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Hittite Workshops in Sapinuwa

Hittite Workshops in Sapinuwa

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Šamuḫa (sited at Kayalı Pinar, c. 40 km west of Sivas, on the northern bank of Kizil Irmak) was a city of the Hittites, a religious centre and for a few years military capital for the empire. Samuha's faith was syncretistic. Rene Lebrun in 1976 called Samuha the "religious foyer of the Hittite Empire".

Samuha was a primary base of field operations for the Hittites while the Kaskas were plundering the Hatti heartland, including the historic capital Hattusa, during the 14th century BC under kings Tudhaliya I-III and Suppiluliuma I. During this period, the religions of Samuha and Sapinuwa became influenced by the faith of the Hurrians.

Excavations at Sapinuwa have revealed that at the beginning of this time, Sapinuwa held the archives for the kingdom. Under either Tudhaliya I or Tudhaliya II, Sapinuwa was burnt. Hattusili III later recorded of this time that Azzi had "made Samuha its frontier".

Samuha then became the base for the reconquests of Tudhaliya III and his then-general Suppiluliuma. The Deeds of Suppiluliuma report that he brought Kaska captives back to Samuha after a campaign toward Hayasa (connected somehow with Azzi) on Tudhaliya's behalf. Tudhaliya III himself centralised the faith of Kizzuwatna to Samuha.

(Mursili further records in his annals that when Suppiluliuma was king, the Arawannans invaded the land of the Kassiyans near "Sammaha". Some translators think that this may be a Late Hittite pronunciation of "Samuha" compare the mid 14th century BC "Suppiluliuma I" with late 13th century BC "Suppiluliama". However, elsewhere Arawanna and Kassiya are not associated with Samuha. Mursili in his fifth year – c. 1317 BC – moved to the city of Ziulila in the vicinity of Sammaha to rescue the Kassiyans.)

Mursili appointed his youngest son Hattusili III priest of the Sausga / Ishtar in Samuha. The Hittites of Hattusa apparently remembered the goddess of Samuha as a protective deity.

Samuha disappears from the historical record after Hattusili III. [ citation needed ]

Scholars are divided on the location of Samuha. [1] Some maintain it was on the banks of the Euphrates river. Others believe it was located on the Halys river, presently called the Kızılırmak River. The Kızılırmak River is closer to Hattusa. Its headwaters are near the city of Sivas, 130 miles (209 km) away. The river flows to the east, south of Hattusa, than heads northward on the east of Hattusa, discharging into the Black Sea. The Euphrates location is reflected in the GPS coordinates above. Hittite records indicate that Samuha was located on a navigable river, which tends to support the Euphrates location. Oliver Gurney notes in the above-cited work that the Halys river is also navigable in sections. He favors the Euphrates location, noting that the Murad Su, the present day Murat River had river traffic in 1866. The Murat river is a tributary of the Euphrates river. Both proposed locations are south of the Kaskian incursion that overtook Hattusa and required the Hittite leadership to move to Samuha.

Meanwhile, excavations by Andreas and Vuslat Müller-Karpe in Kayalıpinar have revealed cuneiform archives that proof the site's identity with Samuha (Andreas Müller-Karpe: Kayalıpınar in Ostkappadokien. Ein neuer hethitischer Tontafelfundplatz. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft 132, 2000 Andreas and Vuslat Müller-Karpe: Untersuchungen in Kayalıpınar 2019. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft. 152, 2020, pp. 191-235).

Touring Ahmetoglan in Turkey

Ahmetoglan in the region of Çorum is located in Turkey - some 125 mi or ( 201 km ) East of Ankara , the country's capital city .

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Sapinuwa was a Bronze Age Hittite city at the location of modern Ortaköy in the province Çorum in Turkey. It was one of the major Hittite religious and administrative centres, a military base and an occasional residence of several Hittite kings. The palace at Sapinuwa is discussed in several texts from Hattusa.


Euchaita was a town (polisma) in Pontus, in northern Asia Minor. Today the Turkish village Beyözü, which partly lies on the ruins, in the province of Çorum (in the subprovince of Mecitözü). Euchaita was the location of Saint Theodore of Amasea's slaying of the dragon, and his remains were taken here after his martyrdom. The town became a center of his cult. The original church was destroyed during the Sassanid Persian occupation, and rebuilt after the Byzantines retook the city in 622.

Çorum Dam

Çorum Dam is a dam in Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

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Hittite mythology

Most of the narratives embodying Hittite mythology are lost, and the elements that would give a balanced view of Hittite religion are lacking among the tablets recovered at the Hittite capital Hattusa and other Hittite sites: "there are no canonical scriptures, no theological disquisitions or discourses, no aids to private devotion". Ώ] Some religious documents formed part of the corpus with which young scribes were trained, and have survived, most of them dating from the last several decades before the final burning of the sites. The scribes in the royal administration, some of whose archives survive, were a bureaucracy, organizing and maintaining royal responsibilities in areas that would be considered part of religion today: temple organization, cultic administration, reports of diviners, make up the main body of surviving texts. ΐ]

The understanding of Hittite mythology depends on readings of surviving stone carvings, deciphering of the iconology represented in seal stones, interpreting ground plans of temples: additionally, there are a few images of deities, for the Hittites often worshipped their gods through Huwasi stones, which represented deities and were treated as sacred objects. Gods were often depicted standing on the backs of their respective beasts, or may have been identifiable in their animal form. Α]

