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(ScGbt.: t. 111; l. 80'; b. 18'; dr. 8'; s. 6 k.; a. 1 20-par. P.r.,
The second Rescue, built for the builders account in 1861 by Harlan and Hollingsworth, Wilmington Del., was purchased for the Navy on 21 August 1861; fitted out at Philadelphia; and ordered to join the Potomac Flotilla.
Under the command of Lt. H. S. Newcomb, Rescue joined the flotilla prior to mid-September and took up station near Alexandria. By the 18th, she had shifted to the Mathias Point-Pope's Creek area where she seized the schooner Harford and her cargo of wheat and tobacco. On 11 October the gunboat, with Resolule and Union, captured and burne1 the schooner Martha Washington which had been awaiting Confederate troops in Quantico (Dumfries) Creek. Ten days later, she returned to Mathias Point to engage enemy batter~es there.
A week of courier duty followed, and, on the 28th, she was detached from the Potomae Flotilla and ordered to the Rappahannoek for duty in the North Atlantic Bloekading Squadron. On 6 November she captured and burned the schooner Ada at Corrotman Creek and, on the 8th, seized the ammunition stora~e ship Ur7'ana, At midmonth she was ordered to Hampton Roads where she assumed tug and patrol duties which took her into 1862. In October 1862 she moved up to Washington for repairs, after which she got underway for Port Royal, S.C., and duty in DuPont's squadron, then blockading Charleston.
Reseue arrived at Port Royal early in November. Through the summer of 1863, she performed tug and patrol duties in the anchorage area and in September shifted to Charleston. In October she returned to Port Royal to continue tug and patrol duties there until June 1864 when she was ordered to Baltimore for repairs. On 2 September, she departed Baltimore and shortly thereafter resumed duty with the Potomae Flotilla. Stationed in the St. Mary's area, Reseue remained in the Potomac Flotilla through the end of the Civil War. She then proceeded to Washington, where for the next 24 years she served as a district craft, first as a tug, then as a fireboat. Declared unserviceable in 1889, she was condemned and sold on 25 March 1891.
History of the International Rescue Committee
American branch of the European-based International Relief Association (IRA) founded at the suggestion of Albert Einstein to assist Germans suffering under Hitler. Refugees from Mussolini's Italy and Franco's Spain are later assisted.
Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC) formed to aid European refugees trapped in Vichy France. Over 2,000 political, cultural, union and academic leaders rescued in 13 months.
IRA and ERC join forces under the name International Relief and Rescue Committee, later shortened to the International Rescue Committee.
The IRC, at the end of World War II, initiates emergency relief programs, establishes hospitals and children's centers and starts refugee resettlement efforts in Europe. With the descent of the Iron Curtain in 1946, the IRC initiates resettlement program for East European refugees, which continues until the end of the Cold War.
The IRC intensifies its aid in Europe with Project Berlin, providing food to the people of West Berlin amid increased Soviet oppression.
Leo Cherne, a board member since 1946, elected IRC Chairman, a position he would hold for 40 years.
In South Vietnam, the IRC begins a program to aid one million refugees following defeat of the French by the North Vietnamese. The program develops into a vast, long-range relief and resettlement effort for Indochinese refugees: Vietnamese, Laotians and Cambodians.
The IRC starts resettlement and relief programs for Hungarian refugees after the revolution is crushed by Soviet forces.
An IRC resettlement program begins for Cuban refugees fleeing the Castro dictatorship and for Haitian refugees escaping the Duvalier regime.
IRC operations are extended to Africa when 200,000 Angolans flee to Zaire IRC also begins aid to Chinese fleeing to Hong Kong from the mainland.
IRC provides extensive support, especially medical, health, child care and schooling, for the 10 million East Pakistani refugees fleeing to India. The work continues as the refugees return to their new nation of Bangladesh.
IRC takes a leading role in the resettlement of Asian nationals persecuted and expelled from Uganda by dictator Idi Amin.
