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Charlie Waite and Sweetheart

Charlie Waite and Sweetheart

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Charlie Waite and Sweetheart

Charlie Waite, a veteran of Dunkirk, seen in a wartime photograph with his sweetheart.

Charlie Waite features in Dunkirk: The Forgotten Heroes, broadcast on Yesterday in the UK. Many thanks to Yesterday for providing us with these pictures.

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A former gunslinger is forced to take up arms again when he and his cattle crew are threatened by a corrupt lawman. Boss Spearman, Charley Waite, Mose Harrison and Button free graze their cattle across the vast prairies of the West, sharing a friendship forged by a steadfast code of honor and living a life unencumbered by civilization. When their wayward herd forces them near the small town of Harmonville, the cowboys encounter a corrupt sheriff and kingpin rancher who govern the territory through fear, tyranny and violence. Boss and Charley find themselves inextricably drawn towards an inevitable showdown, as they are forced to defend the freedom and values of a lifestyle that is all too quickly vanishing. Amidst the turmoil, life suddenly takes an unexpected turn for the loner Charley when he meets the beautiful and warm spirited Sue Barlow, a woman who embraces both his heart and his soul.

Thank you!

France Surrenders

Meanwhile, the French military was in tatters and seemed poised for defeat. From the day of the German invasion on May 10 through the evacuation of Dunkirk, France had lost 24 infantry divisions, including six of seven motorized divisions. Instead of four armored divisions equipped with 200 tanks each, the country now had three, each equipped with 40. The new French commander, Maxime Weygand, transferred soldiers from the Maginot Line, but could muster only 43 infantry divisions to face the Third Reich&rsquos 104. Allied assistance had disappeared. The British had withdrawn all but two divisions south of Dunkirk, and the Belgian Army had surrendered.

The French were further hampered by a lack of strategic clarity. Premier Paul Reynaud favored a Dunkirk-like evacuation to North Africa, where the army could be protected by the French Fleet and the Royal Navy while it reconstituted itself, gathered additional forces from the French colonial empire and took delivery on a fleet of planes from the U.S. Commander Weygand, however, opposed such a move and vowed to remain on French soil to defend his homeland. Within Reynaud&rsquos cabinet, there was an appeasement faction, coalescing around Deputy Premier Marshal Pétain, which was considering a potential deal with Adolf Hitler.

General Alan Brooke returned to France to command the few remaining British units and judged the situation untenable. In a tense conversation with Churchill, Brooke demanded a further evacuation, and when Churchill argued that a British presence was needed to make the French feel supported, Brooke replied: &ldquoIt is impossible to make a corpse feel.&rdquo

The French fought as well as they could, relying on small groups of troops and armaments gathered into tight factions called &ldquoHedgehogs.&rdquo From June 5 to June 7, these pockets of resistance slowed the Germans as they crossed the marshes of the Somme River at Hangst in the west and at Péronne in the east. At Amiens, 90 miles northwest of Paris, the German 10th Panzer Division lost two thirds of its tanks in just three days. The 7th Panzer Division, led by Erwin Rommel, finally broke through in the west and charged 20 miles south of the Somme to cut off one British division, which retreated and later evacuated. As the days proceeded, Rommel simply directed his Panzers around the remaining Hedgehogs, and the French were unable to mount an effective counterattack.

It didn&rsquot take long for the Germans, whose Panzers were rolling rapidly through the country, to wear down the French. Paris fell on June 14.

On June 17, Rommel covered 150 miles westward and on June 19 he captured Cherbourg. The French government, which had been in a state of crisis for weeks, signed an armistice on June 22. The agreement divided France into two parts, the northern half under direct German occupation and the south under a puppet regime led by Pétain. It had taken the Germans just 18 days after Dunkirk to capture France.

British Fortitude

Britain now stood alone against the Nazis and many wondered whether it would be the next to concede. Some members of the British government, beginning to regret the rise of the uncompromising Churchill, considered what sort of an agreement might be reached with the German leader. Hitler tentatively planned for a British invasion, code-named Operation Sea Lion, but he knew that such an incursion would be risky, difficult and very costly, and so he waited for a British peace offer.

Churchill was having none of it. Brilliantly spinning the defeat at Dunkirk into an expression of the &ldquoDunkirk spirit,&rdquo Churchill urged his people to display the grit of the British troops and the can-do attitude of civilians who volunteered their ships for the rescue operation. He quickly replaced the equipment lost in France. He began currying a relationship with U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, who signaled his intention to assist the British in any way he could. And in July, when Hitler&rsquos bombers began attacking English cities in an effort to force surrender, Churchill prepared the nation for the three-month-long siege that would come to be called the Battle of Britain.

On August 20, as the aerial conflict entered its most intense stage, Churchill took to the airways to pay tribute to the courageous pilots of the RAF: &ldquoThe gratitude of every home in our Island, in our Empire, and indeed throughout the world except in the abodes of the guilty, goes out to the British airmen who, undaunted by odds, unwearied in their constant challenge and mortal danger, are turning the tide of the world war by their prowess and by their devotion. Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.&rdquo

On September 15, the Luftwaffe launched over 1,000 aircraft in the campaign&rsquos most concentrated bombing raid yet against London. The assault failed to produce the desired results, with the British capital escaping serious harm. Instead, 20 German planes were damaged and another 60 shot down. To cut his losses, Hitler scaled back the raids in favor of the limited nighttime strikes known as the Blitz, which continued until May 1941.

The RAF had stood up to the Luftwaffe and won. The threat of a German invasion was over. Soon, as Churchill predicted, the &ldquotide of the world war&rdquo would shift toward the forces of freedom. During the next five years, Churchill and the British leadership were able to expand the size of the British army, add new planes to the resources of the RAF, repair and replace the ships lost at Dunkirk and reestablish the British Navy as one of the most powerful in the world. Newly fortified, British soldiers fought against advances in North Africa and the Middle East by the Axis forces.

Without Dunkirk, none of this would have been possible, nor would Britain have been able to hold out until December 1941 and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which brought the Americans into the war as a critical ally.

When the Allied forces landed in Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944, three of the eight divisions that took part were British. Two were dropped from the air and one arrived by ship and stormed the beaches beside its American allies. The victory that followed was sweet for all involved, but for the British, it was more than that. It was redemption.

Marie Waite – “Spanish Marie”

It was said Marie Waite fell heir to the rum running business when her husband’s corpse washed ashore on Biscayne Bay in 1926. Charlie Waite, known as “king of the rum runners,” had been killed in a shootout with the Coast Guard.

Known as “Spanish Marie,” she set up shop in Havana where she “ruthlessly ruled a little rum running empire.” As a savvy businesswoman and formidable female admiral, she eventually became the controlling principle in the illicit booze trade from Havana to Key West. She commanded a flotilla of fifteen contact boats, the fastest in the business, and ran booze along Florida’s southern coast from Palm Beach to Key West.

At six-feet-tall, Waite is said to have been well-proportioned and very attractive with black hair and blue eyes, a product of a Swedish father and Mexican mother. With a hot Latin temperament to go along with her allure, Rum War at Sea, described her as, “a fickle and dangerous person, with morals as free as the four winds.”

It’s said she attracted a stable of men, but alas, not all survived her bedroom charms. Discarding her lovers in as few as three months, she would encase them in concrete and have them dropped into the salty brine in the Florida Straits between Havana and Key West. Dead men tell no tales.

A formidable foe, Waite used every means at her disposal to counter those who opposed her rum running activities. If her beauty didn’t woo them to keep their lips zipped, then her money did. Many a fine upstanding lawman fell into her well-laid traps, and upon several occasions she even approached the Coast Guard with promises of plenty of green. To no avail, enmity with the Coast Guard prevailed throughout her days on the seas.

It was difficult for the coast Guard to intercept Waite’s boats. Often using a convoy system of four boats to elude their grasp, three of the boats would be loaded with liquor with the fourth loaded with firepower. The latter would hold off the advancing Coast Guard while the others made a run for it.

When the Coast Guard obtained faster boats and communication advantages, they were able to put a dent in Spanish Marie’s inventory. But she countered with radio-equipped boats and an unlicensed radio transmitting station on Key West. Sending out seemingly innocuous words and phrases in Spanish, she continued to conduct her trade until the Coast Guard broke the code. Using information gleaned from her transmissions, they gathered valuable and continuous information about her business.

Spanish Marie’s empire crumbled on March 12, 1928 when she and her crew were caught in Cocoanut Grove in Miami unloading liquor from her boat, Kid Boots, into waiting trucks. Waite, Fred Harvey, Rolland Stuart, boat master, and four truck drivers, Will Johnson, G. A. McKinney, J. McKinney and F.A. McKinney were arrested for the transportation of 5,526 bottles of whiskey run, gin, wine, alcohol, champagne and beer.

