rather than fulton would have gone down in history books as the "inventor" or the steamboat.

February 11, 1965

Chauncey Vibbard: 1864-1900

Pictures from the new york state library in albany, william elmendorf collection

The third steamboat to join the fleet on the hudson river day line, the chauncey vibbard, began her career june 18, 1864, on the new york to albany run.

The appearance of this new steamboat on the river excited much favorable comment. Her graceful proportions and beauty of structure made a pleasing picture against the backdrop of the hudson highlands as she cruised the river. The vessel was at its graceful best when steaming at full speed. Having a very narrow beam for her length, the chauncey vibbard cut the water as a knife blade with scarcely a ripple breaking from her stem to her paddle wheels. Hull and engine were balanced to perfection to eliminate vibration and the vessel seemed to move through the water with dignified ease.

Captain van santvoord was understandably proud of his new steamboat and spared nothing to make her the finest on the river. Her speed was not illusory either, as in the case of some boats in her era, for she was about as fast as any steamboat that ever plied the hudson. This was amply proved on april 18th, 1876, when she ran from new york to albany without making any landings in six hours and 20 minutes, easily the best time on record at that period for a through passage.

Captain dave hitchcock, the vibbard's commander at this time, had steadily maintained that she could beat the record and would do it, too, if he ever got a chance to let her but which he could not do so long as she was on a scheduled run. His opportunity finally came when the vibbard's owners decided to send her to albany to be painted before the opening of the regular season.

She left new york at 5:20am having on board a party of excursionists, who had been promised the fastest trip they had ever taken on a steamboat. The promise was fully kept for the vibbard glided up to her pier at albany at 11:40am. It was favored with a flood tide as far as rhinebeck, but that this was more than offset by a heavy freshet in the upper hudson, the effect of which was felt from catskill to albany.

The record established by the vibbard caused much discussions among the steamboat fraternity, and the old question as to whether a day boat had the advantage over a night boat, or vice versa in making the run from new york to albany gave rise to much argument.

Changes Made
Two seasons after her launching the chauncey vibbard was lengthened 16 feet and changes made to her engine. Those familiar with the vessel conceded that alterations to have an unfavorable effect on her speed. She also had the reputation of being one of the hardest of any of the fast day boats to drive before the wind. The only satisfactory explanation given for this was the width of the square front of her joiner work. She had long, high hog-framing as did all the large boats.

In 1880, the vessel's boilers were removed from the guards and three new ones installed in the hold with three stacks placed athwartships, considerably changing the appearance of the steamboat. It also had the effect of causing the vessel to lose the fine balance it had formerly possessed.

For some time the chauncey vibbard ran with the daniel drew and later the albany before being withdrawn from service and used as a spare boat. In 1896 she was sold and taken to the delaware river for service between philadelphia and lincoln park on excursion runs.

Following the spanish american war in 1899, a "peace jubilee" with a naval parade was staged on the hudson with the vibbard participating. Crowded with celebrated passengers, the old steamboat began leaking badly and was beached on a sandbar. Prior to this incident no disaster or accident had marred the log book of the vibbard during her many years of service.

The vessel was later floated and towed to cramers hill, where, in 1900, she was partially dismantled. The skeleton of her hull remained there for many years, the last visible vestige of this fine old boat.

Statistics: - lawrence & foulks, builders, brooklyn, ny. Wood hull, 794 tons, length 265 feet beam 35 feet depth nine feet five inches. Fletcher & harrison vertical beam engine, no. 37, having 55 inch cylinder with 12 foot stroke. Two boilers on the guards. Paddlewheels 30 feet in diameter with nine foot five inch face. In 1866 the vessel was cut in two and 16 feet added amidship, increasing her length to 261 feet. And her tonnage to 1158. The cylinder diameter was increased to 62 inches. In 1880, the two boilers were replaced with three placed in the hold with three stacks placed athwartships.

February 18, 1965

the Kaaterskill and Adirondack
Postcard of the adirondack courtesy of melissa finch

Postcard of the kaaterskill courtesy of barbara bartley

Picture of the adirondack and the ship's pass from the new york state library, william elmendorf collection

Of these two old time night boats the kaaterskill is of the most interest as it was built in athens and was the largest steamboat built north of newburgh.