Chilean refugees are assisted by the IRC in their efforts to win asylum in the U.S. IRC also helps refugees from Uruguay, Paraguay and Guatemala.
The IRC begins emergency relief, medical, educational and self-help programs for Indochinese refugees fleeing to Thailand, later to include thousands from Burma.
IRC President Leo Cherne organizes the Citizens Commission on Indochinese Refugees, comprising a cross-section of America's political, cultural and religious leaders. The Commission conducted many trips to Southeast Asia and for years served as the leading advocate of people fleeing from Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
Departure of refugees from the Soviet Union - mostly dissidents, Armenians, Jews reaches a peak of 53,000. Thousands are resettled by IRC.
IRC launches emergency relief programs for Afghan refugees fleeing to Pakistan, leading to long-term health, education, self-reliance and job training programs.
IRC starts emergency programs in the Sudan for flood of refugees fleeing Ethiopia. The work extends to Somalia in 1981.
IRC assists Palestinian and Lebanese refugees uprooted by the war in Lebanon.
In El Salvador, the IRC initiates a broad range of health, child care and community development projects for displaced victims of civil war.
Spanish Refugee Aid becomes a division of IRC, serving the survivors of the Spanish Civil War in France.
IRC begins health care program in Poland, in partnership with the Polish trade union movement, Solidarity.
IRC responds to refugee flow of Mozambicans to Malawi — soon to exceed one million — by initiating relief programs. Eight years later, IRC assists the returning refugees inside Mozambique.
IRC starts community rehabilitation activities in Afghanistan for tens of thousands of Afghan refugees returning home from Pakistan.
Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children established by IRC to serve the rights and interests of 80% of the world's refugees: women and children.
The IRC also launches emergency health and healthcare training programs in Sudan serving some 250,000 displaced people in Bhar El Ghazal and the Upper Nile states.
After the first Gulf War, the IRC comes to the aid of hundreds of thousands of Kurdish refugees who flee to the mountains of Turkey to escape Saddam Hussein's terror.
IRC begins work in the former Yugoslavia dealing initially with the consequences of the ethnic cleansing carried out by the Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The IRC later launches comprehensive community rehabilitation programs in Bosnia.
IRC sets up emergency programs to aid Rwandan refugees pouring into Tanzania and the former Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo) as a result of the genocide and ensuing civil war.
The IRC moves into Somaliland, providing agriculture extension training and small business credit programs for refugees returning from camps in Ethiopia.
In Burundi, the IRC begins emergency aid to displaced people in six of the country's 16 provinces.
IRC begins operating inside Kosovo, eventually providing aid to help meet the needs of hundreds of thousands of Kosovar refugees fleeing to Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro and Bosnia.
IRC opens an office in the United Kingdom to support the IRC’s global interventions and to add a new voice to the sometimes disquieting debates on refugees and asylum in the UK.
IRC health care and public health services are established in Congo-Brazzaville.
Emergency operations are launched for the East Timorese following a rampage by Indonesian militia groups that leaves tens of thousands of people homeless.
In Ingushetia, the IRC launches emergency shelter, sanitation, and education for Chechen refugees fleeing fighting between Russian forces and separatist Chechen rebels.
IRC activities broaden inside Afghanistan, with emergency aid programs to one million displaced people, and reconstruction and rehabilitation for more than two million refugees returning from Pakistan and Iran.
IRC undertakes an advocacy campaign to reverse the U.S. government's slowdown in refugee resettlement approval following the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks.
IRC participates in the demobilization of 1,200 child soldiers in Sierra Leone.
IRC responds to the war in Iraq with water and sanitation, and health care support.
Programs expand in West Africa, with continued war in Liberia and new fighting in Ivory Coast, and growing populations of refugees and displaced persons in those countries and in Guinea and Sierra Leone. Programs include health, education, family reunification and gender-based violence prevention.
The IRC’s Mortality Survey for the Democratic Republic of Congo estimates that 3.9 million people have died in the DRC since the conflict began in 1998, making it the world’s deadliest conflict since World War II.