A $500 bond was originally posted, but when Waite failed to show up in court the next day, that amount jumped to $3,000. Attorney General Mabel Walker Willebrandt in her book, The Inside of Prohibition, gave this account:

Not being certain of the honesty of those to whom she had entrusted the land delivery of this liquor cargo, Marie left her home and two sleeping babies that morning in response to a telephone call telling her of the safe arrival at its destination of the rum vessel from Bimini. Having employed a special pilot boat to scout the coast near the landing place to “spot” coast guardsmen, and to direct the landing movements of the rum boat’s crew by means of flash-light signals, she entertained, it appeared, no doubt as to the rum boat’s safe and unmolested landing.

Overcome with emotion during interrogation on the flagship after her arrest, she pleaded for immediate release to enable her to go home to her children. Under the circumstances, she was released under a five-hundred-dollar bond for her appearance for a preliminary hearing the following day. On the appearance day she was absent, but was represented by an attorney who moved for a continuance on the ground that his client was at home in bed suffering from nervous prostration. Had not her attorney forgotten to obtain a doctor’s certificate showing her condition to be as represented, and had not Marie met and talked with a special under-cover customs agent in Bimini the night before, it is quite possible that a continuance would have been granted and the embarrassment of furnishing a three-thousand-dollar bond in place of the original bond avoided!

Spanish Marie was never brought to justice. She disappeared along with her boats, money, and pistol, leaving no record of what eventually happened to her.

Click here to order a copy of Run the Rum In, which includes more fascinating stories about South Florida during the Prohibition era.


Brown grew up in Massillon, Ohio, where he moved with his family from Norwalk when he was nine years of age. [5] His father, Lester, was a dispatcher for the Wheeling and Lake Erie Railroad. [6] [7] Massillon was a shipping and steel town obsessed with its high school and professional football teams, both called the Tigers. [8] Massillon's main rival at both levels was nearby Canton, a bigger and richer city. [9] When the professional teams folded in the 1920s, the rivalry between the high school teams took center stage. [10]

Brown entered Massillon Washington High School in 1922. Although he played football as a child, Brown was undersized for the game at less than 150 pounds and at first focused his athletic energies on the pole vault. [11] Harry Stuhldreher, who went on to be one of Notre Dame's legendary Four Horsemen, was then the high school quarterback. [7] But Massillon coach Dave Stewart saw Brown's determination to be a good vaulter despite his small size and brought him onto the football team as a junior in 1924, he took over as the starting quarterback. Massillon posted a win-loss record of 15–3 in Brown's junior and senior years as the starter. [12]

Brown graduated in 1925 and enrolled at Ohio State University the following year, hoping to make the Buckeyes team. [7] [13] He never got past the tryout phase. [14] After his freshman year, he transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he followed Weeb Ewbank as the school's starting quarterback. Under Coach Chester Pittser, Brown was named to the All-Ohio small-college second team by the Associated Press at the end of 1928. [7] [14] In two seasons at Miami, Brown guided the team to a 14–3 record. He was a member of the Kappa chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon. [14] He married his high school sweetheart Katie Kester the following year. [15] [16] Brown had taken pre-law at Miami and considered studying history on a Rhodes Scholarship, but after college he instead took his first job as a coach. On Stewart's recommendation, Severn School, a private prep school in Maryland, hired him in 1930. [17]

Severn School Edit

Brown spent two very successful years at Severn. The team was undefeated in his first season and won the Maryland state championship. [18] In 1931, the team's win-loss-tie record was 5–2–1. [18] Brown's overall record was 12–2–1. After his second year, Massillon's head coaching job became available, and Brown took the position. [19]

Massillon Tigers Edit

Brown returned to Massillon in 1932, when he was 24 years old and barely two years out of college. His assignment was to turn around a Tigers team that had fallen into mediocrity over the six seasons since the departure of Stewart, Brown's old coach. In 1931, the year before Brown arrived, the Tigers finished with a 2–6-2 record. Brown's strategy was to build up a disciplined, hard-working team. He fired an assistant early on for arriving at a practice late because he had to work on his farm. [20] No Tigers player was allowed to sit on the bench during a game Brown made them stand. At Massillon, Brown put in an offense and blocking scheme he learned from Duke's Jimmy DeHart and Purdue's Noble Kizer. He emphasized quickness over strength. [21]

In his first season at Massillon, Brown's team posted a 5–4–1 record, better than the previous year but far from Brown's exacting standards. [22] The Tigers improved again in 1933, ending with an 8–2 record but losing to their chief rivals, the Canton McKinley High School Bulldogs. In 1934, Massillon won all of its games until a 21–6 defeat to Canton in the final game of the season. [23] As the pressure on Brown grew to turn the tables on Canton, Massillon finally accomplished the feat the following year in an undefeated season, the first of several with Brown at the helm. [24]

By then, Brown had put his system into place: a strict, systematic approach to coaching combined with a well-organized recruitment network that drew promising young players from Massillon's junior high school football program. [25] He paid no attention to race, and brought several African-American players onto the team at a time when many northern schools excluded them. [26]

In the ensuing five seasons, Massillon lost only one game, a 7–0 defeat at New Castle, Pennsylvania in 1937 after several players came down with the flu. As the Tigers' prestige grew, Brown in 1936 convinced the school to build a new stadium almost triple the size of the existing 7,000-seat facility. The stadium was finished in 1939, and is now named after Brown. [27] The pinnacle of Brown's career at Massillon was a victory in the 1940 season against Toledo's Waite High School. [28] The Tigers and Waite both went undefeated in the 1939 season, and both claimed the state championship. The teams decided to settle the score the following year, and Brown's team won 28–0. [28] The Massillon 1940 squad is still regarded by historians as one of the best in the history of state high school football. [29] In a pre-season scrimmage, the Massillon Tigers played the Kent State University Golden Flashes, and defeated the older college team 47-0. [30]

During his nine years at Massillon, Brown invented the playbook, a detailed listing of formations and set plays, and tested his players on their knowledge of it. He also originated the practice of sending in plays to his quarterback from the sideline using hand signals. [31] His overall record at the school was 80–8–2, including a 35-game winning streak. [32] [33] Between 1935 and 1940, the team won the state football championship five times and won the High School Football National Championship four times, outscoring opponents by 2,393 points to 168 over that span. After the early losses to Canton, the Tigers beat the Bulldogs six straight times. [32]

Ohio State Buckeyes Edit

Brown's success at Massillon raised his profile in Ohio considerably people started calling him the "Miracle Man of Massillon." [34] When Ohio State was looking for a new coach in 1940 – Francis Schmidt left after losing to the rival Michigan Wolverines three times in a row – Brown was a candidate for the job. Ohio State officials were skeptical about the 33-year-old making the transition to college football but were worried that they might lose talented high school recruits loyal to Brown if they did not sign him. [35]

Ohio State offered Brown a $6,500 salary ($110,000 in 2020 dollars), about $1,500 above his Massillon pay. [36] He accepted in January 1941 and immediately began to institute his rigorous system. [37] Players were drilled and quizzed, and Brown focused on preparing the freshmen to take starting roles as graduating seniors left. [38] He conditioned his players to emphasize quickness, adopting the 40-yard dash as a measure of speed because that was the distance players needed to run to cover a punt. [38]

Brown's first year at Ohio State was a success. The Buckeyes won six of eight games in 1941 the only loss was to Northwestern University and its star tailback, Otto Graham. [39] The final game of the season was a 20–20 tie with Michigan, which the school's supporters saw as a good outcome given that Ohio State was a heavy underdog. [40] The Buckeyes tied for second place in the Western Conference, a grouping of college teams from the Midwestern United States (now known as the Big Ten), and finished 13th in the AP Poll. Brown was fourth in balloting for national Coach of the Year. [41]

Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, threatened to derail the 1942 season, but most college teams played on, adjusting schedules to include military teams composed of players serving in the military. [42] The Buckeyes opened the season by beating a Fort Knox team 59–0, followed by two more wins against Southern California and Indiana University. [43] In the first AP Poll of the season, Ohio State was ranked best in the nation, the first time the school had achieved that mark. [43] The 1942 team was the first composed mainly of players hand-picked by Brown, including Bill Willis, Dante Lavelli and star halfback Les Horvath. [44] In the middle of the season, the Buckeyes lost to the University of Wisconsin after numerous players drank bad water and got sick. [45] That was the team's only loss of the season, which culminated with a 21–7 victory over Michigan. The Buckeyes won the Western Conference and claimed their first-ever national title after finishing the season at the top of the AP Poll. [46]

