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1972- 1973 - History

1972- 1973 - History

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World History 1972-1973ָ

Summit Meeting, Arab Terrorists Murder 11 Athletes, Bosphorus Bridge, Sear Tower, Yom Kippur War, Britain Controls Northern Ireland, Nixon visits China, Managua leveled by Earthquake, Ford Sworn in as Vice President, US Withdraws from Vietnam, Cat Scan, Severe Drought in Africa, Bahamas Independent, President Allende Killed

1972 Summit Meeting At a summit meeting held in Moscow, Soviet Prime Minister Brezhnev and President Nixon signed a strategic arms limitation agreement. The treaty limited both the US and U.S.S.R. to two sites for anti-ballistic missiles (A.B.M.'s). In addition, the treaty, for the first time, placed upper limits on the number of missiles that each side could possess.
1972 Arab Terrorists Murder 11 Athletes at the Olympic Games Palestinian terrorists who were members of the Black September Organization attacked the Israeli team at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Two Israelis were murdered immediately, and nine were taken hostage. The hostages were killed when German troops attempted to capture the terrorists at Munich Airport.
1972 Britain Takes Direct Control over Northern Ireland With the situation in Northern Ireland worsening, the British government, under Prime Minister Heath, suspended the provincial government and parliament and took direct control of the province. The action was spurred by two daylight bombings that killed eight people and wounded over seventy.
1972 Nixon visits China In 1969, President Nixon began making moves to establish some level of relations with the China.
China responded to the American initiative after its border-dispute with the Soviet Union almost escalated into war. At the same time, the US removed the 19-year-old patrol of the Taiwan Straits.

In April, in what became known as "ping- pong diplomacy," the Chinese invited the American ping-pong team to China. In July 1971, the President's National Security Advisor, Dr. Henry Kissinger, traveled to China to negotiate an opening with the Chinese. Upon Kissinger's return, Nixon announced his upcoming summit in Peking.

On February 21, 1972, President Nixon arrived in Peking for a seven-day stay. While no major agreements were reached during the summit, its occurrence ushered in a new world of diplomacy for the United States.

1972 Managua leveled by Earthquake The capital of Nicaragua, Managua, was leveled by an earthquake. Between 10,000 and 12,000 people were killed. More than 300,000 people were made homeless.
1972 Congressman Ford Sworn in as Vice President With the resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew, President Nixon selected Congressman to be his new Vice President. Ford's appointment marked the first time that a Vice President came to office without standing for election.


1973 US Completes Withdrawal from Vietnam On January 27, the United States and North Vietnam signed the Paris Peace Accords. Under its terms, US troops would withdraw from Vietnam. There would be a ceasefire, and US P.O.W.'s would be released. Two years later, the Communists achieved total victory in Vietnam.
1973 Severe Drought, Hundreds Perish A seven-year drought in sub-Saharan Africa brought starvation to 100,000 people in the countries of Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal and Burkina Faso.
1973 October War On October 6, 1973, which was the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, the Egyptians and the Syrians launched a surprise attack against Israel. The attack caught Israel almost totally by surprise. Although there were signs of imminent attack, Israeli analysts did not believe that the Arabs would actually invade until they had reached strategic parity.

On the morning of October 6, Israeli leaders received information confirming an impending attack. By then it was too late to mobilize the reserves. Due to American pressure, it was also decided not to strike first -- not to launch a pre-emptive attack. In the initial assault, the Egyptians successfully crossed the Suez Canal, and were able to capture most of the Israeli installations on the canal's East Bank. Attempts to counterattack were repulsed by the Egyptians via extensive use of anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles. Syrian troops managed to penetrate Israeli defenses on the Golan Heights. However, the hastily activated reserve forces were able to hold back the Syrian onslaught.

As the war continued, Israel was finally able to take the offensive on the Syrian front. Soldiers advanced to Sasa and captured the summit of Mt. Hermon. On the Egyptian front, Israeli troops successfully crossed the Suez Canal and surrounded the Egyptian Third Army. As the enormity of the Israeli threat became clear, the Arabs called for an immediate cease-fire. After a brief confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union, a cease-fire went into effect on October 22.