Built for the catskill new york evening line by van loon magee in athens, the kaaterskill made her maiden trip down the hudson in august 1882. She was christened upon launching by miss grace donahue, daughter of captain william donahue and her first commander was captain charles ru ton. Her sister ship was the city of catskill, built two years earlier.

The kaaterskill was the pride of the line and the flagship of the fleet. She was luxuriously furnished, was fast and could accommodate three hundred passengers, having 150 staterooms and 73 cabins plus a very large freight capacity.

A few weeks after her launching she had the only accident of note during her career of 32 years. While southbound near stony point the vessel was disabled by a broken strap on her walking beam. The added strain caused the connecting rod to break loose and drop on the main steam pipe, bursting it. As a result one man died and several others were seriously injured by the escaping steam.

The kaaterskill was later chartered by the hudson navigation company, and under command of captain benjamin hoff (of athens) and ran on the new york - albany route until december 12th, 1913. On this route her consorts were the onteora and the city of hudson. The following year the old steamboat was deemed unfit for further service and her superstructure dismantled and machinery removed at newburgh. On september 12th, 1914 the hull was towed to new london and converted in to a barge.

Statistics: van loon magee, builders, athens, ny. Wood hull. 1361 tons. Length 281 feet beam 38 feet depth 10 feet. Fletcher harrison vertical beam engine having 63 inch cylinder with 12 foot stroke. This engine, fletcher no. 100, was called the "centennial". Two lobster - back return tube boilers. Paddlewheels 31 feet in diameter with 10 foot face.

The adirondack built for the people's line, came out in 1896 and under command of captain s.J. Roe was placed on the new york - albany run. This magnificent steamboat succeeded the drew and was considerably more elaborate in her interior appointments than any night boat previously built. She also had greater power and speed than any vessel built for the line up to that time. She boasted five decks (main, saloon, promenade, done and hurricane) and a dining room seating 300 people also 350 staterooms, including twenty-four parlors and four suites of parlors. In addition to the staterooms the adirondack had 286 berths in the cabins and 120 berths for crew members. An electric generator supplied power for 2,000 lights and for a searchlight with a range of two miles, being the first night boat to have a powerful searchlight.

She was also the first hudson river steamboat to exceed one million dollars in cost.

There were few if any that could equal her speed. In may 1899, she made the new york to albany run in less than six and one half hours running time, carrying 400 passengers and 350 tons of freight.

The only serious accident in the career of the adirondack occurred on october 18th, 1906. On the evening of that date she was run down near tivoli by the steamboat saratoga. The saratoga sank and was later raised and rebuilt. The damage to the adirondack consisted of her foredeck being carried away, although she finished the season without a layup. Each vessel lost one man in the accident.

During world war 1 the adirondack was drafted and used as a barracks at the brooklyn nay yard. Shortly after the was she was laid up at the old brick row mooring in athens and on december 29th, 1925, ice opened her seams and she sank in shallow water. She was then sold for scrap for the reported sun of $14,00 (as written), was raised and then dismantled. So ended the career of the last and the largest wooden hull steamboat ever built for hudson river service. Statistics: john englis & son, builders, brooklyn. Wood hull. 3,644 tons. Length 440 feet, beam 50 feet - over guards 90 feet depth of hell (as written) 12 feet. W.A. Fletcher no. 158 vertical beam engine having 81 inch cylinder with 12 foot stroke.

February 25, 1965

the M. Martin and the Tremper
Yes, the two old work horses and there are many of us oldsters who still remember them. Though in the early part of their careers they were considered small, luxurious, night boats, later they primarily carried freight: produce brought down to the landings by farmers and their steady income from the breweries in albany and troy. How well many of us remember them with their entire forward decks stacked high with beer kegs!