The 1943 season was a disaster for Brown and the Buckeyes. Depleted by the military draft and facing tough competition from teams on Army and Navy bases, Brown was forced to play 17-year-old recruits who had not yet enlisted. [47] Ohio State had affiliated itself with the Army Specialized Training Program, which did not allow its trainees to participate in varsity sports, while schools such as Michigan and Purdue became part of the Navy's V-12 training program, which did. The Buckeyes ended with a 3–6 record. In three seasons at Ohio State, Brown amassed an 18–8–1 record. [7]

Great Lakes Bluejackets Edit

Brown was classified 1-A in 1944 and commissioned as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy. [48] [49] [50] He served at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station outside Chicago as head coach of its Bluejacket football team, which competed against other service teams and college programs. [51] The station was a waypoint for Navy recruits between training and active service in World War II, but its commanders took athletics seriously and saw winning as a morale-booster and a point of personal pride. [52] Brown could have been called up for active duty – Tony Hinkle, his predecessor, was already serving in the Pacific – but the war began to wind down as Brown arrived. [52] Brown had little time to institute his system, and instead adopted Hinkle's offensive scheme, borrowed from the Chicago Bears. [53] He had a smattering of talented players, including defensive end George Young and halfback Ara Parseghian. [53] In 1944, the team lost to Ohio State and Notre Dame, but finished with a 9–2–1 record and was among the top 20 teams in the AP Poll. [54]

In September 1944, Arch Ward, the influential sports editor of the Chicago Tribune, proposed a new eight-team professional football league called the All-America Football Conference (AAFC) to compete against the more established National Football League (NFL) once the war was over. [55] Ward lined up wealthy owners for the new league, which included teams in Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco and Cleveland. [56] Arthur B. "Mickey" McBride, a taxi-cab magnate who made a fortune in the newspaper business, was the owner of the Cleveland franchise. [57] As Brown was preparing for the 1945 Bluejackets season, Ward came on McBride's behalf to ask Brown if he wanted to coach the new team. [58] McBride offered $17,500 a year ($250,000 in today's dollars) – more than any coach at any level - and full authority over football matters. He also received a stake in the team and a stipend while he was still in the military. [58] [59]

On February 8, 1945, Brown accepted the job, saying he was sad to leave Ohio State, but he "couldn't turn down this deal in fairness to my family." [60] Brown was still Ohio State's head coach in absentia, and the decision surprised and outraged school officials who expected him to return after the war. [60] The AAFC did not start play until after the war, however, and Brown continued to get ready for the 1945 season at Great Lakes. [61] That year, many of his best players were transferred to bases on the West Coast as the focus of the war shifted to the Pacific. [62] The team started with a 0–4–1 record, but rattled off six straight wins after the war ended and players returned from service overseas. [63] Within weeks of Brown's final Bluejackets game, a 39–7 victory over Notre Dame, he set off for his new job in Cleveland. [64]

Cleveland Browns in the AAFC (1946–1949) Edit

By the time Brown arrived in Cleveland, the team had signed a number of players to its roster, including quarterback Otto Graham, whose Northwestern squad had beaten the Buckeyes in 1941. [65] Many of the players came from Ohio State, Great Lakes and Massillon teams that Brown coached. Lou Groza, a placekicker and tackle, played for Brown at Ohio State before the war intervened. Receiver Dante Lavelli was a sophomore on Ohio State's championship-winning team in 1942. [66] Bill Willis, a defensive lineman whom Brown coached at Ohio State, and Marion Motley, a running back who grew up in Canton and played for Brown at Great Lakes, became two of the first black athletes to play professional football when they joined the team in 1946. [67] Other signings included receiver Mac Speedie, center Frank Gatski and back Edgar "Special Delivery" Jones. [68] Brown brought in assistants including Blanton Collier, who had been stationed at Great Lakes and met Brown at Bluejackets practices. [69] [70]

The name of the team was at first left up to Brown, who rejected calls for it to be christened the Browns in his honor. [71] McBride then held a contest to name the team in May 1945, which yielded the name "Panthers," which had previously been used by an earlier team that had played in Cleveland in the 1920s. However, the nickname was scrapped soon afterward. Depending on the source, Brown rejected it after learning that the Panthers had failed (according to this version, Brown said, "That old Panthers team failed. I want no part of that name." [72] ), or McBride balked at paying the owner of the original Panthers for the rights to use the name. [59] Whatever the case, in August, McBride gave in to popular demand and christened the team the Browns, despite Paul Brown's objections. [73]

For years, however, Brown claimed that the second name-the-team contest yielded the name "Brown Bombers," after then-world heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis, whose nickname was "The Brown Bomber." According to this version, when Brown rejected the nickname "Panthers," he decided that the team needed a nickname befitting a champion, and felt the nickname "Brown Bombers" was appropriate. The name was reportedly shortened to simply "Browns." This alternate history of the name was even supported by the team as being factual as recently as the mid-1990s, [74] and it continues as an urban legend to this day. However, Paul Brown never held fast to the Joe Louis story, and later in his life admitted that it was false, invented to deflect unwanted attention arising from the team being named after him. The Browns and the NFL now both support the position that the team was indeed named after Paul Brown. [59] [75]

With the roster fixed and the team's name chosen, Brown set out to build a dynasty. "I want to be what the New York Yankees are in baseball or Ben Hogan is in golf", he said. [76]

After a training camp at Bowling Green State University, the Browns played their first game in September 1946 at Cleveland Stadium. [77] A crowd of 60,135 people showed up to see the Browns beat the Miami Seahawks 44–0, then a record attendance mark for professional football. [78] That touched off a string of wins the team ended the season with a 12–2 record and the top spot in the AAFC's western division. [79] The Browns then beat the AAFC's New York Yankees in the championship. [80]

Cleveland won the AAFC championship again in 1947 behind an offensive attack that employed the forward pass more frequently and effectively than was typical at the time. [81] The Browns' offensive success was driven by Brown's version of the T formation, which was gradually replacing the single-wing formation as football's most popular and effective scheme. [82]

The Browns won every game in the 1948 season, a feat that went unmatched until the Miami Dolphins (coached by Brown disciple Don Shula) did it in 1972. [81] Cleveland then won the AAFC championship for the fourth time in a row in 1949. By then, however, the league was struggling for survival, due in part to the Browns' dominance. [83] Attendance at games dwindled in 1948 and 1949 as fans lost interest in lopsided victories, and at the end of the 1949 season the AAFC dissolved. Three of its teams, the San Francisco 49ers, the Baltimore Colts and the Browns, merged into the NFL. [83] The Browns picked up a few good former AAFC players from other teams, including offensive guard Abe Gibron and defensive end Len Ford, but some observers saw Brown's team as the lone standout in an otherwise minor league. [84]

Cleveland Browns in the NFL (1950–1955) Edit

The Browns' first game in the NFL in 1950 was against the two-time defending champion Philadelphia Eagles in Philadelphia. [85] They won the game 35–10, the first of 10 victories that year. [86] After beating the New York Giants in a playoff game, the Browns went on to win the championship game against the Los Angeles Rams on a last-minute field goal by Groza. [87] "The flag of the late lamented AAFC flies high, and Paul Brown has the last laugh", the Plain Dealer's editorial page proclaimed. [88] Brown said his was "the greatest football team a coach ever had, and there was never a game like this one." [88] In 16 seasons, Brown had led his teams to 12 championships. He was the first head coach to win both a college and NFL championship, a feat not repeated until Jimmy Johnson and later Barry Switzer did it with the Dallas Cowboys in the 1990s, [89] and Pete Carroll who accomplished the feat with USC in 2004 and the Seattle Seahawks in 2013.