Though heavily influenced by Mesopotamian mythology, the religion of the Hittites and Luwians retains noticeable Indo-European elements, for example Tarhunt the god of thunder, brought in by the Indo-European immigrants his conflict with the serpent Illuyanka resembles the conflict between Indra and the cosmic serpent Vrtra in Indo-Aryan mythology. His consort is the indigenous Hattic sun-goddess. This divine couple were presumably worshipped in the twin cellas of the largest temple at Hattusa. Β]

The liminal figure mediating between the intimately connected worlds of gods and mankind was the king and priest in a ritual dating from the Hittite Old Kingdom period:

The gods, the Sun-God and the Storm-God, have entrusted to me, the king, the land and my household, so that I, the king, should protect my land and my household, for myself. Γ]

The Hittites referred to their own "thousand gods", of whom a staggering number appear in inscriptions but remain nothing more than names today. Δ] This multiplicity has been ascribed to a Hittite resistance to syncretization: "many Hittite towns maintained individual storm-gods, declining to identify the local deities as manifestations of a single national figure," Gary Beckman observed. Ε] The multiplicity is doubtless an artifact of a level of social-political localization within the Hittite "empire" not easily reconstructed. For example, the Bronze Age cult centre of Nerik, Ζ] to the north of the capitals Hattusa and Sapinuwa, the Hittites held as sacred to a local storm god who was the son of Wurusemu, sun goddess of Arinna: he was propitiated from Hattusa:

Because the men of Kaška have taken the land of Nerik for themselves, we are continually sending the rituals for the Storm God in Nerik and for the gods of Nerik from Ḫattuša in the city of Ḫakmišša, (namely) thick-breads, libations, oxen, and sheep. Η]

The weather god was identified there with Mount Zaliyanu near Nerik, responsible for assigning rain to the city's croplands.

Among the crowd a few stand out as more than local: Tarhun has a son, Telepinu and a daughter, Inara. Inara is a protective deity ( d LAMMA) involved with the Puruli spring festival. Ishara is a goddess of the oath lists of divine witnesses to treaties seem to represent the Hittite pantheon most clearly, ⎖] though some well-attested gods are inexplicably missing.

The city of Arinna, a day's march from Hattusa, was perhaps the major cult center of the Hittites, and certainly of their major sun goddess, known as d UTU URU Arinna "sun goddess of Arinna". ⎗] In the 13th century some explicit gestures toward syncretism appear in inscriptions. Puduhepa, queen and a priestess, worked on organizing and rationalizing her people's religion. ⎘] In an inscription she invokes:

Sun-Goddes of Arinna, my lady, you are the queen of all lands! In the land of Hatti you have assumed the name of Sun-Goddess of Arinna, but in respect to the land which you made of cedars, ⎙] you have assumed the name Hebat. ⎚]

Kumarbi is the father of Tarhun, his role in the Song of Kumarbi being reminiscent of that of Cronus in the Theogony of Hesiod. Ullikummi is a stone monster fathered by Kumarbi, reminiscent of Hesiod's Typhon.

The Luwian god of weather and lightning Pihassassa may be at the origin of Greek Pegasus. Depictions of hybrid animals (like hippogriffs, chimerae etc.) are typical for the Anatolian art of the period. In the Telepinu Myth, the disappearance of Telepinu, god of farming and fertility causes all fertility to fail, both plant and animal. This results in devastation and despair among gods and humans alike. In order to stop the havoc and devastation, the gods seek Telepinu but fail to find him. Only a bee sent by the goddess Hannahanna finds Telepinu, and stings him in oder to wake him up. However this infuriates Telepinu further and he "diverts the flow of rivers and shatters the houses". In the end, the goddess Kamrusepa uses healing and magic to calm Telepinu after which he returns home and restores the vegetation and fertility. In other references it is a mortal priest who prays for all of Telepinu's anger to be sent to bronze containers in the underworld, of which nothing escapes. ⎛]


Biblical background Edit

Before the archeological discoveries that revealed the Hittite civilization, the only source of information about the Hittites had been the Old Testament. Francis William Newman expressed the critical view, common in the early 19th century, that, "no Hittite king could have compared in power to the King of Judah. ". [11]

As the discoveries in the second half of the 19th century revealed the scale of the Hittite kingdom, Archibald Sayce asserted that, rather than being compared to Judah, the Anatolian civilization "[was] worthy of comparison to the divided Kingdom of Egypt", and was "infinitely more powerful than that of Judah". [12] Sayce and other scholars also noted that Judah and the Hittites were never enemies in the Hebrew texts in the Book of Kings, they supplied the Israelites with cedar, chariots, and horses, and in the Book of Genesis were friends and allies to Abraham. Uriah the Hittite was a captain in King David's army and counted as one of his "mighty men" in 1 Chronicles 11.