The m. Martin stands alone in her historical background. Named after a prosperous hudson merchant and banker, she was one of the most beautifully proportioned of the medium sized steamboats that made hudson river history. Shortly after being launched she was drafted by civil war service. Due to her smart appearance and elegant furnishings as well as staunchness and speed, she was chosen as general grant’s dispatch boat on chesapeake bay troops and dispatch passengers and messages. During this period she was known as the “greyhound” of the federal government’s fleet on inland steamboats. After the confederate capitol fell to union forces, president lincoln and general grant visited richmond and held conferences aboard the m. Martin.

Upon her honorable discharge from service the martin returned “down east”. In 1867 she ran as an opposition boat on the bangor-portland (maine) route.

The m. Martin was then acquired by the romer & tremper steamboat company of rondout, new york, who placed her on the newburgh-albany run, having eagle as consort. In april 2, 1884, while near milton landing, fire was discovered on the eagle. Captain rogers, with the help of the john l. Hasbrouk, succeeded in landing the vessel at milton cock, where passengers and crew were discharged without loss of life. However, the eagle burnt to the water’s edge and became a total loss. In 1885 the new jacob h. Tremper was added to the line and became the martin’s consort. A peculiarity of the martin and the eagle was to announce their approach to a landing with a bell, instead of the customary whistle.

Near Collision
On the morning of may 19th, 1878, in a light fog, while near new hamburg, the martin narrowly missed a collision with the mary powell. When the martin’s whistle was heard on the powell, the latter’s pilot rang to stop the engine. Both pilots rang to go astern, but both had headway when the martin’s bow struck the powell’s paddlebox and an eight foot gash was made in her guard, but her hull was undamaged.

Then again, may 5, 181 (as written), in mid-morning, martin figured in another incident with the powell, then lying in rondout creek. The ferryboat transport was bound out the creek while the martin was entering to make her landing. The transport’s pilot put his wheel over hard to change course but the vessel steered over to port and he was unable to check her. He then ran full speed astern but was unable to prevent her (the transport) from running into the powell.

The powell which was docked lurched over and her guard coming up snapped five piles off along the dock. More serious damage included about 50 feet of her joiner work stove in. Captain a.E. Anderson, standing on the dock, was an amazed spectator.

The central hudson steamboat company of newburgh purchased the martin in 1889. Although then 36 years old, she was in excellent condition. Because of her success in combating ice, martin was often the first vessel to make the trip in the spring and the last to leave the hudson when winter set in.

Serious Accident
Throughout her long and varied career of nearly 60 years she had only one serious accident. Laden with freight and carrying 20 passengers the mishap occurred near esopus island as the martin was southbound from albany on the morning of june 16, 1919. Captain george hadley noticed smoke curling from the pilothouse and immediately headed the vessel for the shore east of the island near staatsburg. The passengers were quickly removed in small boats to safety. Then captain hadley got the firehose playing on the flames and within 10 minutes the incident was over with only a blackened pilot house as a reminder. The martin then picked up her passengers and proceeded to newburgh, little the worse for the experience.

The m. Martin continued on the newburgh albany route until laid up in the fall of 1919.

Her last commander was captain h. Fairbacks her last chief engineer fred requa. The following summer in 1920, she was dismantled after 56 years of service. The hull was bought by pat doherty for use as a dock at eavesport, near malden. The career of the steamboat that had once carried the president of the united states, abraham lincoln, to ties: m.S. Allison, builder, jersey city. Wood hull, 570 tons, length 191’, beam 28’ depth 8’. Fletcher & harrison vertical beam engine no. 35 having 44” cylinder with nine foot stroke. One iron boiler on the deck.

Jacob Tremper
Jacob h. Tremper. In the spring 1858 the jacob h. Tremper made her maiden trip up the hudson. This wooden vessel was built for the romer & tremper steamboat company and designed for both freight and passenger service to operate as a day boat between newburgh and albany. She was built to replace the eagle which had burned at milton dock the previous year, 1848. The tremper’s consort for many years was the m. Martin, which she resembled in many ways.

The new boat was admirably fitted for the run having apas (as written) and a large freight capacity. Because of these qualifications her value was quickly recognized.