IRC mobile relief teams, with specialists in health, water and sanitation, and child protection, deliver emergency services and supplies to the province of Aceh, Indonesia—the region closest to the epicenter of the devastating December 26, 2004 earthquake and tsunami.
In Sudan, the IRC begins providing health, water and sanitation, hygiene awareness, shelter, flood and drought relief, food security and economic revitalization assistance to nearly 100 communities in the Darfur region.
The IRC starts providing essential services to Sudanese refugees in neighboring Chad.
Long-term aid by the IRC continues to help tsunami-affected communities in Indonesia by rehabilitating healthcare infrastructure, providing psychosocial support to children and families, and offering community regeneration.
Following a devastating earthquake in Pakistan, IRC emergency teams respond to help 250,000 people and treat thousands of the sick and injured.
Only days after Hurricane Katrina destroyed a swath of the Gulf Coast in August, the IRC dispatches an emergency team of relief experts to Louisiana. It is our first response to a humanitarian crisis in the United States.
Working with local groups, the IRC provided urgent assistance to thousands of people affected by fighting between Israeli forces and Hezbollah in Lebanon.
IRC launches campaign to aid and support over 4 million displaced and uprooted Iraqis.
The IRC observes our 75th anniversary.
IRC affiliate the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children becomes the Women's Refugee Commission.
The IRC begins providing aid in Haiti after a massive earthquake strikes just outside Port-au-Prince on January 12.
The IRC helps Japanese aid groups provide lifesaving assistance to survivors of a massive earthquake and tsunami that struck northeastern Japan on March 11.
The IRC begins assisting Syrians whose lives have been uprooted by a brutal civil war. In 2015, we provided aid to over 1.4 million people inside Syria.
When one of the strongest storms in recorded history slams the Philippines, the IRC deploys an emergency team to assist the millions affected by Typhoon Haiyan.
When West Africa experiences the largest outbreak of the Ebola virus in history, the IRC is at the forefront of the response to curb its spread, training thousands of local health facilities in Sierra Leone and other countries on how to protect health workers and limit the spread of the disease.
When 60,000 unaccompanied children cross the border into the United States from Central America in the summer of 2014, the IRC seeks to find out why and to reunite some of them with relatives in America.
The IRC establishes an emergency response team on the Greek island of Lesbos to provide aid to the thousands of Syrian refugees arriving from Turkey who are fleeing their country's brutal civil war. The IRC soon expands our work to multiple refugee sites on the Greek mainland and in Serbia.
After Nepal's worst earthquake in 80 years, thousands of quake victims receive emergency assistance from the IRC’s partner organization, Association for Aid and Relief, Japan (AAR).
Violence that broke out following a contested presidential election drives 260,000 Burundians to flee the country and leaves tens of thousands internally displaced. The IRC provides support to uprooted families inside Burundi and in neighboring countries.
When you think of an unforgettable Michelangelo statue, the Pietà may come to mind. But the Madonna of Bruges is probably the piece of work by the Italian master with the most interesting story. Created in 1503, the statue was transported to Bruges, Belgium, by Bruges-based merchant Alexander Mouscron, who often visited Florence for business.
Michelangelo | CC BY-SA 3.0
It is different from Michelangelo’s other works that feature the two main characters of the Virgin and Christ Child. In his other pieces Michelangelo represented the Virgin as a pious figure smiling down at their baby. Here, Mary is shown in a pensive pose, looking at the ground, while the Christ Child seems to be moving outwards, towards the world. Critics think this arrangement may have to do with the fact that the Madonna knew the fate that was awaiting her son, as she was holding the scriptures in her left hand. Both figures form an elliptical shape that adds to the overall monumental feel of the work.
Mouscron kept the statue in his namesake chapel for years, where it was allegedly admired by Flemish artist Durer. But the fate of the statue took an unexpected twist during the French Revolution. In 1794, French revolutionaries seized control of then-Austrian controlled Bruges and took the statue with them to Paris.
