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Rear Admiral R. H. McGrigor on HMS Campania

Rear Admiral R. H. McGrigor on HMS Campania

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Fleet Air Arm Carrier Warfare, Kev Darling. A complete history of the Fleet Air Arm's use of aircraft carriers, from the earliest experiments during the First World War, through the Second World War, where the carriers became the most important capital ships in the navy, the Korean War, which saw the Fleet Air Arm involved from the beginning to the end, the Falklands War, which re-emphasised the important of the carrier and right up to the current 'super-carriers'. [read full review]

The consequences of an errant shell

Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft was aware of the grumblings of his officers. It was not as if the Baltic fleet had been inactive, having been extensively involved in offensive and defensive minelaying and it's light forces had been particularly active, being involved in a number of skirmishes with German forces.

His most common cause of ship loss had been mines and for that reason alone his heavy ships had not generally been risked on operations. However, on the 1st a large contingent of German ships had bombarded Russian positions around the captured town of Tilsit. Some retribution was clearly in order and he had planned a sortie with four pre dreadnoughts and five armoured cruisers, plus screen to bombard the strategically important German city and port of Pillau, to take place on the 16th.


8 July 1916 Wilhemshaven, German Empire

He was not expected to draw out the Grand Fleet, however, there was no denying that acting Viceadmiral Mauve's force, consisting of 8 pre dreadnoughts, one armoured cruiser, four light cruisers and 19 torpedo boats was by far the weakest arm of the operation.

Hopefully everything would go to plan and he would be required to engage only enemy bombardment ships off the coast of Belgium. His old ships were good for only about 16 knots, perhaps 17 at a burst. It would not do to be caught by a superior enemy force involving dreadnoughts. He looked own his ship list:

4th Battle Squadron
flag, Vizeadmiral F. Mauve
3rd Division
Vizeadmiral Mauve, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Kahlert
SMS Deutschland, flag, Vizeadmiral Mauve, Kapitän zur See Meurer
SMS Pommern +, Kapitän zur See Bölken +
SMS Schlesien, Kapitän zur See Fr. Behncke
SMS Hannover, Kapitän zur See Wilhelm Heine
4th Division
flag, Konteradmiral Freiherr F. von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels
SMS Schleswig-Holstein, flag, Kapitän zur See Barrentrapp
SMS Hessen, Kapitän zur See Bartels
SMS Preussen, Kapitän zur See von Richter
SMS Elass, Kapitän zur See Haus
5th Scouting Group
flag, Konteradmiral Baron von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels
SMS Roon, flag, Kapitän zur See Eckhardt
SMS Berlin FreggattenKapitän Anschütz
SMS Nymph FreggattenKapitän Muller
SMS Medusa FreggattenKapitän Javon

Attached Vth Scouting Group
SMS Danzig, Kapitän zur Timmers(flag) Kommodore A. Von Rath[/FONT]

IXth Flotilla
S126, Kapitänleutnant Adolf Müller hosting Korvettenkapitän Handler (flag)
IXth Flotilla, 17h Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Graz:
S127, Kapitänleutnant Schorner
S128, Kapitänleutnant Bund
S130, Oberleutnant zur See Behrens
S131, Oberleutnant zur See Muller
S90 Kapitänleutnant Manfred von Trotha
IXth Flotilla, 18th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Fliecher
S125, Oberleutnant zur See Rummer
S138, Kapitänleutnant Lohr
S139, Oberleutnant zur See Thun
S140, Kapitänleutnant Sieweig
S141, Oberleutnant zur See Hoffmann Xth Flotilla
S142, Kapitänleutnant Adolf Müller hosting Korvettenkapitän Heinecke (flag)
Xth Flotilla, 19th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Weiss:
S144, Kapitänleutnant Weiss
S145, Kapitänleutnant Baront
S146, Oberleutnant zur See Dunkel
S147, Oberleutnant zur See von Steglitz
S149, Kapitänleutnant Manners
Xth Flotilla, 20th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Klein
S101, Oberleutnant zur See Rodenberg hosting KapitänleutnantFriedrich Klein
G164, Kapitänleutnant Meinecke
V163, Oberleutnant zur See Tils

Donald Reaver


Donald Reaver




Donald Reaver


8 July 1916, Livadia Palace, Russian Empire

She had completed the final part of the journey across the Black Sea and Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia was finally back home in Russia, her reunion with her youngest sister being tears of joy. Her older sisters also overjoyed to see her. Her tour through both the UK and United States had been successful, in so far as could be expected.

Money had been raised, in fact some 2.3 million dollars in US currency by those sympathetic to the Entente cause, plus some crucial loans had been negotiated by Izvolsky, however, from her point of view, success was mainly to be judged from public relations. The overall impression was a remarkable lassitude and feeling of isolationism. For many US people, the war seemed far away. That was not to deny that many felt strongly about the war, but the majority had no strong feeling, or not a strong enough feeling to advocate involvement.

Unrestricted submarine warfare had done much to swing public opinion in favour of the Entente and most people indicated that their preference was towards an Entente win, however, these were more the stirrings of affection of a favourite sports team than a passionately held convictions.

She had met with President Wilson in conjunction with Izvolsky. His slogan for his re-election, "he's kept us out of the war" boded poorly for US involvement. He seemed a pleasant man, polite but distant. In any case, she had presented some sort of human face for her sister's government.



Donald Reaver




8 July 1916 Wilhelmshaven, German Empire

Hipper's mission was both simple and dangerous. His forces were to bombard both Scarborough and Whitby, to no great effect other than to draw the British battlecruiser forces Southwards, where it could be met by the min body of the High Seas Fleet under Scheer and defeated in detail. Support would be provided by some U Boats, but it was the fleet itself that would hopefully provide the destruction that was required to eve the odds between the German and British foes.

Mauve pre dreadnoughts would hopefully deliver a similar blow, crushing the small force of British pre dreadnoughts on almost daily bombardment duty in the Channel. His forces were impressive, consisting of 6 battlecrusiers, 4 light cruisers and 33 destroyers:

I Scouting Group
Vizeadmiral Franz von Hipper, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Erich Raeder
SMS Lützow, flag, Vizeadmiral Franz von Hipper, Kapitän zur See Harder, 1. Artillerieoffizier Korvettenkapitän Paschen
SMS Derflinger, Kapitän zur See Hartog, 1. Artillerieoffizier Korvettenkapitän G. von Hase
SMS Hindenburg, Kapitän zur See Gaskell, 1. Artillerieoffizier Korvettenkapitän Drygala
SMS Seydlitz Kapitän zur See von Egidy, 1. Artillerieoffizier Kapitänleutnant Forster
SMS Moltke Kapitän zur See Harpf, 1. Artillerieoffizier Kapitänleutnant Scharmacher
SMS von der Tann Kapitän zur See Zenker 1. Artillerieoffizier Korvettenkapitän Marholz
IXth Flotilla
V 28, Kapitänleutnant Lenßen hoisting Korvettenkapitän Goehle (Flottila-Leader) - screening 1SG
IXth Flotilla, 17th Half Flotilla
V27, Oberleutnant zur See Buddecke
V26, Kapitänleutnant Hans Köhler
S36, Kapitänleutnant Franz Fischer
S51, Kapitänleutnant Dette
S52, Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Ehrentraut
IXth Flotilla, 18th Half Flotilla
V30, Oberleutnant zur See Ernst Wolf hoisting Korvettenkapitän Werner Tillessen (flag),
S34, Kapitänleutnant Andersen
S33, Kapitänleutnant von Münch
V29, Kapitänleutnant Erich Steinbrinck
S35, Kapitänleutnant Fredrich Ihn
IInd Scouting Group
Konteradmiral F. Boedicker
SMS Frankfurt, Kapitän zur See Thilo von Trotha hoisting Konteradmiral F. Boedicker (flag)
SMS Pillau Fregattenkapitän Konrad Mommsen
SMS Elbing, Fregattenkapitän Madlung
SMS Wiesbaden, Fregattenkapitän Reiß
IInd Flotilla
B98, Kapitänleutnant Theodor Hengstenberg hoisting Fregattenkapitän Schuur (flag)
IInd Flotilla, 3rd Half Flotilla
Korvettenkapitän Boest (flag) on B 98
G101, Kapitänleutnant Rudolf Schulte
G102, Kapitänleutnant von Barendorff
B112, Kapitänleutnant August Claussen
B97, Kapitänleutnant Leo Riedel
IInd Flotilla, 4th Half Flotilla
Korvettenkapitän Dithmar (flag) on B 109
B109, Kapitänleutnant Victor Hahndorff
B110, Kapitänleutnant Bollheim
B111, Kapitänleutnant Schickhardt
G103, Kapitänleutnant Fritz Spiess
G104 , Kapitänleutnant von Bartenwerffer
VIth Flotilla
G41 Kapitänleutnant Hermann Boehm hoisting Korvettenkapitän Max Schultz (flag)
VIth Flotilla, 11th Half Flotilla, Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rümann ono G 41
V44, Kapitänleutnant Holleuffer
G87, Kapitänleutnant Karstens
G86, Kapitänleutnant Grimm
S49, Kapitänleutnant Luchs
V43, Kapitänleutnant Braun
VIth Flotilla, 12th Half Flotilla
V69, Kapitänleutnant Stecher hoisting Kapitänleutnant Lahs (flag),
V45, Kapitänleutnant Lassmann
V46, Kapitänleutnant Krumhaar
S50, Kapitänleutnant Recke
G37, Kapitänleutnant Wolf von Trotha


8 July 1916 Wilhelmshaven, German Empire

Scheer reviewed his main body of the High Seas Fleet. The operation was due to start at midnight. He had an immensely powerful force, consisting of 20 dreadnoughts, 8 light cruisers and 35 torpedo boats:

Chef der Hochseestreitkräfte:Vizeadmiral Reinhard Scheer
Chef des Stabes: Kapitän zur See Adolf von Trotha
Chef der Operationsabteilung: Kapitän zur See von Levezow
All onboard SMS Bayern

1st Squadron, 5th Division
Konteradmiral Paul Behncke, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Freiherr von Sagern
SMS König flag, Kapitän zur See Brüninghaus,
SMS Grosser Kurfürst Kapitän zur See Goette
SMS Furst, Kapitän zur See Fr. Bradowitz
SMS Kronprinz Kapitän zur See Konstanz Feldt
1st Squadron, 6th Division
Konteradmiral H. Nordmann
SMS Kaiser, flag, Konteradmiral H. Nordmann, Kapitän zur See Freiherr von Keyserlingk
SMS Prinzregent Luitpold, Kapitän zur See Heuser
SMS Kaiserin, Kapitän zur See Sievers
SMS Friedrich der Große, Kapitän zur See Theodor Fuchs
3rd Squadron, 1st Division
Vizeadmiral E. Schmidt, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Wolfgang Wegener
SMS Ostfriesland flag, Vizeadmiral Schmidt, Kapitän zur See von Natzmer
SMS Thüringen, Kapitän zur See Hans Küsel
SMS Helgoland, Kapitän zur See von Kamecke
SMS Oldenburg, Kapitän zur See Höpfner
3rd Squadron, 2nd Division
Konteradmiral W. Engelhart
SMS Posen, flag, Konteradmiral Engelhart, Kapitän zur See Richard Lange
SMS Rheinland Kapitän zur See Rohardt
SMS Nassau Kapitän zur See Wilmenhorst
SMS Westfalen Kapitän zur See Redlich
2nd Squadron, 7th Division
Konteradmiral Rheems, 1. Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän von Glucksburg
SMS Bayern, flag, , Kapitän zur See von Prillowitz
SMS Konig Albert, Kapitän zur See Brucker
SMS Markgraf Kapitän zur See Seiferling
SMS Vulcan Kapitän zur See Langmark
IVth Scouting Group
Kommodore L. von Reuter, Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Heinrich Weber
SMS Stettin, Fregattenkapitän Friedrich Rebensburg
SMS München, Korvettenkapitän Oscar Böcker
SMS Kolberg, Fregattenkapitän Georg Hoffman
SMS Augsburg Fregattenkapitän Georg Muller
SMS Stuttgart, Fregattenkapitän Hagedorn
Attached IVth Scouting Group
SMS Hamburg, Kapitän zur SeeBauer, Leader of Submarines
1st Leader of Destroyers
Kommodore A. Michelsen, Admiralstabsoffizier Korvettenkapitän Junkermann
SMS Rostock +, Kommodore A. Michelsen, Fregattenkapitän Otto Feldmann
2nd Leader of Destroyers
Kommodore P. Heinrich, Admiralstabsoffizier Kapitänleutnant Meier
SMS Regensburg, Kommodore P. Heinrich, Fregattenkapitän Heuberer
Ist Flotilla, 1st Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Conrad Albrecht (flag)
G38, Kapitänleutnant Metger
G39, flag, Oberleutnant zur See Loefen
G40, Kapitänleutnant Richard Beitzen
S32, Kapitänleutnant Fröhlich
IIIrd Flotilla
S53, Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Götting hoisting Korvettenkapitän Hollman (flag)
IIIrd Flotilla, 5th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Gautier
V71, Oberleutnant zur See Friedrich Ulrich hoistingKapitänleutnant Gautier
V73, Kapitänleutnant Delbrück
G88, Kapitänleutnant Scabell
V70, Kapitänleutnant Krell
V74 Kapitänleutnant Kramer
IIIrd Flotilla, 6th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Karlowa
S54, Kapitänleutnant Karlowa
V48, Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Eckoldt
G42, Kapitänleutnant Bernd von Arnim
G85, Kapitänleutnant Feddinand Lundorf
Vth Flotilla
G11, Kapitänleutnant Adolf Müller hosting Korvettenkapitän Heinecke (flag)
Vth Flotilla, 9th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Hoefer:
V2, Kapitänleutnant Hoefer
V4, Kapitänleutnant Barop
V6, Oberleutnant zur See Hans Behrendt
V1, Oberleutnant zur See Nöthig
V3 Kapitänleutnant Manfred von Killinger
Vth Flotilla, 10th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Klein
G8, Oberleutnant zur See Rodenberg hosting KapitänleutnantFriedrich Klein
G7, Kapitänleutnant Meinecke
V5, Oberleutnant zur See Tils
G9, Kapitänleutnant Anschütz
G10, Oberleutnant zur See Haumann
VIIth Flotilla
S24 Kapitänleutnant Fink hoisting Korvettenkapitän von Koch (flag)
VIIth Flotilla, 13th Half Flotilla
Kapitänleutnant G. von Zitzewitz on S15
S15, Oberleutnant zur See Christian Schmidt
S17, Kapitänleutnant von Puttkammer
S20, Kapitänleutnant Benecke
S16, Kapitänleutnant Walter Loeffler
S18, Kapitänleutnant Haushalter
VIIth Flotilla, 14th Half Flotilla
Korvettenkapitän Hermann Cordes
S19, Oberleutnant zur See Reimer hoisting Korvettenkapitän Hermann Cordes
S23, Kapitänleutnant Arthur von Killinger
V189, Oberleutnant zur See Keil
V186, Kapitänleutnant W. von Keyserlingk


This is gonna be interesting to write.

What do folks think of the short stories i've been putting in with Mr Johnboy's approval.


8 June 1916 North Sea

Jellicoe had the Grand Fleet in night cruising formation. Reginald "Blinker" Hall's Room 40 had given him some days warning of a German operation on the 9th and he had taken the risky, but in his opinion justifiable move of sailing the Grand Fleet that night.

There were only so many targets that the Germans could come at. He judged the Channel possible but unlikely but had requested the Sheerness force be put on alert. That left the shipping traffic from Norway or two previous targets, the fishing fleet at Dogger Bank or, more likely, a bombardment of the English East Coast. He had positioned himself near the bank, to await developments on the morrow.

This time he intended to be fully ready and had at sea the bulk of the Grand Fleet, consisting of 31 dreadnoughts, 9 armoured cruisers, 11 light cruisers and 72 destroyers, plus HMS Campania. Hood, with his battlecruisers, was at Rosyth, at an hours alert to sail. Although Jellicoe did not know it, he had missed the High Seas fleet U Boat patrol line by sailing early and at night.