1973 Allende Killed in Coup A military coup, purportedly supported by the American CIA, deposed President Allende of Chile and replaced him with Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. Pinochet was committed to the elimination of Communisim in Chile. Towards this end, he was responsible for the arrest of thousands.
1973 Bahamas given Independence Great Britain granted the Bahamas independence in 1973. The Bahamas became independent within the British Commonwealth.
1973 Cat Scan Developed The CAT Scan, which stands for Computerized Axial Tomography, was introduced to the medical world. The CAT Scan produces three-dimensional images of internal organs of the body.(8/25/73) The CAT Scan, which stands for Computerized Axial Tomography, was introduced to the medical world. The CAT Scan produces three-dimensional images of internal organs of the body.
1973 Sears Tower Completed The Sears Tower in Chicago was completed. It became the tallest building in the world. It topped out at 1,445 feet.
1973 Bridge Over the Bosphorus A bridge was completed over the Bosphorus. It joined European and Asians sections of Turkey at Istanbul.


The USS INCHON (LPH-12), an Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship, was commissioned on 20 JUN 1970. Built in Pascagoula, MS, INCHON was the last of the "Iwo Jimas". Assigned to the Atlantic Amphibious Force, INCHON circumnavigate the world in 1972-1973. Her routine deployment was to the Mediterranean Sea with as a component of a Marine Amphibious Ready Group, but she was often out of the routine. Her circumnavigation is one example, others are duty off Beirut during the Lebanese Civil War in 1982, a South Atlantic & West African deployment in 1978, support of Desert Shield/Desert Storm in 1990-91 and finally a conversion to a Mine Countermeasures Command and Support Ship - MCS-12 - in March 1995. As MCS-12 she carried Sea Stallion Helicopters that swept for mines. In 2001 INCHON suffered a catastrophic engineering space fire that sped her decommissioning. USS INCHON served her country for 32 years when decommissioned on 20 JUN 2002. Her hulk was used to launch test missiles through 2007, then disposed by RIMPAC SINKEX in july 2010.

The USS INCHON (LPH-12) deployment history and significant events of her service career follow:

1972- 1973 - History

NOVEMBER 1968: Richard M. Nixon elected 37th president of United States by narrow margin over Democrat Hubert Humphrey.

JANUARY 1969: Nixon inaugurated as 37th president of the United States. "Counterinaugural" protest in Washington, D.C.

MARCH 1969: Musician John Lennon marries artist Yoko Ono.

APRIL 1969: U.S. troop levels in South Vietnam reach 540,000, the highest level of the war.

MAY 1969: Nixon orders troop withdrawal from Vietnam. Police storm People's Park in Berkeley, California one student is killed as demonstrators are gassed and wounded.

JULY 1969: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission.

AUGUST 1969: Woodstock festival rocks a farm in upstate New York for three days.

NOVEMBER 1969: Nixon begins Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) with Soviets.

APRIL 1970: Nixon announces U.S. invasion of Cambodia. It lasts April 29-June 30. First Earth Day celebrated, focusing attention on the environment.

MAY 1970: Four students are killed by Ohio National Guard at Kent State University in antiwar protest. State police kill two black students at Jackson State College in Mississippi.

JUNE 1970: Nixon signs bill giving 18-year-olds the right to vote.

SEPTEMBER 1970: Photographer Fred J. Maroon begins nine-month project to photograph the Nixon White House staff at work. The Mary Tyler Moore Show premieres on television. Musician Jimi Hendrix dies of drug overdose.

DECEMBER 1970: Environmental Protection Agency is created to set and enforce U.S. air and water pollution standards. Nixon signs National Air Quality Control Act. The world's tallest building, the North Tower of the World Trade Center, New York City, is completed.

LOOK magazine, September 1971, cover photo by Maroon.

APRIL 1971: Nixon announces lifting of over 20-year trade embargo with the People's Republic of China. U.S. Supreme Court upholds school busing to end segregation.

JUNE 1971: New York Times begins publication of classified Pentagon Papers.

SEPTEMBER 1971: Photographer Fred J. Maroon's book Courage and Hesitation, written with Allen Drury, is published.

OCTOBER 1971: Rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar opens in New York City.

FEBRUARY 1972: Nixon makes historic trip to China, the first by a U.S. president.

MARCH 1972: Equal Rights Amendment guaranteeing women equality of rights under the law is passed by Congress falls short of ratification by the states. The Godfather wins the Oscar for best picture.

MAY 1972: Nixon makes first visit by U.S. president to the Soviet Union, reaching trade, arms, and joint space ventures agreements.

JUNE 17, 1972: Five men arrested for burglary of Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate complex, Washington, D.C.

JUNE 1972: Fred Maroon begins two-week assignment to photograph the Committee to Reelect the President for LIFE magazine.

JULY 1972: Ms. magazine launched by Gloria Steinem.

Washington Star, Sunday Magazine, November 7, 1971. The article highlights the book Courage and Hesitation with Fred Maroon's photographs and captions.