It was only after the end of the Napoleonic era, in 1816, that the sculpture was returned to its original location. However, it did not remain there for long.
In 1944, the sculpture was taken by Nazi troops who were fleeing Bruges following the arrival of American troops in this part of Europe. Along with the statue, Nazis took other Renaissance-era paintings. The precious cargo was allegedly wrapped in a mattress and transported via a Red Cross truck over the border.
Eventually, the sculpture ended up in a salt mine of Altaussee, from which it was rescued in 1945 by Stephen Kovalyak, George Stout and Thomas Carr, who came to be known as “the Monuments Men,” a special team charged by president F.D. Roosevelt to rescue artworks stolen by the Nazis throughout Europe. The Madonna of Bruges was finally returned to Bruges, where it currently stands inside the Church of Our Lady of Bruges. Indeed, the church interior and the famous Michelangelo statue are featured in the 2014 movie The Monuments Men.
The True Story of Dunkirk, As Told Through the Heroism of the “Medway Queen”
The crew of the Medway Queen was taking on an unusually large load of supplies for their next mission. The cook’s assistant remarked, “Enough grub has been put aboard us to feed a ruddy army,” writes Walter Lord in The Miracle of Dunkirk. As it turned out, that was precisely the idea. Little did the crew know, but the Medway Queen was about to be sent across the English Channel on one of the most daring rescue missions of World War II: Operation Dynamo, better known as the evacuation of Dunkirk.
In the late spring of 1940, European powers were still engaged in what had been dubbed the “Phoney War.” Despite Germany’s invasion of Poland the previous September, France and Britain had done little more than assemble troops on their side of the defensive lines and glower at Adolf Hitler’s troops. But on May 10, the Germans launched a blitzkrieg attack on the Netherlands and Belgium by May 15, they’d broken through French defenses and turned towards the English Channel. Within a week, around 400,000 Allied soldiers—comprising the bulk of the British Expeditionary Forces, three French armies and the remnants of the Belgian troops—were surrounded on the northern coast of France, concentrated near the coastal city of Dunkirk.
But rather than strike while the troops were stuck on the beaches, Hitler gave his Panzer troops a halt order. Perhaps he was worried about a British counter-attack, or he thought the German air force could overwhelm the Allied forces at Dunkirk without the help of ground artillery the reason for his hesitation has never been entirely explained. But it gave the British military just enough time to organize an evacuation.
When Operation Dynamo began late on May 26, British officers charged with organizing the frantic escape estimated that only 45,000 men might be saved. But over the next eight days, nearly 1,000 British ships—both military and civilian—crossed the Channel repeatedly to rescue 338,226 people, while the Royal Air Force fought the Luftwaffe above. Another 220,000 Allied soldiers were rescued from the French ports of Saint-Malo, Brest, Cherbourg and Saint-Nazaire by the British.
The Dunkirk evacuation inspired one of Winston Churchill’s most dramatic speeches on June 4, when he told the House of Commons, “We shall go on to the end… we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches… we shall fight in the hills we shall never surrender.”
The "Medway Queen" shown here before it was converted to a minesweeper for use in World War II. (Richard Halton Collection)
The events of late May, 1940, became the stuff of legend—the “little ships” piloted by civilians were alternately lauded or ignored (those that sunk made it harder for other ships to get to shore to rescue the soldiers, and many of the civilian ships were actually manned by Navy personnel).
Among the first to traverse the approximately 60 miles across the Channel to Dunkirk, and the last to leave on the final day of operations, was the Medway Queen. The former pleasure cruiser was 180 feet long, with paddle wheels on both sides of its hull. Built in 1924, the ship carried passengers on short tours on the River Thames and around Britain’s southeast side.
When it was called to the war effort, the boat was repainted and retrofitted with minesweeping gear to patrol the Straits of Dover for German mines, plus anti-aircraft machine guns. Before assisting in the evacuation at Dunkirk, the boat had already accomplished several important missions for the British war effort. The vessel transported children to safer locations around the country, and was then charged with surveilling the rivers around London and the Straits of Dover for mines. But nothing in the ship's early war experience could’ve prepared its crew for Operation Dynamo.