2BS, 1st Division
HMS King George V, flag, Sir Martyn Jerram, Vice Admiral 2BS
HMS Ajax, Capt. GH Baird
HMS Centurion, Capt. M Culme-Seymour
HMS Erin, Capt. VA Stanley
2BS, 2nd Division
HMS Monarch, flag Rear Admiral Arthur Leveson, Rear Admiral 2BS
HMS Conqueror, Capt. HHD Tothill
HMS Orion, Capt. O Backhouse
HMS Thunderer, Captain J.A. Ferguson
Cruiser Attached 2BS
HMS Boadicea, Captain L.C.S. Woollcombe
4BS, 3rd Division
HMS Iron Duke, flag, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, CinCGF, flag Rear Admiral Duff, Rear Admiral 4BS , Captain F.W. Dreyer
HMS Royal Oak, Capt. C. MacLachlan
HMS Revenge, Capt. ES Kiddle
HMS Royal Sovereign, Capt C.P Kidd
Cruiser Attached Fleet Flagship:
HMS Active, Captain P.Withers
Tender to HMS Iron Duke:
HMS Oak, LtCdr. D Faviell (Destroyer Tender to the Flagship)
Marksman class destroyer-minelayer:
HMS Abdiel, Commander Curtis
4BS, 4th Division
HMS Benbow, flag, Vice Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee, Vice Admiral 4BS Capt. HW Parker
HMS Canada, Capt. WCM Nicholson
HMS Marlborough, Captain G.P. Ross
HMS Emperor of India, Capt. C.W.R. Royds
Cruisers Attached 4BS
HMS Blonde, Capt C.P Willaimson
HMS Blanche, Captain J.M. Casement
1BS, 5th Division
HMS Colossus, flag, Rear Admiral E.F.A. Gaunt, RA1BS, Captain A.D.P.R. Pound
HMS Neptune, Capt. VHG Bernard
HMS Hercules, Captain Clinton-Baker
HMS Superb, Capt. E Hyde-Parker
HMS Temeraire, Capt. EV Underhill
1BS, 6th Division,
HMS Trafalgar, flag Vice Admiral Sir Cecil Burney, Vice Admiral 1BS, Capt. HM Doughty
HMS Collingwood , Capt. JC Ley
HMS St. Vincent, Captain W.W. Fisher
HMS Vanguard, Capt. JD Dick
HMS Bellerophon, Capt. EF Bruen

Cruiser Attached 1BS
HMS Bellona, Captain A.B.S. Dutton
HMS Defence, flag Rear Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot, Bt., Rear Admiral 1CS, Captain S.V. Ellis
HMS Shannon, Captain V.B. Bonham
HMS Duke of Edinburgh, Captain H. Blackett
HMS Minotaur, Capt. JS Dumaresq
HMS Cochrane, flag, Rear Admiral H.L. Heath, Rear Admiral 2CS, Captain Capt. E la T Leatham
HMS Achilles, Captain A.P Stoddart
HMS Antrim, Capt. E Neville
HMS Devonshire, Capt. CP Clark
HMS Donegal, Capt. W.H. D'Oyly
HMS Calliope, flag, Commodore C.E. le Mesurier, Commodore, 4LCS
HMS Constance, Capt. CS Townsend
HMS Comus, Capt. AG Hotham
HMS Chatham, Captain F Amos
HMS Caroline, Captain HR Crooke
HMS Royalist, Capt. H Meade
4DF, Scapa Flow
Destroyer leaders:
HMS Tipperary, flag, Captain C.J. Wintour (D.4)
HMS Broke, Commander AL Wilson
1 Admiralty M class, HMS Ophelia, Commander LGE Crabbe (escorting 3BCS)
16 K class destroyers
HMS Achates, Commander Hutchinson
HMS Porpoise, Cdr. HD Colville
HMS Spitfire, Lt. Commander C.W.E. Trelawny
HMS Unity, Lt. Commander AM Lecky
HMS Garland, Lt. Commander R.S. Goff
HMS Ambuscade, Lt. Commander G.A. Coles
HMS Ardent, Lt. Commander A. Marsden
HMS Fortune, Lt. Commander F.G,. Terry
HMS Sparrowhawk, Lt. Commander S. Hopkins
HMS Contest, Lt. Commander EGH Master
HMS Shark, Lt. Commander L.W. Jones
HMS Acasta, Lt. Commander J.O. Barron
HMS Christopher, Lt. Commander F.M. Kerr
HMS Owl, Cdr. RG Hamond
HMS Hardy, Cdr. RAA Plowden
HMS Midge, LtCdr. JRC Cavendish
HMS Castor Commodore J.R.P. Hawksley, Commodore (F)
Destroyer leader:
HMS Kempenfelt, Commander HE Sullivan
16 M class destroyers
HMS Ossory, Cdr. HV Dundas
HMS Mystic, Cdr. CF Allsup
HMS Magic, LtCdr. GC Wynter
HMS Mandate, LtCdr. E McCW Lawrie
HMS Minion, LtCdr. HC Rawlings
HMS Martial, LtCdr. J Harrison
HMS Milbrook, Lt. CG Naylor
HMS Marne, LtCdr. GB Hartford
HMS Manners, LtCdr. GC Harrison
HMS Michael, LtCdr. CL Bate
HMS Mons, LtCdr. R Makin
HMS Morning Star, LtCdr. HU Fletcher
HMS Mounsey, LtCdr RV Eyre
HMS Moon, Cdr. WD Irvin
HMS Marmion, Cdr G Flood
HMS Muskateer, Lt Cdr T Thistwaite
Destroyer leaders:
HMS Faulknor, Captain A.J.B. Stirling, D.12
HMS Marksman, Cdr. NA Sullivan (Flag)
16 M class destroyers
HMS Obedient, Cdr GW McO Campbell
HMS Maenad, Cdr. JP Champion
HMS Opal, Cdr. GC Sumner
HMS Mary Rose, LtCdr. EA Homan
HMS Marvel, LtCdr. TW Grubb
HMS Menace, LtCdr CA Poignand
HMS Napier, LtCdr C.Ferguson
HMS Maleluke, LtCdr T Wells
HMS Nessus, LtCdr. EQ Carter
HMS Narwhal, LtCdr. HV Hudson
HMS Mindful, Lt Cdr JJC Ridley
HMS Onslaught, Lt. Commander A.G. Onslow
HMS Munster, LtCdr. SF Russell
HMS Nonsuch, LtCdr HIN Lyon
HMS Nobel, LtCdr. HP Boxer
HMS Mischief, LtCdr. CA Ward

5BS, Attached to Grand Fleet:
HMS Barham, flag, Rear Admiral Hugh Evans-Thomas, Rear Admiral 5BS, Captain A.W.C. Waller
HMS Valiant, Captain M. Woollcombe
HMS Warspite, Captain E. Phillpotts
HMS Malaya, Captain the Hon. A.D.E.H. Boyle
HMS Queen Elizabeth, Capt. G.P.W. Hope
1DF screening 5BS
HMS Fearless, Captain C.D. Roper, Captain (D.1)
14 I class destroyers:
HMS Acheron, Cdr. CG Ramsey
HMS Ariel, LtCdr. Tippet
HMS Attack, LtCdr. CHN James
HMS Hydra, Lt. FG Glossop
HMS Badger, Lt. Commander C.A. Fremantle
HMS Goshawk, Cdr. DF Moir
HMS Defender , Lt. Commander LR. Palmer
HMS Lizard, LtCdr. E Brooke
HMS Lapwing, LtCdr. AH Gye
HMS Botha, LCdr T Echols
HMS Jackel, LCdr F Gillespie
HMS Archer, LCdr S Stevenson
HMS Tigress, LCdr, J Rogers
HMS Pheonix, LCdr R Crowe
Seaplane carrier:
HMS Campania, Captain O. Schwann,
10 aircraft


8 July 1916, Rosyth, United Kingdom

Hood's battlecruiser force was ready to sail at an hour's notice. He was aware that Jellicoe was already at sea. His own forces were, in the advent of a confrontation, almost certainly going to be the first the be engaged, where the metal meets the meat.

He had conducted rigorous, some had said to rigorous training, of his forces over the last year. He was hoping that in any confrontation today, that that level of proficiency and training would make the differences between survival and not, saving the lives or men that might otherwise have been lost. His forces consisted of 10 battlecruisers, 4 heavy cruisers, 15 light cruisers and 27 destroyers.

Watkins ran two experimental torpedoes ashore in Sandown Bay in 1920 and was found therein to have violated "Portsmouth General Order No. 668 of 22.5.20." [6]

Watkins was appointed in command of the submarine K 15 on 9 August, 1920. [7]

Watkins was promoted to the rank of Commander on 31 December, 1920. [8]

On 11 November, 1921, torpedo number 1166 was lost from "K 5" (perhaps K 15 is meant) and a Court of Enquiry two days later cleared Watkins of fault, though it noted that he was using maximum air pressure in these torpedoes when minimum was mandated. [9]

He was appointed to the light cruiser Dauntless as executive officer on 27 December, 1924. He was superseded in November, 1926 and in early 1927 was lent to the Royal Air Force for "instruction in Air Matters." [10]

Watkins was promoted to the rank of Captain on 31 December, 1928. [11]

Watkins was appointed in command of the light cruiser Champion in April, 1930.

He was scolded for hoisting the French national flag in H.M.S. Mackay while on passage from England in 1935 — an act that was deemed to have betrayed a serious lack of judgment. [12]

On 6 May, 1938 he was appointed to Cormorant additional as Chief Staff Officer to Rear Admiral, Gibraltar vice Thomas Balfour Fellowes. [13]

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This is the complete order of battle for the Battle of Crete and related operations in 1941.

Commonwealth & Allied Forces, Crete - "Creforce"

Headquarters Creforce - (Eastern Zone, east of Chania)
Major-General Bernard Freyberg, VC, Colonel Stewart[1]
C Squadron, 3rd The King's Own Hussars (seven light tanks)[2]
Major G.W.Peck
10 Light Tank Mk VIs
B Squadron, 7th Battalion, Royal Tank Regiment
Lieutenant George Simpson
Two Matilda tanks, crewed in part by two officers and five gunners of the 2/3rd Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery (RAA).
1st Battalion, The Welch Regiment
Lieutenant Colonel A. Duncan, MC (Force Reserve)

Headquarters New Zealand Division - Brigadier, Acting Major General [3] Edward Puttick - (Western Zone, west of Chania)
27th New Zealand Machine Gun Battalion (Lt. Col. FJ Gwilliam)
5th New Zealand Field Artillery Regiment
4th New Zealand Infantry Brigade (Brig. Lindsay Inglis) between Chania and Galatas
18th New Zealand Infantry Battalion
19th New Zealand Infantry Battalion
20th New Zealand Infantry Battalion
1st Light Troop, RA
5th New Zealand Infantry Brigade (Brig. James Hargest) (Maleme and Platanias)
21st New Zealand Infantry Battalion
22nd New Zealand Infantry Battalion
23rd New Zealand Infantry Battalion
28th (Maori) Infantry Battalion
7th Field Company New Zealand Engineers
19th Army Field Corps Company
1st Greek Regiment (1,030 Officers and men), (Col. IP Papadimitropoulos)
Evelpidon Officers' Academy (17 Officers, 300 Cadets), (Lt. Col. Loukas Kitsos)
10th New Zealand Infantry Brigade (Lt. Col. Howard Kippenberger) (Galatas)
New Zealand Divisional Cavalry
New Zealand Composite Battalion
6th Greek Regiment (1,389 Officers and men), (Lt. Col. M Grigoriou)
8th Greek Regiment (840 Officers and men), (Lt. Col. Pan Karkoulas)

Headquarters 14th Infantry Brigade - Brig. Brian Herbert Chappel - (Heraklion)
2nd Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment (Lt. Col. CHV Cox, DSO, MC) (637 Officers and men)
2nd Battalion, York and Lancaster Regiment (Lt. Col. A Gilroy) (742 Officers and men)
2nd Battalion, Black Watch (Major AA Pitcairn in temporary command[4][5] (867 Officers and men)
2/4th Australian Infantry Battalion (Lt. Col. Ivan Noel Dougherty)[6] (550 Officers and men)
1st Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Lieut. Col. RCB Anderson, DSO, MC Tymbaki Sector)
7th Medium Regiment, RA (Maj. R.J.B. Snook, DSO (wounded - 20 May 1941). No artillery equipment - armed as infantry. (450 Officers and men)
3rd Greek Regiment (656 Officers and men), (Lt. Col Ant Betinakis)
7th Greek Regiment (877 Officers and men), (Col. E Cheretis)
Greek Garrison Battalion (ex-Greek 5th "Crete" Division, left behind as a garrison when their division was summoned to defend the mainland 830 Officers and men)

19th Australian Infantry Brigade

Headquarters 19th Australian Infantry Brigade - Brig. George Vasey - Georgiopoulis
(Lt. Col. IR Campbell commanding at Rethymnon)
Unit Commander Remarks
2/3rd Field Artillery Regiment, RAA Maj. IJ Bessell-Browne No.6 Battery, consisting of 90 men armed with four captured Italian 100mm guns and 4 x 75mm guns
2/1st Australian Infantry Battalion Lt. Col. Ian R Campbell 620 Officers and Men
2/11th Australian Infantry Battalion Maj. Ray Sandover 650 Officers and Men
2/7th Australian Infantry Battalion Lt. Col. Theo Walker
2/8th Australian Infantry Battalion Lt. Col. John W Mitchell ?
4th Greek Regiment Col. M Trifon 1,300 Officers and Men
5th Greek Regiment Lt. Col. I Servos 1,200 Officers and Men
Gendarmerie Privates School Col. Iak Chaniotis 916 Officers and Men

Mobile Base Defence Organization

Headquarters Mobile Base Defence Organization - Maj.-Gen. CE Weston-Souda Bay
15th Coast Regiment, RA[refer 1]
"S" Royal Marine Composite Battalion, Maj. R Garrett (Royal Marines)
1st Battalion, The Rangers, The King's Royal Rifle Corps - (later designated 9th Battalion, The King's Royal Rifle Corps (The Rangers))[refer 2]
102nd Anti-Tank Regiment, RA (Northumberland Hussars) - no equipment, used as infantry[refer 3]
106th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RA (Lancashire Hussars)[refer 4] - Lt. Col. AF Hely
16th Australian Brigade Composite Battalion - 350 officers and men
Formed from the under strength 2/2nd and 2/3rd Australian Infantry Battalions
17th Australian Brigade Composite Battalion - 270 officers and men
Formed from the understrength 2/5th and 2/6th Australian Infantry Battalions
1st "Royal Perivolian" Composite Battalion - a collection of misc. British units, or remnants thereof.
2nd Greek Regiment - 930 Officers and Men
2nd Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Marines

Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet - Admiral Sir Andrew B Cunningham

Force A1 - Rear Admiral H B Rawlings (R.A., 7th Cruiser Squadron)
Queen Elizabeth-class battleships
HMS Warspite (03) - Captain DB Fisher - damaged [7]
HMS Valiant (02) - Capt. CE Morgan - damaged [8]
G and H-class destroyers
HMS Greyhound (H05) - Cmdr. WR Marshall-A'Deane, Sunk 22 May 1941
HMS Griffin (H31) - Lt. KRC Letts
HMS Havock (H43) - Lt. GRG Watkins
HMS Hero (H99) - Cmdr. HW Briggs
J-class destroyer
HMS Jaguar (F34) - Lt. Cmdr. JFW Hine

Light cruisers
HMS Gloucester (62) - Capt. Henry A Rowley, sunk 22 May 1941 with the loss of 722 crew
HMS Fiji (58) - Capt. PBRW William-Powlett, sunk 22 May 1941
HMS Orion (85) - Capt. GRB Back - damaged [9]
HMS Dido (37) - Capt. HWV McCall - damaged [10]
HMS Decoy (H75) - Cmdr. EG McGregor
HMS Hereward (H93) - Lt. WJ Munn, sunk by enemy aircraft 29 May 1941.
HMS Hotspur (H01) - Lt.Cmdr. CPF Brown
HMS Imperial (D09) - Lt. Cmdr. CA De W Kitcat, sunk 29 May 1941 off Crete
HMS Jackal (F22) - Lt. Cmdr. MP Jonas
HMS Kimberley (F50) - Lt. Cmdr. JSM Richardson

