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Douglas Dakota III

Douglas Dakota III

Douglas Dakota III

The Douglas Dakota III was the RAF designation given to 962 C-47A Skytrains that were received under the lend-lease scheme. These were similar to the Dakota I, but with a 24 volt electrical system. The arrival of a large number of Dakota IIIs revolutionised the RAF’s transport capacity, which until then had been based around a number of obsolete bombers and general purpose aircraft, which were poorly adapted for the role. The Dakota III equipped twenty two RAF squadrons, three RCAF squadrons under RAF operational control and a number of RAAF squadrons. Most of these squadrons also operated the Dakota IV.

The RAF used its Dakota IIIs to operate regular passenger and cargo routes across the North and South Atlantic and across Africa, connecting the main theatres of the war. They were also used extensively in airborne warfare, both as a paratrooper transport and to tow gliders, taking part in every major airborne operation from the invasion of Sicily to the Rhine crossings of 1945.

Engines: Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 Twin Wasp x2
Power: 1,200 each
Wing span: 95ft 6in
Length: 63ft 9in
Height: 17ft 0in
Empty weight: 17,865lb
Loaded weight: 26,000lb
Maximum weight: 31,000lb
Maximum speed: 230mph at 8,800ft
Cruising speed: 170mph
Normal range: 1,600 miles
Maximum range: 3,800 miles


Flight 4844

It was Wednesday, December 22, 1954. The flight was 4844-C, a civilian-air-movement-of-military-personnel (CAM). The airplane, a Johnson Flying Service DC-3C, N24320, c/n 20197 was under charter to the Army to fly from Newark, New Jersey, to Tacoma, Washington. All preflight inspections and checklists had been accomplished satisfactorily, along with the proper filing of a flight plan and weight and balance manifest.

Flight 4844C left Newark at 8:38 p.m., with 225 gallons of 100 octane fuel aboard, under visual flight rules, and 23 holiday-bound soldiers.

ACCORDING TO THE MANIFEST

ON THE RAMP AT NEWARK
23 Passengers were boarded on the aircraft.

FUEL ON BOARD
Fuel 170 Gallons of 100 octane fuel. (This is doubtful based on the accident investigation)
The fuel was distributed in equal parts between the two main tanks. According to the manifest.

WEIGHT AND BALANCE
At the time of departure the aircraft weighed 25, 317 pounds within the maximum TO weight of 25, 346.
The load was distributed in accordance with prescribed Center of Gravity computations.

THE ROUTE AND FLIGHT PLAN
Prior to departing Newark, Captain Poe filled with the CAA by telephone a flight plan indicating a flight to be made in accordance with visual flight rules (VFR) to the Allegheny County Airport, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The route to be followed was via Amber 7, Green 3, and Red 21 Airways.
2. The flying time to Pittsburgh was estimated to be one hour and forty minutes, at a true airspeed of 155 knots, with two hours and forty minutes of available fuel.

The first indication of trouble came at 10:20 p.m. when the Pittsburgh tower heard the aircraft calling Altoona, Pennsylvania. When several calls to Altoona went unanswered, the Pittsburgh tower attempted to contact the aircraft. Their efforts were unsuccessful. At 10:22, Flight 4844-C was heard attempting to make voice contact with Westover, a radio beacon station. Pittsburgh again attempted unsuccessfully to contact the aircraft.

At 10:38 the Pittsburgh tower received a call from Flight 4844-C asking if fuel was available at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. They replied that only 91/96 and lower octane was available and indicated that they would contact Allegheny County Airport, the flight’s original destination.

The aircraft commander, Captain Harold Poe did not think he had enough fuel and requested the runway lights be lit at Johnstown Airport. Pittsburgh advised Poe that they would attempt to contact Johnstown by landline. There was no one at the Johnstown Airport and at 10:44, when Poe was over the airport, he attempted to contact the tower.

At 10:47 Poe advised Pittsburgh that he had passed Johnstown and would attempt to reach Allegheny Airport. Pittsburgh gave Poe weather and winds aloft information for Allegheny clear, temperature 20 degrees, dew point 10, winds south-southwest at 9.

At 10:54 p.m. Pittsburgh contacted Flight 4844-C and gave Poe the Allegheny Tower frequency. Poe then made voice contact with Allegheny tower, advising them he was low on fuel. The tower gave him a straight-in approach.

At 10:57 Poe called to advise the tower he was out of fuel. At the time, the tower observed that Flight 4844-C was two miles from the airport on final approach. Poe advised the tower that he did not think he could make the field.

At 10:58 the tower saw the plane bank to the left, head southward and disappear below the hills.

Poe ditched was one and one-half miles south of the McKeesport, Pennsylvania, bridge and approximately two miles southeast of the Allegheny County Airport. The aircraft came to rest about 35 feet from the west bank of the river at a point which is 600 feet below the elevation of the airport. According to witnesses it floated for a short time and was completely submerged in approximately 15 minutes. Prior to sinking, the current of the river turned the aircraft to the left and slowly moved it approximately 450 feet downstream to a position about 75 feet from the west shore.

Following ditching all the passengers evacuated through two emergency exits, one over each wing. None of the passengers or crew received injuries during the ditching. The last person to leave the cabin was Captain Walker, who estimated that it took approximately seven minutes to get everyone out of the cabin and on the wings or fuselage. Some of the passengers could not swim and the icy waters made it difficult for even good swimmers to reach the shore . Nine passengers and the captain drowned attempting to reach shore.

The CAA concluded that, “The probable cause of this accident was fuel exhaustion brought on by inadequate flight planning…” Contributing factors were inadequate crew supervision and training.

Captain Poe estimated the flying time to Pittsburgh to be one hour and forty minutes. The distance, along the route shown in the CAA flight plan, is approximately 271 miles. To accomplish this in the estimated time would require an average ground speed of 163 knots. With the wind along the route forecast to be from the northwest and west averaging over 17 knots at the planned cruising altitude of 4,000 feet, this ground speed is unrealistic. Under these conditions a reasonable ground speed would be approximately 126-130 knots and would require an average elapsed time of two hours and seven minutes.

The Flight Plan and Log which Copilot Chapman prepared after departure included many mistakes, among which were: Wind directions and velocities different from those that were forecast a higher . Airspeed than is reasonable to expect for a DC-3 unless flying at higher altitudes airways which differed from the route filed by Captain Poe some stations, courses, and radio frequencies that did not agree with either the filed CAA flight plan or the airways shown on the Flight Plan and Log some errors in ground speed of 13 knots or more and an estimated total time which exceeded the one hour and forty minutes estimated by Captain Poe. The estimated ground speed used was 148 knots, whereas the actual ground speed made good averaged only 126 knots.

Johnson Flying Services was temporarily prohibited from providing service to the military (the order was eventually rescinded) but they continued to pursue their Forest Service operations. They provided smoke jumpers and aerial spraying using their three DC-3s, one of which was N24320 which they eventually pulled from the river dried out and put back in the air.


Royal Air Force Douglas Dakota III plane performed an emergency landing after engine problems

Royal Air Force Douglas Dakota III plane pilot performed an unscheduled landing after engine problems. The no.1 engine was shut down and the propeller feathered.

There are reports Manchester Airport has come to a standstill after a Second World War plane was forced to make an emergency landing.

According to witnesses, The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Douglas Dakota aircraft was due for a fly-past over Warrington but experienced engine problems.

According to reports, the pilot reported fumes in the cockpit and port engine vibration.

On Twitter, British Airshow Review posted: “The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (Official) Dakota was expected to conduct various flypasts this afternoon but has had to make an emergency landing at Manchester Airport due to an engine failure on the number two engine.”

Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Douglas Dakota makes emergency landing at Manchester airport after engine problems (Video: Airliners Live). https://t.co/e3RyBpbehn pic.twitter.com/w9m46CN66c

&mdash Breaking Aviation News (@breakingavnews) September 14, 2019

This is an interesting angle. The engine’s left engine appears not to be working. The pilot has done a great job to land the plane in those circumstances

A spokesman for Manchester Airport said the landing had not had an impact on operations.

“The aircraft diverted and landed at the airport,” an airport spokesman said.

It appears the aircraft landed without further damage, but emergency services were prepared

The crew have been praised for bringing the stricken aircraft down safely

There are unconfirmed reports the aircrew are unhurt, and live footage of the runway shows fire crews dealing with the situation.