Initial discoveries Edit

French scholar Charles Texier found the first Hittite ruins in 1834 but did not identify them as such. [10] [13]

The first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the karum of Kanesh (now called Kültepe), containing records of trade between Assyrian merchants and a certain "land of Hatti". Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but clearly Indo-European. [14]

The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria. In 1887, excavations at Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. Two of the letters from a "kingdom of Kheta"—apparently located in the same general region as the Mesopotamian references to "land of Hatti"—were written in standard Akkadian cuneiform, but in an unknown language although scholars could interpret its sounds, no one could understand it. Shortly after this, Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the "kingdom of Kheta" mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was probably Kheta, but proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim rather than with the Biblical Hittites. Sayce's identification came to be widely accepted over the course of the early 20th century and the name "Hittite" has become attached to the civilization uncovered at Boğazköy. [ citation needed ]

During sporadic excavations at Boğazköy (Hattusa) that began in 1906, the archaeologist Hugo Winckler found a royal archive with 10,000 tablets, inscribed in cuneiform Akkadian and the same unknown language as the Egyptian letters from Kheta—thus confirming the identity of the two names. He also proved that the ruins at Boğazköy were the remains of the capital of an empire that, at one point, controlled northern Syria.

Under the direction of the German Archaeological Institute, excavations at Hattusa have been under way since 1907, with interruptions during the world wars. Kültepe was successfully excavated by Professor Tahsin Özgüç from 1948 until his death in 2005. Smaller scale excavations have also been carried out in the immediate surroundings of Hattusa, including the rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya, which contains numerous rock reliefs portraying the Hittite rulers and the gods of the Hittite pantheon.

Writings Edit

The Hittites used a variation of cuneiform called Hittite cuneiform. Archaeological expeditions to Hattusa have discovered entire sets of royal archives on cuneiform tablets, written either in Akkadian, the diplomatic language of the time, or in the various dialects of the Hittite confederation. [15]

Museums Edit

The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey houses the richest collection of Hittite and Anatolian artifacts.

The Hittite kingdom was centred on the lands surrounding Hattusa and Neša (Kültepe), known as "the land Hatti" ( URU Ha-at-ti). After Hattusa was made capital, the area encompassed by the bend of the Kızılırmak River (Hittite Marassantiya) was considered the core of the Empire, and some Hittite laws make a distinction between "this side of the river" and "that side of the river". For example, the reward for the capture of an escaped slave after he managed to flee beyond the Halys is higher than that for a slave caught before he could reach the river.

To the west and south of the core territory lay the region known as Luwiya in the earliest Hittite texts. This terminology was replaced by the names Arzawa and Kizzuwatna with the rise of those kingdoms. [16] Nevertheless, the Hittites continued to refer to the language that originated in these areas as Luwian. Prior to the rise of Kizzuwatna, the heart of that territory in Cilicia was first referred to by the Hittites as Adaniya. [17] Upon its revolt from the Hittites during the reign of Ammuna, [18] it assumed the name of Kizzuwatna and successfully expanded northward to encompass the lower Anti-Taurus Mountains as well. To the north, lived the mountainous people called the Kaskians. To the southeast of the Hittites lay the Hurrian empire of Mitanni. At its peak, during the reign of Muršili II, the Hittite empire stretched from Arzawa in the west to Mitanni in the east, many of the Kaskian territories to the north including Hayasa-Azzi in the far north-east, and on south into Canaan approximately as far as the southern border of Lebanon, incorporating all of these territories within its domain.

Origins Edit

It is generally assumed that the Hittites came into Anatolia some time before 2000 BC. While their earlier location is disputed, it has been speculated by scholars for more than a century that the Yamnaya culture of the Pontic–Caspian steppe, in present-day Ukraine, around the Sea of Azov, spoke an early Indo-European language during the third and fourth millennia BC. [19]

The arrival of the Hittites in Anatolia in the Bronze Age was one of a superstrate imposing itself on a native culture (in this case over the pre-existing Hattians and Hurrians), either by means of conquest or by gradual assimilation. [20] [21] In archaeological terms, relationships of the Hittites to the Ezero culture of the Balkans and Maykop culture of the Caucasus have been considered within the migration framework. [22] The Indo-European element at least establishes Hittite culture as intrusive to Anatolia in scholarly mainstream.

According to Anthony, steppe herders, archaic Proto-Indo-European speakers, spread into the lower Danube valley about 4200–4000 BC, either causing or taking advantage of the collapse of Old Europe. [23] Their languages "probably included archaic Proto-Indo-European dialects of the kind partly preserved later in Anatolian." [24] Their descendants later moved into Anatolia at an unknown time but maybe as early as 3000 BC. [25] According to J. P. Mallory it is likely that the Anatolians reached the Near East from the north either via the Balkans or the Caucasus in the 3rd millennium BC. [26] According to Parpola, the appearance of Indo-European speakers from Europe into Anatolia, and the appearance of Hittite, is related to later migrations of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamnaya culture into the Danube Valley at c. 2800 BC, [27] [28] which is in line with the "customary" assumption that the Anatolian Indo-European language was introduced into Anatolia sometime in the third millennium BC. [29] However, Petra Goedegebuure has shown that the Hittite language has lend many words related to agriculture from cultures on their eastern borders, which is strong evidence of having taken a route across the Caucasus "Anatolians on the move" Oriëntal Institute lecture and against a route through Europe.