Force C - Admiral King (C.O. 15th Cruiser Squadron)
Ship Commander Armament Tonnage Remarks
HMS Naiad (93) Capt. MHA Kelsey Light cruiser - damaged [11]
HMAS Perth (D29) Capt. Sir PW Bowyer-Smyth 8x6 inch guns,
8x4 inch guns, 4x3 pdr guns, 8x21 inch torpedo tubes

6,830 tons Damaged,[12] but sunk 1 March 1942
Sunda Strait

HMS Kandahar (F28) Cmdr. WGA Robson Destroyer
HMS Nubian (F36) Cmdr. RW Ravenhill Destroyer - damaged[13]
HMS Kingston (F64) Lt. Cmdr. P Sommerville Destroyer - damaged[14]
HMS Juno (F46) Cmdr. St John Tyrwhitt Sunk 21 May 1941
HMS Calcutta (D82) Capt. DM Lees Anti-Aircraft cruiser
Sunk 1 June 1941 within one hundred miles of Alexandria

Force D - Rear-Admiral I.G.Glennie
Destruction of Lupo Convoy (21–22 May 1941)
Ship Commander Remarks
HMS Dido (37) Capt. HW McCall Light cruiser- damaged
HMS Orion (85) Capt. PBRW William-Powlett Light cruiser - damaged [15]
HMS Ajax (22) Capt. EDB McCarthy Light cruiser - damaged
HMS Janus (F53) Cmdr. JAW Tothill Destroyer
HMS Hasty (H24) Lt.Cmdr. LRK Tyrwhitt[16] Destroyer
HMS Hereward (H93) Lt. WJ Munn Destroyer - sunk by enemy aircraft 29 May 1941
HMS Kimberley Lt. Cmdr. JSM Richardson Destroyer

Force E - Captain JP Mack (CO 14th Destroyer Flotilla)
HMS Ilex (D61) - Capt. (D2) H St L Nicholson
HMS Jervis (F00) - Capt. (D14) P J Mack
HMAS Nizam (G38) - Lt. Cmdr. Max Joshua Clark
HMS Carlisle (D67) - Capt. TC Hampton - damaged

5th Destroyer Flotilla
5th Destroyer Flotilla - Captain Mountbatten

HMS Kelly (F01) - Capt. Lord Louis Mountbatten, Sunk 23 May 1941
HMS Kashmir (F12) - Cmdr. HA King, Sunk 23 May 1941
HMS Kelvin (F37) - Cmdr. JH Alison - damaged [17]
HMS Jackal (F22) - Lt.Cmdr. MP Jonas
HMS Kipling (F91) - Cmdr. A St Clair-Ford

This section requires expansion. (June 2008)
Sphakia evacuation force - Rear-Admiral King

HMS Phoebe - Capt. G Grantham, light cruiser
HMAS Perth - Capt. Sir P.W. Bowyer-Smith, light cruiser - damaged [18]
HMS Coventry - Capt. WP Carne, light cruiser
HMS Calcutta - Capt. DM Lees, Anti-aircraft cruiser, sunk 1 June 1941 with 255 survivors
HMS Glengyle - Capt. CH Petrie, Landing Ship, Infantry (Large)
HMAS Napier (G97) - Capt. Stephen Harry Tolson Arliss RN, N-class Flotilla Leader.
HMAS Nizam (G38) - Lt. Cmdr. Max Joshua Clark
HMS Kelvin (F37) - Cmdr. JH Alison
HMS Kandahar (F28) - Cmdr. WGA Robson

Air Officer Commander-in-Chief, Middle East - Air Chief Marshall Sir Arthur Longmore
No. 30 Squadron RAF (Squadron Leader RA Milward/Sqn. Ldr. Shannon) - Bristol Blenheim
No. 33 Squadron RAF (Sqn. Ldr. MT StJ Prattle/Sqn.Ldr. Edward Howell, OBE, DFC) - Gloster Gladiator, Hawker Hurricane
No. 80 Squadron RAF (Sqn. Ldr. EG Jones) - Gloster Gladiator, Hawker Hurricane
No. 112 Squadron RAF (Sqn. Ldr. LG Schwab) - Gloster Gladiator, Hawker Hurricane[19]
No. 203 Squadron RAF - Bristol Blenheim

Land, Airborne and Air forces

Headquarters Fliegerkorps XI - Generalmajor Kurt Student, with Brig. Schlemm (Chief of Staff), Col. Trettner (Ops) and Maj. Reinhardt (Int) [20]
Unit Commander Equipment/Remarks
KGzbV 1 Oberst Fritz Morzik Junkers Ju 52
KGzbV 2 Oberst Rüdiger von Heyking Ju 52
KGzbV 3 Oberst U.Bucholz Ju 52
22nd Luftlande Division General Hans Graf von Sponeck Force Reserve (in Romania)

Fliegerkorps VIII
Headquarters VIII. Fliegerkorps - General der Flieger Freiherr Wolfram von Richthofen
Unit Commander Equipment/Remarks
Kampfgeschwader 2 General-Major Herbert Rieckhoff Do 17Z
Jadgeschwader 77 Major Bernhard Woldenga Me 109E
Lehrgeschwader 1 Oberst F-K Knust Ju 88A & He 111H
Sturzkampfgeschwader 1 Oberst-Leutnant W.Hagen Ju 87R
Sturzkampfgeschwader 2 Oberst-Lt O.Dinort Ju 87R
Sturzkampfgeschwader 77 Major Graf von Schonborn-Wiesentheid Ju 87R
Zerstörergeschwader 26 Oberst Johann Schalk Bf 110C & Bf 110D

Headquarters Luftflotte IV - General der Flieger Alexander Löhr
Unit Commander Remarks
5th Panzer Division Gustav Fehn
6th Gebirgs Division Ferdinand Schörner

Headquarters Luftlande Sturmregiment - Generalmajor Eugen Meindl, then Col. Ramecke, Maj. Braun [21]
Unit Commander Remarks
1st Battalion Major Walter Koch glider Battalion
2nd Battalion Major Edgar Stentzler
3rd Battalion Major Otto Scherber
4th Battalion Hauptmann (Captain) Walter Gericke
Two glider companies were detached and seconded to 7th Flieger Division, below

Headquarters, 7th Flieger Division - Generalleutnant Willhelm Süssman
Unit Commander Subunits Remarks
7th Engineer Battalion Major Liebach
7th Artillery Battalion Major Bode
7th Machine Gun Battalion Hauptmann Schulz
7th Anti-tank Battalion Hauptmann Schmitz
1st Fallschirmjäger Regiment Oberst Bruno Bräuer 1st Battalion (Major Erich Walther), 2nd Battalion (Hauptmann Burckhardt), 3rd Battalion (Major Karl-Lothar Schulz) Heraklion
2nd Fallschirmjäger Regiment Oberst Alfred Sturm, Maj, Schulz, Captain Paul [22] 1st Battalion (Major Kroh), 2nd Battalion (Hauptmann Erich Pietzonka, 3rd Battalion (Hauptmann Wiedemann) Retimno
3rd Fallschirmjäger Regiment Oberst Richard Heidrich, Lt. Heckel [23] 1st Battalion (Hauptmann Friedrich von der Heydte), 2nd Battalion (Major Derpa), 3rd Battalion (Major Ludwig Heilmann) Hania
The 2nd Battalion of the 2nd FJ Rgt was used with the 1st FJ Rgt

Headquarters, 5th Gebirgs Division - Generalmajor Julius Ringel, Maj. Haidlen, Capt. Ferchl [24]
Unit Commander Sub units
95th Artillery Battalion Oberstleutnant Wittmann
95th Anti-tank Battalion Major Bindermann
95th Reconnaissance Battalion Major Count Castell zu Castell
95th Engineer Battalion Major Schaette
95th Signal Battalion Major Nolte
85th Gebirgsjäger Regiment Oberst August Krakau 1st Battalion - 2nd Battalion - 3rd Battalion
100th Gebirgsjäger Regiment Oberst Willibald Utz 1st Battalion - 2nd Battalion - 3rd Battalion
141st Gebirgsjäger Regiment[25] Oberst Maximilian Jais 1st Battalion - 2nd Battalion - 3rd Battalion

In Command

Dates of appointment given when known:

  • Rear-AdmiralEdmund S. Poë, December, 1904 [13]
  • Rear-AdmiralGeorge Neville, 15 July, 1905 [14]  –㺏 July, 1907 [15]
  • Rear-AdmiralSir Percy M. Scott, 15 July, 1907 [16]  –㺓 February, 1909 [17]
  • Rear-AdmiralThe Hon. Stanley C. J. Colville, 24 February, 1909 [18]  –ن March, 1911 [19]
  • Rear-AdmiralLewis Bayly, 24 February, 1911 – early January, 1913 [20]   (this incarnation hereafter named First Battle Cruiser Squadron)
  • Rear-AdmiralErnest C. T. Troubridge, 6 January, 1913 [21]  – September, 1914 [22]   (ships are former armoured cruisers in the Mediterranean)
  • Rear-AdmiralArchibald G. H. W. Moore, 12 August, 1914 [23]  –㺑 January, 1915 [24]
  • Rear-AdmiralSir Robert K. Arbuthnot, Bart., 17 January, 1915 [25]  –㺟 May, 1916  (killed at Battle of Jutland – formation abolished afterward)
  • Rear-AdmiralArthur K. Waistell, 9 October, 1924 [26]  –ى September, 1926 [27]   (formation re-formed from the former First Light Cruiser Squadron)
  • Rear-AdmiralThe Hon. William H. D. Boyle, October, 1926 [28]  – October, 1928 [29]
  • Rear-AdmiralHenry W. Parker, 10 September, 1928 [30]  –㺊 April, 1930 [31]
  • Rear-AdmiralJoseph C. W. Henley, 14 March, 1930 [32]  –㺋 April, 1932 [33]
  • Vice-AdmiralGeorge K. Chetwode, 19 March, 1932 [34]  –㺔 June, 1933 [35]
  • Rear-AdmiralJohn K. im Thurn, 20 June, 1933 [36]  –㺒 July, 1935 [37]
  • Rear-AdmiralMax K. Horton, 18 July, 1935 [38]  –ف November, 1936 [39]
  • Vice-AdmiralCharles E. Kennedy-Purvis, 2 October, 1936 [40]  – March, 1940 [41]
  • Vice-AdmiralJohn H. D. Cunningham, September, 1938 [42]  – January, 1941 [43]
  • Rear-AdmiralW. Frederic Wake-Walker, January, 1941 – February, 1942
  • Rear-AdmiralLouis H. K. Hamilton, 24 February, 1942 –ف September, 1943 [44]
  • Vice-AdmiralSir Arthur F. E. Palliser, 1 September, 1943 [45]  –ه March, 1944 [46]
  • Vice-AdmiralSir Rhoderick R. McGrigor, March, 1944 [47]  – July, 1945 [48]

Fleet Air Arm History

From the early pioneering experiments of intrepid Naval Aviators in wood and fabric bi-planes, hurling themselves from temporary structures on the upper decks of warships, to the challenging demands of modern warfare, the men and aircraft of the Royal Navy&rsquos Air Arm and their courageous, can-do attitude have become legendary. The history of Naval aviation is one of the most remarkable stories of the past hundred years. The ability to rise above the sea and look over the horizon, to stay airborne for long periods and to carry crew and weapons was to be a turning point in Naval thinking and the genesis of an exponential development in technology that was to radically shape history.

Although the term Fleet Air Arm did not actually come into being until 1924, the Admiralty was investigating kites and ballons for spotting as early as 1903, the first Naval aviator completed his flying training in 1910 and the first launch from a Royal Navy battleship was achieved by January of 1912. From those early formative years of Naval aviation to current operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, Naval personnel and aircraft have played a leading role.

The timeline below is continually being updated and supplemented with photographs, official reports and first-hand accounts. It is not intended to be a definitive history of the Fleet Air Arm, more a series of snapshots covering some of the key events in the history of Naval Aviation. Please contact us if you have images or items which you believe should go onto the timeline.

12 Mar Admiralty investigates kites for spotting

Samuel Franklin Cody, an American, was an early pioneer of manned flight, most famous for his work on the large kites known as Cody kites. A large exhibition of the Cody kites took place at Alexandra Palace in 1903. His exploits came to the attention of the Admiralty and a series of Naval Kite Trials were held.

On Woolwich Common on the 12 and 13 March 1903, Cody flew his eight ft. black silk .

7 May Admiralty signs tender for its first aircraft

In 1908 the Committee of Imperial Defence set up a sub-committee to examine 'Aerial Navigation'. It looked at captive balloons, kites, rigid and non-rigid dirigibles and aeroplanes. One of the members of the sub-committee was Captain RHS Bacon, Director of Ordnance and Torpedoes in the Admiralty. On 21 July 1908 Captain Bacon submitted to the 1st Sea Lord Admiral Sir John Fisher a proposal that Vickers .

21 Jun First Serviceman to gain Aviator Certificate is from the Royal Navy

George Cyril Colmore gained a Royal Aero Club Aviator's Licence, qualifying at his own expense. He made his first flight on 19 June 1910, flying Frank McClean's Short S.27 (Shorts' works no. S.26) for 11 miles in 20 minutes the following day he passed the tests for the Aviator's Certificate #15, which was awarded at the Royal Aero Club's committee meeting on 21 June 1910. Report by RAC in Flight .

1 Mar First Naval flying training Course at the Royal Aero Club, Eastchurch

In November 1910 the Royal Aero Club, at the instigation of Francis McClean, offered the Royal Navy the use of its airfield at Eastchurch along with two aircraft and the services of its members as instructors in order that Naval officers might be trained as pilots. The Admiralty accepted and on 6 December the Commander-in-Chief responsible for the protection of the entrance to the port of London, .

25 Apr First batch of flying certificates for Navy pilots

Royal Aero Club certificates gained at Eastchurch, by Lieutenant Charles Rumney Samson, certificate #71, and Lieutenant Arthur Murray Longmore, certificate #72, flying Short Biplanes. At Brooklands, Lieutenant Wilfred Parke gained certificate #73 in a Bristol Biplane (died in an air accident, 15 December 1912).

Image Lt Wilfred Parke RN, seen here hands-in-pockets with Samuel Cody, received .

2 May Second batch of RN & RM flyers gain certificates

30 May RN officer pays for his own flying training

Lieutenant Richard Bell Davies, at Hendon, gains Royal Aero Club certificate #90, flying a Farman Biplane. He had paid 50 Pounds to the Grahame-White Flying School for his training, plus a 25 Pound deposit against damage.

Lt Bell Davies would have a distinguished career in aviation. Squadron Commander Bell Davies was awarded the DSO on 23 January 1915 and the Victoria Cross on 19 November 1 .

24 Sep HMA-1 Mayfly breaks her back

HMA-1 was the first British rigid airship but she never flew. On September 24 1911, buffeted by strong winds, she broke in two as she was being moved from her shed at Cavendish Dock in readiness for full trials.

From Flight magazine 17 December 1910

According to advices from Barrow, the work of erecting the naval airship has now been completed, and as soon as the weather takes a favourable .

18 Nov Naval pioneer takes off from the water.

Commander Oliver Schwann RN bought an Avro Type D landplane (at his own expense with support from friends) for £700 and fitted floats to it. Schwann's group experimented with floats, skids, engine position and balancing. Experiments were conducted next to the hangar in Barrow-in-Furness where HMA No.1 was being built. Despite not having qualified as a pilot, on 18 November 1911 after many attempts, .

1 Dec First take-off from land and landing on water

In 1911, Lieutenant Arthur Murray Longmore and aircraft engineer Oswald Short installed streamlined air bags on the undercarriage struts and under the tail of an Improved S.27 No.38 to enable the aircraft to land on water. On 1 December 1911, Longmore used the aircraft to become the first person in the United Kingdom to take off from land and make a successful water landing when he landed in the .

10 Jan First aircraft launch from a British warship

29 Feb 1st Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill quizzed in Parliament about hydro-aeroplanes

Hansard's for 29 February 1912 records the following exchange in Parliament.

Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether his attention has been called to the successful experiments now being conducted on the South Coast of France with hydro-aeroplanes whether the experiments have established the fact that these machines can rise from and alight upon the sea and whether .