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Douglas Dakota III - History

name: Royal Canadian Air Force - RCAF
country: Canada
ICAO code: CFC
Founded: 1924

109 occurrences in the ASN safety database, showing occurrence 1 - 10

date type registration operator fat. location pic cat
15001 RCAF 0 Trenton Cana. O1
13803 RCAF 0 near Inuvik, NT A2
140103 RCAF 0 Greenwood Ca. A2
144601 RCAF 0 near Tampa-Mac Di. A2
130342 RCAF 0 Key West NAS. A1
9413 RCAF 0 Duke of York. A1
115461 UN, opb RCAF 9 near Dimas C1
9411 RCAF 1 near Baudette, MN A1
9410 RCAF 0 McKenzie Lak. A1
9419 RCAF 0 near Montreal-St. A1
11153 RCAF 0 Montreal-Dor. O1
10309 RCAF 6 near Trenton Cana. A1
971 RCAF Greenwood Ca. U1
3678 RCAF 3 El Kuntilla A1
9302 RCAF 5 near Hope Slide, BC A1
10304 RCAF 0 North Battle. A1
5324 RCAF 0 Srinagar Air. C1
20727 RCAF 16 near Puerto Rico A1
9697 RCAF 8 near Marville RCA. A1
KN278 RCAF 3 Pierce Lake, SK A1
17520 RCAF 0 near Hall Beach A. A1
9414 RCAF 0 Saint-Hyacin. A1
9401 RCAF 0 Guelph Airpo. A1
22127 RCAF 0 Camp Tuto A1
11041 RCAF 1 near Prince Ruper. A1
17525 RCAF 0 Athens-Ellin. A1
975 RCAF 5 near Cutigliano, . A1
22128 RCAF 0 near Modena A1
3744 RCAF 0 Gaza Air Base A1
22125 RCAF 0 near Edmonton-Nam. A1
3675 RCAF A1
3684 RCAF 0 Postville, NL A1
3666 RCAF 3 near Goose Bay Ai. A1
22124 RCAF 0 Montreal-Dor. O1
17513 RCAF 0 Montreal-Dor. O1
3687 RCAF Knob Lake A1
9696 RCAF 7 near Marville RCA. A1
11073 RCAF 3 Johnstone St. A1
11095 RCAF 2 Fraser River. A1
991 RCAF unknown A1
17522 RCAF 0 near RAF North Lu. A1
3676 RCAF 0 Sea Island R. O1
3670 RCAF 0 Sea Island R. O1
3672 RCAF 0 Churchill Ai. A1
17503 RCAF 0 Vancouver In. A1
17505 RCAF 0 Shemya AFB, . A1
17501 RCAF 0 Rockliffe-CF. O1
985 RCAF 7 Strait of Ge. A1
984 RCAF St. Hubert R. A1
654 RCAF 3 near Goose Bay Ai. A1
980 RCAF Frobisher Ba. A1
KG416 RCAF 0 Winnipeg-Ste. O1
KG430 RCAF 4 near Goose Bay Ai. A1
17523 RCAF 0 Resolute Air. A1
KG317 RCAF 0 near Summerside A. A1
KJ936 RCAF 0 near Snag, YT A1
11057 RCAF 21 Bigstone Lak. A1
KG635 RCAF Yellowknife, NT A1
987 RCAF 0 near Churchill, MB A1
11081 RCAF 1 Kittigazuit. A1
11063 RCAF near Cambridge Ba. A1
967 RCAF Gander-RCAF . A1
962 RCAF 21 Estevan, SK A1
986 RCAF Goose Bay, NL A1
KG397 RCAF 8 near Warlingham A1
FL636 RCAF 7 Mount Ptolem. A1
KG310 RCAF 0 near Wien-Schwech. A1
KG439 RCAF 4 Purley, Surrey A1
KG433 RCAF 4 Down Ampney . A1
11043 RCAF 1 Coal Harbour. A1
JX435 RCAF 9 near Cocos (Keeli. A1
FZ583 RCAF 3 Sulphur Moun. A1
KN563 RCAF 5 near Khamti A1
11076 RCAF 0 Morhiban Lak. A1
11066 RCAF near Iceland A1
9701 RCAF 4 Saanich Inle. A1
NJ183 RAF, op.for RCAF 11 Knocknagor, . A1
11007 RCAF 0 near Tofino, BC A1
978 RCAF Biggin Hill . A1
11065 RCAF Reykjavik A1
11061 RCAF 8 near Reykjavik A1
ML883 RCAF 0 near Calshot O1
11086 RCAF 9 Clayquot, Va. A1
KJ855 RCAF near Kabirwala, P. A1
11017 RCAF 10 near Tofino, BC A1
11022 RCAF 3 Patricia Bay. A1
KG422 RCAF Ypres Advanc. A1
KG489 RCAF 4 Everse C1
FZ596 RCAF 0 near British Colu. A1
966 RCAF near Sea Island, BC A1
11011 RCAF 0 Satellite Ch. A1
11062 RCAF 7 Foula Island. A1
9754 RCAF 3 near Shetland Isl. C1
9842 RCAF 7 Reykjavik A1
9816 RCAF 3 near Faroe Island. C1
11019 RCAF A1
DV990 RAF, op.for RCAF 12 near Kristiansund. C1
FZ576 RCAF 2 near Port Hardy A. A1
9809 RCAF near Keflavik A1
FL650 RCAF 3 near British Colu. A1
FZ581 RCAF Patricia Bay. A1
W6028 RAF, op.for RCAF 2 Trory Cross. A1
9786 RCAF unknown A1
W6013 RAF, op.for RCAF 9 Knocklayd Mo. A1
W6031 RAF, op.for RCAF 11 near Vigo, Spain C1
9834 RCAF 7 Botwood, NL A1
9789 RCAF 1 Denny Island. A1
557 RCAF 3 near Gander Airpo. A1
9807 RCAF 6 Gander-RCAF . A1
9737 RCAF 5 near Gander Lake, NL A1


Operational history [ edit | edit source ]

U.S. Army Pathfinders and USAAF flight crew prior to D-Day, June 1944, in front of a C-47 Skytrain at RAF North Witham

The C-47 was vital to the success of many Allied campaigns, in particular those at Guadalcanal and in the jungles of New Guinea and Burma where the C-47 (and its naval version, the R4D) made it possible for Allied troops to counter the mobility of the light-traveling Japanese army. Additionally, C-47s were used to airlift supplies to the embattled American forces during the Battle of Bastogne. Possibly its most influential role in military aviation, however, was flying "The Hump" from India into China. The expertise gained flying "The Hump" was later be used in the Berlin Airlift, in which the C-47 played a major role, until the aircraft were replaced by Douglas C-54 Skymasters.

In Europe, the C-47 and a specialized paratroop variant, the C-53 Skytrooper, were used in vast numbers in the later stages of the war, particularly to tow gliders and drop paratroops. In the Pacific, with careful use of the island landing strips of the Pacific Ocean, C-47s were even used for ferrying soldiers serving in the Pacific theater back to the United States.

C-47s (approx. 2,000 received under lend-lease) in British and Commonwealth service took the name Dakota, from the acronym "DACoTA" for Douglas Aircraft Company Transport Aircraft. Α] The C-47 also earned the informal nickname Gooney Bird in the European theater of operations. Β]

Other sources (C-47/R4D Skytrain Units of the Pacific and CBI, David Isby, Osprey Combat Aircraft #66, Osprey Publishing Limited, 2007) attribute this name to the first plane, a USMC R2D - the military version of the DC-2 - being the first plane to land on Midway Island, previously home to the native long-winged albatross known as the Gooney Bird which was native to Midway.

The United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command had Skytrains in service from 1946 through 1967.

With all of the aircraft and pilots having been part of the Indian Air Force prior to Independence, both the Indian Air Force and Pakistan Air Force used C-47s to transport supplies to their soldiers fighting in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947.

Several C-47 variations were used in the Vietnam War by the United States Air Force, including three advanced electronic warfare variations, which sometimes were called "Electric Gooneys" designated EC-47N, EC-47P, or EC-47Qs depending on the engine used. Γ] EC-47s were also operated by the Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian Air Forces. Δ] A gunship variation, using three 7.62mm miniguns, designated AC-47 "Spooky" often nicknamed "Puff the Magic Dragon" also was deployed. Β]

The Royal Canadian Air Force and later, the Canadian Armed Forces employed the C-47 for transportation, navigation, and radar training, as well as for search and rescue operations from the 1940s to the 1980s. Ε]

After World War II thousands of surplus C-47s were converted to civil airline use, some remaining in operation in 2012 as well as being used as private aircraft.