Their movement into the region may have set off a Near East mass migration sometime around 1900 BC. [ citation needed ] The dominant indigenous inhabitants in central Anatolia at the time were Hurrians and Hattians who spoke non-Indo-European languages. Some have argued that Hattic was a Northwest Caucasian language, but its affiliation remains uncertain, whilst the Hurrian language was a near-isolate (i.e. it was one of only two or three languages in the Hurro-Urartian family). There were also Assyrian colonies in the region during the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC) it was from the Assyrian speakers of Upper Mesopotamia that the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script. It took some time before the Hittites established themselves following the collapse of the Old Assyrian Empire in the mid-18th century BC, as is clear from some of the texts included here. For several centuries there were separate Hittite groups, usually centered on various cities. But then strong rulers with their center in Hattusa (modern Boğazkale) succeeded in bringing these together and conquering large parts of central Anatolia to establish the Hittite kingdom. [30]

Early Period Edit

The early history of the Hittite kingdom is known through tablets that may first have been written in the 18th century BC, [31] [2] in Hittite [31] [32] but most of the tablets survived only as Akkadian copies made in the 14th and 13th centuries BC. These reveal a rivalry within two branches of the royal family up to the Middle Kingdom a northern branch first based in Zalpuwa and secondarily Hattusa, and a southern branch based in Kussara (still not found) and the former Assyrian colony of Kanesh. These are distinguishable by their names the northerners retained language isolate Hattian names, and the southerners adopted Indo-European Hittite and Luwian names. [33]

Zalpuwa first attacked Kanesh under Uhna in 1833 BC. [34]

One set of tablets, known collectively as the Anitta text, [35] begin by telling how Pithana the king of Kussara conquered neighbouring Neša (Kanesh). [36] However, the real subject of these tablets is Pithana's son Anitta ( r . 1745–1720 BC), [37] who continued where his father left off and conquered several northern cities: including Hattusa, which he cursed, and also Zalpuwa. This was likely propaganda for the southern branch of the royal family, against the northern branch who had fixed on Hattusa as capital. [38] Another set, the Tale of Zalpuwa, supports Zalpuwa and exonerates the later Ḫattušili I from the charge of sacking Kanesh. [38]

Anitta was succeeded by Zuzzu ( r. 1720–1710 BC) [37] but sometime in 1710–1705 BC, Kanesh was destroyed, taking the long-established Assyrian merchant trading system with it. [34] A Kussaran noble family survived to contest the Zalpuwan/Hattusan family, though whether these were of the direct line of Anitta is uncertain. [39]

Meanwhile, the lords of Zalpa lived on. Huzziya I, descendant of a Huzziya of Zalpa, took over Hatti. His son-in-law Labarna I, a southerner from Hurma (now Kalburabastı) usurped the throne but made sure to adopt Huzziya's grandson Ḫattušili as his own son and heir.

Old Kingdom Edit

The founding of the Hittite Kingdom is attributed to either Labarna I or Hattusili I (the latter might also have had Labarna as a personal name), [40] who conquered the area south and north of Hattusa. Hattusili I campaigned as far as the Semitic Amorite kingdom of Yamkhad in Syria, where he attacked, but did not capture, its capital of Aleppo. Hattusili I did eventually capture Hattusa and was credited for the foundation of the Hittite Empire. According to The Edict of Telepinu, dating to the 16th century BC, "Hattusili was king, and his sons, brothers, in-laws, family members, and troops were all united. Wherever he went on campaign he controlled the enemy land with force. He destroyed the lands one after the other, took away their power, and made them the borders of the sea. When he came back from campaign, however, each of his sons went somewhere to a country, and in his hand the great cities prospered. But, when later the princes' servants became corrupt, they began to devour the properties, conspired constantly against their masters, and began to shed their blood." This excerpt from the edict is supposed to illustrate the unification, growth, and prosperity of the Hittites under his rule. It also illustrates the corruption of "the princes", believed to be his sons. The lack of sources leads to uncertainty of how the corruption was addressed. On Hattusili I's deathbed, he chose his grandson, Mursili I (or Murshilish I), as his heir. [41]

In 1595 BC, Mursili I conducted a great raid down the Euphrates River, bypassing Assyria, and captured Mari and Babylonia, ejecting the Amorite founders of the Babylonian state in the process. However, internal dissension forced a withdrawal of troops to the Hittite homelands. Throughout the remainder of the 16th century BC, the Hittite kings were held to their homelands by dynastic quarrels and warfare with the Hurrians—their neighbours to the east. [42] Also the campaigns into Amurru (modern Syria) and southern Mesopotamia may be responsible for the reintroduction of cuneiform writing into Anatolia, since the Hittite script is quite different from that of the preceding Assyrian Colonial period.

Mursili continued the conquests of Hattusili I. Mursili's conquests reached southern Mesopotamia and even ransacked Babylon itself in 1531 BC (short chronology). [43] Rather than incorporate Babylonia into Hittite domains, Mursili seems to have instead turned control of Babylonia over to his Kassite allies, who were to rule it for the next four centuries. This lengthy campaign strained the resources of Hatti, and left the capital in a state of near-anarchy. Mursili was assassinated shortly after his return home, and the Hittite Kingdom was plunged into chaos. The Hurrians (under the control of an Indo-Aryan Mitanni ruling class), a people living in the mountainous region along the upper Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern south east Turkey, took advantage of the situation to seize Aleppo and the surrounding areas for themselves, as well as the coastal region of Adaniya, renaming it Kizzuwatna (later Cilicia).

Following this, the Hittites entered a weak phase of obscure records, insignificant rulers, and reduced domains. This pattern of expansion under strong kings followed by contraction under weaker ones, was to be repeated over and over through the Hittite Kingdom's 500-year history, making events during the waning periods difficult to reconstruct. The political instability of these years of the Old Hittite Kingdom can be explained in part by the nature of the Hittite kingship at that time. During the Old Hittite Kingdom prior to 1400 BC, the king of the Hittites was not viewed by his subjects as a "living god" like the Pharaohs of Egypt, but rather as a first among equals. [44] Only in the later period from 1400 BC until 1200 BC did the Hittite kingship become more centralized and powerful. Also in earlier years the succession was not legally fixed, enabling "War of the Roses" style rivalries between northern and southern branches.