As the Browns climbed to the top of the NFL, speculation began to mount that Brown might return to the Buckeyes. Wes Felser had resigned as the team's coach, and Brown was seen as a possible replacement. [90] But Brown had also alienated many Ohio State alumni by failing to return to the school after World War II and for signing away players including Groza before their college eligibility expired. [91] He interviewed with the university's athletic board on January 27, 1951, but the board unanimously rejected Brown in favor of Woody Hayes, who was unanimously endorsed by the board of trustees. [92]

The Browns reached the championship each of the next three years, but lost all of those games. [93] In both 1952 and 1953, Cleveland lost championships to the Detroit Lions, who were then on the rise after decades of mediocrity. [94] Before the 1953 season, McBride sold the team to a group of local businessmen led by David Jones for $600,000 ($5.8 million in 2020 dollars). While Brown was upset that McBride did not consult him about the deal, the new owners said they would stay out of the picture and let Brown run the team. Brown saw this as a crucial issue: he felt he needed full control over personnel decisions and coaching to make his system work. [95]

Graham announced in 1953 that the following season would be his last. [96] But the team won the championship in 1954 in a rematch against the Lions, and Brown convinced Graham to come back. [97] Cleveland finished 1955 with a 9–2–1 record, reaching the championship game again. [98] The Browns beat the Rams for their second straight championship, and Graham retired after the season. [99]

Later years in Cleveland (1956–1963) Edit

With Graham gone and the quarterback situation in flux, the Browns ended 1956 with a 5–7 record, Paul Brown's first losing season as a professional coach. [100] In the next year's draft, the team selected Jim Brown out of Syracuse University. As television began to help football leapfrog baseball as America's most popular sport, Jim Brown became a larger-than-life personality. [101] He was handsome and charismatic in private and dominant on the field. [101] Paul Brown, however, was critical of some aspects of Jim Brown's game, including his disinclination to block. [102] In Jim Brown's first season, the team reached the championship game, again against the Lions, but lost 59–14. The Browns did not contend for the championship in the following two years, when a Baltimore Colts team coached by Brown's former protégé Weeb Ewbank won a pair of titles. [103]

As Jim Brown's star rose, players began to question Paul Brown's leadership and play-calling in the late 1950s. The skepticism came to a head in a game against the Giants at the end of the 1958 season in which a win or tie would have given the Browns a spot in the championship game against Ewbank's Colts. In the third quarter, the Browns drove to New York's 16-yard line with a 10–3 lead and lined up for a field goal. [104] But Coach Brown called a timeout before Groza could make the try, which alerted the Giants to a possible fake kick. [105] Brown indeed called a fake, and the holder stumbled as he got up to throw, ruining the play. [105] The Giants came back to win the game by a field goal, defeated the Browns 10-0 in a playoff for the Eastern Conference title and reached the championship, while the Browns went home without a spot in the title game for the second year in a row. [106]

Paul Brown blamed the struggles on quarterback Milt Plum, whom the team had drafted in 1957, saying the Browns had "lost faith in Plum's ability to play under stress." [107] But the players were instead losing faith in Coach Brown and his autocratic style. [107] Jim Brown started a weekly radio show, which Paul Brown did not like it undercut his control over the team and its message. But the coach found it hard to question Jim Brown given his feats on the field, and the tension between the two men grew. [108] The team finished second in its division in 1959 and 1960, even as Jim Brown racked up league-leading seasons in rushing. [109]

Art Modell, a New York advertising executive, bought the team in 1961 for $4.1 million ($36 million today). [110] Modell, who was 35 years old at the time, bought out Brown's 15% stake in the team for $500,000 and gave Brown a new eight-year contract. [111] He said he and Brown would have a "working partnership", and began to play a more direct role than previous owners in the team's operation. This angered Brown, who was used to having a free hand in football matters. [112] Modell, who was single and only a few years older than most players, started to listen to their concerns about the coach. [113] He became particularly close to Jim Brown, calling him "my senior partner". [114] Modell sat in the press box during games and could be overheard second-guessing Paul Brown's play-calling, which drove a deeper wedge between the two men. At that time, Brown was the only coach who insisted on calling every offensive play, making use of rotating guards to ferry coaching instructions. [115] Quarterback audibles to change the play at the line of scrimmage in response to defensive positioning were not permitted. [115] When Plum openly questioned Paul Brown's absolute control over play-calling, he was traded to Detroit. [116]

The conflict between Paul Brown and Modell reached a breaking point when Brown traded star halfback Bobby Mitchell for the rights to Ernie Davis, a Heisman Trophy-winning running back who broke all of Jim Brown's rushing records at Syracuse. [117] Paul Brown did not inform Modell of the move, and Modell only heard about it after getting a call from Washington Redskins owner George Preston Marshall. [114] Davis, however, was diagnosed with leukemia before the 1962 season. [118] He came to Cleveland to train after the cancer went into remission, but Brown would not allow him to play. Modell, however, wanted to give Davis a chance to play before he succumbed to the disease. [118] Ultimately, the relationship between coach and owner was never repaired, and Ernie Davis never played in a professional game, dying on May 18, 1963. [119]

Departure from Cleveland Edit

As the rift between the players and Brown and between Modell and Brown grew, Modell fired Brown on January 7, 1963. [120] A controversy developed over the timing of the decision amid a local newspaper strike, which limited discussion of the move. A printing company executive, however, got together a group of sportswriters and published a 32-page magazine fielding players' views on the firing. Opinions were mixed Modell came in for his share of criticism, but tackle and team captain Mike McCormack said he did not think the team could win under Brown. [121] Blanton Collier, Brown's longtime assistant, was named the team's new head coach, and Brown began to plan his next move as he continued to receive an $82,500 salary under his eight-year contract. [122]

In exile after more than 30 years of coaching, Brown spent the next five years away from the sidelines, never once attending a Browns contest. While he was secure financially, Brown's frustration grew with each passing year. "It was terrible", he later recalled. "I had everything a man could want: leisure, enough money, a wonderful family. Yet with all that, I was eating my heart out." [123] Because Brown was still receiving his annual salary and liked to play golf, it was said that the only two people who made more money playing golf were Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus. [124]

Brown explored coaching possibilities, but he was mindful not to put himself in a position where his control might be challenged as it had been in Cleveland. [123] In the mid-1960s, the American Football League (AFL), which had formed to compete against the NFL, put a new franchise in Cincinnati. [125] Brown was the third-largest investor in the team and was given the title of coach and general manager. He was also given the right to represent the team in all league matters, a key element of control for Brown. [125]

Cincinnati Bengals Edit

Brown called his new franchise the Bengals because Cincinnati had a team of that name in the 1930s and he thought it would provide a link to the past. [126] Brown's son Mike joined the front office and became his father's top assistant and right-hand man. [126] Brown brought in other assistants including Bill Johnson, Rick Forzano and Bill Walsh. In their first two seasons in 1968 and 1969, the Bengals fared poorly, but the team appeared to be on the upswing as Brown built up a core group of players through the draft, including quarterback Greg Cook. [127]

The Bengals entered the NFL in 1970 as a result of the AFL–NFL merger, and were placed in the newly formed American Football Conference alongside the Browns. [128] A career-ending injury to Cook before the 1970 season forced the Bengals to rely on Virgil Carter, an emergency backup who could make accurate short passes but could not heave the ball like Cook once could. [129] So Brown and Walsh went to work designing an offense around Carter's limitations, a scheme that was the genesis of the West Coast offense Walsh later used to great effect when he became coach of the San Francisco 49ers. [129]

The Bengals lost their first meeting with the Browns 30–27 in 1970, and Brown was booed when he did not come on the field to shake Collier's hand after the game. [130] "I haven't shaken the other coach's hands after a game for years", Brown explained. ". I went up to him before the game, and we did our socializing then." [130] But the Bengals came back to beat the Browns later in the season. Brown called it "my greatest victory." [131]

In his years as the Bengals' head coach, Brown took the team to the playoffs three times, including in 1970. Yet despite finding a franchise quarterback in Ken Anderson, Brown's team never got past the first round of the postseason tournament. [132] Four days after the Bengals were eliminated from the playoffs in 1975, Brown announced he was retiring after 45 years of coaching. [133] The game had changed dramatically during his time in the NFL, growing from America's second sport to the country's biggest and most lucrative pastime. [133] Brown was 67 years old. [134]

Walsh was passed over in favor of Bill "Tiger" Johnson for the head coaching job when Brown retired. In a 2006 interview, Walsh said Brown worked against his candidacy to be a head coach anywhere in the league. "All the way through I had opportunities, and I never knew about them", Walsh said. "And then when I left him, he called whoever he thought was necessary to keep me out of the NFL." [135] Brown stayed on as team president after stepping down as head coach, and the Bengals later made two trips to the Super Bowl, losing both games to Walsh and the 49ers. [136] He rarely appeared in public, however. He died on August 5, 1991 at home of complications from pneumonia. [137]

Brown and Katie had three sons: Robin, Mike and Pete. Following Katie's death of a heart attack in 1969, he married his former secretary Mary Rightsell in 1973. [128] His son Robin died of cancer in 1978. [138] Brown is buried at Rose Hill Cemetery in Massillon. [139]

Brown was succeeded by his son Mike as Bengals' team president. Subsequently, in 2000, Cincinnati opened a new football facility on the Ohio River, naming it Paul Brown Stadium. [140] Brown was elected in 1967 to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. "I feel he's as fine a coach as the game ever has had", Otto Graham said at the induction ceremony. "I used to cuss him out and complain but now I'm happy that I played under him." [141] In 2009, Sporting News named Brown as the 12th greatest coach of all time only two other NFL coaches were listed above him. [142]