13 Apr Royal Flying Corps constituted

The Naval Air Organisation and the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers are merged to form the Royal Flying Corps with Naval and Military Wings, constituted by Royal Warrant signed by King George V 13 April 1912. The Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers became the Military Wing of the Royal Flying Corps a month later on 13 May 1912. The headquarters and flying school of the Naval Wing were at Eastchurch, .

2 May First launch of an aircraft from a ship under way

Improved S27 No 38 was one of four naval aircraft to take part in the 1912 Fleet Review at Weymouth, the others being a Short S.41 tractor biplane, a Deperdussin monoplane and a Nieuport monoplane. It was flown by Commander Samson and Lieutenant Gregory. A display of the possibilities of naval aviation was made in the presence of King George V, including a demonstration of the use of aircraft for .

15 Jul Admiralty promulgates details of the Naval Wing of the RFC

Admiralty promulgates details of the composition of the Naval Wing of the RFC. Men were required to volunteer for four years' service in the Royal Flying Corps followed by four years in the Reserve of the RFC. Personnel would be borne on the books of HMS President.

An officer selected for the Royal Flying Corps who had obtained or subsequently obtained at his own expense, the Certificate of .

30 Jul First RM NCO gains Aviator Certificate

Private John Edmonds, RMLI, gains Royal Aero Club certificate #262 at Eastchurch, flying a Short Biplane.

John Edmonds was born in Walworth, London on 4 December 1881, and by the age of eighteen he was earning a living as a slater's labourer.

On 29 June 1900, Edmonds enlisted in the RMLI at the age of eighteen and a half, and followed the usual recruit training at Deal, Kent until February .

25 Aug Lt Wilfred Parke RN discovered how to recover from a spin

On Sunday 25 August 1912, Lt Wilfred Parke RN flying an Avro G during Military Aeroplane Competition at Lark Hill with Lt Le Breton as passenger, discovered how to recover an aircraft from a spin. He was landing after completing a 4hrs endurance test, and attempted a impressive spiral engine-off landing. but his Avro Type G entered a spin at about 1000ft above the airfield.

3 Sep First RN rating gains Aviator Certificate

1 Jan The first RN Air Station is commissioned.

In a letter from the Admiralty to the Admiral commanding Coastguard and Reserves, classified SECRET, approval was given for the establishment of a 'regular chain of stations for naval aircraft along the coast of the United Kingdom within easy flight of each other.' 16 sites for hydro-aeroplanes were suggested and three for airships.

The first of these, RNAS Grain, on the Isle of Grain, Medway .

7 May HMS HERMES (a light cruiser) is commissioned as the experimental ship for operating aircraft at sea.

HMS HERMES (a Highflyer class cruiser) is commissioned after being converted to be the first British warship for operating seaplanes. The conversion involved fitting a stowage platform at the rear of the ship and a launching platform at the front. The aircraft took off using wheeled trolleys and were retrieved by cranes. Two seaplanes were carried during trials in 1913. The design arrangements were .

1 Oct All Army airships transferred to Navy

In October 1913 it was decided to transfer all the airships belonging to the Military Wing to the Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps and for the latter to be responsible in the future for the development of lighter-than-air craft. Airships remained under naval control until December 1919, when all units were transferred to the RAF, Coastal Area.

By the outbreak of World War I, the former Army .

15 May Winston Churchill visits Eastchurch

First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill (centre, facing camera), stands in front of Short Type S.38 Biplane (a.k.a. Short S.77), No. 66, of the Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps, during a visit to Eastchurch, Kent.

No. 66, seen here with a Vickers Maxim gun fitted on the front of the gondola, was used for experimental gun and wireless installation tests at Eastchurch. On the extreme .

28 Jun Night Flying by a Seaplane

Summary of Report by Lieutenant A W Bigsworth on night flying in a seaplane (Longmore Papers, National Maritime Museum)

The flight occurred on 28 June 1914 at 11pm in a Sopwith Bat Boat No.118 fitted with a 50cp motor car electric headlight 4 volt lamp on the wing tip and a shaded 4 volt lamp in the bow of the boat. The flight which must have been one of the first night flights by a naval aircraft, .

1 Jul The Royal Naval Air Service is formed

The Admiralty adopts the title Royal Naval Air Service for the Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps.

The strength of the RNAS on formation is: 55 seaplanes and "shipborne" aircraft 40 aeroplanes seven airships 111 officers and 544 men.

Extracts from Admiralty Circular Letter CW.13964/14 of 1.7.14 'Royal Naval Air Service - Organisation (Adm.1/8378)

The Royal Naval Air Service, forming .

28 Jul First aerial torpedo drop

The RNAS took delivery of the Sopwith Special floatplane which was specifically designed to drop a 14 inch torpedo in early July 1914, but it proved unable to take-off carrying the torpedo, so Squadron Commander Arthur Longmore, commander of the Calshot seaplane station which was carrying out the torpedo trials, suggested that one of the Short Folder Tractor biplane seaplanes should be modified for .

4 Aug War Declared by Britain

On 28 June 1914, the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo led to a month of diplomatic manoeuvring between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain resulting in countries mobilising their forces and eventually on 1 August, Germany declared war on Russia and then 3 August on France. Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914. Subsequently more and more .

11 Aug Admiralty requisitioned three cross-channel packets

On this day 1914 Admiralty requisitioned three cross-channel packets

The Admiralty requisitioned three cross-channel packets from the South Eastern & Chatham Railway Co. Ltd for conversion as seaplane tenders. They were renamed HM Ships Empress, Engadine and Riviera.

Upon completion of the modifications on 1 September1914, HMS Riviera was assigned to the Harwich Force along with Engadine .

15 Aug First RNAS aircraft arrive in Orkney

On 15 August 1914, the first RNAS aircraft arrived in Orkney.

Three seaplanes and two aeroplanes were dumped in a field of still green oats belonging to the farm of Nether Scapa. At first the aircraft were covered over with an assortment of tents and marquees borrowed from a variety of sources in the nearby town of Kirkwall.

A severe gale in early November caused destruction to some of .

27 Aug The first RNAS squadron is deployed to Ostend

Eastchurch (Mobile) Squadron formed 8 August 1914 with 6 pilots. Bell-Davies, Dalrymple-Clark, Briggs, Sippe, Samson (Commanding Officer) and Beever. The squadron was equipped with Short S38, BE2a, TB8, Sopwith Tractor and DFW aircraft. It deployed to Ostend Racecourse on 27 August 1914 becoming the first RNAS squadron to deploy in WW1. It became No3 Squadron when it moved to St Pol 1 September 1914.

3 Sep The Admiralty given responsibility for the air defence of Britain

On 3 September 1914, it was decided by the Cabinet that as the Army had neither guns or personnel for anti-aircraft defences, the Navy were to undertake the anit-aircraft defence of the country.

The Navy had been so starved of personnel before the war that they also had none to spare but met the difficulty by raising a body of part-time volunteers for London, enrolling them in the Royal Naval .

9 Oct First Zeppelin destroyed in its base.

Zeppelin LZ25 (Z.IX) is destroyed in its shed at Dusseldorf by RNAS Sopwith Tabloid flown by Flight Lieutenant Reginald Leonard George Marix from Antwerp.

Report from Commander Spenser D A Grey to the Director of the Air Department, Admiralty, on the Raid on Cologne and Dusseldorf, dated 17 October 1914.

At about 11.30pm, Thursday the 8th October, the bombardment of Antwerp commenced from the .

31 Oct The seaplane carrier HMS HERMES is sunk.

HMS Hermes (launched 7 April 1898), a former cruiser, had been converted to a seaplane carrier for trials and subseequently paid off. She was was recommissioned 31 August 1914 and used to ferry aircraft to France. On 30 October, Hermes arrived at Dunkirk with one load of seaplanes. The next morning, Hermes set out on the return journey but was recalled because a German submarine was reported in the .

21 Nov RNAS attacked Zeppelin sheds at Friedrichshaven

Three RNAS Avro 504s from Belfort, France attack Zeppelin sheds at Friedrichshaven. The first strategic air raid in history. It was planned and prepared for in utmost secrecy and when the three pilots took off carrying four 20lb bombs each, none of them had ever dropped a bomb before.

No. 873 was flown by Flight Commander John Tremayne Babington No. 874, was flown by Squadron Commander Edward .

9 Dec Seaplane carrier HMS ARK ROYAL commissioned.

The Royal Navy had conducted trials in 1913 with a modified cruiser, Hermes, to evaluate the ability of seaplanes to work with the fleet. They were successful enough that the Admiralty allocated £81,000 in the 1914&ndash1915 Naval Programme to purchase a merchant ship for a more thorough modification than had been possible with Hermes to better accommodate seaplanes. A tramp steamer was purchased .

21 Dec First night bombing raid of WW1

Squadron Commander Samson flew a Farman MF-II, No 1241, for the first British night bombing mission when it attacked a German artillery installation on 21st December, 1914 flying from St Pol, Dunkirk.

Samson's personal account of the night was published in an article in a Singapore based newspaper 17 years after the event. It is reproduced below.

How I dropped .

25 Dec First bombing raid by ship-borne aircraft. (Cuxhaven)

Seven ship-borne seaplanes (Three Short Improved Type 74 Folders, two Short Type 81 Folders and two Short Type 135 Folders), from the seaplane carriers HMS ENGADINE, RIVIERA and EMPRESS attack the double airship shed on a turntable at Cuxhaven - the first bombing raid by ship-borne aircraft.

The three channel steamers had been converted to carry aircraft they were covered by cruisers and destroyers .

23 Jan Attack by RNAS aircraft on U-boats in harbour

RNAS aircraft attack a U-boat alongside the Mole at Zeebrugge.

The KING is pleased to give orders for the following appointments to the Distinguished Order to the undermentioned Officers in recognition of their services.

These Officers have repeatedly attacked the German submarine station at Ostend and Zeebrugge, being subjected on each occasion to heavy and accurate fire, their machines .

29 Jan Walney Island airship sheds bombarded by U21.

German submarine 'U21' was sighted at just after 14:15 hours on the 29th January 1915. The German submarine 'U21' surfaced and opened fire on the airship sheds that had been constructed on Airship Shed Road, Walney Island, off Barrow-in-Furness. (Known today as West Shore Road.) The rounds fell well short of their intended target and the U boat was driven off by the shore batteries.

18 Mar First flight of an SS non-rigid airship at Kingsnorth

SS (Submarine Scout or Sea Scout) class non-rigid developed as a matter of some urgency to counter the German U-boat threat to British shipping during World War I.

The prototype SS airship was created at RNAS Kingsnorth and was effectively a B.E.2c aeroplane fuselage and engine minus wings, tailfin and elevators, slung below the disused envelope from airship HMA No. 2 (a Willows No. 4) that .

17 Apr HMS CAMPANIA is commissioned.

The record-braking Cunard liner originally built in 1893 was purchased by the Admiralty in November 1914. In comparison with the purchase and conversion of the Engadine, Empress and Riviera, she was capable of high speed and with her holds, had the capacity to stow aircraft below decks. She spent several months conducting trials. Below is the report of the first take-off 6 August 1915.

23 Apr Sub Lt Rupert Brooke RNVR serving with HMS Ark Royal dies

Sub Lt Rupert Brooke RNVR serving with HMS Ark Royal dies.

With the British Mediterranean Expeditionary Force aboard HMS Ark Royal, on his way to the landing at Gallipoli, Rupert Brooke developed sepsis from an infected mosquito bite. He died on 23 April 1915 aged 27 in a French hospital ship moored in a bay off the island of Skyros in the Aegean. As the expeditionary force had orders to depart .

25 Apr Landings at Gallipoli

The British Government was deeply concerned about the part Turkey was taking in the war in support of Germany, with which it had signed a treaty on 2 August 1914. On 13 January 1915 the Admiralty was directed to "prepare for a naval expedition in February to bombard and take Gallipoli Peninsula, with Constantinople as its objective"

The Royal Naval bombardment began on 19 February with some .

17 May Zeppelin LZ39 attacked in the air

Flight Commander Arthur Wellesley Bigsworth in Avro 504B No. 1009 attacked the Zeppelin LZ39 over Ostend on 17 May 1915. He managed to cripple the airship by dropping four 20lb bombs damaging five of her gas cells, although the airship managed to regain its base. For this feat Bigsworth was awarded the DSO. This was the first night-time attack on a Zeppelin.

Bigsworth trained as a Mercantile .

26 May 'Coastal airships' introduced

7 Jun Flight Sub Lieutenant Warneford is awarded the Victoria Cross for destroying LZ37 near Ghent.

Flt S/Lt Rex Warnford of No.1 Naval Aeroplane Squadron flies Morane MS3 Type L Parasol to destroy Zeppelin LZ37 near Ghent. He is awarded the first FAA Victoria Cross.

No. 1 Naval Aeroplane Squadron, 8th June 1915, official report by Flight Sub-Lieutenant Reginald Warneford to Wing Commander AM Longmore (Air 1/672)

I left Furnes at 1:00 am on 7th June 1915 on Morane No. 3253 under orders to .

11 Jul RNAS aircraft assist in the sinking of the Konigsberg

On 3 September 1914, at high tide, hiding from British warships, Königsberg passed over the bar at the mouth of the Rufiji and slowly made her way up the river. Coast watchers were stationed at the mouth of the river and telegraph lines were run to ensure the Germans would not be surprised by British ships searching for them. In doing so, his ship would occupy a disproportionate number of British .

1 Aug Royal Naval Air Service command formalises

Admiralty Weekly Order No 1204/15, dated 29 July 1915 (Adm 1/8408)

1. The Royal Naval Air Service is to be regarded in all respects as an integral part of the Royal Navy and in future the various Air Stations will be under the general orders of the Commander-in Chief or Senior Naval Officer in whose District they are situated.
2. The Commander-in Chief or Senior .

6 Aug First flight of a seaplane from a ship underway

12 Aug First successful airborne attack by torpedo carrying seaplanes

At the end of May 1915, HMS Ben-my-Chree sailed for the Dardanelles, where her aircraft were mainly involved in spotting for naval artillery in support of the Gallipoli Campaign. One of Ben-my-Chree's Short 184 seaplanes, piloted by Flight Commander Charles H K Edmonds made the first ever aerial torpedo attack on 12 August, when she successfully launched a single 14 inch (360 mm), 810 lb (370 kg) .


Westphal's blood bonded some of his hair to it. The surgeon had to cut the garment away to treat Westphal, who kept the fragments.

The research also found that around a quarter of the crew were inexperienced 'landsmen' with less than a year at sea.

Speaking to the Sunday Telegraph Bruno Pappalardo, naval expert at the National Archives, said: 'Not only was the fleet very cosmopolitan, it also wasn’t as highly skilled as is perceived.

'That has been part of the Nelson myth, that this was a crack fleet.'

Kiss me Hardy: Lord Nelson was hit by a French musket ball during the battle and later died from his wounds

As the world spiralled towards all-out conflict for the first time during the Napoleonic wars, a huge strain was placed up the British Navy trying to combat the might of Napoleon's fleet.

Around one in six of all the men employed by the Navy at the time took part in the battle, and around a seventh were from land-locked counties such as Warwickshire and Staffordshire.

The research is part of an ongoing project to extract information from various sources including muster lists, certificates of service and biographical works held in the National Archives.

The latest findings are to feature in the National Maritime Museum’s new Nelson, Navy, Nation gallery which opens on October 21, the 208th anniversary of the battle.

The data has also been used to create an ancestor tracker which people can use to find out if their ancient relatives served in the battle.

Britain lost no ships during the firefight, but 449 men were killed and 1,217 wounded. French and Spanish losses were 4,408 dead, 2,545 wounded and some 20,000 taken prisoner.


Gurkhas are known for their long curved combat knives, which serve as part of the Brigade's crest

Gurkhas - One of the oldest groups of foreigners to serve in the British army is also one of the only one still serving today. The Gurkha Brigade was formed after the defeat of Nepal in 1816 following two bloody campaigns by the British Army.

During the conflict a mutual respect developed between the soldiers, and British officers admired the Gurkhas for their fighting spirit, so allowed them to volunteer for the East India Company's Army.

The Brigade's numbers peaked during WWII at 112,00 and there are thought to be around 3,500 serving today in Afghanistan and elsewhere.

Sikhs - As World War One spread across Europe in 1914 colonial troops were called up in increasing numbers to serve the powers that ruled them. For Britain that meant drawing huge numbers from India.