The next monarch of note following Mursili I was Telepinu (c. 1500 BC), who won a few victories to the southwest, apparently by allying himself with one Hurrian state (Kizzuwatna) against another (Mitanni). Telepinu also attempted to secure the lines of succession. [45]

Middle Kingdom Edit

The last monarch of the Old kingdom, Telepinu, reigned until about 1500 BC. Telepinu's reign marked the end of the "Old Kingdom" and the beginning of the lengthy weak phase known as the "Middle Kingdom". [46] The period of the 15th century BC is largely unknown with very sparse surviving records. [47] Part of the reason for both the weakness and the obscurity is that the Hittites were under constant attack, mainly from the Kaska, a non-Indo-European people settled along the shores of the Black Sea. The capital once again went on the move, first to Sapinuwa and then to Samuha. There is an archive in Sapinuwa, but it has not been adequately translated to date.

It segues into the "Hittite Empire period" proper, which dates from the reign of Tudhaliya I from c. 1430 BC.

One innovation that can be credited to these early Hittite rulers is the practice of conducting treaties and alliances with neighboring states the Hittites were thus among the earliest known pioneers in the art of international politics and diplomacy. This is also when the Hittite religion adopted several gods and rituals from the Hurrians.

Discover Karahacip in Turkey

Karahacip in the region of Çorum is a town located in Turkey - some 125 mi or ( 200 km ) East of Ankara , the country's capital .

Local time in Karahacip is now 02:46 PM (Saturday) . The local timezone is named " Europe/Istanbul " with a UTC offset of 2 hours. Depending on your flexibility, these larger cities might be interesting for you: Yozgat, Sorgun, Kırşehir, İskenderun, and Gaziantep. When in this area, you might want to check out Yozgat . Are you looking for some initial hints on what might be interesting in Karahacip ? We have collected some references on our attractions page.


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Interesting facts about this location


Sapinuwa was a Bronze Age Hittite city at the location of modern Ortaköy in the province Çorum in Turkey. It was one of the major Hittite religious and administrative centres, a military base and an occasional residence of several Hittite kings. The palace at Sapinuwa is discussed in several texts from Hattusa.

Pembeli, Göynücek

Pembeli is a village in the District of Göynücek, Amasya Province, Turkey.

Mục lục

Cảnh quan xung quanh thành phố bao gồm các cánh đồng nông nghiệp phong phú và những vùng đất đồi để chăn thả đồng cỏ cũng như rừng. Những cánh rừng nhỏ hơn vẫn còn được tìm thấy bên ngoài thành phố, nhưng trong thời cổ đại, chúng càng phổ biến rộng rãi. Điều này có nghĩa là người dân có nguồn cung cấp gỗ tuyệt vời khi xây nhà và các công trình khác. Các cánh đồng cung cấp cho người dân một cây lúa mì , lúa mạch và đậu lăng . Lanh cũng được thu hoạch, nhưng nguồn chính của họ cho quần áo là cừu len . Họ cũng săn hươu trong rừng, nhưng điều này có lẽ chỉ là một sự sang trọng dành cho tầng lớp quý tộc. Động vật nuôi cung cấp thịt. Có nhiều khu định cư khác trong vùng lân cận, chẳng hạn như ngôi đền đá ở Yazılıkaya và thị trấn Alacahöyük . Vì các con sông trong khu vực không phù hợp với các tàu lớn , tất cả các phương tiện vận chuyển đến và đi từ Hattusa phải đi bằng đường bộ.

Trước năm 2000 trước Công nguyên, những người Hattian bản xứ dường như đã thành lập một khu định cư trên những địa điểm đã bị chiếm đóng trước đó và gọi nó là Hattush. Những người Hattians xây dựng khu định cư ban đầu của họ trên sườn núi cao của Büyükkale. Các dấu vết đầu tiên của sự định cư trên địa điểm này là từ thiên niên kỷ thứ 6 trước Công nguyên. Trong thế kỷ 19 và 18 TCN, các thương gia từ Assur ở Assyria đã thành lập một trụ sở thương mại ở đó, thành lập riêng trong một khu riêng của thành phố. Trung tâm thương mại của họ nằm ở Kanesh (Neša) (Kültepe hiện đại). Các giao dịch kinh doanh đòi hỏi phải lưu giữ hồ sơ: mạng thương mại từ Assur giới thiệu bằng văn bản cho Hattusa, dưới dạng hình nêm . Một lớp carbon hóa rõ ràng trong các cuộc khai quật chứng minh sự cháy và hủy hoại của thành phố Hattusa khoảng năm 1700 TCN. Người có trách nhiệm dường như đã là vua Anitta từ Kussara , người đã nhận được tín dụng cho hành động này và dựng lên một lời nguyền đã được khắc ghi cho một biện pháp tốt:

Chỉ một thế hệ sau, một vị vua của Hittite đã chọn nơi này làm nơi ở và vốn của ông. Các ngôn ngữ Hittite đã đạt được loa tại các chi phí của Hattic một thời gian. Hattus Hattush bây giờ trở thành Hittite Hattusa , và vua lấy tên của Hattusili , "một từ Hattusa". Hattusili đánh dấu sự khởi đầu của một quốc gia "Hittite" không phải là Hattic và một dòng hoàng tộc của Hittite Great Kings, 27 người bây giờ được biết đến theo tên.