Douglas Dakota III - History

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KK102

Ex US C-47A-30-DK s/n 43-49180, ex RAF KK102. Used by No. 4 Operational Training Unit at CFB Trenton, Ontario. In storage at Saskatoon when struck off. To civil registry as CF-BKQ, later C-FBKQ. Registered to Aero Trades Western Ltd. of Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1976, registration cancelled in 1984.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN200

Ex US C-47B-10-DK s/n 43-49743, ex RAF KN200. Registered to Bradley Air Service as CF-TVK. Written off with this operator on 28 January 1974, in a hanger fire at Carp, Ontario.

last date: 16 September 1972 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN201

Ex US C-47B-10-DK s/n 43-49744, ex RAF KN201. With Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg until June 1971, equipped as a radar trainer. To CFFTSU (Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit) at Winnipeg, 1 July 1971. To No. 429 (T) Squadron at Winnipeg on 31 March 1972. To US civil register as N46938. Carried Basler Airlines markings in 1989. De-registered on 20 December 1990. Reported with Malawi Air Wing in 1990, their serial number 76-21, not converted to turboprop.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KP221

Ex US C-47B-35-DK s/n 44-77105, ex RAF KP221. In storage at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan when renumbered. Not clear if new serial number was actually marked before aircraft was sold. To civil register as CF-BKR. This registration cancelled by 1982.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KP224

Ex US C-47B-35-DK s/n 44-77109, ex RAF KP224. With No. 440 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg in early 1970s, in SAR configuration. Displayed at air show at CFB Namao, Alberta in 1973, in Rescue markings. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg, no dates. On civil register as C-GGJF, no dates. With Air B C Ltd. of Richmond BC as C-GSCB, registration cancelled in 1983. Also reported with Skycraft from 1977 to 1993. To US civil register as N346AB, reported airworthy in 2006. Under repair or restoration at Hondo Airport, Texas, in 2007. Registered to K.W. Ritter of Fredericksburg, Texas on 30 April 2007.

last date: 18 June 1975 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KP227

Ex US C-47B-35-DK s/n 44-77113, ex RAF KP227. With Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg until June 1971, equipped as a radar trainer. To CFFTSU (Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit) at Winnipeg, 1 July 1971. To No. 429 (T) Squadron at Winnipeg on 31 March 1972. To civil register as N99665 with Basler Flight Service, then 9Q-CUK with Air Kasai in the Congo, then ES-AKE, privately owned in Sweden but registered in Estonia for tax purposes. Still active 2006, with over 18,000 flight hours.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN258

Ex USAAF C-47B-20-DK s/n 43-49926, ex RAF KN258. Serving with No. 424 Squadron at CFB Trenton when renumbered. To storage at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan on 18 November 1971. To CFB Winnipeg on 21 June 1972. To CFB Cold Lake, Alberta on 28 August 1972, back at Winnipeg by 11 October 1974. Became Instructional Airframe A 754 on 27 October 1976, used by ARTTU (Air Reserve Technical Training Unit?) at Winnipeg. Noted with 11,094 logged hours at this time. Back to flying status on 18 July 1984, after Depot Level Inspection at CFB Trenton. Took part in air show at CFB Trenton, Ontario, 1986 and 1987. Carried name "Miss Piggy". With No. 402 Squadron, CFB Winnipeg, at this time. Withdrawn from use on 1 April 1989. Still in storage at Air Maintenance Development Unit, CFB Trenton, in November 1990. Registered as N92BF to Basler Airlines on 25 July 1991. To Fleming Corporation of Nashua, New Hampshire on 9 August 1991. To Saber Cargo Airlines in November 1995, painted in USAAF markings, but still used for revenue freight flights. Reported on display at Carolina Aviation Museum, Charlotte, NC in 2004. Reported later converted to turboprop engines, registered as N12907. Registered to First Flight Out of Charlotte, North Carolina on 2 December 2003, with piston engines. This registration under review in 2012.

last date: 17 January 1990 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN261

Ex USAAF C-47B-20-DK s/n 43-49929, ex RAF KN261. Based at CFB North Bay, Ontario in early 1970s, used as a VIP aircraft by Air Defence Command. Registration C-GGJG allocated to Eclipse Aviation consultants of Oshawa, Ontario, not clear if it was ever used. Registered to Skycraft Air Trans Inc. of Oshawa, Ontario as C-GSCA. In their service when it crashed on 9 January 1984, on a road near the airport at St. Louis, Missouri. Had attempted to take off after being refuelled with jet fuel. One crew member killed. Registration cancelled in 1991.

last date: 18 June 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN270.

Ex USAAF C-47B-20-DK s/n 43-49942, ex RAF KN270. Operated by Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. With Ontario Central Airlines of Gimli, Manitoba as C-GCKE by 1976, this registration cancelled in 1984. Subsequent owners included Nunasi-Central Airlines Ltd. of Winnipeg until December 1985, then back to Ontario Central for 4 months, then to Perimeter Airlines Inland of Winnipeg for 2 months, then to Ata Construction Ltd. of Norman Wells, NWT until 1989. Also with Calmair in 1987 and 1989, dates unclear, possibly a lease. Last recorded Canadian owner was Randy Daoust of St. Albert, Alberta, registration cancelled in 1995. To US, registered as N595AM. Later to US register as N47HL. Took part in Barksdale AFB air show in May 2006. E-mail received from L.W. James, August 2006: "..being gradually upgraded and restored by the Highland Lakes Squadron of the Commemorative Air Force in Burnet Texas. Current US registration is N47HL. Our name for her is the "Bluebonnet Belle," named for the state flower of Texas which grows in abundance in the area." Being restored in pre-war USAAC colour scheme at that time. Fully restored, on the air show circuit by the summer of 2010.

last date: 6 November 1974 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN281.

Ex USAAF C-47B-20-DK s/n 43-49957, ex RAF KN281. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. Sold to Charvis Investments of Denver, Colorado, to US civil register as N64766. Later owners include Weldcraft Steel and Marine of Bellingham, Washington. Registered to Environmental Aviation Services Inc. of Bourg, Louisiana on 3 December 1979. Equipped to spread dispersants on oil spills. Reported airworthy, still with this operator, in 2006. Reported used in large Gulf oil spill in 2009.

last date: 24 October 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN291.

Ex USAAF C-47B-25-DK s/n 44-76208, ex RAF KN291. In storage at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan when renumbered. To civil register as CF-BKW, later C-FBKW. To Columbian register as HK-2665, operated by El Dorado at Villavicencio, Columbia. Reported crashed, no details.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG312

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK serial number 42-92500, ex RAF KG312. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971, equipped as a radar trainer. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. To civil register as C-GPOA. To Buffalo Airways as C-FROD, registered on 21 February 1990. Crashed on short final to Fort Simpson, NWT on 26 June 1994, after flight from Trout Lake, NWT. Investigation cited fuel starvation, and lack of crew coordination. Registration cancelled in December 1994.

last date: 24 October 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG330

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK serial number 42-92518, ex RAF KG330. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971, equipped as a radar trainer. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. With Northwest Territorial Airways of Yellowknife from 18 January 1982 as C-GWZS. To Buffalo Airways on 28 September 1988, latest Certificate of Registration issued in 1996, still in regular service in November 2011.

last date: 23 October 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG337

Ex US C-47A-5-DK s/n 42-92533, ex RAF KG337. Stored at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as CF-NTF, to Northwest Territorial Airways of Yellowknife, NWT on 11 December 1972. Registration cancelled in 1988, was C-FNTF. Next owner was Point North Air Services of La Ronge, Saskatchewan, from 14 July 1993. Crashed on 17 March 2000, while attempting to overshoot from a long landing on ice runway at Ennadai Point, Nunavut. Investigation found aircraft was overweight, payload had shifted in flight, and was beyond aft c.g. limit at take off, also cited possible carbon monoxide poisoning of the pilot. Both crew members killed. Registration cancelled on 19 February 2002.

last date: 9 September 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG350

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK serial number 42-92545, ex RAF KG350. Used by Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment at CFB Uplands, Ontario, dates not known. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. To civil register as C-GWMX, registered to R.C. Wilkinson of Calgary, Alberta on 4 June 1977. Later to US civil register as N29958, operated by Kimber Air of Denver, Colorado. Heavily damaged at Englewood, Colorado on 30 May 1983. Dragged one wing tip on touch down, after stalling at 5 feet during approach in bad weather. This registration cancelled on 23 October 1992, reported as destroyed. Also reported as derelict in 2006.