Although Brown coached dozens of successful teams at the high school, college and professional levels, his controlling personality and sharp criticisms made him unpopular with many players. [3] Brown was a methodical and disciplined coach who tolerated no deviation from his system. [143] His professional teams' planes did not wait for players who were late anyone who missed the flight was forced to find one on his own and pay a fine to Brown. [144] When the Browns practiced twice in a day in training camp, each session was exactly 55 minutes. Regular practices during the season lasted an hour and 12 minutes. [145] Players who made mistakes in games were held up for ridicule during film review sessions. [144] "There got to be a saying", longtime Browns safety Ken Konz said years later. "'There's a right way, a wrong way and the Paul Brown way.' If you did it the Paul Brown way, you were right. He was a very strict coach, and he expected you to toe the line." [144]

Brown was also a tough negotiator over salaries, often refusing to give players raises despite strong performance. [145] He was called "cold and brutal" by sportswriters, and told players to be "ready to fight for your financial lives". [145] "When I signed with Paul, he felt that $1,000 was $10 million", said Gene Hickerson, a guard who played for the Browns in the late 1950s and 1960s. [145] Brown's stingy approach to salaries frustrated his players and was a motivating force behind the formation of the National Football League Players Association, which represents players' interests in dealings with the league. Browns players including Dante Lavelli and Abe Gibron helped found the union in 1956 along with lawyer and former Browns assistant coach Creighton Miller. [146] [147] Brown was so annoyed by the union that he had a 1946 team photo in his office touched up to remove Miller. [148]

Brown's acrimonious departure from Cleveland was another source of criticism. His teams' winning ways had helped obscure his harsh methods and need for control, but Modell's active involvement in the team exposed them. [4] [149] Despite that Modell owned the team, Brown refused to cede any authority or be diplomatic in his relationship with Modell. [150] Modell felt Brown was unwilling to adapt to the way football was played in the early 1960s. [151] Many players from that time agreed. "Paul didn't adjust to the changes in the game", former Browns cornerback Bernie Parrish said in 1997. "By 1962, he was more worried about protecting his reputation as the Greatest Coach Who Ever Lived than he was about winning a title. . By the end of the 1962 season, a lot of us wanted to be traded because we were convinced that we'd never win a title with Paul Brown – and we never believed Paul Brown was going anywhere." [152] After his firing, Brown held a grudge against Modell for the rest of his life. He never forgave Collier for taking over as coach when he left, even though Collier had asked for and received his blessing. [153]

Although he was criticized for his autocratic coaching style and strained relationships, Brown played a significant role in the evolution and modernization of football. The draw play he invented – a formation in which the quarterback drops back to pass but then hands off the ball to a running back – is still in wide use. [154] In his autobiography, Brown said the play came about by accident in 1946 when Graham botched a play and improvised by making a late handoff to Marion Motley, who ran past the onrushing defenders for a large gain. [154] He developed detailed pass patterns that were designed to exploit vulnerabilities in the defense. Brown is also credited with the creation of the passer's pocket, an offensive line protection scheme that is designed to buy a quarterback a few extra precious seconds to find the open receiver.

Brown's main contribution to the game, however, was not to the development of new plays but to the organization and administration of teams. [154] Before Brown, football was seen as a chaotic affair where winning was a product mostly of physical prowess. Few coaches took strategy and preparation seriously. [155] Brown, by contrast, hired a full-time staff of assistants, tested his players on their intelligence and their knowledge of plays, instituted strict organization of practices and analyzed game film to get an edge on opponents. [156] Brown created a detailed system for scouting college talent as a means to improve the Browns' college draft.

The success of this systematic approach forced other teams to follow. Most of Brown's organizational innovations are still in use today. [155] "No one, I mean no one, has ever had total command and respect like Paul Brown", Paul Wiggin, a former Browns defensive end, said in 1997. "I believe that Paul Brown could have been a general in the Army . you put Paul Brown in charge of anything and he would have been one of those special people who could organize and lead." [157]

Brown's approach influenced future generations of coaches down to the present day. Men he worked directly with, including Don Shula, Weeb Ewbank, Chuck Noll and Bill Walsh, all adopted his system to some degree. [158] [159] [160]

Brown was more than just a coach. He was a student of the game who had much to do with making professional football the attraction it is today. He made coaching a full-time job for himself and all his assistants. Others had to follow suit or fall behind. So they did the logical thing—they copied his methods, both as a coach and innovator. . "Paul Brown didn't invent the game of football. He was just the first to take it seriously", declared Sport Magazine in a December 1986 story . Sid Gillman, Brown's coaching contemporary for many years in the NFL, told the magazine he always felt that "before Paul Brown pro football was a 'daisy chain.' He brought a system into pro football. He brought a practice routine. He broke down practice into individual areas. He had position coaches. He was an organizational genius. Before Paul Brown, coaches just rolled the ball out on the practice field."

While Brown's tenure in Cleveland ended in bitterness, the coach was a prolific innovator with the team. One factor in Brown's success was his decision to hire a full-time staff of dedicated position coaches, a break from the norm in an era when most assistants took second jobs in the offseason to make ends meet. Brown also invented the "taxi squad", a group of promising players who did not make the roster but were kept on reserve. Team owner Mickey McBride put them on the payroll of his taxi company, although they did not drive cabs. [161]

Brown sat his players down in classrooms and relentlessly tested them on their knowledge of the playbook, requiring them to copy down every play in a separate notebook for better retention. [162] He was a terse man, and his criticisms of players were often withering and ruthless. He prohibited players from drinking, told them not to smoke in public, and made coats and ties mandatory on road trips. They were not to have sex after Tuesday night during the season. [163] According to Pat Summerall, Brown once traded a player, future Hall-of-Famer Doug Atkins, for burping out loud during a team meeting.

He was the first coach to use intelligence tests to evaluate players, scout opponents using game films and call plays for his quarterback using guards as messengers. [1] He invented the draw play and helped develop the modern face mask after Len Ford and Otto Graham suffered facial injuries. [164] Although critical of Brown's coaching, Jim Brown said he integrated football in the right way:

Paul Brown integrated pro football without uttering a single word about integration. He just went out, signed a bunch of great black athletes, and started kicking butt. That's how you do it. You don't talk about it. Paul never said one word about race. But this was a time in sports when you'd play in some cities and the white players could stay at the nice hotel, but the blacks had to stay in the homes of some black families in town. But not with Paul. We always stayed in hotels that took the entire team. Again, he never said a word. But in his own way, the man integrated football the right way – and no one was going to stop him. [165]

Brown was a member of the Bengals' inaugural Ring of Honor class in 2021. [166]

The following coaches are considered to be in Brown's coaching tree, a grouping of people on whom his approach to the game is thought to have had an influence, either directly or indirectly. [160] This is an excerpt of Brown's tree, which is so large it is sometimes called a "forest". [160] Many of Brown's coaching "descendants" have won NFL titles as head coaches, both before and after the creation of the Super Bowl.

A larger and more extended version of Paul Brown's coaching tree, which could sometimes be called a forest, can be found here. [167] However, this version completely omits any mention of Bill Walsh, or his tree.

High school Edit

Year School Record Titles
1930 Severn School Prep Admirals 7–0–0 Maryland State Champions
1931 Severn School Prep Admirals 5–2–1
1932 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 5–4–1
1933 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 8–2–0
1934 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 9–1–0
1935 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 10–0–0 National Champions, Ohio State Champions
1936 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 10–0–0 National Champions, Ohio State Champions
1937 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 8–1–1
1938 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 10–0–0 Ohio State Champions
1939 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 10–0–0 National Champions, Ohio State Champions
1940 Massillon Washington HS Tigers 10–0–0 National Champions, Ohio State Champions
Overall High School Record 92–10–3 4 National Titles, 6 State Titles