Sau khi Kaskas đến phía bắc của vương quốc, họ đã hai lần tấn công thành phố đến vị trí các vị vua phải di chuyển vị trí hoàng gia tới một thành phố khác. Dưới Tudhaliya I , người Hittites chuyển về phía bắc Sapinuwa , trở về sau. Dưới Muwatalli II , họ di chuyển về phía nam tới Tarhuntassa nhưng giao cho Hattusili III làm thống đốc Hattusa. Mursili III trả lại ghế cho Hattusa, nơi các vị vua vẫn còn cho đến khi kết thúc vương quốc Hittite vào thế kỷ 12 TCN.

Ở đỉnh cao của nó, thành phố bao phủ 1,8 km² và bao gồm một phần bên trong và bên ngoài, bao quanh bởi một bức tường lớn và vẫn nhìn thấy được được dựng lên trong thời trị vì của Suppiluliuma I (khoảng 1344-1322 TCN (niên đại ngắn )). Thành phố nội tâm bao phủ một diện tích khoảng 0,8 km² và được chiếm bởi một thành trì với tòa nhà hành chính lớn và đền thờ. Nơi cư trú của hoàng gia, hay acropolis , được xây dựng trên một ngọn núi cao gọi là Büyükkale (Great Fortress).

Phía nam là một thành phố bên ngoài khoảng 1 km 2 , với các cửa ngõ trang trí tinh vi được trang trí bằng những đường cong nổi lên cho thấy các chiến binh, sư tử và nhân sư. Bốn ngôi đền được đặt ở đây, mỗi căn cứ quanh sân gôn, cùng với các tòa nhà thế tục và các công trình nhà ở. Bên ngoài các bức tường là nghĩa trang, hầu hết đều có chôn cất hỏa táng. Các ước tính hiện đại đưa dân số thành phố lên đến đỉnh điểm từ 40.000 đến 50.000 Trong giai đoạn đầu, thành phố nội thành chiếm một phần ba số đó. Các ngôi nhà được xây bằng gỗ và gạch bùn đã biến mất khỏi hiện trường, chỉ để lại những bức tường được xây dựng bằng đá của đền thờ và cung điện.

Thành phố đã bị phá hủy, cùng với chính quyền bang Hittite, vào khoảng 1200 TCN, như là một phần của sự sụp đổ của Thời kỳ Đồ đồng . Các cuộc khai quật cho thấy rằng Hattusa dần dần bị bỏ rơi trong một vài thập niên khi đế quốc Hittite tan rã. Địa điểm này sau đó bị bỏ hoang cho đến năm 800 TCN, khi một khu định cư Phrygian khiêm tốn xuất hiện trong khu vực.

Archaeology in Turkey - 2019 in review

Palace of the Porphyrogenitus - Tekfur Sarayı Müzesi

2019 was another busy year for the archaeologists working in the area of Turkey. Let us start the summary of this year by giving some basic facts. In 2019, 153 excavation projects were carried out throughout the country. 31 of them were conducted under the Turkish management while 122 were headed by foreign managers. The major archaeological sites where these teams worked were: Olympos, Patara, and Side in Antalya Province, Kibyra in Burdur, Laodicea on the Lycus and Tripolis in Denizli, Teos in Izmir, Antioch of Pisidia in Isparta, Parion, Assos, Trio in Çanakkale, Zeugma in Gaziantep, Anemurium in Mersin, Euromos, Stratonicea, Lagina and Knidos in Muğla, Zerzevan Castle in Diyarbakır, Silifke Castle in Mersin, Beçin Castle in Muğla, and Harran in Şanlıurfa.

The year 2019 was officially celebrated as the year of Göbeklitepe. What was done for this site throughout its year? Apparently, much energy was spent on the promotion of this site as the headlines of major Turkish newspapers announced such events as "Clothes inspired by Göbeklitepe's Neolithic animal figurines to be showcased at Turkish fashion show" or "Jewelry collection to draw inspiration from ancient figures of Zeugma, Göbeklitepe in Turkey". Moreover, Netflix announced a new Turkish series "The Gift" (Atiye), where Göbeklitepe will play the leading role in the narrative. Among other events, hot air balloon flights were introduced over Göbeklitepe. The site was also promoted on the international arena, for instance in Rome.

However, the most amazing archaeological discovery related to Göbeklitepe was not made in this location, but at Boncuklu Tarla site in the southeastern province of Mardin, almost 300 kilometres to the east of Göbeklitepe. In December of 2019, İbrahim Özcoşar, the rector of Mardin Artuklu University, announced that the discoveries at Boncuklu Tarla resemble those unearthed in Göbeklitepe, but are even 1,000 years older. While it is necessary to wait for further excavations in this site and the confirmation of the sensational dating, the discovery is groundbreaking. It could mean that Göbeklitepe, dubbed the "zero point in history", would lose its unique status because of the discovery made in the year that celebrated this site.