last date: 2 January 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG354

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK serial number 42-92550, ex RAF KG354. With VU 32 at CFB Shearwater, NS. To civil register as C-GABE. To US civil register as N59314. With Frontier Flying Service in Alaska from at least 1989 to 2000. Last US Certificate of Airworthiness issued on 24 September 2001, to Abbe Air Cargo of Wasilla, Alaska. Reported withdrawn from use on 25 July 2003. Airworthy again 2008 to 2010, operated by Abbe Air in Alaska.

last date: 27 August 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN392

Ex USAAF C-47B-25-DK serial number 44-76481, ex RAF KN392. At CFB Uplands when renumbered. To civil registry as CF-BKX. Registered to Lambair of The Pas, Manitoba in 1976. Later registered to Ontario Central Airlines of Gimli, Manitoba as C-FBKX. Severely damaged in a forced landing near Shamathawa, Manitoba on 15 February 1983. One engine failed due to a connecting rod failure, and over-loaded aircraft was not able to maintain altitude. Came down in trees, no fatalities. Registration cancelled in 1989.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG394

Ex USAAF C-47A-10-DK serial number 42-92605, ex RAF KG394. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. Registered as C-GUBT to Bradley Brothers of Noranda, Ontario on 15 October 1977. With Skycraft Air Trans Inc. of Oshawa, Ontario as C-GUBT from 1979. Crashed at Toronto airport on 22 June 1983, killing both crew members. A load of automotive parts shifted aft while landing, the aircraft stalled, crashed on the runway, and was partially consumed by fire. Registration cancelled in 1984.

last date: 17 June 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG395

Ex USAAF C-47A-10-DK serial number 42-92606, ex RAF KG395. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. To civil register as C-GZCR, off the Canadian register by 1985. Later to US civil register as N99FS, registered to Brooks Aviation of Douglas, Georgia from 31 March 1989. Reported marked with RAF serial. In 2010 still registered to Brooks, in USAAF markings, active on the air show circuit.

last date: 24 October 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG403

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK serial number 42-108859, ex RAF KG403. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as CF-BKP. To US civil register, operated by Aero-Dyne as N107AD in mid 1970s. Registered to Champlain Air of Plattsburg, New York on 11 April 1995, as N700CA.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN427

Ex US C-47B-25-DK 44-76523, ex RAF KN427. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as CF-TVL. In 1976 registered as C-FTVL to Bradley Air Services of Carp, Ontario. With Soundair at Pearson Airport in the 1980s. Sold in 1990, to Williston Lake Air Services Ltd. of Mackenzie, BC, for 6 weeks, then registration cancelled. Later to US register as N116SA. Operated by Saber Cargo Airlines in 1996. Operated by Southern Arkansas University in 2006. Registered to R. Partyka of Little Rock, Arkansas on 2 August 2006. Still operating in SAU markings in 2008.

last date: 16 September 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN436

Ex USAAF C-47B-30-DK serial number 44-76533, ex RAF KG403. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Operated by No. 4 Operational Training Unit at CFB Trenton, dates not known. To civil register as CF-BKS, registered to Ontario Central Airlines of Gimli, Manitoba on 25 March 1977. Reported withdrawn from use by 2006.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN443

Ex USAAF C-47B-30-DK serial number 44-76541, ex RAF KN433. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. To US civil register as N46950, operated by Virgin Air in the US Virgin Islands. De-registered on 13 February 1996, reported as destroyed.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG455

Built as Mk. III, reported later as Mk. IV. Ex USAAF C-47A-10-DK, serial number 42-92664, ex RAF KG455. With No. 448 Squadron at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. May have been struck off on 10 November 1975, or this could be date withdrawn from use. Preserved at Canadian Airborne Forces Museum, Petawawa, Ont., in camouflage.

last date: 6 April 1982 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN485

Ex USAAF C-47B-30-DK, serial number 44-76631, ex RAF KN485. Sold as scrap by RAF on 5 September 1950, to Canadian civil register on 18 December 1951 as CF-GBG. Purchased by RCAF 6 February 1952, retained RAF serial number. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. With Air B C of Richmond, BC as C-GWUG, registration cancelled on 19 December 1985. Later owners included Nahanni Air Services Ltd. of Norman Wells, NWT until 1987, then Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter Ltd., based in Kelowna, from 1990. Crashed on Mayne Island, BC on 13 January 1999, 2 crew killed. Was en route from Vancouver to Victoria at night, flying below weather. Struck a ridge on Mount Parke at about 900 foot level.

last date: 18 June 1975 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KN511

Ex USAAF C-47B-30-DK, serial number 44-76714, ex RAF KN511. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. With No. 442 Squadron at CFB Comox, BC, dates not known. Also reported based at Cold Lake, no dates. Canadian civil operators included Pem Air, Slate Falls Airways, and Bradley Air Service. Registered to Trans North Turbo Air of Whitehorse, Yukon as C-GWUH, registration cancelled in 1985. Reported with Kelowna Flightcraft in late 1980s. To US civil register as N707BA. Multiple US owners, including Salir in Washington state in 1990s. Last known operator was Miami Valley Aviation of Middletown, Ohio. Placed in storage in 2004 when this operator lost its licence. Reported stored at Basler Aircraft in 2006, waiting for conversion to turboprop. Registered to US Department of State on 6 November 2008. Passed through Malta in September to December 2011, marked with US registration and "DoS Air Wing" on fuselage, and converted to turboprops. Appeared to be equipped with radar warning receivers.

last date: 18 June 1975 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG545

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK s/n 42-108918, ex RAF KG545. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971, as a radar trainer. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. Registered as C-GPNW. Stored at Red Deer Airport, former CFB Penhold, Alberta, with Buffalo Airways, 2001 and 2002, still in CAF markings. Probably being used for spares. Civil registration C-FROD transferred from ex-CF 12912 (which see) on 15 September 1995. Donated by Buffalo Airways to the Alberta Aviation Museum in Edmonton, Alberta, transported there by road in 2004. On display and under restoration by 2006.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG557

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK, serial number 42-93257, ex RAF KG557. With Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg up to June 1971. To Canadian Forces Flying Training Standards Unit at Winnipeg on 1 July 1971. To No. 429 Squadron at Winnipeg on 1 April 1972. Registered as C-GNTK. Stored, disassembled, at Hay River, NWT in 2009, still in CF markings.

last date: 18 June 1975 - Struck off, to Crown Assets Disposal Corporation

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG577

Ex USAAF C-47A-25-DK, serial number 42-93393, ex RAF KG577. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as CF-OOV. Operated by Kenting Atlas when it crashed on 12 February 1973. Both engines failed shortly after takeoff from Iqaluit, NWT. No fatalities.

last date: 10 September 1971 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG580

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK serial number 42-93396, ex RAF KG580. With No. 440 Squadron, CFB Winnipeg, when it crashed during a search operation. Stalled during low turn during search near Paulatuk on Cape Perry, NWT. All 8 onboard killed, 7 from 440 Squadron and one on loan from CFFTSU. Crash date reported as 3 November 1971 in "Aircraft of the Canadian Armed Forces", 2 November 1971 in other sources. Reported on US civil register as N64767 by Baugher, but this appears to be c/n 10199.

last date: 13 July 1972 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG587

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK serial number 42-93402, ex RAF KG587. With No. 440 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Also operated by Airborne Sensing Unit at CFB Uplands. To civil register as C-GXAU, operated by Department of Energy, Mines and Resources. Was registered to Buffalo Airways as C-GRTM, registration cancelled in 1985. To US civil register as N115SA, operated by Saber Cargo Airlines. Under restoration at Chino, California in 2005. Reported operated by First Flight Out in 2006. Registered to Classic Aircraft Aviation Museum of Portland, Oregon on 12 November 2009.

last date: 13 August 1975 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG602

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK serial number 42-93423, ex RAF KG602. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Registered to Buffalo Airways at Hay River, NWT as C-GPNR. Registration cancelled December 1994, but still operating in Buffalo Airways colours in 2010, frequently seen in TV series "Ice Pilots".

last date: 24 October 1975 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG623

Ex US C-47A-25-DK 42-93468, ex RAF KG623. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. With 402 Squadron, CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba, in 1980s. Seen at Hamilton air show, June 1982, in 402 Sdn. markings. Seen at London, Ontario air show June 1988. Stored at Aerospace Maintenance Development Unit, CFB Trenton in November 1990. To civil register as N103BF, converted to Basler BT-67 (Basler conversion no 28) to Mali AF as TZ391 (replacement for TZ389, ex-43-48741). Back in Canada by 2008, registered as C-GJKB to Ken Borak Aviation, still with turboprops.