College Edit

Professional Edit

Team Year Regular Season Postseason
Won Lost Ties Win % Finish Won Lost Win % Result
CLE 1946 12 2 0 85.7 1st in AAFC Western Conference 1 0 100.0 Beat New York Yankees in AAFC championship game
CLE 1947 12 1 1 89.2 1st in AAFC Western Conference 1 0 100.0 Beat New York Yankees in AAFC championship game
CLE 1948 14 0 0 100.0 1st in AAFC Western Conference 1 0 100.0 Beat Buffalo Bills in AAFC championship game
CLE 1949 9 1 2 83.3 1st in AAFC regular season 2 0 100.0 Beat Buffalo Bills in semifinals
Beat San Francisco 49ers in AAFC championship game
CLE AAFC Total 47 4 3 89.8 5 0 100.0
CLE 1950 10 2 0 83.3 1st-T in NFL Eastern Conference 2 0 100.0 Beat New York Giants in Eastern Conference tie-breaker
Beat Los Angeles Rams in NFL Championship game
CLE 1951 11 1 0 91.7 1st in NFL Eastern Conference 0 1 00.0 Lost to Los Angeles Rams in NFL Championship game
CLE 1952 8 4 0 66.7 1st in NFL Eastern Conference 0 1 00.0 Lost to Detroit Lions in NFL Championship game
CLE 1953 11 1 0 91.7 1st in NFL Eastern Conference 0 1 00.0 Lost to Detroit Lions in NFL Championship game
CLE 1954 9 3 0 75.0 1st in NFL Eastern Conference 1 0 100.0 Beat Detroit Lions in NFL Championship game
CLE 1955 9 2 1 81.8 1st in NFL Eastern Conference 1 0 100.0 Beat Los Angeles Rams in NFL Championship game
CLE 1956 5 7 0 41.7 4th in NFL Eastern Conference - - -
CLE 1957 9 2 1 81.8 1st in NFL Eastern Conference 0 1 00.0 Lost to Detroit Lions in NFL Championship game
CLE 1958 9 3 0 75.0 1st-T in NFL Eastern Conference 0 1 00.0 Lost to New York Giants in Eastern conference tie-breaker
CLE 1959 7 5 0 58.3 2nd in NFL Eastern Conference - - -
CLE 1960 8 3 1 72.7 2nd in NFL Eastern Conference - - -
CLE 1961 8 5 1 61.5 3rd in NFL Eastern Conference - - -
CLE 1962 7 6 1 53.8 3rd in NFL Eastern Conference - - -
CLE NFL Total 111 44 5 70.9 4 5 44.4
CIN 1968 3 11 0 21.4 5th in AFL West Division - - -
CIN 1969 4 9 1 30.8 5th in AFL West Division - - -
CIN AFL Total 7 20 1 26.8 - - -
CIN 1970 8 6 0 57.1 1st in NFL AFC Central 0 1 0.00 Lost to Baltimore Colts in AFC Divisional Playoff
CIN 1971 4 10 0 28.6 4th in NFL AFC Central - - -
CIN 1972 8 6 0 57.1 3rd in NFL AFC Central - - -
CIN 1973 10 4 0 71.4 1st in NFL AFC Central 0 1 0.00 Lost to Miami Dolphins in AFC Divisional Playoff
CIN 1974 7 7 0 50.0 2nd in NFL AFC Central - - -
CIN 1975 11 3 0 78.6 2nd in NFL AFC Central 0 1 0.00 Lost to Oakland Raiders in AFC Divisional Playoff
CIN NFL Total 48 36 0 57.1 0 3 00.0
Official NFL Total 159 80 5 66.5 4 8 .333
Professional Total 213 104 9 67.2 9 8 52.9
Source: Pro-Football-Reference.com
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  177. ^Pluto 1997, p. 49.
  178. ^
  179. "Bengals Ring Of Honor Anchored By Hall-of-Famers Paul Brown And Munoz". Bengals.com.
  180. ^
  181. "Paul Brown Coaching Tree" . Retrieved December 15, 2014 .
  182. ^
  183. "Ohio State In the Polls". College Football Data Warehouse. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012 . Retrieved August 26, 2012 .

Bibliography Edit

  • Cantor, George (2008). Paul Brown: The Man Who Invented Modern Football. Chicago: Triumph Books. ISBN978-1-57243-725-8 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Coughlin, Dan (2011). Pass the Nuts: More Stories About the Most Unusual People and Remarkable Events from My Four Decades As a Sports Journalist. ISBN978-1-59851-073-7 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Heaton, Chuck (2007). Browns Scrapbook: A Fond Look Back at Five Decades of Football, from a Legendary Cleveland Sportswriter. Cleveland: Gray & Company. ISBN978-1-59851-043-0 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Henkel, Frank M. (2005). Cleveland Browns History. Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN978-0-7385-3428-2 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Keim, John (1999). Legends by the Lake: The Cleveland Browns at Municipal Stadium. Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press. ISBN978-1-884836-47-3 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Lebovitz, Hal (2006). The Best of Hal Lebovitz: Great Sportswriting from Six Decades in Cleveland. Cleveland: Gray & Company. ISBN978-1-59851-023-2 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Levy, William (1965). Return to Glory: The Story of the Cleveland Browns. Cleveland: The World Publishing Co. ISBN978-0-97604-472-7 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • MacCambridge, Michael (2005). America's Game. New York: Anchor. ISBN978-0-375-72506-7 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Park, Jack (2003). The Official Ohio State Football Encyclopedia. Champaign, Illinois: Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN978-1-58261-695-7 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Peterson, Robert W. (1997). Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0-19-511913-8 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Piascik, Andy (2007). The Best Show in Football: The 1946–1955 Cleveland Browns. Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN978-1-58979-571-6 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Pluto, Terry (1997). Browns Town 1964: Cleveland Browns and the 1964 Championship. Cleveland: Gray & Company. ISBN978-1-886228-72-6 . CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Vare, Robert (1973). Buckeye: A Study of Coach Woody Hayes and the Ohio State Football Machine. New York: Popular Library. ASINB00394GOEK. CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
  • Staff (1963). The Play He Didn't Call (Booklet). Cleveland: The Cleveland Press-News The Plain Dealer. As quoted in
    • Schudel, Jeff (April 11, 2020). "What if Paul Brown had blocked Modell from buying Browns? He had that power". The News Herald. Willoughby, Ohio . Retrieved April 28, 2020 .

    120 ms 8.6% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::match 80 ms 5.7% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::sub 40 ms 2.9% (for generator) 40 ms 2.9% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getAllExpandedArguments 40 ms 2.9% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::anchorEncode 40 ms 2.9% clone 40 ms 2.9% [others] 260 ms 18.6% Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400 -->

    His story

    I had turned up for rehearsals for a play. Also in the cast was this very tall chap, Charlie. We could not have been at further ends of the social spectrum. I'm a working-class boy from Manchester, my father worked for the railways. He is upper class – he'd probably say upper-middle – whose father devised the Berlin airlift. Charlie and his future wife, the actor Jessica Benton, were the most beautiful couple you'd ever wish to meet.

    In 1974 I'd returned from an international tour and had nowhere to live and no work. I received a postcard from Charlie telling me to book a flight to Nassau and come to the Caribbean. He was out there building a small house. He knew all the local guys and we hung out in the bars listening to music. There isn't a week that goes by that I don't feed myself with the memories of that holiday.

    What drew me to Charlie was his extraordinarily gentle nature and his spirituality. He used to go to an ashram in Belsize Park and I asked him what he got out of it. He told me: "It's the challenge, Dave" – he's one of only two people who call me Dave – "it's all very well being spiritual when you're a hermit up a mountain in India, but it's much harder to put those principles of love and understanding into practice on the Northern Line at 7.15 in the morning."

    Many people go to therapy for this kind of friendship. I can say anything and know he won't judge me. In our 40 years of friendship, we have never had a cross word. And that's because of him – I'm a volatile, crotchety old bugger. I know he'd never turn his back on me and I hope he feels the same way about me.

    Charlie Waite's photography exhibition Silent Exchange is at the National Theatre

    29 Dec 1973 – Series One Grand Final

    Recorded on 24 Dec 1973

    The Grand Final of Series One of New Faces was recorded on Christmas Eve at the ATV Studios on Broad Street, Birmingham. The show was a specially extended edition of the previous show format, running for 70 minutes in total. It was also confirmed that New Faces would return in April 1974 for a second series of star finding fun.

    There was no act critique from the judges for the final, they just scored the acts based on their final performance to decide the winner. The judging panel for the grand final were Bill Ward, Tony Hatch and Clifford Davis and of course the show was hosted by Derek Hobson. Birmingham based comic, Alton Douglas, provided the warm-up act before the final started.

    Host of the show, Derek Hobson

    The final featured the thirteen acts that had won their respective weekly heats in the shows that had preceded the final. The winner of the show would have a further opportunity to improve their chances of stardom by appearing on Sunday Night at the London Palladium, just one day after the show airs on TV, where they would share the stage with Sacha Distel, Mireille Mathieu, Ronnie Hayward and Jim Dale.

    The line-up for the Grand Final was music heavy with seven solo acts and five groups and just one comedian. In the order they performed, they were

    George Huxley’s Dixieland Jazz Band (six-piece jazz band) – Heat 13 winner

    Birmingham based, George Huxley’s Dixieland Jazz Band were Act 1. They sang Nobody’s Sweetheart Now

    Tony Hatch said, “They make nice, happy, toe-tapping music..there is always room for a group like this and they are obviously very popular, and they are very professional and very rhythmic.”