In the winter of 1898 romer & tremper fleet of steamboats was purchased by the central hudson steamboat company of newburgh. This transaction included the jacob h. Tremper, m. Martin, william f. Romer and the james b. Baldwin.

The following description of the tremper appeared in the newburgh daily journal may 9, 1885, on the occasion of the vessel’s maiden trip up the river.

“this boat is very admirably fitted up. The ladies room aft is furnished with cherry furniture upholstered in blue velvet. The floor is covered with a wiltshire carpet and the lambrequins above the windows are blue and gold. The toilet rooms connected with the ladies saloon are fitted with the latest improvements. The main saloon extending along the upper deck is very handsome. The wood work is very ornamental with cherry and ash, the paneling in blue and gold. An elegant brussels carpet covers the floor and upholstered arm chairs are arranged along either side. The main or grand stairway from the main deck to the saloon is of cherry, ash and mahogany, highly polished. A large french mirror meets the eye at the head of the forward stairway leading to the saloon. The captain’s office is located on the port side of the boat, and is very handsomely furnished. The pilot and engineer have quarters on the hurricane deck aft of the pilot house. The pilot house is first class, and is fitted up with all modern improvements. The dining cabin below the main deck is well lighted and roomy and is aft. It is paneled in hardwood, the same as other portions of the boat. Adjoining it on the starboard side is the kitchen which is supplied with a french range, and further forward, connected with the kitchen is a dining room for the crew. There is more open space on the decks of the new boat than there is on the martin, her companion boat, or the old eagle, whose place she takes on the line.

March 4, 1965

Chrystenah: 1866 - 1920

Picture of the chrystenah from the new york state library, william elmendorf collection

Although only a medium size sidewheeler, the chrystenah was a creation of beauty and one of the fastest single stack vessels ever to steam the hudson. Built for the new york-nyack route, her run was soon extended to peekskill when it was realized she had speed in abundance. She made one round trip a day from that city to new york. She was the last steamboat owned by the smith brothers of nyack who, for over 40 years, controlled the water transportation out of nyack.

Sold in 1907 to captain david c. Woolsey and captain nelson, she continued on the same route until later, when taken to newburgh, and used as a charter excursion boat during the summer months on the upper hudson. The hudson river day line also occasionally chartered her for use in carrying baggage for the day line vessels. In 1911 the chrystenah was in operation between that city and coney island, moving the following year to the new york - keanesburgh, n.J. Run where she ran opposition to the regular boats on this route. She continued on this run until 1917 when transferred to the new york - stamford (conn.) route. Still later she was in use as an excursion steamer, this time around new york harbor and long island sound.

Almost a twin in appearance to the jacob h. Tremper, chrystenah's excursions went as far as catskill, where she always aroused curiosity as to where she came from and where she was bound. Though she belonged down in peekskill she quite often made excursions to catskill during the summer months always with a jolly party aboard.

The chrystenah was sold in 1920 for cross sound service to oyster bay and in the fall of the same year, laid up at new rochelle. That winter she was wrecked by a severe storm and blown into the mouth of echo creek. She was so wedged between its rocky banks that the insurance company paid her owners for a total loss.

The city of rochelle then came into title and sold her at public auction for the price of one dollar. Frederick wenke, the new owner, floated her out on a high tide and towed her to oyster bay. Originally he planned to convert the hull into a ferryboat but instead dismantled her and ran the hull aground on the beach on long island sound. This ended the career of the once beautiful chrystenah.

Statistics: william dickey, builder, nyack. Wood hull: 571 tons. Length: 196'6" beam 30'2" depth 0'3". Chrystenah's vertical beam engine came from the broadway when that vessel was dismantled in 1865. Originally having a 46" cylinder with 10' stroke, this engine was completely rebuilt by mccurdy and warren in jersey city and given a 50" cylinder with 11' stroke. The original engine was built by the west point foundry company in 1837 for the arrow, later renamed broadway.

Postcards of the dewitt clinton courtesy of robert cummings and melissa finch.