What made the year 2019 surprising was the fact that no new archaeological site from the area of Turkey was inscribed into UNESCO World Heritage List. This must seem astonishing as there are 78 such sites awaiting on the Tentative List to be promoted to the status of the World Heritage Site. Among these sites, there are such treasures as Gordion, the capital of the Phrygian civilization, archaeological site of Priene, beautiful Sümela Monastery in Trabzon Province, Eflatun Pınar: The Hittite Spring Sanctuary, and Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop. The full list of these sites is available on the UNESCO website.

The lack of any new additions in the UNESCO List is even more astonishing as only 18 sites from the area of Turkey have made it so far into the List. For the past few years, several important sites became the part of the list: Göbeklitepe (2018), Aphrodisias (2017), Ani (2016), Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape (2015), Ephesus (2015), Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape (2014). What went wrong in 2019? The answer may not be very pleasant for Turkey that expected that the archaeological site of Arslantepe would be added to the List in 2019.

Although UNESCO made no official statement, the year 2019 will be most possibly remembered as the year when the long-delayed decision concerning the historical site of Hasankeyf was finally made. As we write these words, this archaeological site with the history of several thousand years is being inundated by the waters of Tigris River. Despite local and international objections, the city and its archaeological sites are now being flooded due to the completion of the Ilisu Dam.

On the brighter side, in 2019, traditional Turkish archery was inscribed on UNESCO's list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Moreover, Afyonkarahisar entered UNESCO's Creative Cities Network with its world-renowned cuisine. Finally, one site was added to UNESCO's Tentative List - the Nature Park of Ballıca Cave.

2019 saw its share of archaeologic blunders, disastrous restorations, and unfortunate incidents. The most spectacular failures were listed by Arkeofili website. Among them, the visually tragic renovations stand out: of a Roman-era bridge in Gaziantep Province and an 800-year-old gate to Alaaddin Mosque in Antalya. Moreover, Dipsiz Lake, located in Gümüşhane Province, became the victim of a legal excavation initiated with the claim of finding treasure.

Turkish Archaeological News team was rather busy in 2019. Our journey along the western coast of Turkey took us from Istanbul to Didim. We organised two walks: the first one took us to the scattered ancient ruins of Cyzicus with its forgotten amphitheatre, a real rarity in the area of Asia Minor. The second trek, from Didyma to Miletus, led along the ancient Sacred Road. Unfortunately, this unique tourist trail, once popular among the trekkers, is now in deplorable condition, with signposts gone and no clear path to follow.

TAN team also visited two newly opened museums. The first one was opened in the restored Blachernae Palace Complex. Despite some harsh criticism about the results of this restoration, our verdict is favourable as the architects achieved very impressive results. However, there are several improvements needed, including the clean-up of the surroundings.

The second new venue visited by TAN team was Troy Museum that finally opened its gates to the visitors. This impressive building stands out in the barren landscape of the Trojan plain, attracting the visitors' attention from afar. If the effect it makes on the visitors is the one that its designers aimed at, remains an open question, to be answered by the guests themselves. The detailed description of the museum has already been published on our portal.

We followed up the Trojan theme by visiting "Troy. Myth and Reality" exhibition in the British Museum. The representatives of TAN portal were among the first visitors at this exquisite exhibition that opened on the 21st of November. Some of our photographs from this event have been published in this album. If you missed it, there is still a chance to see it as it will close on the 8th of March 2020.

Turkish Archaeological News published two books in 2019. The first one is the extended and revised edition of Glenn Maffia's guidebook to Didyma "Faint Whispers from the Oracle". The second one is the updated guidebook "Gallipoli Peninsula and the Troad" by Izabela Miszczak. We can also disclose the information that three new guidebooks to the archaeological sites of Turkey will be published at the beginning of 2020.

Finally, let us also take a look at the most important archaeological discoveries in monthly reviews for 2019. For more details, please check out section 2019 in Turkish archaeology.

January 2019 could as well be called the month of restorations because the most important events reported in this month concerned numerous renovation projects. Among other events, the repair work on the roof of Istanbul's Haydarpaşa Train Station, damaged in a fire in 2010, was completed, the restoration of Bayburt Castle was initiated, and the renovation of the Stable Mansion at the Beylerbeyi Palace compound on the Asian shore of the Bosporus was completed. Moreover, 23 historical shops in Safranbolu will be restored soon. Last but not least, the renovated sections of Istanbul's Topkapı Palace were finally opened to visitors.

February 2019 was a month when many promises were made, including the extension of the Hatay Archaeology Museum and turning Tevfikiye into an archaeology village depicting the Troy era. Moreover, Turkish Police forces were busy capturing smugglers of ancient artefacts such as a collection of ancient Hebrew manuscripts.

March 2019 saw the archaeological site of Arslantepe getting ready for the UNESCO World Heritage List. Meanwhile, some amazing discoveries were made in the area of Turkey, including the statue of Emperor Trajan in Laodicea on the Lycus and a large pithos found by a farmer ploughing his field in Niğde province.

The hottest archaeological news from Turkey in April 2019 was the discovery of a Bronze Age shipwreck of the shores of southern Turkey's Antalya province. Another great news was the reopening of Sümela Monastery, announced for May.

The biggest news in May 2019 was the reopening of the famous Sümela Monastery in northern Turkey, after an extensive restoration. Moreover, Uzunyuva Monumental Tomb Archaeology Park in the western province of Muğla was also opened again. The roof of the Istanbul's major landmark - the Grand Bazaar was repaired. The archaeologists started the excavations in Blaundus, and the Hittite hieroglyphs were unexpectedly found in a barn in Cappadocia.