    Charlie James was Act 2 she sang Sweet Gingerbread Man

    Tony Hatch’s comments were, “Very versatile singer and I think her voice could very easily adapt to the country music style.”

    A few years after this show Charlie was working in the North East and Lonnie Donegan approached her then manager to say he wanted to introduce her to United States as a country singer, however Charlie was only told about this conversation about thirty years later.

    Dri Jinja (folk trio) – Heat 5 winner

    Dri Jinja were Act 3 they sang Topanga Canyon

    Clifford Davis commented that “They have a very rare thing, which is quality, they look nice, they’re young, they’re exciting, I think they’ll go a long way”

    Tom Waite was Act 4 and he sang Where Do I Begin? (Theme From “Love Story”)

    “A terribly exciting singer, I think for a girl he must have a great sex appeal. I found him very exciting. I’m sure he’ll go far” said Clifford Davis.

    Yakity Yak were Act 5 their performance started with an instrumental version of Something followed by impressions of Bruce Forsyth, Max Wall, Norman Wisdom, Elvis Presley singing All Shook Up and an attempt at sword swallowing before finishing with a custard pie in guitarist Kim’s face.

    Bill Ward commented, “I didn’t know what to expect, they built and they built very, very, very well. Good act.”

    Elaine Simmons was Act 6 and she sang (Last Night) I Didn’t Get To Sleep At All

    “She chose a very difficult song to sing and she sang it very, very well with a great deal of confidence and I think she’ll go very far” said Bill Ward.

    Anthony Waters (actor/vocalist) – Heat 3 winner

    Anthony Waters was Act 7 and he performed a scene from My Fair Lady which featured the song I’ve Grown Accustomed To Her Face

    “I found him fairly convincing in his role as Professor Higgins and I think if he gets some stage experience, I don’t know how much he’s had already, there’s a shortage of actor singers, he could do well” commented Tony Hatch.

    Ricki Disoni was Act 8 and he sang Try A Little Kindness

    “He’s very good, he’s very professional, I just wish he’d adopt a new position for delivering his songs, maybe the right foot in front of the left for a change” suggested Tony Hatch.

    Trotto were Act 9 and they sang Drink It Down a traditional American drinking song

    “It’s very different, I don’t know whether the ethnic groups take Trotto very seriously, but I would think that’s the area in which they’d work, very underground. A long way” said Tony Hatch, who was clearly not a fan of this act.

    Showaddywaddy were Act 10 and they sang a medley of Rock ‘n’ Roll hits featuring Let There Be Drums, Shazam, Three Stars, Rave On and Bonie Moronie

    “Well they’re quite fantastic, I think they’re terribly modern, I think they are going to do tremendously, I’m very excited. I think they are wonderful” was the praise from Clifford Davis.

    Jean De Both (vocalist) – Heat 6 winner

    Jean De Both was Act 11 and he sang Unchained Melody

    “Jean De Both is a bit out of the Sacha Distel stable, I enjoyed him, he’s very smooth, he’s very professional and I just hope he does as well as he ought to do” commented Clifford Davis.

    Jackie Carlton (comedian) – Heat 9 winner

    Jackie Carlton was Act 11 and his act comprised of a a collection of gags that majored around the topics of Mary Whitehouse, his Mother and Dukinfield, Manchester

    “What a gay day, I liked him very much. He’s a lovely comic and he’s been around for a long time and I don’t know why the hell he hasn’t appeared on bigger shows than this one” was the comment from Bill Ward.

    John D. Bryant was Act 13 and he sang one of his compositions, called Peace Will Be Mine

    “Folk singers are poets of course and sincerity is their stock in trade, they sing like I do, which isn’t very well, but you have to listen to them because they hold your attention and John D certainly held mine” was the honest view of Bill Ward.

    The winner of the spot on Sunday Night at the London Palladium was Tom Waite, who beat runners-up Showaddywaddy by just seven points and Jackie Carlton was a close third. With the second and third placed acts very close behind the winner they too got London Palladium bookings as a result.

    Derek Hobson announces the results of the judges scores

    The full result and votes from the judges were

    Tony HatchBill WardClifford DavisTotal
    1Tom Waite809285257
    3Jackie Carlton658484233
    4Jean De Both716165217
    5John D Bryant767465215
    6Charlie James766275213
    7Ricki Disoni785275205
    8Yakity Yak527675203
    9Anthony Waters645170185
    10George Huxley’s Dixieland Jazz Band615865184
    11Dri Jinja634865176
    12Elaine Simmons585360171

    Showaddywaddy have always maintained that the result was rigged. Answering a question about the result they stated, “We knew that Tom Waite was going to win as he was already on the schedule for the winners slot on Sunday Night at the London Palladium. Our manager actually told us that we were going to come second. We obviously weren’t particularly happy about it, but it was a good introduction to the workings of our weird & wonderful industry!”

    Credit: Huge thanks to Kim from Yakity Yak for all the information on this show. Thanks also to Charlie James for the information about her missed opportunity as a country singer.

    NOTE: The images and details on this page contain copyrighted works that were not specifically authorised to be used by the copyright holder(s), but are used in good faith and are used under the concept of “fair use” to help illustrate the information provided. The copyright of the broadcast images remain the property of ATV.

    Landscape Photographer of the Year: Collection 9

    Charlie Waite is firmly established as one of the world’s leading Landscape photographers. His photographic style is often considered to be unique, in that his photographs convey an almost spiritual quality of serenity and calm. Charlie&aposs photographs are held in private and corporate collections throughout the world, and he has held numerous solo exhibitions at prestigious venues in the UK, Japan Charlie Waite is firmly established as one of the world’s leading Landscape photographers. His photographic style is often considered to be unique, in that his photographs convey an almost spiritual quality of serenity and calm. Charlie's photographs are held in private and corporate collections throughout the world, and he has held numerous solo exhibitions at prestigious venues in the UK, Japan and the USA.

    With over 30 books to his name, Charlie's images are recognised around the world. Charlie was recently featured in Amateur Photographer Magazine's series Icons of Modern Photography, and his images have received wide critical acclaim over many years. A recent article in Royal West of England Academy Art Magazine featuring Charlie's work commented “Waite’s landscapes are rare perfections of light, colour and composition, and offer the viewer a luxuriant portrait of a planet at peace”.

    In 2000 Charlie was awarded the prestigious honorary fellowship to the British Institute of Professional Photographers and in early 2007 was presented with Amateur Photography’s Power of Photography Award, which is given to a photographer whose work is deemed to effectively demonstrate the powerful and memorable images of which photography is capable. Also a sought after writer, public speaker and television presenter, Charlie has featured in numerous photographic and broadsheet publications, DVDs and television programmes on photography.


    The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

    H. Allen Anderson, &ldquoMcCarty, Henry,&rdquo Handbook of Texas Online, accessed June 22, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/mccarty-henry.

    Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

    All copyrighted materials included within the Handbook of Texas Online are in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107 related to Copyright and &ldquoFair Use&rdquo for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. The TSHA makes every effort to conform to the principles of fair use and to comply with copyright law.

    If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

    Oklahoma's Legendary Outlaws

    Oklahoma's outlaw tales will transport you to the dusty days of yesteryear when six-shooter pistols and vigilantes terrorized Indian Territory.

    A special thanks to our advertisers

    The train carrying Grat Dalton bounced along its tracks taking the notorious rail robber and horse thief straight to justice in a Texas prison. On either wrist, Grat was handcuffed to a deputy and his chance of escape seemed slim-to-none. As the ride continued, luck had it that one deputy was lured to sleep, the other to conversation with a nearby passenger. Unseen, Grat's hand slowly crept into the deputy's pocket, snatched the handcuff key and freed the lock. The rough-and-tumble desperado knew the countryside better than most, and his patience was rewarded over the river as he tumbled, headfirst, into the rushing waters of freedom below. Grat Dalton is just one of many Oklahoma outlaws who have robbed and roved Indian Territory looking for the next big payout.

    As one of the last states added to the Union, Oklahoma settlers came with the understanding that they may have to take the law into their own hands to protect their own. Outlaws like Pretty Boy Floyd, who stole from the rich to give to the poor, were few and far between. Other thieves like Bonnie and Clyde had a no holds barred approach to lining their pockets. Read on to discover Oklahoma&rsquos legendary outlaws.

    Belle Starr & Jesse James &ndash Robbers Cave State Park, Wilburton

    The mist-shrouded Sans Bois Mountains hold many secrets concerning the dark dealings of outlaws Jesse James and Belle Starr. Over the years, fact and fiction have intertwined to create fantastical tales of robberies, murders and unrequited love. Starr, called the Queen of the Oklahoma Outlaws, was known both for her sense of style and her crack shot. Throughout her short life, she married at least three criminals&mdashJim Reed, Sam Starr and Jim July&mdashthough it is also rumored that she was also briefly married to Cole Younger of the notorious James-Younger Gang.