last date: 17 January 1990 - Struck off strength

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG632

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK serial number 42-93476, ex RAF KG632. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Was registered to Kenn Borek Air of Calgary, Alberta as C-FQHF in 1971, cancelled in 1982. Reported purchased by Buffalo Airways in 1982, being used for spares. Fuselage in storage at Hay River, NWT in 2009.

last date: 9 September 1971 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG641

Ex US C-47A-25-DK 42-93531, ex RAF KG641. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as CF-BJE, with Air Ontario by 1976. Later C-FBJE with Air Ontario. Crashed 1 November 1988 at Pikangikum Lake (about 100 miles north of Kenora, Ontario). Nose dived into lake with load of diesel fuel on board, 2 fatalities.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 651

Ex US C-47A-20-DL 42-23428, ex RCAF 651. Used by Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg. To Australian civil register as VC-DHN, then N46949. Operated by Aero Servicios in Florida in the 1980s. Converted to Basler BT-67 (Basler conversion no. 18). To Royal Thai AF as RTAF 883 c.1998 believed later reserialled 46153.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 653

Ex US C-47A-25-DL 42-23553, ex RCAF 653. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Operating from CFB Trenton, Ontario in 1984. Carried name "Southern Comfort". Had been in Canadian military service for over 46 years when struck off. Stored at AMDU, CFB Trenton by November 1990. On US register as N400BF since 1998. Stored at Basler Turbo Conversions in 2004, reported being converted to turboprops for Thai Air Force.

last date: 17 January 1990 - Struck off, stored.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 656

Ex USAAF C47A-40-DL, serial number 42-23970, ex RCAF 656 (which see). Pinocchio conversion, used at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. Named "Dolly's Folly". Visited Vancouver Airport, 1978. Last NASARR training mission flown at Cold Lake on 14 January 1983. Made its last operational CAF Dakota flight on 1 July 1983, while with 402 Squadron, CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba. Had been in Canadian military service for over 46 years when struck off. Stored at AMDU, CFB Trenton by November 1990. On US civil register as N21BF, registered to Basler on 16 December 1997. Reported at Basler Turbo Conversions LLC, waiting for conversion, still there, stored outside, in 2011.

last date: 17 January 1990 - Struck off, and stored.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 657

Ex USAAF C-47A-40-DL, serial number 42-23972, ex RCAF 657. Used at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. To civil register as CF-IRW. Owned by St. Felicien Air Services of St. Felicien in 1976, as C-FIRW. Later registered to Transport Aerien Sept-Iles of Sept-Isle, PQ, cancelled 1982.

last date: 16 February 1973 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 659

Ex USAAF C-47A-40-DL, serial number 42-23971, ex RCAF 659. Used by Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg. To US civil register as N300ZZ, operated by Trans Air West. Operated by Air Charter West in California in 1977. Registration cancelled by 2005, when it was registered to G.S. Cartright of Haiti, noted then as a turboprop.

last date: 18 May 1973 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 659

Ex USAAF C-47A-40-DL, serial number 42-24377, ex RCAF 660. Serving with No. 424 Squadron at CFB Trenton when renumbered. Later with No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Registration C-GWXP reserved, but apparently nor used. Reported on US civil register as N64767, registered to Environmental Aviation Services Inc. of Bourg, Louisiana in 1984, but this is actually c/n 13303, ex CF 12930.

last date: 24 October 1975 - Struck off, later sold

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG668

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK serial number 42-93626, ex RAF KG668. Operated by Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment at CFB Uplands, Ontario. To civil register as C-GRSA, owned by Department of Energy, Mines and Resources in 1976. Later owners included Innotech Aviation Limited at Dorval prior to June 1986, Advanced Forest Technology Inc. of Thunderbay in the early 1990s, and Sabourin Lake Airways Limited at Red Lake, Ontario in 1994. Registration cancelled that year, no further Canadian records. To US civil register as N472AF, then to Mexican civil register as XA-SYN. Back in the US by 2006. Registered on 1 May 2008 to R.F. Diver of Crossroads, Texas as N472AF.

last date: 21 May 1975 - Struck off.

first date: 26 June 1970 - renumbered from RCAF FZ669

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK, serial number 42-92452, ex RAF FZ669. Was used in Operation Market Garden by No. 437 (T) Squadron, RCAF, before transferring to RCAF ownership. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Sold to Aero Traders of Winnipeg, as C-GCXE, in 1976. Registration cancelled in 1984. Later reported as HI-502 in 1987, and then HH-CMG. Later sold in US, registered N688EA to Express Airways of Florida in 1993, converted to turboprops. Last registered owner was Cameron and Stall Inc. of California. Reported preserved, displayed at Al Mahatta Museum in Sharjah, UAE, marked as G-AMZZ, but this may be ex KN648, via the Indian Air Force.

last date: 15 August 1975 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF FZ671

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK, serial number 42-92454, ex RAF FZ671. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Seen at CFB Trenton, Ontario, 1982, carried name "Quarter Time". Probably with No. 402 Squadron at that time. Marked in semi-correct WW2 colours and RAF serial in 1989, for type retirement ceremony. Stored at AMDU, CFB Trenton by November 1990. Later to Museum at CFB Comox, BC. On display there by 1995. Still there October 2005, marked with RAF serial number.

last date: 14 April 1989 - Struck off, and stored.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF FZ692

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK serial number 42-92489, ex RAF FZ692. Serving with No. 424 Squadron at CFB Trenton when renumbered. Performed JATO ignition in flight as part of 1970 Canadian National Air Show over Toronto waterfront, September 1970. Declared surplus on 22 February 1973. To US civil register as N91GA in July 1973, operated by Gilley airways. To Department of Energy, Mines and Resources as C-GRSB by 11 March 1975, one of several Dakotas still operated by this government agency on environmental and mineral surveys, and development of survey equipment. Registration briefly to Innotech Aviation in 1985 and 1995, probably for modifications. Latest Certificate of Registration issued to Environment Canada in July 2003.

last date: 18 March 1973 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG712

Ex US C-47A-25-DK 42-93645, ex RAF KG712. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. To civil register as C-GJKM. To Buffalo Airways on 21 October 1994, registration later cancelled several times as this firm underwent reorganization. Latest Certificate of Registration issued on 28 July 2006, still in regular service summer of 2011.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KG808

Ex US C-47A-30-DK 43-48224, ex RAF KG808. Operated at CFB North Bay, Ontario. To civil register as CF-BKY, with Maritime Aircraft Overhaul and Repair. To US civil register as N74139, several private owners, then briefly back to Maritime Aircraft. Registered later as N100ZZ, various owners including Transwest Air Express. Reported airworthy in 2006, registered as N982Z to M.J. Hogan of Fruitland Park, Florida. Operated by Remote Area Medical (RAM) Volunteer Corps, carrying medical supplies to Central and South America.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KJ828

Ex US C-47A-30-DK 43-48351, ex RAF KJ828. With No. 402 Squadron in Winnipeg in 1970s. Also operated at CFB St. Hubert, PQ. To civil register as C-GCXD. Operated by Aviation Boreal of Val D'Or, PQ when it was damaged on 23 March 1995. Still stored at Val D'Or in 2005 and 2007, not airworthy and gradually deteriorating.

last date: 15 August 1978 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF KJ956

Ex US C-47B-10-DK 43-48987, ex RAF KJ956. Used as Instructional Airframe 746B. Based at CFB Montreal, PQ. On display at CFB Winnipeg in 2006.

last date: 27 February 1974 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 963

Ex USAAF C-47A-10-DK serial number 42-92712. In the RCAF, had served as a navigation trainer from 1944. Stored at CFB Saskatoon in 1974. To 429 (Composite) Squadron, CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1975. Later with 402 (Reserve) Squadron, and Central Flying School, both at CFB Winnipeg, as late as 1987. Visited CFB North Bay, Ontario, in October 1979. Named "the Gimli Goose". Had served in Canadian military for over 45 years when struck off. Stored at AMDU, CFB Trenton by November 1990. Sold, converted to Basler BT-67. US registration N104BF. Delivered to Mauretania, US registration cancelled there on 7 January 2000. Registered as 5T-MAH. Still in operation with Mauritanian Air Force in 2007.

last date: 17 September 1990 - Struck off, later sold

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 964 (which see)

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK, 42-92593, ex RAF KG381, ex RCAF 964. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Sold, to civil register as CF-OOY, registered to Kenting Aviation of Calgary, Alberta. Later noted as C-FOOY. With Kenting Atlas Aviation when it was damaged in a wheels up landing 50 miles north of Frobisher Bay on 3 November 1975, resulting from fuel exhaustion. Had been diverted from original destination by bad weather. No fatalities amongst the 3 crew and 23 passengers. Canadian registration cancelled by 1984.