Around 100,000 Sikhs volunteered to serve in the British Army despite making up just 2 per cent of the Indian population.

They were so fierce and well organised that by the end of the conflict English officers who served with them were wearing traditional turbans as a mark of admiration.

Irish - When the world went to war for a second time in 1939 most of the Irish mainland was no longer a part of the UK, and so its soldiers were not called up.

In fact Irish troops were told not to join British forces in the fight against Hitler and threatened with being labelled as deserters if they did.

Despite the threat which meant they were unable to work for the state for the rest of their lives, thousands suck away to join the European conflict. They were only recently granted a pardon by the Irish Government.

Americans - Another extended battle often called the finest in British history was the Battle of Britain, when RAF pilots successfully defended the UK mainland from Luftwaffe attacks as Hitler prepared to invade.

However, among the British pilots were several Americans who later formed the first Eagles Squadron in 1941, an American section of the RAF which initially flew defensive patrols.

As the war progressed, however, they were drafted into offensive operations and were joined by two further Eagles squadrons which became operational late in 1941.

Rear Admiral R. H. McGrigor on HMS Campania - History

By Mark Simmons

‘‘As I floated down, the whole dropping zone seemed to be on fire tracer bullets had set the tinder-dry stubble alight. There was no time to get my bearings before I landed with a hell of a thwack on my back in a deep ditch. I felt something warm trickling down my leg. ‘Oh my God’ I thought, ‘I’ve been hit!’ I pulled my hand away and it was water. My water bottle had burst and was crushed flat. When I had got my breath back I picked myself up and set about gathering up the rest of my chaps and finding our weapon containers. Fortunately, we were all complete, but two of our weapon containers were missing.”

So recalls Lieutenant Peter Stainforth, 1st Parachute Squadron, Royal Engineers, of the 1st Parachute Brigade landing near the Primosole Bridge on the night of July 13, 1943, in Sicily.

Operation Fustian

Three days earlier, Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily, had begun with the British and Canadians landing on the beaches to the south of Syracuse on the Pachino peninsula, while the Americans landed farther south and west on beaches near Gela.

The beach landings by General Bernard L. Montgomery’s Eighth Army were successful. The Italian coastal defenders put up a weak resistance and had their coastal batteries silenced by naval gunfire or by assault troops. By 8 am, July 10, the British 5th Division had entered Casabile and marched on past Syracuse, diverting some troops into the city, while the main force struck north along the coastal road toward Augusta. However, early on July 11 it ran into Group Schmalz, a battlegroup of the 15th Panzer Division at Priolo, well dug in and supported by Tiger tanks and antitank guns, which brought the advance to a halt. The British 50th (Northumbrian) Division waded ashore at Avola to the south, passing quickly on to Casabile. Farther south the XXX Corps, made up of Highlanders and Canadians, was pushing inland against light opposition.

Because the Malati and Primosole Bridges were vital for British forces to advance from the invasion beaches in southeast Sicily to Catania, they were assigned to the crack troops of the 1st Parachute Brigade and No. 3 Commando.

On July 11, Montgomery arrived at Syracuse, the port having fallen virtually undamaged, with his tactical HQ from Malta. He was keen to give Operation Fustian—the British airborne portion of the invasion—the go-ahead.

Lieutenant Colonel John Durnford-Slater, commanding officer of No. 3 Commando, was summonedto XIII Corps headquarters in Syracuse to receive orders for a new attack that night, July 13. He met General Montgomery, Lt. Gen. Miles Dempsey, commander XIII Corps, and Admiral Rhoderick McGrigor on the quayside near the old officer’s quarters of the Italian Navy Eighth Army troops and equipment were pouring ashore nearby. Monty was in high spirits and eager to use his special forces to speed the advance.

Last Minute Planning For the No. 3 Commandos

This mission was assigned to Durnford-Slater’s Commandos and the 1st Parachute Brigade landing behind enemy lines that night to seize important bridges on the road north for XIII Corps. The Commandos would land from the sea near Agnone, advance inland, and take and hold the Ponte dei Malati Bridge over the River Leonardo. The 1,856 paratroops dropping from the air would take the Ponte dei Primosole Bridge, the only bridge over the River Simeto, five miles to the north. Seizing and holding the bridges would open the route to Cantania and forestall any attempt by the enemy to establish defensive lines on the two rivers.

No. 3 Commando had already been in action at midnight on July 10 it had come ashore from the assault ship HMS Prince Albert south of Syracuse to capture a coastal battery near the town of Cassibile. Although there was some small-arms fire directed at the Commandos, they got ashore dry and without loss, and quickly captured the battery.

A British RAF tug pilot (left) and the pilot of a glider that he will be towing study a map of Sicily prior to the invasion.

Durnford-Slater was concerned with the lack of time to plan the Agnone landing, but intelligence indicated the Malati Bridge was only held by Italians and not in strength. But Monty was positive: “Everybody’s on the move now. The enemy is nicely on the move. We want to keep him that way. You can help us to do that. Good luck, Slater.”

The landings were planned in two waves, two troops of the first landings, 1 and 3, would push forward straight away to take the bridge. The others would hold the beach waiting for the second wave to come ashore. Further troops would then move inland, and 4 Troop would send out patrols to make contact with the paratroops at Primosole Bridge while another would link up with 50th Division advancing up the Catania Road, which was expected to reach them at first light on July 14.

1st Parachute Brigade

If No. 3 Commando’s plan was last minute, 1st Parachute Brigade’s scheme to capture the Primosole Bridge in Operation Fustian had been planned for months. The commandos were supposed to have gone in on the evening of July 12, but Eighth Army had been delayed and the operation was postponed. At 4:30 pm the next day the final approval was given.

Lieutenant Colonel Alistair Pearson commanding 1st Parachute Battalion was frustrated: “The airfield was a sandy strip in the desert. We got there at midday and the only shade was under the wings of the Dakotas [transport aircraft]. We lay underneath and waited and slowly baked. By the time we got the code word, the problems of the Airlanding Brigade had filtered back. The fact that a large number of our aircraft had been shot down by friendly naval vessels did not help our morale.” In fact, more of the gliders had been released at the wrong time, many falling into the sea, and exploding flak from the defenders had blinded the inexperienced pilots.

Men of the 1st Parachute Brigade pose with a souvenir German helmet taken during the daring raid on the Bruneval (France) radar installation, February 1942.

The 51st U.S. Troop Carrier Wing would carry the British troops in 105 of its Douglas C-47 transport aircraft. This was aided by 11 British Albemarles from the Royal Air Force’s 38th Wing. The 1st Parachute Brigade’s 1,865 men would be carried in these aircraft, while heavy equipment would be in 19 gliders towed by more RAF Albemarles and Halifaxes—and carrying 10 6-pounder antitank guns and 18 jeeps along with 77 gunners.

According to the plan, the three parachute battalions would land at the same time all within two miles of the bridge. The 1st battalion would capture the bridge the 2nd would land to the south and the 3rd to the north to prevent enemy incursions. The gliders would also land in the same zones. At 10 pm the aircraft began to take off.

The Primosole Bridge, spanning the Simeto River, was surrounded by olive and almond groves and vineyards interspaced with tree-lined fields. It was constructed of steel girders, 400 feet long and eight feet above the river. Four pillboxes had been constructed on the bridge, two at each end. The bridge on Highway 114 was 10 miles from Lentini to the south and seven miles from Catania to the north.

Commandos Hit the Beaches

At 9:30 pm, HMS Prince Albert, having earlier dodged an E-boat attack, began lowering its assault boats containing No. 3 Commando. As the boats ran into the shore, the whole world seemed to have gone mad. Catania could be seen under bombardment to the north. Very lights and tracer bullets to the west criss-crossed the sky, and to the south an antiaircraft barrage and star shells over Syracuse lit up the shore. Overhead, the Dakotas and glider tows roared toward Primosole.

With the boats about 200 yards from shore, the Germans opened fire and the Commandos returned fire as best they could from their rocking craft. With the near collapse of the Napoli Division the day before, the whole Axis line had been in danger of disintegration, so troops of the 1st German Parachute Division and the Hermann Göring Division had been moved in to plug the gap.

With his helmet well camouflaged, a Hermann Göring Division paratrooper moves to take up a defensive position with his 7.92mm MG 15. The weapon, originally used as an aircraft gun, had a rate of fire of over 1,000 rounds per minute.

The Commandos quickly overcame the two pillboxes on the beach. Major Peter Young marshalled 1 and 3 Troops and set off quickly for the bridge, which was five miles inland.

The country was difficult to cross at night, covered in cacti and shrubs, interspaced with vineyards and deep streams, but it got easier when the troops picked up the railway line leading to Agnone railway station and on to the objective. The Commandos even bumped into a group of British paratroops who had been dropped well to the south of their objective. They were invited to join the Commandos but declined, moving north to try and reach the Primosole Bridge. By 3 am, Major Young and his troops had reached the River Leonardo and the northeast end of the Malati Bridge, 250 yards long.

The pillboxes there, manned by Italians, soon fell to grenades through the loopholes, and the demolition charges on the bridge were removed. The Commandos then deployed around the bridge, through orange groves and shallow ravines, building defensive positions with rocks, as the ground was too hard to dig in.

The second wave was late reaching the beach, for the LCAs (landing craft, Assault) returning from the first lift got lost on the way back to the ship. Reloaded with troops and again on the approach back to the beach, the LCAs came under fire. However, the escorting destroyer HMS Tetcott blinded the defenders on the cliff with smoke shells. By dawn Durnford-Slater had 200 to 300 men in position armed with light platoon weapons.

High Casualties For the Paratroopers

Earlier during the night, the 1st Parachute Brigade’s aircraft suffered a similar fate to that met by the American pilots during in the invasion. Many were mistakenly hit by antiaircraft fire from Allied ships, and as they neared the coast they were hit by the enemy flak barrage. Some were shot down in flames. Others broke formation, dropping the paratroops over a wide area, one stick being dropped as far away as Mount Etna. It was a rough ride for men crammed inside the bucking, twisting aircraft, while others were released at too low an altitude, resulting in horrendous injuries.

Lieutenant Colonel Alistair Pearson, in one of the planes, recalled, “I thought we were going in too fast. We seemed to be going downhill as well. Out I went over the DZ and I didn’t think my chute had opened, because I was down on the deck as soon as I’d jumped. I’d gone out number ten, my knees hurt, but I was all right my batman at number eleven was all right but the remainder of the stick all suffered serious injuries or were killed.”

Less than 20 percent of the brigade was dropped in the correct locations, while a further 30 percent were taken back to base. It was later confirmed only 12 officers and 283 other ranks took part in the battle.

British paratroops train on a beach in North Africa prior to Operation Fustian—the British airborne portion of Operation Husky that began on July 10, 1943. The combined air and seaborne invasion of Sicily involved a total of 180,000 U.S., British, and Canadian troops, 3,200 ships, and 4,000 aircraft, and caused Italy to drop out of the war.

Together with his batman, Private Lake, Brigadier Gerald Lathbury, the brigade commander, headed for the Primosole Bridge in the dark they had been dropped three miles away. He had jumped with his stick at 11:30 pm from a height of about 200 feet fortunately for Lathbury, he had landed on soft, plowed ground. The two men paused briefly en route to pick up weapons from a container. There they met other members of the brigade HQ. Farther on they met Lt. Col. Johnny Frost and 50 men of his 2nd Battalion making their way to the objective. Lathbury divided his force into four sections but, arriving near the bridge, he learned that the 1st Battalion had already taken it. However, he was concerned that no radios seemed to have survived the landings so far.

The Fight For the Bridges

Through the night, small groups of paratroops continued to straggle in to the bridge. Frost took his men to high ground overlooking the bridge, while Lathbury deployed another 40 men either side of the river during the day another 120 men reached the bridge where the battle had already begun.

Lieutenant Peter Stainforth saw the battle develop: “The Germans had put barbed-wire road blocks at both ends of the bridge, but opened them up to allow a truck towing a field gun to pass through just as our assault party charged in. In the firefight that followed. Brigadier Lathbury was on the receiving end of a grenade and got several splinters in him.

So when I came up there was the brigadier, trousers around his ankles, bent over, having shell dressings applied to his backside. As mine was the only sapper section to arrive, the brigadier told me to get the demolition charges off the bridge as quickly as possible.”

The Italian pillboxes at either end of the bridge contained useful weapons that the paratroops quickly turned against their former owners: several Breda heavy machine guns well supplied with ammunition. Covering the roads were two Italian 50mm guns and one German 75mm antitank gun in concrete emplacements. These, too, helped to stiffen the paras’ defense.

WIth the Primosole Bridge (background) now in British hands, a Bren gun carrier heads toward the Catania Plain after the battle.

To the south at the Malati Bridge, the Commandos, with daylight, came under pressure but initially, as Durnford-Slater indicates, had “a marvellous time shooting up everything which came and causing complete confusion.” A PIAT (Projector, Infantry, Anti-Tank) on the bridge knocked out a German ammunition truck that blew up spectacularly.

However, heavier German units were joining the fight. A Tiger tank started shelling the bridge, knocking great lumps out of the pillboxes and bombarding and machine-gunning the meager cover to which the Commandos clung. Casualties began to rise.

German Reinforcements Arrive

More German tanks arrived during the morning, together with three battalions of a panzer grenadier regiment along with an Italian group of tanks and infantry.

About 5:20 am, Durnford-Slater held a brief conference with Major Young and acknowledged they were rapidly losing control of the situation. There was no sign of the 50th Division. Casualties caused by mortars and tanks were increasing.

More Commandos had arrived from the beach. Captain Pooley tried to work his way to the enemy flank with 5 and 6 Troops but was driven back by heavy fire the Tiger tank was the main cause of the Commandos’ difficulties. Lying among cypress trees on the other side of the bridge, almost hull down, it was out of range of the PIATs, and to approach it over open ground was suicide.

Vastly outnumbered and with nearly a third of his men killed or wounded, Durnford-Slater had no choice. He ordered his surviving men to break into small groups and make their way back to British lines. Most of them did, although odd groups, cut off, continued the fight, keeping the bridge under fire.

Over 150 officers and men were dead, wounded, or missing from No. 3 Commando, but they had held the Malati Bridge and removed the demolition charges, so it was still serviceable when 50th Division finally reached it.

Five miles to the north, an equally desperate fight was taking place at the Primosole Bridge over the Simeto River, where the airborne troops had stirred up a hornets nest and were coming under increasing enemy pressure. The British paratroops held both ends of the bridge, frantically fighting off continuous infantry attacks with rifles and Bren guns, bombarded by artillery and mortar fire, and even strafed by Focke-Wulf 190 fighter bombers. Again and again the Germans tried to take the bridge by storm.

After the heavy losses suffered by his parachute and glider forces during the invasion of Crete in May 1941, Hitler had decreed no more airborne assault landings. But local German commanders in Sicily decided to override the Führer’s order and called for a parachute drop by the 4th Fallschirmjäger Regiment at the Primosole Bridge.

Two paratroopers of the Hermann Göring Division man an MG 42 against invading Allied forces on Sicily.

Gradually the German paratroops of the 4th Fallschirmjäger, who had been dropped accurately into the area an hour before the British landings, worked their way close to the bridge and into the reed-covered river banks.

“Don’t Let the Enemy Reform”

At about the same time that the York and Lancaster Regiment, the lead element of the 50th Division, was moving slowly north on the Lentini road, the 4th Armoured Brigade was coming forward from Augusta, but both ran into strong resistance from Group Schmalz. The largely German group consisted of the 115th Panzergrenadier Regiment, 3rd and 4th Parachute Regiments, and three fortress battalions.

The previous day, 50th Division’s lead battalions of the 69th Brigade had reached Sortino but were exhausted. Just after dawn Maj. Gen. Sidney Kirkman came up to see Brigadier Edward Cooke-Collis, urging him not to rest but to push on to Lentini. Kirkman said, “Don’t let the enemy reform,” insisting that there was little in front of him at the moment, but tomorrow he would have to fight for the ground.

Soon Kirkman was called back to Miles Dempsey’s XIII British Corps HQ. There Montgomery outlined the plan to take the bridges on the route north. He ordered him to get his men moving “at all possible speed,” which was what Kirkman had been trying to do no doubt he felt the journey back to headquarters a waste of precious time.