C) de witt clinton 1921 – 1942

D) col. Frederick johnson 1942 – 1948

The dewitt clinton, as noted above, was a ship of many names and changed ownership many times. This screw steamer was built in 1913 as part of a plan to establish a competition route between new york city and providence, rhode island. The grand turk (as wriiten) railroad and the central vermont railroad proposed to build a railroad fromprovidence up to canada and had two night boats constructed to connect new york and providence . The two vessels were the manhattan (later the dewitt clinton) and narrangansett designed for the emigrant trade and first class travel. Before the railroad could be completed, chairman hayes of the grand trunk railroad died and the venture was abandoned.

The manhattan and the narragansett, uncompleted and still without fittings, lay at anchor off washington, delaware, where they were built, and later were towed to new london and tied up.

The year 1917 marked the entry of the united states into the world war and the manhattan was purchased by the navy to be refitted, reinforced and renamed – this time the nopatin. The steamer was then sent to england under her own power and used to ferry troops across the channel from england to france. According to reports, she safely transported 150,000 troops across the channel before returning to the united states.

Following war duty she was purchased by the hudson river day line who rebuilt the vessel for its bear mountain route. Renamed the de witt clinton, she steamed the hudson from 1921 until laid up in 1932 when, due to the depression, one day excursions became unprofitable. During this period she was one of a fleet of seven vessels owned by the day line, three of which were propeller driven. Her commander during this period was captain roney magee.

The de witt clinton was again in service from june to september in 1939, making trips up the hudson before returning to an inactive status. In february 1942 she was again drafted by the government. The war shipping administration converted the vessel into a troop transport under the command of the army transportation core. Rechristened again, this time colonel frederick johnson, she was again plying the english channel following the invasion of allied troops into france. At the end of world war ii the war shipping administration returned the vessel to the maritime commission who laid her up in the james river.

It was assumed by all who knew her that the old steamer would never again sail but the vessel seemed to have an affinity for international crisis. She was purchased by samuel derecktor who operated a shipping firm in new york city. Again renamed, this time the derecktor, the steamer was refitted under the watchful eye of the coast guard, for it was suspected that her new owner might be planning to smuggle soldiers and arms to embattled israel and the coast guard was standing by to impound her should sufficient reason present itself.

But the derecktor, was then registered under the panamanian flag and her owners given as brownsam company of panama city. She flew the panamanian flag and was cleared for marseilles sailing “light” and without passengers, though fitted to carry 2,500 tons of cargo and 500 passengers. With a crew of 50 and under command of captain dominik romano her intended purpose was variously described as a de luxe passenger steamer between marseilles and north africa ports. However, few were surprised when the israeli maritime league in new york newspapers of january 17th, 1949, announced that the former hudson river steamer was carrying immigrants from marseilles to haifa for the israeli zim line.

Some time when under this ownership, supposedly in 1952, the vessel was rechristened still again (!), this time the galatin. And, as yet, i have been unable to find the final disposition of this old timer, which once flew the owner’s flag of the hudson river day line. And i am hoping the old timer is still going strong.


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History and molecular genetics of lynch syndrome in family G : A century later. / Douglas, Julie A. Gruber, Stephen B. Meister, Karen A. Bonner, Joseph Watson, Patrice Krush, Anne J. Lynch, Henry T.

Research output : Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review

T1 - History and molecular genetics of lynch syndrome in family G

N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

N2 - Context: In 1895, Aldred Scott Warthin, MD, PhD, initiated one of the most thoroughly documented and longest cancer family histories ever recorded. The unusually high incidence and segregation of cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and endometrium in Dr Warthin's family G was later followed up by his colleagues, most recently by Henry Lynch, MD. Described today as a Lynch syndrome family, family G was last documented in 1971, prior to the modern era of molecular diagnostics. Objective: To update family G. Design, Setting, and Participants: Historical prospective cohort study of family G members from 1895 to 2000. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were the frequencies and types of cancers, ages at diagnosis, and presence of the T to G transversion at the splice acceptor site of exon 4 of the mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E coli) (MSH2) gene in family G members. A secondary analysis compared cancerspecific incidence rates in family G with published national and regional cancer incidence rates through the standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Results: Family G now has 929 known descendants of the original progenitor first reported in 1913. Cancers of the colon and rectum (SIR, 3.20 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-4.19) and endometrium (SIR, 3.51 95% CI, 1.92-5.89) continue to predominate in family G. Five of 40 tested members of family G carry the MSH2 T to G mutation as a result, 15 of their living relatives are at increased risk of developing 1 or more colorectal or Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. In contrast, 97 living members of family G can now be excluded as mutation carriers. Conclusion: Within the last decade, molecular diagnostic testing has transformed the care of family G and other Lynch syndrome families in which a pathogenic mutation has been identified.