In June 2019, the Blachernae Palace Complex restoration was completed, and the venue welcomed the first visitors. Also, an underground city partly submerged underwater and estimated to be around 5,000 years old was discovered by municipality crews trying to determine the cause of flooding in several houses in the Avanos district of Turkey's central Nevşehir province, located at the heart of the historical Cappadocia region.

The archaeologists were rather busy in July of 2019, excavating the ancient city of Hadrianopolis in Turkey's northern Karabük province, unearthing a cistern storing fresh water dating back to the medieval era in the ancient city of Tium, and continuing the research in the Ayanis castle, built by the Urartian King Rusa II on a hill overlooking Lake Van. Moreover, excavation works on Tetrapylon Avenue of the ancient city of Aphrodisias in western Turkey's Aydın province will soon be completed.

August of 2019 was a month abundant in archaeological discoveries in the area of Turkey. Possibly the most amazing one was the announcement that the ancient city of Troy might have been founded 600 years earlier than previously thought. Moreover, an excavation team was surprised when they discovered a temple in the ancient city of Priene, possibly devoted to Zeus. Archaeologists digging at the Barcın Mound found that cheese, yoghurt, and butter were first produced there 8,600 years ago, in the Neolithic Era. Finally, the remains of the memorial tomb of Azan, the founder of the ancient city of Aizanoi have unearthed.

The most exciting archaeological news in September 2019 was, most probably, the discovery that the history of the legendary Troy is longer than previously thought. Moreover, an ancient princess' sanctuary was found in Amasra, while the excavations at Boncuklu Höyük and Kahin Tepe revealed the secrets of the prehistoric period of Asia Minor. The archaeologists also struck gold at the Apollon Smintheion Temple in the Troad where they found 68 gold coins, dating back to the Byzantine era.

In October 2019, some important archaeological discoveries were made in the area of Turkey, including the finds in the sites of Arslantepe and Parion. However, the most astonishing news was the unearthing of an 11,300-year-old Neolithic-era temple in Mardin Province. The archaeologists found this temple with three mostly-intact steles and dated it to the same era as the Göbeklitepe excavation site in southeastern Şanlıurfa province. This dating was later moved back to the period 1,000 years earlier.

The most significant archaeological discovery in the area of Turkey in November 2019 was a 3,500-year-old fragmented skull and femur thought to belong to the Hittite period. It was unearthed in Sapinuwa, nowadays Çorum, an important military and religious centre of its time. This discovery will help to shed light on the human typology and anatomy of the Hittites.

In December 2019 the paper was published concerning the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük. The researchers found three 8,500-year-old-teeth that appeared to have been intentionally drilled to be worn as beads in a necklace or bracelet. Subsequent macroscopic, microscopic and radiographic analyses confirmed that two of the teeth had indeed been used as beads or pendants.

2020 was officially announced to be the year of Patara. This ancient town is best known as the birthplace of St. Nicholas, who lived most of his life in the nearby town of Myra. We shall see the effects of this site's promotion in the next twelve months.


L'effondrement de l'empire hittite est généralement associé à un déclin progressif des réseaux commerciaux en Méditerranée orientale et à l'effondrement consécutif des grandes villes de la fin de l'âge du bronze sur la côte du Levant, de l'Anatolie et de la mer Égée [ 2 ] . Il a bien entendu culminé avec l'abandon définitif (apparemment pacifique) d’Hattusha, la capitale hittite, en 1180-1175 av. J.‑C.. À la suite de cet effondrement des grandes villes et de l'État hittite, le premier âge du fer dans le nord de la Mésopotamie a vu une dispersion des colonies et un retour à la terre, avec l'apparition d'un grand nombre de hameaux, villages et fermes [ 3 ] . Les États syro-hittites sont apparus au cours de ce processus de transformation majeure du paysage, sous la forme d'États régionaux avec de nouvelles structures politiques et de nouvelles relations culturelles. David Hawkins est en mesure de retracer un lien dynastique entre la lignée impériale hittite et les « Grands Rois » et « seigneurs locaux » d’Arslantepe et Karkamish au début de l'Âge du Fer, prouvant une continuité ininterrompue entre l'Âge du Bronze et l'âge du fer sur ces sites [ 4 ] .

Certains chercheurs ont associé l'effondrement des économies à la fin de l'âge du bronze l'invasion dite des « peuples de la mer », attestée à l'époque par les textes égyptiens. N'ayant pas retrouvé de preuves irréfutables à partir des données archéologiques, les historiens de l’antiquité ont tendance à considérer désormais que la migration des « peuples de la mer » est probablement le résultat plutôt que la cause de l'effondrement, impliquant des populations sans lien entre elles autour de la Méditerranée qui se sont déplacées à la suite du déclin du réseau d'échange.

En plus du témoignage littéraire des inscriptions, la continuité culturelle et ininterrompue de l'âge du bronze à l'âge du fer est maintenant confirmée par des travaux archéologiques récents sur les sites d’Alep (temple du dieu des tempêtes, sur la Citadelle) [ 5 ] et du temple d’Ayn Dara (Temple d’Ishtar-Shawushka) [ 6 ] , où des temples construits à l'Âge du Bronze ont continué à être utilisés à l'âge du fer, sans hiatus, et ces temples témoignent de multiples reconstructions à l'âge du fer ancien.