On the beaches of Dunkirk, chaos reigned. Soldiers formed lines into the water or onto the eastern pier (called a “mole”) and stood in their places for up to three days, without sleep, food or drink. All the while, German planes dropped bombs across the beach and onto the ships attempting to rescue the men. One soldier named Brian Bishop, who boarded the Medway Queen on June 1, described the terrifying experience of waiting to be picked up:
“The mole had been bombed in several places and across the gaps gangplanks had been placed. It was difficult carrying stretchers along it and then having to lift them shoulder height across the gangplanks. Just as we were moving on an officer examined our stretcher case and said, ‘He’s dead, tip him out and fetch another.’”
Even after Bishop made it to the ship, the soldiers couldn’t stop themselves from panicking when the German planes flew overhead, dive-bombing and machine-gunning the boat during its trip across the Channel. “When we were attacked the first few times everyone rushed to one side or to the other side when the planes were approaching,” Bishop recalled. “Someone on the bridge bellowed over a megaphone, ‘Sit down and keep still.’”
A crowd of troops on deck one of the destroyers that participated in Operation Dynamo. (Imperial War Museum )
For the crew of the Medway Queen, the operation was just as strenuous and terrifying. On one overnight trip across the Channel, the ship’s paddle wheels churned up the glowing phosphorescence in the water, leaving a visible wake that made the 180-foot ship an easy target for German bombers. But the crew of the ship “were nothing if not resourceful,” said Sub-Lieutenant Graves. “[We] devised oil bags which were lowered over the bow… to break the force of heavy waves. This was most successful, our brilliant wakes disappeared,” Graves said in Dunkirk: From Disaster to Deliverance, Testimonies of the Last Survivors.
After they’d settled the issue of their shimmering wake, the crew still had to contend with the ship’s funnel, whose billowing soot caught fire. They dumped water down it to quench the flames, which one man in the engine room furiously protested, saying, “I do not intend to be f***ing well drowned on the job!” And the cook and his assistant were hard-pressed to prepare meals for the thousands of men they picked up in a galley the size of a small closet.
Although the trip only took several hours each way, the loading process could be lengthy and sometimes required picking up men from other rescue vessels that were hit by German planes. Boats went back and forth across the Channel at all times of day, going as quickly as possible to rescue as many as possible
The crew of the Medway “went into extreme danger seven nights out of eight,” writes historian Richard Halton, a member of the Medway Queen Preservation Society and the author of The Medway Queen, in an email. “They spent most of the day cleaning the ship, restocking stores, fuel and ammunition and then sailed for France each evening. They did this repeatedly despite obvious severe casualties in other vessels.”
British troops on a destroyer at Dover, having successfully crossed the Channel. (Imperial War Museum)
The Medway Queen finished its last trip on June 4, after being hit by a nearby vessel that was shelled by the Germans early that morning. Despite damage to the starboard paddle box, the captain managed to steer the ship back to Dover, where its arrival was heralded by the sound of sirens from ships all over Dover Harbor. The remarkable success and bravery of the Medway Queen’s crew resulted in the captain, Lieutenant A.T. Cook, and Sub-lieutenant J.D. Graves receiving the Distinguished Service Cross, and several other crewmembers receiving awards as well. While Halton notes the statistics are unreliable, it’s estimated the Medway Queen rescued 7,000 men and shot down three enemy aircraft.
“Medway Queen made more trips than most other ships. For a small ship lightly armed she did remarkably well,” Halton said.