Retaking Malati Bridge

The 50th Division’s drive from outside Sortino had to reach the Primosole Bridge by the morning of July 14. Taking it would involve the 69th Brigade making an advance from Sortino to Lentini via Carlentini along a single-track road. The second round would take them onto the Malati Bridge and the relief of No. 3 Commando, and then on to Primosole. On the 50th’s right, coming up the coastal road, would be the 5th Division, both roads converging on Carlentini.

All afternoon and late into the evening of July 13, the 69th Brigade pressed forward. Both Generals Kirkman and Cooke-Collis were close to the rear of their lead battalions, but it was becoming obvious that strong positions in front of Carlentini would require a full-scale assault to clear the way before they could continue on to Lentini that night. The advance was already behind schedule.

Dempsey at XIII Corps HQ was worried, but it was too late to postpone the airborne operation again, and the Commandos were already embarked at sea. The 69th Brigade had no choice but to press on, as any further delay would give the enemy time to blow the two bridges.

Survivors of No. 3 Commando, photographed in Sicily four months after the island was secured. This unit also participated in battles at Dunkirk, Dieppe, St. Nazaire, Merville Battery (Normandy), and many more.

Cooke-Collis’s tired battalions carried on. A heavy rolling artillery barrage descended on Carlentini that night, as the 1st Airborne Brigade’s aircraft were leaving Tunisia. The next morning at 8:30, the 7th Green Howards attacked Monte Pancoli as it was blasted by divisional artillery and long-range fire of heavy mortars and Vickers machine guns. The hill finally fell, and the advance was resumed into Carlentini.

The Green Howards struggled on to Lentini, but thankfully here the enemy lacked the high ground and British artillery and tanks blasted a way through. With the fall of Lentini, the 5th East Yorkshire took over the lead to the River Leonardo and the Malati Bridge they were delighted to find it still standing. With the light fading fast, the bridge was captured after a short firefight.

Critical Naval Support

The advance was now taken up by the 151st Brigade, with the 9th Durham Light Infantry and tanks of 4th Armoured Brigade leading toward the Primosole Bridge. That day the fight at the bridge had been a desperate business.

On three hills covering the southern approaches to the bridge, Frost (2nd Battalion) and about 140 men were trying to hold off a growing mass of the enemy, retreating away from 50th Division.

On the bridge itself, Lathbury’s men were holding on against pressure from the north. The situation was fast developing into a back-to-back action. However, help was on hand from an unlikely source—Lieutenant Peter Stainforth.

Men of the 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry, with some of their Italian prisoners. In most places the Italians surrendered quickly, leaving the fighting to their German partners. The DLI would also be involved in the battle for the Primosole Bridge.

He said, “We were the brigade’s reserve on the south side and could do nothing useful at the moment. Pearson [1st Battalion] was holding off the Germans on the north side and there was quite a lot of firing going on up in the hills where John Frost was.

“He had an artillery officer with him who eventually made contact with a Royal Navy cruiser, the Arethusa [it was actually the HMS Mauritius of Rear Admiral Cecil H.J. Harcourt’s 15th Cruiser Squadron]. Things apparently had got pretty desperate until she began sending over six-inch shells, which made a hell of a difference.” Also providing naval fire during Operation Husky were the Royal Navy cruisers Newfoundland and Arethusa.

The accurate naval fire blew the spirit out of the German attack. Each time they tried to reform for an assault, crashing salvoes were brought down on their heads, reducing them to sniping and small-arms fire. The forward observation officer who brought down the cruiser’s fire was Captain Vere Hodge of the Light Regiment Royal Artillery.

Withdrawal From the Primosole Bridge

Lathbury at the Primosole bridge had little idea what was going on behind him. The reduction in noise from that direction gave him the feeling perhaps Frost and his men had been overrun. However, Frost could see what was happening below him but was unable to use the naval firepower to support Lathbury’s men as they were too close to the enemy.

By late afternoon and with no sign of the 50th Division, Lathbury decided to pull back the remains of 1st and 3rd Battalions across the river and abandon the northern end. Alistair Pearson noted, “With only about 200 men, including a couple of platoons of 3 Para, I formed a defensive position around the approaches to the bridge. The Germans put in a series of attacks in the afternoon. We weren’t in any danger of being overrun but we were suffering casualties and were running short of ammunition. But I considered we could hold out until dark.

“However, at 1830 hours I was ordered to withdraw by Brigadier Lathbury, with which I disagreed. But in the end I had to do as I was told and withdrew my battalion up to the hills. Before I withdrew I took my provost sergeant ‘Panzer’ Manser and my batman, Jock Clements, and made a recce of the river bank because I had a gut feeling I was coming back again. It was stinking and the mosquitoes were there in their millions. About 500 yards along I found a ford where we crossed and made our way back to the battalion lines.”

The retreat to the southern end of the Primosole bridge for a while produced a stronger position with more concentrated firepower. However, the Germans brought up antitank guns close to the northern end of the bridge and blasted the pillboxes apart.

One by one the casemated guns fell silent, and ammunition ran out. The Brits’ own Vickers machine guns were down to their last belts of bullets. A final well-planned and concentrated German attack down both sides of the river covered by the smoke from burning reeds got among the British paras. In places the fighting was hand-to-hand. With no sign of relief, Lathbury was forced to order another withdrawal. The order was passed, and the paras melted away in the failing light toward the hills still held by the 2nd battalion. It was about 7:30 pm.

Troops of the 51st Highland Division rush to capture the Sferro railroad station, west of Catania, July 1943. This photo was staged for the photographer after the action.

Peter Stainforth recalled, “Colonel Hunter [he probably meant Major David Hunter], thinking that the Germans might cross the river and take us in the rear, asked me to go with our Bren gunner onto the right flank where there was a Vickers machine gun. By this time the 1st Battalion, almost out of ammunition, had withdrawn to the south side of the bridge, so the Germans, having been reinforced from Catania, turned their full fury on us. Lathbury had no alternative but to abandon the bridge. The brigade major, who crawled along to our position, gave me the impression it was every man for himself. I must have been one of the last to leave because there was hardly anyone about.”

Some of the men, including Lt. Col. Alistair Pearson, made it back to Frost’s 2nd Battalion however, Peter Stainforth had to make a long detour west to bypass the enemy, at times hiding in scrub, which took him out of the fight.

Planning an Assault Across the River

A short time later, at twilight, Bren gun carriers of the 9th Durham Light Infantry supported by tanks of the 4th Armoured Brigade came into view below the positions of the remnants of the 1st Parachute Brigade.

The arrival of fresh troops denied the Germans any attempt to move forward or to lay new charges to blow the Primosole bridge. They were followed by the other two battalions of the Durham Light Infantry, and their commander, Brigadier R. H. Senior, who was able to establish a large perimeter at the southern end of the bridge. His men were too worn out to launch a full-scale attack that night, but preparations were made for an assault across the river at 7:30 the next morning.

The timely arrival of the Durham Light Infantry and Sherman tanks of the 4th Armoured Brigade kept the Germans from blowing the Primosole Bridge.

That night, A Company, 8th Durham Light Infantry, cleared the southern end of the bridge, holding on in slit trenches and under intense mortar and machine-gun fire at the slightest movement. With first light, Royal Engineers came forward to clear mines.

On the opposite bank, various units of the German 1st Parachute Division were also digging in. These included machine-gun and engineer battalions of General Richard Heidrich’s division, supported by a battery of paratroop artillery, two 88mm guns from a flak regiment being used in the ground role, and remnants of two Italian battalions. Further north around Catania, men of the Schmalz Group were reforming, while the 4th Parachute Regiment, largely complete, was ready to move south.

Leading the British assault unit the next morning, July 15, would be the 9th Durham Light Infantry, wading the river and supported by field artillery and tank fire. The attack lacked imagination and would require considerable courage. The troops would be exposed crossing the river either side of the bridge, the covering barrage would have to lift too early to cover the infantry, and the German paratroops were well dug in on the other side.

A few platoons managed to struggle across under a withering fire. Some determined men got to hand-to-hand fighting but were too few to storm the positions and had to fall back. The London Times reported on the fight for Primosole bridge that the German troops “fought superbly. They were troops of the highest quality, experienced veterans of Crete and Russia: cool and skilled.”

As Alistair Pearson watched the assault of the 9th DLI that morning, he may have been impressed by the skill of the German defenders, but he was not by the handling of the British troops.

“I was called up to Durham’s Brigade HQ to see what the next move was,” he said. “I listened in amazement as the brigade commander put forward the idea of another attack that afternoon. I said, in a voice louder than I should have done, ‘If you want to lose another battalion, you’re going the right way about it.’ There was a deathly silence as the two brigadiers gave me a long look.”

Luckily for Pearson, Lathbury was also there, so he did not get a dressing down instead, his brigadier persuaded the other senior officers to hear him out. Lathbury told them he could take two companies of 8th DLI across the river upstream from the bridge and place them on the flank of the enemy.

“The Battle Was Very Noisy and Very Bloody”

Shortly after 2 am, Lathbury led his men across the Simeto at a point where the river was 30 yards wide and four feet deep. Once across the river, they turned east and moved toward the bridge. As soon as they attacked, the signal of a Very light (flare pistol) was seen this was the signal for the rest of the battalion and supporting arms to storm across the bridge to form a lodgement.

The flanking force managed, by surprise and with grenades and bayonets, to force its way through. The German paratroops not killed in the rush withdrew into the vineyards and olive groves close to the road to Catania. By dawn the bridge had been crossed by the two remaining companies of the 8th DLI with tank support. They eagerly pressed on but soon came under fire from all sides, and the Durhams were soon in serious trouble. They had managed to get only 300 yards beyond the northern end of the Primosole bridge when, according to the divisional history, “Lively fire was exchanged on both sides at ranges decreasing to 20 yards.”

Using a North African beach to rehearse their role in the upcoming invasion of Sicily are British commandos and a Royal Navy beach party.

The main holdup was caused by two 88mm guns that had knocked out four Sherman tanks. The tanks were stalled by these well-sighted guns, and the infantry could not move either without armored support.

Sergeant Ray Pinchin of A Company, 8th DLI, recalled, “The battle was very noisy and very bloody. It caused us all a lot of grief. After we’d crossed the river and taken up a defensive position behind a low stone wall, I had my section dig in and we all had our heads well down.”

Brigadier Senior crossed the river to assess the situation and got promptly pinned down himself on the other side. General Kirkman then arrived and had to communicate with his brigadier by radio. With the attack badly stalled and even the tenuous lodgement in some doubt, Kirkman informed general HQ that the division would be unable to support an amphibious plan to capture Catania.

Montgomery agreed to a 24-hour postponement of the landings. He then set off for the front along with Dempsey to see things for himself. Arriving at 50th Division HQ, Monty was told that another attempt to secure the front on the north side of the Simeto would be made that night.

Abandoning the Plan

At 1 am on the 17th, the 6th and 9th DLI crossed the river via the “Pearson” ford to the left of the bridge. Again they came in on the flank, but this time the attack was made by two battalions instead of two companies. The Durhams reached the Cantania road and overwhelmed the defenders—German paratroops and detachments of the Hermann Göring Division—and dug in just in time to beat off a counterattack by German paratroops and tanks.

More British tanks got over the river, expanding the bridgehead and prompting isolated groups of the enemy to surrender. The cost had been high the two assault battalions of DLI lost 220 men. Of the 292 officers and men of the 1st Parachute Brigade who reached the Primosole bridge, 27 had been killed and 78 wounded many were also missing. Some 400 other members who never reached the bridge had been killed, injured, or captured during the landings.

The prize: Royal Engineers repair damage to the bitterly contested, 400-foot-long Primosole Bridge over the Simento River several weeks after its capture by the British.

With the benefit of new intelligence, Montgomery had to reassess the situation. Between the River Simeto and the city of Catania on a fairly narrow coastal plain were a lot of determined German troops with new units arriving, like the 15th Panzergrenadier Regiment from the 29th Panzergrenadier Division, which had gone into action late on July 16.

It was obvious now that the 50th Division would find it difficult to break out from the Simeto bridgehead and link up with seaborne landings further north. The amphibious plan was abandoned a new way would have to be found to get to Catania.

Monty Visits His Men

Alistair Pearson came across Montgomery when the 1st Parachute Brigade was withdrawn to Syracuse. Pearson was asleep in the front seat of a moving truck his batman Jock Clements woke him to let him know Monty was just behind their small convoy. The khaki Humber staff car swept past them, and the driver indicated they were to stop.

Pearson takes up the story: “I thought a rocket [chewing out] was impending for being asleep, but not so. He greeted me by name like a long-lost friend and congratulated us on our efforts and then said he’d like to talk to the men.

One of the most storied and heroic of all British officers, Lt. Col. John Durnford-Slater (left), commander of No. 3 Commando, talks with General Montgomery (center) and Lt. Gen. C.W. Allfrey, V Corps commander, after receiving the DSO, October 19, 1943.

“My RSM [Regimental Sergeant Major] who was right behind me was pretty quick-witted and moved off to wake them. But he was a clever bugger, old Monty. He got his ADC to throw some packets of cigarettes into the trucks where the men were.

“Then he said, ‘Walk with me, Pearson.’ So we went about 200 yards down the road while he told me that although our casualties had been high, the cost was worth it. He then walked slowly back again. When we got to the trucks he was greeted by cheering men all smoking Monty’s fags [cigarettes] and saying, ‘How’s Alamein, sir?’ There he was lapping this all up, all the cheers. It was very, very clever how he knew where I was and a great morale raiser.”

No Quick Victory at Catania

The positive air Montgomery was skilled at exuding was good for morale however, his race against time to take Catania was over. He had gambled on a quick victory and failed. The campaign ahead would be prolonged with heavy fighting. The hope of cornering large numbers of the enemy was gone. Catania did not fall until August 5, and Eighth Army reached Messina on August 17, having had to fight its way around both sides of Mount Etna.

Indeed, it was true that some parachutists had landed on Mount Etna Captain Victor Dover, adjutant of the 2nd Battalion, and his stick had been dropped there. Dover and another man took a month to find their way back across country to Allied lines the rest were captured.

Today a lonely monument stands near the rebuilt Primosole Bridge to tell travelers of the momentous events that took place here.

Montgomery was impressed with the exploits of No. 3 Commando at the Malati Bridge, which he renamed “3 Commando Bridge.” A plaque with that name remains on the bridge today. Although it is no longer the main road, being overshadowed by the autostrada, a stone pillbox remains at one end to commemorate the battle.


Fantastic write up on Operation Fustian. A course I am currently attending, has me writing a Battle Analysis paper for this skirmish, and I’ve cited you and a few others.

The one thing I had the most trouble with is Axis force numbers. In a few accounts, we’re looking at roughly 1400 paratroopers from the 1st DIV — the only detailed number account. Not sure how…?

But then there’s nothing on the 1st or 4th Fallschirmjager, the 3 Battalions of Panzer Grenadiers, or anything about the Italian Coastal Divisions – aside from them sounding like voluntold recruits that later changed sides.

Have you read or found any accounts of closer or precision numbers?

Because I tried to hypothesize based on the prefix of each of them: Regiment, Division, Battalion, Company — but this then would assume that 3 BNs worth of soldiers are anywhere from 1200-3000 soldiers … and then I can’t fathom, in the given terrain, that less than 350 soldiers against tanks, planes, and mortars — managed to survive and overthrow upwards of 10,000 soldiers.

Rear Admiral R. H. McGrigor on HMS Campania - History

Guide to the Maritime History Collection PR 100

New-York Historical Society
170 Central Park West
New York, NY 10024
Phone: (212) 873-3400

© 2011 New-York Historical Society

Collection processed by Kelly McAnnaney finding aid updated and expanded by Eva Gretta, 2015

This finding aid was produced using the Archivists' Toolkit on March 01, 2016
Description is in English

Container List

Series I. Boxed Files

Scope and Contents note

Series I. Boxed Files is comprised of material that is smaller than 9 x 14 inches and is housed in document boxes. Images are arranged by subject, with ships organized by type, then, when needed ordered alphabetically by name of person or ship. Files contain photographs, including carte-de-visites, cyanotypes, cabinet cards, prints, postcards, newspaper and magazine clipppings, reproductions of paintings and original drawings.