AB - Context: In 1895, Aldred Scott Warthin, MD, PhD, initiated one of the most thoroughly documented and longest cancer family histories ever recorded. The unusually high incidence and segregation of cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and endometrium in Dr Warthin's family G was later followed up by his colleagues, most recently by Henry Lynch, MD. Described today as a Lynch syndrome family, family G was last documented in 1971, prior to the modern era of molecular diagnostics. Objective: To update family G. Design, Setting, and Participants: Historical prospective cohort study of family G members from 1895 to 2000. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were the frequencies and types of cancers, ages at diagnosis, and presence of the T to G transversion at the splice acceptor site of exon 4 of the mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E coli) (MSH2) gene in family G members. A secondary analysis compared cancerspecific incidence rates in family G with published national and regional cancer incidence rates through the standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Results: Family G now has 929 known descendants of the original progenitor first reported in 1913. Cancers of the colon and rectum (SIR, 3.20 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-4.19) and endometrium (SIR, 3.51 95% CI, 1.92-5.89) continue to predominate in family G. Five of 40 tested members of family G carry the MSH2 T to G mutation as a result, 15 of their living relatives are at increased risk of developing 1 or more colorectal or Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. In contrast, 97 living members of family G can now be excluded as mutation carriers. Conclusion: Within the last decade, molecular diagnostic testing has transformed the care of family G and other Lynch syndrome families in which a pathogenic mutation has been identified.


They All Should Be Like Mike : Dodgers: Scioscia has many fans, but none greater than patients and staff at a rehabilitative hospital in Pomona.

As Mike Scioscia struggles through the early part of what could be his final season as the Dodgers’ catcher, the image appears unchanged.

He’s quiet, expressionless, until he has to block a runner. It is in those infamous collisions that he seems most immovable--and alone.

But during his fight to remain on a team and in a town he has loved for 12 seasons, Scioscia has found help.

Helen Van Beek, a middle-aged teacher, is on his side. She would block home plate for him, if she could.

When she sees Scioscia, she thinks of her son, Jason, a 6-foot-6 boy with blond hair and blue eyes. Jason is attending the University of Texas Arlington on a basketball scholarship, and is a nationally ranked tennis player.

He is also paralyzed from the waist down.

“Thanks to people like Mike Scioscia, things are happening that I never dreamed possible,” she said. “I never pictured my boy snow skiing. I never pictured him water-skiing. You should see him play tennis!

“Mike Scioscia leave Los Angeles? Gosh, no! I hope not.”

Jim Miller, an Olympic basketball player and coach, is also on Scioscia’s side. He would catch Tom Candiotti’s knuckleball for Scioscia, if he could.

As director of the junior wheelchair sports program at Casa Colina Hospital for Rehabilitative Medicine in Pomona, Miller has seen Scioscia’s many contributions become real-life success stories.

“Every two or three years, when Mike’s contract is up, we start thinking about it,” Miller said. “I don’t know what we would do without him. To see kids grow up and become confident in their abilities, it is a tremendous thing. Mike is a tremendous person.”

Finally, Nikki Gramatikos is also on Scioscia’s side. As a media consultant at Casa Colina, she has seen the hard figures on what Scioscia has contributed since he began their relationship in 1984.

Nearly $1 million in revenue, money that has reached nearly 1,000 disabled people, supplying them with the sports equipment and facilities to help them continue and better their lives.

“We would miss Mike incredibly,” Gramatikos said. “By now, it’s like he has become a part of this hospital.”

His impact on the hospital has been as heavy as his impact on the Dodgers, for whom he has caught 1,350 games, more than anybody.