last date: 16 September 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 968

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK, serial number 42-93202, ex RCAF 968. Reported by Baugher as ex RCAF 967? Sold, to civil register as C-GXAV. Us registration N92A reserved, but not used. Back to Canada as C-GCTE. With Alberta Northern Airlines of Calgary with this mark, cancelled in 1983. Sold to Nahanni Air Services Ltd. of Norman Wells, NWT, registration cancelled in 1985. Operated by Frontier in 1985. Then to Rog-Air Limited, based at Kapuskasing, Ontario, registration cancelled in 1990. Later N7164E, EC-659. Current 3 May 2004 as N47FL. Reported stored with Aces High in the UK in 2006.

last date: 18 May 1973 - Struck off, alter sold

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 969

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK serial number 42-93432. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Sold, became C-GWYX of Ilford-Riverton Airways until 1984, Northland Outdoors Canada of Winnipeg until January 1985, Air-Dale Ltd. of Sault-St-Marie, Ontario until September 1985, Northland Air Manitoba Ltd. of Winnipeg until March 1986, Austin Airways Ltd. / Air Ontario of Timmins, Ontario until February 1989 and then to Central Mountain Air Service of Smithers, BC. Destroyed by fire on 21 May 1989, after a forced landing near Bronson Creek, BC resulting from an engine fire. No fatalities.

last date: 21 August 1975 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 970

Ex USAAF C-47A-20-DK serial number 42-93431. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan when renumbered. Sold, to civil register as CF-OOW, with Atlas Aviation in 1971 and Air-Dale of Sault-St-Marie, Ontario in 1976. Reported registered as 8P-OOW in 1979, possibly for a short term lease to Tropical Air Services in Barbados. Back in Canada by 1980. Later C-FOOW, when sold by Air-Dale in 1988. With Great Northern Freight Forwarding Limited of Sault-St-Marie from 1988 to 1996. Registered to Enterprise Air Inc. of Oshawa, Ontario from 1996 to 2 June 2005. Latest Certificate of Registration issued to Triumph Airways Ltd. of Oshawa on 23 June 2005. Reported derelict at Gimli, Manitoba in 2006. Off the Canadian civil register by 2007.

last date: 10 September 1971 - Struck off, alter sold

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 972

Ex USAF C-47A-30-DK s/n 43-48110, ex RCAF 972. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Sold, to civil register as CF-BKT, off Canadian register by 1976. Later on US register as N8GR. Pieces of this aircraft used in 1978 rebuild of DC-3 N300ZZ, c/n 9833. That aircraft was later scrapped in Haiti.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 973

Ex US C-47A-30-DK 43-48107, ex RCAF 973. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as C-GWMY, registered to private owners in Calgary, Alberta in 1976, off register by 1982. Then exported, became N3748Y, reported stored at Las Vegas airport in 1987. To French register as F-WZIR, then to Philippines civil register as RP-C1354 (also reported as RP-C1355?)

last date: 2 January 1975 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 976

Ex US C-47A-30-DK 43-48741, ex RCAF 976. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Visited Easterwood Field, College Station, Texas, 30 Apr 1978. With No. 402 Squadron, CFB Winnipeg, in 1982 and 1983. Escorted Spanish built Ju 52 from Florida to Western Canada Aviation Museum in Winnipeg, early 1982. Seen at Hamilton air show, 1983. Had served over 45 years with Canadian military when struck off. Stored at AMDU, CFB Trenton by November 1990. To civil register as N29BF and converted to Basler BT-67 (Basler conversion no. 21). Was intended for Mali AF as TZ389, but crashed at Oshkosh Mar 17, 1997 following mid-air collision with Bonanza N3657A. Warren Basler was killed in this accident.

last date: 17 January 1990 - Struck off, alter sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 977

Ex US C-47B-5-DK 43-48744, ex RCAF 977. Also reported as Mk. III? Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as CF-QHY, first registered to Bradley Air Services of Carp, Ontario in 1971. With Northwest Territorial Airways of Yellowknife in 1976. Later with Sioux Narrows Airways Limited of Winnipeg, Manitoba from 1979 to 1993. To Points North Air Services Inc. of La Ronge, Saskatchewan from October 1993 to June 1994, then back to Sioux Narrows Airways. Now registered as C-FQHY, operated in support of Plummer's Lodge in NWT, in 1996. Registered to First Nations Transportation of Gimli, Manitoba from 2007 to 2009, then back to Sioux Narrows Airways. Latest Certificate of Registration issued on 21 December 2009

last date: 15 October 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 979

Pinocchio conversion, with CF-104 NASARR radar nose and operator's stations in cabin. Operated at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. The original "Pinocchio", carried this name. Seen at Abbotsford air show, August 1986. Preserved at CFB Cold Lake. On display at inner gate at CFB Cold Lake by 2010.

last date: 14 April 1989 - Struck off, preserved.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 981

Ex US C-47B-15-DK 43-49382, ex RCAF 981. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. To civil register as CF-QNF, registered to Bradley Air Services of Carp, Ontario in 1976. Later C-FQNF with Central Mountain Air Services of Smithers, BC. Still registered to them when it crashed on Thutade Lake, BC on 4 April 1991, probably after encountering a heavy snow squall. 6 of 7 occupants killed. Wreckage reported still submerged in lake in 2004.

last date: 10 September 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 988.

Ex USAAF C-47B-30-DK, serial number 44-76784, ex RCAF 988. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Sold, to civil register as CF-BKU, later CF-TTZ. Both these registrations cancelled by 1974.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 990

Ex USAAF C-47B-30-DK, serial number 44-77135. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Sold, to civil register as N99663, operated by Frontier Flying Services. Crashed on 30 October 1979 at Bettles Airport, Alaska. Collided with 3 parked aircraft while landing in a snow storm. No reported fatalities.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 992

Ex USAAF C-47A-5-DK s/n 42-92419, ex RAF FZ658, ex RCAF 992. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. Seen at CFB Trenton in standard CAF bare metal finish in 1984, named "Manitoba Flyer". Probably named while with No. 402 Squadron at Winnipeg, Manitoba. Now preserved at RCAF Memorial Museum, Trenton, Ont., in camouflage and with original RAF serial number FZ658 marked.

last date: 14 April 1989 - Struck off, preserved.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 993

Ex USAAF C-47A-15-DK serial number 42-92658, ex RAF KG448. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. On civil register by 1976, as C-GNNA, with White River Air Service, Sachigo Lake, Ontario. Their registration cancelled October 1984. With Austin Airways Ltd of Timmins, Ontario by 1981. Crashed on 19 January 1986 at Sachigo Lake (in north-west Ontario, near Muskrat Dam) after striking an NDB radio tower in bad weather, while operated by Austin Airways. Off register by 10 March 1986.

last date: 6 January 1975 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 1000

Ex USAAF C-47B-35-DK, serial number 44-77020, ex RAF KN655. Operated by No. 412 (T) Squadron, CFB Uplands, as VIP transport. Also used by VU 32 at CFB Shearwater, NS. To civil register as C-GGJH, cancelled by 1976. Later became C-GSCC, owners included Ilford-Riverton Airways of Winnipeg until 1984, and Northland Air Manitoba Limited of Winnipeg from 1986 to 1991. Exported, became F-GIAZ, then F-GIDK. Operated by Dakota Air Legand (in France?), in original USAAF serial and markings.

last date: 18 June 1975 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 10911

Ex US C-47A-1-DL 42-23324, ex RAF FD824, ex RCAF 10911 (which see). Used by Canadian Forces Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba, noted there as a 3(SC)FP. In storage at Saskatoon by March 1975. Acquired by Basler Flight Services and registered N46877, then by Flager Aircraft. Operated by Air Colombia as HK-3293 since 13 December 1982. Reported airworthy in Columbia in 2006.

last date: 30 July 1976 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 10912

Ex USN R4D-1 Bu01985, ex RCAF 10912 (which see). With No. 4 Operational Training Unit at CFB Trenton, Ontario. To civil registry as CF-BKV (Atlantic Central Airlines) in November 1973, then Ontario Central Airlines by 1976. Later registered as C-FBKV. Crashed at Pickle Lake, Ontario 12 May 1977 while on lease to Patricia Air Services. Engine fire on takeoff, landed gear down in lake near airport, nosed over and sank. 1o f 2 crew killed.

last date: 31 December 1971 - Struck off, sold by November 1973.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 10913

Ex US C-47A-65-DL s/n 42-100523. Operated by Air Navigation School at CFB Winnipeg, Manitoba. With No. 429 Squadron at CFB Winnipeg. To Canadian register as C-GWYY, registered to C.R. Wilkinson of Calgary, Alberta. To US register as N59316, registered on 11 December 1985. Registered to McNeely Charter Service of West Memphis, Arkansas when destroyed while attempting an engines out landing on a sandbar in the Mississippi River near Memphis, Tennessee on 6 November 1997. Fuel starvation and/or poor fuel management suspected, first engine quit in cruise, second engine quit a few minutes later while making emergency approach to Memphis. Both engines restarted briefly, then failed again. Deregistered on 28 September 1998, reported with 24,516 hours airframe time at that time.

last date: 25 August 1975 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 10915

Ex US C-47B-35-DK 44-77208, ex RAF KP238, ex RCAF 10915. Operated by Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. To civil register as CF-ADB. With Laurentian Air Services at Dorval, PQ in 1976. Later with Air-Dale / Norontair, registration cancelled in 1991.

last date: 18 May 1973 - Struck off, later sold.