At the end of the battle, Dunkirk was left in ruins and 235 vessels were lost, along with at least 5,000 soldiers. The Germans managed to capture 40,000 Allied soldiers, who were forced into hard labor for the remainder of the war. But even though the operation was a retreat with heavy casualties, the rescue of nearly half a million troops from Dunkirk went on to be one of the most important victories of the war and may well have changed its outcome. As historian Patrick Wilson writes, “Rarely do people … give enough credit to the Royal Navy and the larger vessels that were responsible for rescuing the massive majority of troops. Dunkirk was the beginning of the end for the Third Reich.”
As for the Medway Queen, the ship returned to its work as a pleasure boat at the end of the war and even appeared in several movies. When the boat was retired and about to become scrap metal, a group of history lovers purchased the boat and have been working on various restoration and preservation projects since the 1980s. Today the Medway Queen is docked in Gillingham, not far from London, and is cared for by the Medway Queen Preservation Society. “In preserving the ship we keep alive memories of past ages and the stories of the people that were involved,” Halton said.
7 Bummer And Lazarus
In the 1860s, two stray dogs called Bummer and Lazarus were given the run of the city of San Francisco at a time when any other stray dog would have been rounded up and thrown in the pound. But Bummer and Lazarus were different&mdashthey were celebrities. The newspapers of the day reported their doggy exploits as if they were Posh and Becks or Brad and Angelina. If they got into a fight with rival dogs, the papers often printed an exaggerated account of it the next day, complete with eyewitness testimony and a dramatized cartoon of the event. Even Mark Twain took time out from working on Huckleberry Finn to write about them.
The reason they were so beloved was due to their close friendship. Bummer started off as tough mutt who begged people for scraps, hence his name. When another stray arrived in the city and lost a fight, witnesses thought he&rsquod be torn to shreds&hellipuntil Bummer came running in to fight off his attacker. As Bummer nursed the injured dog back to health, it was given a new name&mdashLazarus. Their legend grew and every twist and turn of their friendship was reported on. When Bummer was shot in the leg and Lazarus didn&rsquot look after him, there was uproar, with the whole city turning on Lazarus. This weird press fascination went on until both dogs died. And even after that, the coverage continued, with each newspaper accusing the other of publishing erroneous details about the dogs&rsquo deaths.
With the German plan of attack, their Navy and other airborne troops struck simultaneously at several key locations: Oslo, Bergen Stavanger, and Trondheim, amongst others. The coastal forts at the Oslofjord held up their offensive initially, but once the Germans had organized themselves, its progress was rapid.
The Oslofjord was a key location for the attacking German soldiers
By 13 April, a mere four days after the invasion started, the German Army had moved more than seventy miles outside of Oslo and captured Halden, south-east of Oslo and Kongsberg, to the south-west. A week later eleven days into the campaign, the German army had advanced almost two hundred miles from the capital.
The Norwegians put their faith in the British and French armies arriving in an effort to help stem the advance of the Germans, but unfortunately, it never came.
The British did initially try to stem the German advance through Norway they planned smaller landings that were made north and south of the city of Namsos and Andalsnes. The idea was that the Allied units would then meet Norwegian defense forces and move towards the city of Trondheim.
The British landed at Namsos on 16 April and Andalsnes on 18. Three days later, the Germans attacked them and their Norwegian counterparts and after about one week of fighting and maneuvering the British troops were re-embarking at Namsos and withdrawing from Norway.
Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs)
406 MHz beacons designed for use in an aircraft are known as an Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT). ELTs can be manually activated by the pilot or automatically activated by a G-switch. ELTs transmit for at least 24 hours and most have the 121.5 MHz homing capability.
Some 406 MHz ELTs may also transmit a position within the distress alert. This position may be a one-time input from the aircrafts navigation system or may be periodically updated from a GPS processor internal to the ELT. The one-time position input may not represent the most accurate position of the ELT since it may not be known when that position was last inserted into the message.
Antiquated 121.5 MHZ ELTs are also available. The 121.5 MHz ELTs were intended to alert other aircraft flying overhead of a crash. Satellites are not listening for the 121.5 MHz ELT signal. A major limitation of a 121.5 MHz ELT is that another aircraft must be within range and listening to 121.5 MHz to receive the signal.