He has sponsored a fund-raising golf tournament for seven years. He collects donations from his teammates whenever he blocks the plate. And he has made countless visits to the hospital and satellite summer camps.

‘I don’t know if proud is the right word, because I really haven’t done anything, but I do have a great sense of fulfillment there,” Scioscia said. “Second to my marriage and my family, it is the most fulfilling thing I do.”

That is one of the reasons Scioscia is working so hard to return to the Dodgers after his contract ends this fall.

“It’s no secret, I want to stay here,” he said. “I really feel a part of things here.”

Even with top prospect Mike Piazza just one level away, it seems probable that Scioscia will receive at least one more contract here.

Scioscia has not heard anything about a new contract, though, and won’t.

Even though Fred Claire, Dodger vice president, broke his policy by giving Scioscia a new deal before the end of the 1989 season, Claire has since toughened his stance of not holding contract discussions until the end of the season.

Claire is outspoken in his praise of Piazza and Dodger backup Carlos Hernandez, but there is a sense that he understands Scioscia’s value in a different light.

“Right now I would give Mike good marks as always,” he said. “He does a lot of things that people who don’t follow our games closely wouldn’t know.”

Scioscia was enjoying playing golf 11 years ago when Mickey Hatcher asked him to play in a new tournament for this unusual hospital.

It turned out to be the start of a relationship that peaked last year when he learned that Jason Van Beek had become one of the first athletes in the country to receive a wheelchair basketball scholarship.

And to think that when Van Beek, at 9, first visited Casa Colina, he was suffering from Guillian Barre Syndrome and was paralyzed from the neck down.

“To see people like that, that makes it all worth it,” Scioscia said. “I mean, one of the first scholarships in the whole country. Now that’s an achievement.”

Bill Plaschke has been an L.A. Times columnist since 1996. He has been named national sports columnist of the year eight times by the Associated Press, and twice by the Society of Professional Journalists and National Headliner Awards. He is the author of five books, including a collection of his columns entitled, “Plaschke: Good Sports, Spoil Sports, Foul Ball and Oddballs.” Plaschke is also a panelist on the popular ESPN daily talk show, “Around the Horn.” For his community service, he has been named Man of the Year by the Los Angeles Big Brothers/Big Sisters, and has received a Pursuit of Justice Award from the California Women’s Law Center. Plaschke has appeared in a movie (“Ali”), a dramatic HBO series (“Luck”) and, in a crowning cultural moment he still does not quite understand, his name can be found in a rap song “Females Welcome” by Asher Roth. In case you were wondering – and he was – “Plaschke” is rhymed with “Great Gatsby.”

These trips will take you to priceless places, and our pro tips will help you dig deeper.

Californians can now access a digital copy of their COVID-19 vaccination record as part of a new system unveiled by the state, officials said.

Disneyland and Disney California Adventure have lifted rules about crowds and distancing. Fireworks are coming back. But some changes will stick.

Transportation officials and drivers are waiting to see traffic and transit patterns altered by the COVID-19 pandemic offer clues to the future of commuting or mark only a temporary change in L.A.'s gridlock.

A growing contingent of medical experts is questioning the conventional wisdom that healthy children should get COVID-19 shots as soon as possible.


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the code ( try block in your case) runs regardless of the if condition as the try block clears the scope of if block.
Either put try completely inside if block or surround both if,else statement by a single try block.

I don't know what is the need of multiple try/catch here :

You can add one more catch(Exception e) to the upper try/catch block and that will serve the same purpose. Secondly there is no else part to this if (root.RootAvailibility() && (root.checkRootMethod3())) . So, if it is false the program will simply move forward.

Well you're always going to see Text04 because there's no conditional that excludes it. The try catch block it's in is at the top level.

It would help if you could provide a short, self-contained, compilable example of your code. There's clearly other potentially relevant code missing. For example, the try that goes with that last catch block. Also, it might help you to comment the beginning and end of your code blocks so that you can tell what's included in the if else statements.


Watch the video: USS Astoria CA-34 - Guide 223 (June 2022).


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