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 10917

Ex US C-47B-20-DK s/n 43-49813, ex RAF KN209. Sold as scrap by RAF in 1950, purchased by RCAF in 1952, registration CF-GBJ being applied for ferry flight from Egypt to Canada. Operated by Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta. To civil register when sold, as CF-BKZ.

last date: 13 December 1971 - Struck off

first date: 26 June 1970 - Renumbered from RCAF 10918

Ex US C-47A-DK s/n 42-108839, ex RAF and RCAF FZ665, ex RCAF 10918. Declared surplus on 4 March 1971. Stored at Canadian Forces Technical Services Detachment at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Sold to Atlas Aviation on 13 September 1971, registered as CF-OOX. To Kenting Atlas Aviation on 12 February 1973. to Kenting Aviation in 1975. Registration cancelled January 1976. Wings may be in storage with Buffalo Airways at Red Deer, Alberta, being used for spares.

last date: 10 September 1971 - Struck off, to Crown Assets Disposal Corporation for sale

This data has come from a variety of sources, and may contain all sorts of errors. In the future, I will add a complete list of references. For now, some recent Internet references can be found at the links below. I would welcome any corrections or additions you may have. Contact me using the link below.


Douglas Dakota III - History

DC3, C47, Dakota, R4D, Gooney Bird, DAK, DST, C-53, C-117,C-49 License
Agreement No. BMC 01-TM-047 with The Boeing Company

ALIASES of the C-47

For every use found for the C-47, someone discovered there was usually a new nickname. Many were affectionate names, and a few were unglamorous ones. It accumulated more than two dozen nicknames rivaling someone on the FBI's &ldquoWanted List.&rdquo

Americans called it the &ldquoGooney Bird,&rdquo &ldquoDoug,&rdquo &ldquo Dumbo ,&rdquo &ldquoOld Fatso&rdquo. &ldquoCharlie 47,&rdquo &ldquo Skytrain ,&rdquo &ldquo Skytrooper ,&rdquo and &ldquoTabby.&rdquo The British called it the &ldquoDakota&rdquo and the &ldquo Dak .&rdquo The RCAF called one squadron of Dakotas , &ldquoThe Flying Elephants.&rdquo The Russians called it the &ldquoPS-84,&rdquo and the &ldquoLi-2.&rdquo The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) gave the Russian Li-2, the code name, &ldquoCAB.&rdquo The French Navy called it, &ldquoThe Beast.&rdquo It even enjoyed the fleeting nickname, &ldquoBiscuit Bomber,&rdquo after dropping 5,000 cases of rations to General Patton's troops in France .

Civilian pilots called it the &ldquoThree,&rdquo &ldquoOld Methuselah,&rdquo &ldquoThe Placid Plodder, &ldquoThe Dowager Dutchess ,&rdquo &ldquoThe Flying Vagrant,&rdquo and the &ldquoDizzy Three.&rdquo In Vietnam , it earned the sobriquets &ldquoPuff the Magic Dragon,&rdquo &ldquoPuff,&rdquo &ldquoSpooky,&rdquo and &ldquoThe Dragon Ship.&rdquo

In October 1941, the U.S. government adopted the British practice of identifying airplanes with a name. The C-47 was the first airplane given a name by the Army &ldquo Skytrain .&rdquo The intention was to mask the development information of a new type from getting into the enemy's hands. Of course most war-time names for the C-47 were forgotten.

Most people remember and still call it the &ldquoGooney Bird.&rdquo There are several versions of how it got that name. Some say the name came from the South Pacific where small atolls were the home of the wandering albatross, the giant seagull-like bird noted for its powers of flight, and sometimes unflattering but safe landings. Some GIs said the C-47 looked like the bird, with a heavy body and long wings, and mimicked the bird in its struggle to get off the rain-soaked dirt fields.

The Albatross, aerodynamically should not be able to get off the ground. People say the bird is so stupid, it doesn't realize this and flies anyway.

Others say &ldquoGooney Bird&rdquo comes from the definition of stupid, or goon. Pilots called the C-47 stupid, because they said it didn't know it wasn't supposed to be able to do the things it did.

Another source claims long before the C-47 lifted off the ground, the C-39s were nicknamed Gooney Birds by the Tenth Transport Command, at Patterson Field, in Dayton , Ohio.

Five hundred thousand rivets were used in the manufacture of the Douglas DC-3 airplane. The average size used in the manufacture was approximately 3-8 inches long, and if laid end-to-end, the rivets would cover a distance of 15,625 feet or more than three miles.

The lighting system of each DC-3 plane was sufficient to light an eight room house. More than 90 lights were used in each plane. 1,517 watts are required. To light an ordinary room in those days only 100 watts was required.

Approximately 6,000 men and women were employed in building a DC-3.

3,600 blueprints were turned out by the Engineering Department in the development of the DC-3. They covered approximately 28,000 square feet.

The total length of the control cables used on the DC-3 was over 2,850 feet, more than ½ mile.

Material used for sound insulation in the DC-3 and the DST "Sleeper" weighed 240 pounds. Blankets and mattresses weighed another 195 pounds.

3,900 feet of tubing, 8,000 feet of wire and approximately 13,300 square feet of sheet metal were used in the construction of each DC-3.

The heating and ventilation used in the DC-3 dispensed 1,000 cubic feet of air per minute on a warm day. As it took a little more than 15 hours to fly from Los Angeles to

New York , 900,000 cubic feet of air passed through the cabin or 60,000 to 75,000 pounds of air were utilized on the trip, depending on the altitude flown.

More than 120,000 BTUs were delivered to the cabin of a DC-3 on a cold day. On a flight to NY from LA, 1,800,000

BTUs were delivered during the 15 hours the plane was in the air. The boiler weighed 17 pounds and evaporated 15 gallons of water an hour. Approximately 225 gallons of water were evaporated from LA to NY. Only six quarts of water are carried in the heating system where it was continuously evaporated and condensed.

A radiator capable of heating air from 4 degrees F. to 200 degrees F. was installed in every DC-3. The air passed through the radiator at a speed of 3,000 feet a minute and since the radiator was only a foot long it took only 1/50 of a second to heat the air from 4 to 200 degrees. The radiator weighed 36 pounds.

Heating a DC-3 in the air was the equivalent of heating a building in a 200 mph wind at a 35 degree outside temperature .

Approximately 700,000 parts were used in the construction of the DC-3. This is exclusive of instruments and engine parts and exclusive also of the 500,000 rivets used on each plane.

The engines powering the DC-3 weighed 1,275 pounds each or a total of 2,550 pounds. This weight alone is a striking contrast to the payload available on some of the early airmail planes flown which was around 250 pounds.

At a cruise speed of 180 mph at 10,000 feet each engine developed 550 hp. Ninety-one gallons of fuel were used each hour giving approximately 2 miles per gallon.



On November 8, after completing harried trials of Dakota prisoners taken after their surrender at Camp Release, Henry Sibley presented the list of 303 condemned Dakota men to the US government.

Two days later, President Lincoln wired Gen. John Pope, Sibley’s superior: “Please forward, as soon as possible, the full and complete record of these convictions.”

Lincoln and his lawyers then reviewed the trial transcripts of all 303 men. “Anxious to not act with so much clemency as to encourage another outbreak on one hand,” Lincoln explained to the US Senate, “nor with so much severity as to be real cruelty on the other, I ordered a careful examination of the records of the trials to be made, in view of first ordering the execution of such as had been proved guilty of violating females.” When only two men were found guilty of rape, Lincoln expanded the criteria to include those who had participated in “massacres” of civilians rather than “battles.” He then made his final decision, and forwarded a list of 39 names to Sibley.