Subseries I.1: Sailing Vessels

Scope and Contents note

Sailing Vessels contains images of civilian ships that are powered only by wind, including clipper ships, cutters, Chinese junks, packet ships, schooners, and yachts. The images are arranged alphabetically by each vessel's name. Unidentified ships are sorted by medium and located after identified ships. Images of replicas of historically significant ships can be found in this group, including photographs of the Viking ship Lief Erikson, images of the Half Moon, built for the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in 1909 and photographs, including cyanotypes, of the Santa Maria, created for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.

Related Archival Materials note

See also: Box 17- Misc. Ships

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Bluenose, Adelia T. Carleton, the Bark Aloha, the pilot boat America, the yacht America, the brig Aspasia, Aurora, the Red star packet Birmingham, USS Brandywine, the clipper ship Challenge, Charlemagne, the old whaler Charles W. Morgan, the revenue cutter Chase, the City of Mobile, the Columbia, Courier, the clipper bark Grapeshot and Cutty Sark.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Dauntless, David Crockett, Defender, the sloop Dewitt Clinton, Dove, Edward Sewall, Fidelia, The Flying Cloud, the schooner Frank Atwood, Galatea, General Armstrong, G.W. Rosevelt, the clipper ship Glory of the Sea, the sloop Gjoa, S.S. Golden Gate and the clipper ship M.P. Grace.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Havre, the packet ship Hercules, packet ship Isaac Webb, James Baines, Joseph Conrad, Joshua Bates, Flying Cloud, King Philip, Keying, La Duchesse D’Orleans, the bark Lagoda, Leif Erikson, Liberdade, Liverpool, E.R. Stirling, Barquentine Madalan, Barque Magdalene Vinnen, cutter yacht Maria, Mary Celeste, clipper barque Mermaid, Mirth, USS Monongahela and Moses Kimball.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the clipper ship Nightingale, Niobe, Northern Light, Old Jersey, the clipper ship Oriental, Palma, Pamir, the schooner Brina P. Pendleton, Queen Mab, the clipper ship Racer, the clipper ship Rainbow, the clipper ship Red Jacket, Reliance and the clipper ship R.L. Lane.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the brig Samaritano, the packet ship Samuel Lawrence, Sappho, the schooner Sinaloa, Sovereign of the Seas, Stag Hound, Thingvalla, Timandra, Tusitala, Ulysses, Valkyrie III, the schooner yacht Valor, Vamarie, the passenger clipper Waimate, the red star packet William Byrnes, the clipper ship Young America and the clipper bark Zephyr.

Subseries I.2: Steamships

Scope and Contents note

Steamships is copmrised of steam powered vesssels as well as those powered by the combination of steam and sail. Ships include paddle steamers, mail steamers, Coast Guard cutters, freighters and ocean liners. Many Hudson River steamboats are represented in this sub series. Images show ships in harbor and at sea and include several images of fires, shipwrecks and other accidents. There are a number of photographs of steamship interiors, including the interiors of ocean liners Caledonia, Conte Di Savoia, Leviathan, Kroonland and Manhattan and steamboats Robert Fulton and Washington Irving. IMages are arranged alphabetically by ship name with unidentified ships filed at the end of the subseries.

Related Archival Materials note

See also: Box 17- Misc. Steamships

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the steamer Avalon, A.B. Valentine, Acadia, Adirondack, Adriatic, S.S. Alaska, Albion, Alcoa Pathfinder, Alexander Hamilton, Alfred Thomas, Alice Dean, Alida, the steam yacht Alva, America, S.S. America, Royal Mail steamship America, American Farmer, S.S. American Merchant, S.S.Ampala, Amy Hewes, Anna, Ansonia, S.S. Antilles, Aquitania, Royal Mail steamship Arabia, Arago, U.S. Mail steam ship Arctic, S.S. Arizona, Arrow, S.S. Asbury Park, Ashland, English Mail steamship Asia, United States Mail steamship Atlantic, S.S. William C. Atwater, Augusta Victoria, S.S. Aurania and the Austin.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the United States Mail steamship Baltic, White Star Line steamship Baltic, Bay State, the Coast Guard cutter Bear, Bear Mountain, Bear of Oakland, Belle, Bellemere, Benjamin B. Odell, Berkshire, Black Warrior, Bohemian, S.S. Boston City, S.S. Bremen, Bristol City and the White Star Mail steamer Britannic.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Caledonia, California, Cambria, Camden, S.S. Campania, Canton, Cape May, R.M.S. Carpathia, Cetus, Champlain, S.S. Chattahoochee, Chonsu, S.S. Christopher Columbus, Charles A. Stafford, Chelsea and C.H. Northam.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the City of Albany, City of Bangor, City of Boston, City of Detroit, City of Fall River, City of Grand Rapids, City of Holland, City of Hudson, City of Kingston, City of Norwich, City of Philadelphia, City of Rockland, S.S. City of Rome, City of San Francisco and City of Springfield.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the steamer Cleopatra, Columbia, S.S. Columbia, S.S. Columbian, Columbus, Commonwealth, Conquest, Conte di Savoia, Continental, La Corraine, Corsicana, C.P. Smith, Cumberland, C. Vanderbilt and Cygnus.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Daniel Drew, Daniel Miller, Daniel Webster, Dean Richmond, Del Norte, Deutschland, S.S. Devonia, De Witt Clinton, Dolphin, Drew and Dunbar.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the steamer Eastern City, Eastern States, Ecuador, Edinburgh, Eliza Mancox, Elm City, El Paraguay, Emeline, Emerald, Empire of Troy, Empire State, Empress of Ireland, Erastus Corning, U.S.Training Ship Essex, S.S. Etruria, Eudora, S.S. Europa and Express.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Fairfield, Falmouth, S.S. Flandre, Florence, Forest City, Fort Orange, France, Francis Skiddy, Frank E. Kirby, Franklin, S.S. Friesland, Frostburg, S.S. Fulda, Fulton and S.S. Furnessia.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the General Greene, General Lincoln,: Includes images of the Hampton, Harlem, S.S. Harry G. Coulby, Hartford, S.S. Harvard, Helka, Henry Clay, Henry E. Bishop, Henry W. Longfellow, Horatio Hall, Holmdel, Homer Ramsdell and Horicon. General Mosquera, General Price, General Sedgwicke, General Slocum, General Whitney, Georgia, Germanic, Golden Age, Goldenrod, Governor Dingley, Govenor Emerson C. Harrington, Grand Republic, Granite State, Great Eastern, Greater Detroit, Great Northern and Gulf Coast.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Hampton, Harlem, S.S. Harry G. Coulby, Hartford, S.S. Harvard, Helka, Henry Clay, Henry E. Bishop, Henry W. Longfellow, Horatio Hall, Holmdel, Homer Ramsdell and Horicon.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Idlewild, Ile de France, Imperator, I.N. Seymour, S.S. Independence, Iona, Iron Witch, Iroquois, Isabel, Island Home, Mohawk, James T. Brett, James Stevens, Jamestown, James W. Baldwin, James W. Wadsworth, J.M. White, John A. Meseck, John Brooks, John McCausland, John Romer, John Stevens, John Swasey, John Wesley, Joseph O. Osgood, J.S. Warden, J.T. Morse and the yacht Julia.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Kaaterskill, S.S. Kaiser Wilhelm, Kansas, S.S. Kansas City, Katahdin, Kennebec, S.S. Kensington, Knickerbocker, S.S. Kronprinzessin Cecilie, Kroonland and Kurrachee.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the S.S. La Bretagne, Laconia, Lady of the Lake, L’Amerique, Larchmont, La Touraine, Leonardo Da Vinci, Lewiston, Liberte, Llandaff City, S.S. Lucania, Luckenbach Line, Lusitania and Lyman Truman.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Magenta, Magnolia, Maid-Kent, Maid of the Mist, Majestic, Maine, White Star line S.S. Majestic, S.S. Manhattan, Manitoba, Manitoulin, Marblehead, Mariposa, Mary Benton, Mary Patten, Matangas, Mauretania and the steamship Mayflower.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of R.M.S. Media, Memphis, Merchant, Merrimack, Meteor, Metropolis,U.S. Revenue Cutter Michigan, Middletown, Milwaukie, Minnie Cornell, Mississippi, M. Martin, S.S. Mobile, Mobjack, Mohawk, Monmouth, Montana, Moosehead, Morrisania and Myles Standish.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Nahant, Nantasket, Nantucket, Nasookin, Natchez, Newport, New Orleans, New World, New York, S.S. New York, Nordstjernan, Nieuw Amsterdam, S.S. Normannia, North America, North Star, Northumberland, Norwich, Nutmeg State and Nymph.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Oakes Ames, S.S. Obdam, Oceanic, R.M.S. Oceanic, Octorara, S.S. Ohio, Old Dominion, Olive Branch, S.S. Olympic, Onteora, Oregon, S.S. Oriente and S.S. Otho.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the steamboat Paragon, S.S. Pan America, Parahyba, the steamship Paris, USS Pawnee, Pegasus, S.S. Pennsylvania, USS Pensacola, Peytona, Pheonix, Pere Marouette, S.S. Peter Stuyvesant, Pilgrim Belle, Pleasure Bay and Plymouth.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Polaris, Pomona, Portland, Potomac, President, S.S. President Coolidge, Prince George, Princess Louise, Princess Mary, US Steamer Princeton, Prinzessin Victoria Luise, Priscilla and Providence.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Quaker, USS Quaker City, RMS Queen Elizabeth, RMS Queen Elizabeth II, Quinnebaug, Quonset, Ramona, S.S. Randwijk, Red Jacket (original drawing), S.S. Regina, Reindeer, Rembrandt, Republic, Rhode-Island, Richard Stockton, Richelieu, Rip Vanwinkle, River Queen, S.S. Roanoke, Robert A. Snyder, Robert E. Lee, Rochester, Roosevelt, Rosedale, Ross Winans, S.S. Rotterdam and Cunard steamship Russia.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the S.S. Saale, Sagamore, Saguenay, St. Croix, St. Johns, St. John, St. Lawrence, St. Louis, Sam Sloan, Sandy Hook, San Francisco, Sankaty, San Miguel, Santa Barbara, Santa Inez, Santa Clara, Santa Maria, Southward Bound, Sapphire, Saturn and Saxonia.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the S.S. Schiedyk, Sea Bird, Seawanhaka, Secaucus, Selma Victory, S.S. Servia, Shady Side, Shamrock, Shinnecock, Signal, Sirius, Smithfield, South American, Spartan, Stad Luzern, State of Maine, Storm King, Sunnyside, S.S. Sussex, Swallow and Sylvan Dell.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Tashmoo, Taurus Commodore, T.D. Wilcox, Telegraph, Teutonic, Thebes, Thomas Clyde, Thomas Cornell, Thomas Patten, Thomas Powell, S.S. Tillie Lykes, Trenton, Titanic, Trenton, S.S. Trinidad, Twilight, T.V. Arrowsmith,Toltec and Trojan.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the S.S. Ulua, S.S. Umbira, Union, United Empire, S.S. United States, Vaderland, Vanderbilt, Venezuela, S.S. Veragua, Victoria, Packet-boat Vienna, Vigilant, US Mail steamer Virginia, Volendam and S.S. Vulcania.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Walter Brett, Walk-in-the-Water, Warwick, Washington Irving, S.S. Werra, Westerdyk, Westernland, Western World, Westport, William F. Romer, William Jenkins, W.M. Harrison, William Norris, Wyoming, Yale and Yankee.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of early steamboats including those designed by James Rumsey, John Fitch and Robert Fulton.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Chauncey M.Depew, Chaperon, Springfield, City of Keansburg, Elizabeth Monroe Smith, Bombay, Meta and Whaleback Steamers.

Subseries I.3: Naval Ships & Equipment

Scope and Contents note

Naval Ships & Equipment contains images of a variety of naval vessels including battleships, cruisers, destryoers, frigates, monitors, navy hospital ships, torpedo boats, and so on. United States naval ships comprise the majority of these images, but a group of foreign naval vessels can be found at the end of the subseries. The USS Maine, both before and after its destruction, and the USS Constitution are well represented. Photographs of the United States Pacific Fleet traveling through the Panama Canal in 1919 are filed under individual ship name as well as under "Numbered Destroyers." Images by photographers J.S. Johnston and the Pach Brothers (USS Brooklyn, USS New York, USS Oregon, USS Texas) are found throughout this subseries.

Related Archival Materials note

See also: Boxes 16 & 17- Columbian Naval Review

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S.S. Abner Reed, U.S.S. Alaska, U.S. Cruiser Albany, U.S.S. Alfred, Frigate Alliance, U.S.S. Alywin, S.S. American Farmer, U.S.S. Ammen, U.S.S. Amphitrite, U.S.S. Antares, U.S.S. Argonne, U.S.S. Arizona, U.S.S. Atlanta, U.S. Cruiser Atlanta, U.S.S. Augusta, U.S.S. Augusta, U.S.S. Bagley, U.S. Cruiser Baltimore, U.S.S. Bancroft, U.S.S. Basswood, U.S.S. Beale, U.S.S. Benevolence, U.S.S. Benham, U.S.S. Benson, U.S.S. Beukesdijk, U.S.N. Bennington, U.S.S. Birmingham, the flag ship Blackhawk, U.S.S. Bobolink, U.S.S. Boise and U.S.S. Brooks.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S.S. California, U.S.S. Carondelet, U.S.S. Case, U.S.S. Charleston, U.S. Cruiser Charleston, U.S.S. Chester, U.S.S. Cincinnati, U.S.S. Colorado, U.S. Torpedo Boat Cushing, U.S.N Cushing, U.S.S. Davis, U.S.S. Delaware, New Destroyer Escort DE 13 (U.S.S. Brennan), U.S.S. Despatch, U.S.S. Detroit, U.S.S. Dewey, U.S.S. Dictator, U.S.S. Dixie, U.S. Dispatch Boat Dolphin, U.S.S. Drayton, U.S.S. Drexler and U.S.S. Dunlap.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S.S. Eagle, TS Empire State, U.S.S. Ericsson, U.S.S. Erie, U.S. Frigate Essex, U.S.S. Falcon, U.S.S. Farragut, U.S.S. Finch, U.S.S. Frolic, U.S. Steam Frigate Fulton, U.S.S. Galena, U.S.S. Gansevoort, U.S.C.G. George W. Campbell, U.S.S. Gleaves, U.S.S. Goodrich, U.S.S. Governor Moore, Grand Turk, Great Republic, U.S.S. Granite State and U.S.S. Gridley.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S. Frigate Hancock, U.S.S. Hartford, U.S.S. Hatfield, U.S.S. Hawk, U.S.S. Henderson, U.S.S. Hobby, U.S.S. Holland, U.S.S. Honolulu, U.S.S. Hornet, U.S.S. Houston, U.S. Steam Sloop of War Housatonic, U.S.S. Idaho, U.S.S. Illinois, U.S.S. Independence, U.S.S. Indianapolis, U.S.S. James K. Paulding, U.S.S. Jamestown, U.S.S. Jason, U.S.S. Kane, U.S.S. Katahdin, U.S.S. Kendrich, U.S. Battleship Kentucky, U.S. Ironclad Keokuk, U.S.S. Kittery, U.S.S. Lancaster, U.S.S. Lexington and U.S.S. Leyden.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S.S. Macdonough, U.S.S. Mahan, U.S.S. Mahopac, U.S.S. Maury, U.S. Destroyer McCall, U.S.S. Medusa, U.S.S. Memphis, U.S. Steam Frigate Merrimac, U.S.S. Michigan, U.S.S. Milwaukee, U.S. Steam Frigate Gibraltar, U.S.S. Missouri, U.S.S. Monitor, U.S.S. Monongahela, U.S. Cruiser Montgomery, U.S.S. Monticello, U.S.S. Morris and U.S.S. Mullany.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S.S. Nebraska, U.S.S. Nevada, U.S.S. Newark, U.S.S. New Hampshire, U.S.S. New Jersey, U.S.S. New Orleans, U.S.S. Nicholas, U.S.S. Oahu, U.S.S. Ohio, U.S.S. Oklahoma and U.S.S. Onondaga.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the C.S.S. Palmetto State, U.S.S. Palos, U.S.S. Passaic, U.S.S. Petrel, U.S.S. Phelps, U.S.S. Philadelphia, U.S. Revenue Cutter Pickering, U.S.S. Pigeon, U.S.S. Pompano, U.S. Brig Porpoise, U.S. Torpedo Boat Porter, U.S.S. Portsmouth, U.S.S. Powhatan, U.S.S Prairie, U.S.S. President and P.T. 105.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, U.S.S. Rail, U.S.S. Raleigh, U.S.S. Ramsay, U.S.S. Randolph, U.S.S. Red Rover, U.S.S. Reid, U.S.S. Relief, U.S.S. Repose and U.S.S. Richmond.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S. Frigate Sabine, U.S.S. Sacramento, U.S.S. Salt Lake City, U.S.S. St. Louis, U.S.S. St. Mary, H.M.S. Shannon, U.S.N. San Francisco, U.S.S. San Marcos, U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba, U.S.S. Savannah, U.S.S. Seal, USRC Seminole, U.S.S. Sirius, U.S.S. Somers, U.S.S. Spuyten Duyvil, C.S.S. Stonewall Jackson, U.S.S. Sylph, U.S.S. Talbot, U.S.S. Tarpon, U.S.S. Teal, U.S.S. Tennessee, U.S.S. Tern, U.S. Monitor Terror, U.S.S. Trenton and U.S.S. Tuscaloosa.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the U.S.S. Vandalia, U.S.S. Vermont, U.S.S. Villalobos, U.S.S. Vincennes, U.S.S. Vesuvius, C.S.S. Virginia, U.S. Steam Frigate Wabash, U.S.S. Warrington, U.S.S. Washington, U.S.S. West Virginia, U.S.S. Wilmington, U.S.S. Winslow, U.S.S. Wisconsin, U.S.S. Yantic, U.S.S. Yorktown and U.S.S. Yosemite.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of the Deutschland, Bushnell’s Turtle, U.S.S. Nautilus, U.S.S. Narwhal, U.S.S. Holland, U.S.S. Barracuda, U.S.S. S-50 and S-51, U.S.S. Tarpon, U.S.S. Viper, S-26, U.S.S. Argonaut, U.S.S. Bass, U.S.S. Plunger, U-58, S-29, U.S. Subchaser 39, U.S. Subchaser 49 and U.S.S. Katahdin.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of U.S.N. Atlanta, the Cruiser Baltimore and the Cruiser Bennington