There are approximately 170,000 of the older generation 121.5 MHz ELTs in service. Unfortunately, these have proven to be highly ineffective. They have a 97% false alarm rate, activate properly in only 12% of crashes, and provide no identification data.
406 MHz ELTs dramatically reduce the false alert impact on SAR resources, have a higher accident survivability success rate, and decrease the time required to reach accident victims by an average of 6 hours.
Presently, most aircraft operators are mandated to carry an ELT and have the option to choose between either a 406 MHz ELT or a 121.5 MHz ELT. The Federal Aviation Administration has studied the issue of mandating carriage of 406 MHz ELTs. The study indicates that 134 extra lives and millions of dollars in SAR resources could be saved per year. No one can argue the importance of 406 MHz ELTs and the significant advantages they hold.
Due to the obvious advantages of 406 MHz beacons and the significant disadvantages to the older 121.5 MHz beacons, the International Cospas-Sarsat Program stopped monitoring of 121.5 MHz by satellites on February 1st, 2009. All pilots are highly encouraged both by NOAA and by the FAA to consider making the switch to 406!
If you need to register a 406 MHz ELT, you can now register online or you may download a beacon registration form from the registration website and then fax the form to us at: (301) 817-4565. For any other registration questions, please call us at: 1-888-212-SAVE (7283).
The Forgotten 500: The Untold Story of the Men Who Risked All For the Greatest Rescue Mission of World War II PDF Details
|Author:||Gregory A. Freeman|
|Original Title:||The Forgotten 500: The Untold Story of the Men Who Risked All For the Greatest Rescue Mission of World War II|
|Number Of Pages:||336 pages|
|First Published in:||2007|
|Latest Edition:||September 1st 2007|
|category:||history, non fiction, war, world war ii, war, military, war|
|Formats:||ePUB(Android), audible mp3, audiobook and kindle.|
The translated version of this book is available in Spanish, English, Chinese, Russian, Hindi, Bengali, Arabic, Portuguese, Indonesian / Malaysian, French, Japanese, German and many others for free download.
Please note that the tricks or techniques listed in this pdf are either fictional or claimed to work by its creator. We do not guarantee that these techniques will work for you.
Some of the techniques listed in The Forgotten 500: The Untold Story of the Men Who Risked All For the Greatest Rescue Mission of World War II may require a sound knowledge of Hypnosis, users are advised to either leave those sections or must have a basic understanding of the subject before practicing them.
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As Allied troops moved into Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they encountered concentration camps, mass graves, and numerous other sites of Nazi crimes. Soviet forces were the first to overrun a major Nazi concentration camp, Lublin/Majdanek , near Lublin, Poland, in July 1944.On January 27, 1945, Soviet troops liberated Auschwitz . The US military did not participate in the liberation of any extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Poland.
Though the liberation of Nazi camps was not a primary military objective, American soldiers advancing into the interior of Germany in the spring of 1945 liberated major concentration camps, including Buchenwald , Dachau , and Mauthausen , as well as hundreds of subcamps. They also encountered and liberated prisoners on forced marches and those who had been abandoned by their Nazi captors.
After touring the Ohrdruf concentration camp on April 12, 1945, General Dwight D. Eisenhower sent a telegram to Washington:
“The things I saw beggar description…The visual evidence and the verbal testimony of starvation, cruelty and bestiality were…overpowering…I made the visit deliberately in order to be in a position to give firsthand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops a tendency to charge these allegations merely to propaganda.”
Eisenhower encouraged American soldiers in the vicinity of a concentration camp to tour the site, take photographs , and write letters to their families in the United States describing what they had seen. He also arranged for delegations of journalists and members of Congress to tour the newly liberated camps.
Special Operations Outlook 2019 Digital Edition is here!