Ordered that of the Indians and Half-breeds sentenced to be hanged by the military commission, composed of Colonel Crooks, Lt. Colonel Marshall, Captain Grant, Captain Bailey, and Lieutenant Olin, and lately sitting in Minnesota, you cause to be executed on Friday the nineteenth day of December, instant, the following names, to wit [39 names listed by case number of record: cases 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 19, 22, 24, 35, 67, 68, 69, 70, 96, 115, 121, 138, 155, 170, 175, 178, 210, 225, 254, 264, 279, 318, 327, 333, 342, 359, 373, 377, 382, 383]. The other condemned prisoners you will hold subject to further orders, taking care that they neither escape, nor are subjected to any unlawful violence. Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States

, ,

Chief Wabasha, his story

MORTON, Minn. – Gripping a cane tightly, Ernest Wabasha slowly reached to touch a pair of heavy iron shackles hanging from his mantel – the same shackles his great-grandfather, the legendary Chief Wabasha, wore during a forced march across the southwestern Minnesota plains a century ago.

  A portrait of Chief Wabasha hung nearby, surrounded by the strong faces of the Wabasha line before and after. The most recent are photos of Ernest and his son, Wabasha No. 6 and No. 7.

Ernest Wabasha’s eyes are watery and his 73-year-old body is frail, but the proud lift of his chin and the straight line of his mouth echo the framed pictures of his Mdewakanton Dakota ancestors.

Wabasha’s band endured a bloody war and was stripped of its south-central territory in the last century, but in time they made their way back. Asked about the strength of the Dakota – why they were driven to return – Wabasha became quiet and started straight ahead.

"It all comes back to leadership," Wabasha said.

The Wabashas, the Goodthunders and the Bluestones are among the old names in new generations in the Lower Sioux Indian Community. Today’s Mdewakanton Dakota say they are renewing a commitment toward unearthing their past from these river bluffs and surrounding prairies.

"We are coming together as a group again, as a Mdewakanton tribe," said Jody Goodthunder, a council member and former chairman. "We are reverting back to our culture. A lot of our members are moving back to the old ways."

The band’s reservation once felt nearly hidden among the cornfields just outside Redwood Falls. Men and boys would work for local farmers, often paid with a bag of flour or some meat. Too poor to afford cars, families would walk down the hill to town, to school and to church.

Today, the roads bustle with traffic to the band’s Jackpot Junction casino and new Dacotah Ridge Golf Club, a popular trend among reservations that are expanding into golf to create resort-like destination points.

Crews busily clean the reservation’s water tower, and dump trucks roll by to the building site of a community center that will soon replace a split-level house as the center of tribal functions.

About half of the almost 800 registered Lower Sioux members live on the 1,700-acre reservation – mainly in modest homes clustered in small circles off gravel roads.

They have to live within 10 miles of the reservation to receive their share of the Jackpot Junction revenue, an amount that isn’t disclosed to outsiders. Trust funds are held for the Lower Sioux children, who gain access to part of it at age 18. The remaining money is received at 21.

In the past decade, median household income on the Lower Sioux reservation jumped 300 percent to $69,792 in the year 2000 from $16,223 in 1989, according to census figures adjusted for inflation. It was the second-highest median income on the 11 reservations in Minnesota, trailing only Prairie Island ($76,186).

The new money is luring band members home, like Kaye Hester, who returned this summer after leaving three decades ago as an impatient 21-year-old.

"People are gathering back together, learning the ways of each other. I never thought I’d come back. There was no hope here," Hester said.

Despite the new homes and roads, there are plenty of historical markers to remind members of a past that has been difficult. They show where the Dakota, starving and ignored by local white leaders, attacked fur traders and then government posts in 1862, after years of uneasiness with settlers and treaty promises broken by the federal government.

Over 500 people on both sides were killed in a six-week battle. It led to the largest mass execution in U.S. history when thousands of people gathered in Mankato the day after Christmas to watch 38 Dakota men hang under the orders of President Abraham Lincoln.

On the western edge of the Lower Sioux reservation, another post marks where hundreds of Dakota were court-martialed. Hundreds more were marched to a prison camp at Fort Snelling. They were eventually shipped by boat and railroad to a reservation in South Dakota, later moving south to a reservation in Nebraska. A bounty was put on their head in case they tried to return to Minnesota.

But the Mdewakanton Dakota did come home, many walking back to Minnesota from Nebraska and South Dakota.

They gathered in small clusters, and 12 years after the war a Dakota leader known as Good Thunder came from South Dakota and purchased 80 acres at the Lower Sioux community. Within a few years a small colony formed, including some Dakota who had been protected by white settlers. By 1936, the census reported 20 Mdewakanton families, 18 families from Flandreau, S.D., and one Sisseton, S.D., family.

Some Lower Sioux say an undercurrent of division remains between Indians and non-Indians in the area, with generations carrying a grudge without really knowing what happened, said Goodthunder, a descendant of the 19th-century leader.

"We had to live the hard way, wondering why people felt the way they did about us," he said. "Our parents tried to protect us by not telling our history. It probably would have helped us if we would have understood why they had prejudice against us."

Goodthunder said he didn’t learn why the events of 1862 happened until he was older. He said he recalls slanted depictions from public school, including a history book with a drawing of an Indian holding a white baby by the hair.

"They would call us murderer, savage," he said.

The Lower Sioux, traditionally called "Cans’a yapi" or "where they marked the trees red," were the heart of the government’s program to "civilize" the Dakota. The government tried to turn the Indians into Christian farmers after treaties in 1851 diminished the tribe’s land to 4 percent of what they held across southern and western Minnesota, according to the Minnesota Historical Society.

The band is still recovering tribal traditions that were buried with the assimilation efforts or left behind when the Dakota were forced out after 1862.

Among the people leading the efforts are Crystal Mountain and her husband, Virgil, who run the Buffalo Horse Camp on the outskirts of the reservation, where children create gardens alongside elders using heirloom seeds and learning traditional methods.

They’ve grown tobacco, teaching about its sacredness, and returned important medicinal herbs to the area like sage and sweetgrass.

"If you don’t use them, they will go away," Crystal Mountain said.

"It’s about reinstalling their sense of identity," she said. "A lot was lost culturally and the effects are still here. It’s a process to really look and find the people who possess that knowledge."

Among the Lower Sioux elders are 86-year-old Maude Williams and her younger sister, 77-year-old Betty Lee. Both widowed, the sisters live together in a small house under the watertower in the middle of the reservation.

From their front window you can see a stone church nearby, the Lower Sioux recently gave a traditional burial to Dakota remains they recovered from museums and universities that had held them in archaeological and Indian collections.

The sisters laugh as they shuck corn, telling stories of a rooster that chased them in their childhood trips to the family outhouse. There were few families at that time living on the reservation, and no electricity or running water.

Their father, Samuel Bluestone, was the first chairman of the Lower Sioux, serving in the early 1930s. He worked for a farmer who paid him with a 5-pound bag of flour or sugar.

"We didn’t know we were poor," Williams said. "We didn’t see the other side."

As girls, they were sent to Indian boarding schools and both later moved to the Twin Cities. Lee was the first to return to the reservation, in the early 1970s, to care for her mother and brother. Williams followed in 1985.

The Lower Sioux was the same as when they left – no jobs and no money. Lee, who became a longtime tribal council member, was part of the reservation’s transformation through gambling revenue.

Lee said the Lower Sioux didn’t become rich. But she could finally afford to buy foods that her brother, who is autistic, never could get, like a glass of milk or a bowl of ice cream.

"At least we got caught up to what a normal person would have in life, at least we have a comfortable life," she said. "Our children get a little more food."

More band members are getting an education and taking advantage of scholarships funded by the Lower Sioux. Goodthunder ticks off the places where some band members are continuing school: Arizona, California, Minneapolis.

On the reservation, the band’s focus is beyond the casino to how they can make the Lower Sioux a family destination with possible attractions like a water park, Goodthunder said.

Just down the hill in the nearby town of Morton, furniture store owner Kate Colwell said it’s fantastic to see her former classmates now managing a multimillion dollar business.

The children who came from Lower Sioux were always quiet, but she said they were talented artists and respected. One of the girls was the class homecoming queen, she said.

Colwell acknowledged that the reservation "probably had a whole different view than I did." But she praised the casino, crediting it for bringing some visitors to her Amish store.

"They came from such poverty," she said, "It’s wonderful to see the reservation now."

List of site sources >>>


Watch the video: C47 Douglas Dakota - Airfix 1:72 (January 2022).