    Between horse rustling and bootlegging, Belle Starr and Jesse James made their way to the San Bois Mountains in the 1880s where local lore asserts that the two hid out in the many caves of the area. Today, visitors to Robbers Cave State Park can tread the same paths as the bandits reportedly did 150 years ago. With narrow crevices hidden among looming boulders and hidden niches tucked around every corner, it&rsquos easy to imagine the fugitives hunkered beneath the rocky outcrops.

    Pretty Boy Floyd &ndash Sallisaw

    As a teenager, Charles Arthur Floyd was best known as &ldquoChoc&rdquo in reference to his favorite beer. Later, he and two accomplices robbed a grocery store where he was described as &ldquoa pretty boy with apple cheeks.&rdquo Henceforth, the name Pretty Boy Floyd stuck. Raised on a tenant farm near Sallisaw, Pretty Boy Floyd was often called a modern day Robin Hood who would take from the rich and give to the poor. He held up no fewer than 50 banks during 1931, including a bank in Sallisaw while friends and family members watched on.

    A slew of robberies, shoot-outs and back-and-forth travel from Oklahoma to Ohio followed Pretty Boy Floyd for the rest of his life. After the death of John Dillinger, Pretty Boy Floyd was bumped up to Public Enemy Number One, and his nefarious ways caught up with him in the fall of 1934 when he was shot to death by FBI Agent Melvin Purvis, the famous G-Man who took out Dillinger. After his death, Pretty Boy Floyd&rsquos body was returned to the lush Cookson Hills of his youth. He is buried in the Akins Cemetery in Akins, Sequoyah County.

    The mist-shrouded San Bois Mountains hold many secrets concerning the dark dealings of outlaws Jesse James and Belle Starr.

    Bonnie & Clyde &ndash Bonnie & Clyde Cottage, Medicine Park

    Few outlaws have reached the notoriety of Bonnie and Clyde whether because of their young age, brutal crimes or torrid love affair. During the public enemy era of 1931-1934, the couple along with other members of the Barrow Gang killed at least nine police officers and a handful of civilians. Their gang is also believed to have committed about a dozen bank robberies. In 1933, their Joplin apartment was raided by police who found the sensational photos of Bonnie Parker posing with a gun and cigar, as well as her poem "Story of Suicide Sal."

    After running from the law for over a year, the couple was ambushed and shot to death in Louisiana during 1934. During their time on the run, Bonnie and Clyde reportedly stayed the night in a cozy cobblestone cottage in the picturesque town of Medicine Park in southwest Oklahoma. Today, the cabin is aptly named the Bonnie and Clyde Cottage and is a favorite for history-buffs and road weary travelers alike.

    Dalton Gang &ndash Pawhuska & Perry

    The younger Dalton brothers started out life in present-day Pawhuska on the right side of the law as lawmen. However, they changed their tune shortly after not being paid for work and began their lives of crime. By 19, Bob Dalton had already murdered a man and Grat Dalton was arrested for stealing horses. Together with a handful of rough-and-tumble miscreants, the Dalton Gang was formed. The gang specialized in bank and train robbery, and their escapades in Indian Territory piled up: four train robberies between May 1891 and July 1892 including trains in Perry and Adair. Wild tales sprang up about a handcuffed Grat Dalton who jumped from the window of a moving train into a river before finding his way back to his Oklahoma home.

    Their downfall came about when the Dalton Gang decided to rob two banks at once in Coffeyville, Kansas. Unlike the locals who looked somewhat favorably upon Pretty Boy Floyd's robbery, Coffeyville natives armed themselves and eventually killed all but Emmett Dalton. Twenty-three gunshot wounds and 14 years later, Emmett Dalton was released from prison and later authored a book about the gang's escapades. Emmett Dalton was laid to rest in the Kingfisher Cemetery in Kingfisher.

    The Marlow Brothers &ndash Marlow Area Museum, Marlow

    The story of the Marlow brothers is both sad and uplifting, which may be why it was picked up by Hollywood and starred none other than John Wayne. "The Sons of Katie Elder" was roughly based on the true story of five brothers who stuck together-literally-and fought off a mob while chained together as part of a police escort.

    During the early 1880s the Marlow family settled in Indian Territory in the present-day southwestern town of Marlow, located just 15 minutes north of Duncan. Four of the five brothers (Alfred, Boone, Charlie and Lewellyn) were arrested for stealing horses, and their brother George attempted to clear the family name but he soon found himself behind bars. Boone somehow escaped and returned to Marlow while the remaining brothers were transported to a jail in Texas. During the journey, the four brothers were shackled together&mdashGeorge to Lewellyn and Charlie to Alfred&mdashwhen their wagon was ambushed by an angry mob. The guards ran to join the mob while the brothers raced to arm themselves. In the ensuing gun fight both Lewellyn and Alfred were killed, while George and Charlie were seriously wounded.

    Sadly, Boone was poisoned and shot to death for reward money, though his killers and the angry mob were ultimately brought to justice. George and Charlie were later acquitted and moved away to become law enforcement officers. Visitors can still see artifacts from the original Marlow family at the Marlow Area Museum.

    Fred Tecumseh Waite &ndash Tishomingo, Chickasaw Nation Capitol Building

    Fred Tecumseh Waite, better known as "The Outlaw Statesman," was afforded every opportunity as a child. He even attended college, which was nearly unheard of during the 1870s for a Chickasaw Indian. However, following his graduation, Waite headed to New Mexico where he soon met with the infamous Billy the Kid. Both worked for partners John Tunstall and Alexander McSween to homestead land under the Desert Land Act.

    Tunstall ran amiss of the local sheriff and his posse and was later killed. When Fred Waite and Billy the Kid heard their employer was dead, they sought revenge but were soon thrown into prison themselves. Though they were only imprisoned for a matter of days, it was long enough that they missed the funeral for Tunstall. Afterward, Billy the Kid dropped his moniker for that of the Regulators, a group seeking vengeance against the death of Tunstall. Fred Waite was also a member. The Regulators killed the sheriff and four other men who were thought to have aided in the killing of Tunstall. The two opposing factions were involved in numerous shootouts, during which Waite was involved.

    After the murder of Alexander McSween, Tunstall's partner, the Regulators lost their cash cow and the gang eventually split up. Fred Tecumseh Waite later returned to south-central Oklahoma where he became a top politician in the Chickasaw Nation, though he died before he could ever lead as governor from the Chickasaw National Capitol Building.

    Machine Gun Kelly & Kathryn Thorne &ndash Oklahoma City

    Prohibition-era gangster George Kelly Barnes experienced his first Oklahoma arrest in 1928 after smuggling liquor onto an Indian Reservation. After serving a three-year sentence in Leavenworth, Kansas for his crime, Kelly made his way back to Oklahoma, where he met the alluring Kathryn Thorne. The two wed in September 1930, and Kathryn bought him his first machine gun, the inspiration behind his well-known moniker, Machine Gun Kelly.

    While in Oklahoma City, these partners-in-crime formulated a plan to kidnap and ransom local oil tycoon and businessman Charles F. Urschel. In July 1933, Urschel arrived, blindfolded, on Kathryn&rsquos stepfather and mother&rsquos farm in Paradise, Texas. After collecting on their $200,000 ransom, Machine Gun Kelly and accomplice Albert Bates released Urschel, who immediately contacted law enforcement. Urschel helped federal agents quickly solve the crime by taking note of his surroundings and leaving fingerprints behind during the kidnapping.

    With Urschel&rsquos help, the FBI followed the evidence straight to Machine Gun Kelly and Kathryn, who surrendered when agents raided their temporary Memphis hideout. From there, the Kellys were flown to Oklahoma City, where they and Kathryn&rsquos parents were convicted and sentenced inside the Post Office, Courthouse and Federal Office Building.

    Machine Gun Kelly served most of his sentence in Alcatraz before transferring to the United State Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kansas, where he suffered a heart attack on his birthday on July 18, 1954. Kathryn and her mother, Ora, were eventually released from a West Virginia correctional facility in 1958 and returned to Oklahoma City. Kathryn worked as a bookkeeper at the Oklahoma County Poor Farm, along with her mother. Ora died in 1980, and when Kathryn passed away in 1985, she was buried next to her mother&rsquos plot at the Tecumseh Cemetery.

    Watch the video: Silent Exchange: the Landscape Photography of Charlie Waite (July 2022).


  1. Winton

    It is the usual conditionality

  2. Airleas

    Thanks for the nice company.

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