An R-4 Hoverfly of the type used for the first helicopter combat rescue mission. Robert F. Dorr Collection photo
Today’s Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) had their beginnings in the jungles of Burma during World War II. There, the upstart 1st Air Commando Group waged an unconventional and unorthodox war against the Japanese, often operating behind enemy lines. The Air Commandos were an irreverent, unruly band of mavericks who cared little for the spit and polish of military life but fought courageously. They operated independently of the rest of the military chain of command and felt free to introduce new ideas to warfare – among them, a new kind of flying machine called the helicopter, one of which would perform the world’s first helicopter rescue.
In 1943, when new pilot 2nd Lt. Carter Harman and a few others accepted an unusual assignment to the Sikorsky plant in Stratford, Conn., the new craft was being routinely called a “whirlybird” or an “eggbeater.” Harman learned to fly one of the newfangled machines, called the YR-4B, and then took it halfway around the world to Burma.
The Air Commandos’ chance to test the new machine came when Tech. Sgt. Ed Hladovcak, the intrepid sergeant-pilot known as Murphy (“Do you see anybody around here who knows how to pronounce Hladovcak?”) crashed in an L-1 Vigilant liaison plane, along with three British soldiers.
The Air Commandos’ chance to test the new machine came when Tech. Sgt. Ed Hladovcak, the intrepid sergeant-pilot known as Murphy (“Do you see anybody around here who knows how to pronounce Hladovcak?”) crashed in an L-1 Vigilant liaison plane, along with three British soldiers.
Hladovcak and the trio of His Majesty’s soldiers were miles behind Japanese lines. Another liaison plane, an L-5 Sentinel, pinpointed their location but could not land in vegetated terrain crisscrossed by paddy fields. Harman and his crew chief, Sgt. Jim Phelan, were 500 miles away in India when they received the message: “Send the eggbeater in.” The R-4 would have to carry extra gas and would be able to lift only one survivor at a time.
A Vultee L-1 Vigilant like the one that went down in Burma, making it necessary to launch the Air Commandos’ Sikorsky R-4 Hoverfly on its rescue mission. Robert F. Dorr Collection photo
It was the sort of thing these early, special ops airmen were good at. Independent, untidy, at times arrogant, and commanded by a mere colonel who answered only to Washington – Philip “Flip” Cochran, the real-life model for Terry and the Pirates – the Air Commandos constituted the personal air force of Brigadier Orde C. Wingate, the unorthodox British commander in the CBI. Their tools were the P-51A Mustang fighter, B-25 Mitchell bombers packing a 75 mm cannon in the nose, the L-5 Sentinel liaison aircraft, the Waco CG-4A glider, the trusty C-47 Skytrain and, now, the R-4.
“There was a small group of us, three pilots and half a dozen crew chiefs and others, including Jim Phelan, and this new gadget called a helicopter was pretty interesting. Sikorsky acted as a training school and graduated the first class of Army Air Forces helicopter pilots. In October 1943, I became the seventh Army pilot ever to solo a helicopter.”
“Irreverent?” asked Col. Fleming Johnson, an Air Commando veteran: “Hell, we were damn near insubordinate half the time. We wouldn’t have shined on anybody’s parade ground. We weren’t good at snapping salutes or saying, ‘sir.’ And regular Army officers didn’t understand that we were different.”
Upstarts who would have failed a white-glove inspection were the norm among the Air Commandos. “Irreverent?” asked Col. Fleming Johnson, an Air Commando veteran: “Hell, we were damn near insubordinate half the time. We wouldn’t have shined on anybody’s parade ground. We weren’t good at snapping salutes or saying, ‘sir.’ And regular Army officers didn’t understand that we were different.” In fact, Cochran, Johnson, and the other Air Commandos were more than different: They were the point of the spear.
The L-1 Vigilant crash took place on April 21, 1944. “Maybe the L-1 had been flying too low,” Hladovcak acknowledged later. “Who was to say? The L-1 was a sturdy aircraft used for operations behind Japanese lines. It performed well. But when my L-1 went down in a rice paddy, an embankment caught the plane’s fixed landing gear and snapped it off, ending any prospect of that particular L-1 ever flying again.”