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of U.S.N. Chicago, U.S.N. Cincinnati, U.S.N. Cushing, Torpedo Boat Ericsson and the Battleship Florida.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of U.S.N. Indiana, U.S.S. Monterey and U.S.N. Petrel.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of Battleship Texas U.S.N., Vesuvius U.S.N and Yorktown U.S.N.

Subseries I.4: Other Ships & Ship Details

Scope and Contents note

Other Ships & Ship Details includes images of barges, motor ships, lightships, rowboats and tugboats. Photographs of the Swedish American liners MS Gripsholm and MS Kungsholm include interior views. Images on board unidentified ships include both naval and civilian ships, on deck and below. Ship plans are reproductions, several for ferryboats, including the Artic, Easton and J.M. Waterbury. Reproductions of Robert Fulton plans show various steamboat improvements. Relics contain mainly photographs, including an image of the stairs from the steamer Henry Clay, several decorative carvings removed from steamships and a clipping showing boatswain's calls. One interesting relic is a label from a crate salvaged from the wreck of the steamship Atlantic in 1873. Images of sailmaking include a photograph of a New Jersey sail and rigging loft and a clipping of a sailmaker's bench, showing the tools of the trade.

Subseries I.5: Views

Scope and Contents note

Views is comprised of images of both United States and foreign locations. Miscellaneous views are varied, from a souvenir set of images of New York City to a group of postcards showing inventor John Ericsson's home in Langbanshyttan, Sweden.

Subseries I.6: Clippings, Papers & Ephemera

Subseries I.7: Events

Scope and Contents note

Naval Battles is comprised of images of varioyus wars and battles at sea. The bulk of this material surrounds battles during the War of 1812.


Related Archival Materials note

See also Box 16, Columbian Naval Review

Events- Naval Battles

Events- Miscellaneous

Related Archival Materials note

See also, Box 17 - Merrit & Chapman Derrick & Wrecking Co.

Shipwrecks- Merritt & Chapman Derrick & Wrecking Co..

Subseries I.9: Portraits

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Frank C. Adams, U.S.N., James M. Adams, John Adams, Captain James Alden, William Henry Allen Esq., Commander Daniel Ammen, John A. Andrew, Chester A. Arthur and Major General C.C. Augur.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Lieutenant George M. Bache, Commodore O.C. Badger, Captain Charles H. Balch, Rear Admiral G.B. Balch, U.S.N., Acting Lietuenant Charles H. Baldwin, Commander J.P. Bankhead, Josiah Barker, George Bancroff, Rear Admiral Albert S. Barker, General Francis Barlow, Lieutenant Commander George E. Belknap, George M. Bibb, Mrs. Mary A. Bickerdyke, N.H. Bidwell, Capt. A. Bielaski, Commodore Abraham Bigelow, The Hon. John Bigelow, William Bigler, Commodore Blake and Blackbeard the pirate.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of Charles F. Boggs, General Bosquet, Nathaniel Bowditch, Lieutenant Commander D.L. Braine, Lieutenant Commander K. Randolph Breese, Horatio Bridge, Dr. H.S. Bristol, S.B. Brittan Jr., J.L. Broome, Edwin Tracy Brower, Dr. John Brown, Captain Isaac N. Brown, Rear Admiral Willard Herbert Brownson, Major General Brown, Commodore Franklin Buchanan and Captain James D. Bulloch.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of C.H.B. Caldwell, Rear Admiral W.B. Caperton, Silas Casey, Captin John Cassin, Lieutenant Commder Chandler, Rear Admiral Ralph Chandler, Hon. S. P. Chase, Isaac Chauncey, Honorable Joseph H. Choate, Rear Admiral Joseph B. Coghlan,Lieutenant Commander Augustus P. Cooke, Commander James W. Cooke, Commander George H. Cooper, Commander J.J. Cornwell and William Sitgreaves Cox.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of William Harris Crawford, Commander B.G. Crowmwell, Rear Admiral Pierce Crosby, Benjamin William Crowninshield, William E. Curtis, Lieutenant William B. Cushing, General Custer and Paymaster General Cutter.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Henry Eagle, General Charles Ellett, Oliver Ellsworth, Lieutenant Commander Earl English and Captain Edward England.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of L.E. Fagan, Commander D.M.N. Fairfax, Rear Admiral Arthur P. Fairfield, Commodore N.H. Farquhar, William Faxon, Lieutenant Commander Charles W. Flussen, Fleet Surgeon J.W. Foltz, R.B. Forbes, Commander French Forrest, Gustavus V. Fox, Charles Fox, John Franklin, James Fox and Robert Fulton.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Major General Edmund P. Gaines, Major General J.A. Garfield, Brigadier General Ernest A. Garlington, William Gaston, General Horatio Gates, Captain H.R.H. The Duke of York, Elbridge Gerry, Commander James P. Gerry, Rear Admiral Bancroft Gherardi, Jasper W. Gilbert, Quincy Adams Gillmore, Stephen Girard, Mordecai Gist , Captain O.S. Glisson, Edward Lawrence Godkin, Commander S.W. Godon, Parke Godwin and Rear Admiral Louis M. Goldsborough.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of General A.W. Greely, Captain J.H. Green, Lietenant Samuel Daniel Greene, Lieutenant Commander James A. Greer, General Charles Griffin, Martin I.J. Griffin, John Grimball, James Guthrie and Lieutenant Commander William Gwin.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of Alexander Hamilton, Mrs. John Hancock, Walter Harris, Major General Harrison, William Henry Harrison, Edward Henry Harriman, Charles H. Haswell, R.B. Hayes, John Dandridge Henley, Infante Don Henrique, John Augustus, Lord Hervey, Thomas Heyward Jr., Captain George N. Hollins, Lieutenant Richmond Pearson Hobson, General O.O. Howard, Commander J.C. Howell, Commander William L. Hudson, Colonel Humphreys, David Humphreys and Samuel A. Huntington.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of John Irwin, Benjamin Franklin Isherwood, Amos Kendall, J.P. Kennedy, James Kent, Hon. Sir Harry Keppel, Rufus King, Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Augustatus Kuningam.

Related Archival Materials note

See also John Paul Jones Scrapbook box 20

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of the Marquis de Lafayette, General John Lamb, Rear Admiral Joseph Lanman, Abbott Lawrence, John Lenthall, Reverend Noah Levings, Uriah P. Levy, Francis Lewis, Philip Livingston, Commodore John Collins Long, John Davis Long, Captain George Lowther, Admiral Stephen Bleecker Luce, Rev. S. Luckey and Thomas Lynch Jr.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Col. Henry Lee, Arthur Lee and General Robert E. Lee.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Abraham Lincoln, Benjamin Lincoln and Levi Lincoln.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Lieutenant Edward R. McCall, Lieutenant Commander Edward Yorke McCauley, General George B. McClellan, Lieutenant Roderick S. McCook, William McKinley, Commander Charles F. McIntosh, Captain Lachlan McIntosh and Captain McNeal.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, James Madison, Captain Maffitt , Admiral Mahan, Stephen R. Mallory, Ambrose Marechal, General John H. Martindale, Commander Charles C. Marsh, Fleet Surgeon George Maulsby, Matthew Fontaine Maury, George G. Meade, Rear Admiral Richard W. Meade, E.T. Merrick, Victor H. Metcalf, Arthur Middleton, Commander John K. Mitchell, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, James Monroe, Richard Montgomery, Samuel F.B. Morse, Col. Moseley, Captain James Mugford and Commander R. Madison Mullany.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Charles W. Morgan, Brigadier Genereal Daniel Morgan, Sir Henry Morgan and William F. Morgan.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Captain Charles Morris, Lieutenant George U. Morris, Lewis Morris and Mrs. Robert Morris.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Nicholas Emperor of Russia, Commander J.H.A. Nicholson, Admiral Sir Charles Napier, Napoleon III, Professor Charles Elliot Norton, Captain Jonathan S. Odell, John Ogilvie and James Edward Oglethorpe.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of William Paca, Robert Treat Paine, Commander James S. Palmer, Commander Foxall A. Parker, Lieutenant Commander James Parker, Lieutenant Commander William Harwar Parker, Omar Pasha, Lieutenant Daniel T. Patterson, Sir Richard Pearson, D.C. Pennell, C.H. Pennington, George Hamilton Perkins, T.S. Phelps, Lieutenant Commander S. Ledyard Phelps, Rear Admiral John W. Philip, General Andrew Pickens, Zebulon M. Pike, General C.C. Pinckney, Fleet Surgeon Ninian Pinkney, William Pinkney, Pocahontas and Lieutenant Samuel W. Preston.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Commander Hiram Paulding, J.K. Paulding and Lieutenant Leonard Paulding.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Commodore Porter, Lieutenant Benjamin H. Porter, Carlisle P. Porter, Col. Peter Porter and General Horace Porter.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Lieutenant Commander S.P. Quackenbush and Lieutenant W.W. Queen.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Commodore William Radford, Rear Admiral F.M. Ramsay, John Randolph, George Read, Commander Abner Reed, George C. Remey, Lieutenant Joseph Warren Revere, Commander A.C. Rhind, James C. Rice, Captain Charles G. Ridgely, Captain C. Ringold, Captain Bartholomew Roberts, George M. Robeson, Commander James H. Rochelle, Captain Ell B. Rockwell, Rear Admiral Roe, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Elihu Root, John Henry Rowland and Benjamin Rush.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of John Rodgers, Rear Admiral C.R.P. Rodgers, Commander George H. Rodgers and Commodore Rodgers.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Major General Arthur St. Clair, Gurdon Saltonstall, Admiral William T. Sampson, John Savage, Oscar G. Sawyer, Commodore James S. Schenck, Commander W.S. Schley, Walter K. Scofield, Major General Winfield Scott, Major General John Sedgwick, John Senthall, Col. Edwin Shaw, Philip H. Sheridan, Edwin A. Sherman, William T. Sherman, Commander James W. Shirk and Commander John T. Shubrick.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of Lieutenant A.A. Semmes and Admiral Raphael Semmes.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Charles D. Sigobee, Bejmain Silliman, Thomas Y. Simons, Commander Edward Simpson, Commander William S. Sims, Charles H. Slack and Commodore John Drake Sloat.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Rear Admiral Joseph Smith, Lieutenant Joseph B. Smith, Commander Melancton Smith and Major General William F. Smith.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of the Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Commander Charles Steedman, H.K. Steever, Adolph Von Steinwehr, Rear Admiral R.N. Stembel, Baron Steuben, Commodore Charles Stewart, Yates Stirling, Commodore Robert Field Stockton, Benjamin Stoddert, General George Stoneman, Richard S. Storrs, Joseph Story, Oscar S. Straus, Rear Admiral Silas Stringham, Josiah Sturgis, Hon. Charles Sumner and Major General George Sykes.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of William H. Taft, Captain Silas Talbot, Col. Benjamin Tallmadge, Commodore Josiah Tattnall, W.E. Taylor, Captain William Rogers Taylor, Zachary Taylor, Rev. Gilbert Tennent, Rear Admiral Henry K. Thatcher, General John Thomas, Charles Thomson, Captain James S. Thornton, Brigadier General Tilden, Daniel D. Thompkins, George E. Thrall, A.L. Tousard, Brevet Major General Nathaniel Towson, Sir Thomas Troubridge, Commander S.D. Trenchard, Captain John Trippe, Captain William Thomas Turner, Mark Twain and General Robert Ogden Tyler.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Commodore Thomas Truxtun and Lieutenant Commander W.J. Truxtun.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Rear Admiral Frank B. Upham, Commander John H. Upham, Andrew Ure, William Aaron Van Vleck, Charles H. Venable, Fred Vilmar and Strong Vincent.

Scope and Contents note

Includes images of Commander Richard Wainwright, Philip S. Wales, Rear Admiral Henry Walke, Lieutenant Commander John G. Walker, Admiral Sir Provo Wallis, General Gouverneur K. Warren, Sir Peter Warren, Captain Lewis Warrington, Lieutenant William Henry Watson, Lieutenant Commander A. W. Weaver, Gideon Welles, C.J. White, Captain William Whitehead and Captain William C. Whittle.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of General Otho H. Williams, Reverend Miron Winslow, William Wirt, Captain H.A. Wise,General David Wooster, Major General John E. Wool, William J. Worth and Joseph S. Young.

Scope and Contents note

Includes portraits of Alexander Wilson, Lieutenant Commander Byron Wilson and James Wilson.

Scope and Contents note

Lieutenant John Taylor Wood, William Maxwell Wood and Chief Engineer William W.W. Wood.

Subseries I.10: Negatives

Subseries I.8: Model Ships

Subseries I.11: Albums

Scope and Contents note

The following eight plates from unidentified book:
Harpoon, August 8, 1892
Alga, July 10, 1880
Sayonara, September 8, 1891
Gossoon, August 19, 1809
Gorilla, July 13, 1893
Verena, October 3, 1892
Rosalind, August 18, 1886
Eureka, September 18, 1891

Scope and Contents note

The following twenty plates from an unidentified book: Plate IV- Galatea
Plate V- Puritan
Plate Vi- Genesta
Plate VII- Priscilla
Plate VIII- Atlantic
Plate IX- Gracie
Plate X- Bedouin
Plate XVII- Cinderella
Plate XIX- Titania
Plate XXXIV- Gevalia
Plate XXXV- Sachem
Plate XXXVI- Iroquois
Plate XXXVII- Ambassadress
Plate XXXVIII- Em ELL EYE/Tartar
Plate XXXIX- Mabel/Flora Lee
Plate XL- Aline
Plate XLI- Wendur
Plate XLII- Irex
Plate XLIII- May
Plate XLVIII- Atlanta

Scope and Contents note

The following six albumen prints: Frolic
Queen Mab

Scope and Contents note

The following twelve pages of photographs: Valkyrie
Caress, May 17, 1893
Vigilant, 1893/Dakotah
Valkyrie & Defender/ Defender
Valkyrie & Defender, first race/ Valkyrie
Vigilant & Britannia/ Vigilant reaching for Cowes, August 4

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