SEPTEMBER 1972: Federal grand jury indicts five men for Watergate burglary, including former Nixon White House aides G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt. Arab terrorists enter Olympic Village in Munich, Germany, killing 11 Israeli athletes and coaches.

NOVEMBER 1972: Nixon reelected president by historic margin over Democrat George McGovern. Dow Jones Index closes above 1000 on New York Stock Exchange for first time in history.

DECEMBER 1972: LIFE magazine ends production after 36 years.

JANUARY 1973: Nixon inaugurated for second term as president. James McCord and G. Gordon Liddy convicted of Watergate break-in. Henry Kissinger and North Vietnam's Le Duc Tho sign Paris peace accords cease-fire enacted. Supreme Court hears Roe v. Wade arguments and votes to legalize abortion in first six months of pregnancy.

MARCH 1973: Last U.S. troops withdrawn from Vietnam 8500 American civilian technicians remain.

LIFE, September 1972, article on the Committee to Reelect the President, photos by Fred J. Maroon.

APRIL 1973: FBI Director L. Patrick Gray resigns after admitting to destroying documents given to him by White House Counsel John Dean. President Nixon announces resignations of four top aides amid escalating evidence in the Watergate scandal: H. R. Haldeman, White House chief of staff John Ehrlichman, domestic affairs advisor John Dean, White House counsel and Richard Kleindienst, attorney general.

MAY 1973: Senate Watergate Committee opens public hearings. Sears Tower completed in Chicago, the world's tallest building.

MAY-SEPTEMBER 1973: White House staff and associated persons testify before Senate committee investigating potential abuses of power and illegal activities conducted by the president or his staff.

JUNE 1973: John Dean testifies and implicates Nixon and his top staff in Watergate break-in and cover-up.

JULY 1973: Alexander Butterfield testifies to the existence of taped White House conversations later in July, Nixon refuses to release tapes, citing executive privilege.

SEPTEMBER 1973: John Ehrlichman and G. Gordon Liddy indicted for the 1971 burglary of the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist. Ellsberg provided Pentagon documents to the New York Times in 1971. Erhlichman and Liddy then created the White House "plumbers" unit to plug security leaks.

OCTOBER 1973: Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns after pleading no contest to charges of income tax evasion. House Minority Leader Gerald Ford nominated to replace Agnew as vice president. Henry Kissinger, Secretary of State, and Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam receive the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end the war. Tho declines. First black mayor of a major southern city, Maynard Jackson, wins election in Atlanta, Georgia. Arab oil embargo creates shortages in gasoline and petroleum products and increased prices lifted in March 1974.

OCTOBER 20, 1973: Atty. Gen. Eliot Richardson and Deputy Atty. Gen. William Ruckelshaus resign after refusing Nixon's order to fire Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox, an episode that became known as the "Saturday Night Massacre."

TIME, April 16, 1973, John Dean photograph by Fred J. Maroon.

OCTOBER 23, 1973: Eight presidential impeachment resolutions introduced in the House of Representatives. Nixon announces he will turn over White House tapes.

NOVEMBER 1973: Eighteen-and-a-half minute gap discovered in Oval Office tapes during crucial days after the Watergate break-in. Nixon secretary Rose Mary Woods testifies that she accidentally erased some tape.

DECEMBER 1973: Gerald Ford sworn in as vice president to replace Spiro Agnew. American Graffiti a hit movie.

FEBRUARY 1974: House of Representatives approves impeachment inquiry against Nixon to be conducted by House Judiciary Committee. Wealthy college student Patty Hearst kidnaped by self-styled Symbionese Liberation Army members.

APRIL 1974: Hank Aaron of the Atlanta Braves hits his 715th home run, breaking Babe Ruth's record.

JUNE 1974: Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward publish All the President's Men, a detailed account of the Watergate episode.

JULY 1974: Three articles of impeachment voted against Nixon in House Judiciary Committee.

AUGUST 8, 1974: President Richard Nixon announces he will resign his office the following day.

AUGUST 9, 1974: Gerald Ford sworn in as 38th President of the United States.

SEPTEMBER 1974: President Ford pardons Nixon for any crimes he may have committed while president.

Newsweek, October 19, 1998, Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger at window, Oval Office.

1972- 1973 - History

The winner is listed first, in CAPITAL letters.

Best Picture


Cabaret (1972)

Deliverance (1972)

The Emigrants (1971, Swe.) (aka Utvandrarna)

Sounder (1972)

MARLON BRANDO in "The Godfather", Michael Caine in "Sleuth", Laurence Olivier in "Sleuth", Peter O'Toole in "The Ruling Class", Paul Winfield in "Sounder"
LIZA MINNELLI in "Cabaret", Diana Ross in "Lady Sings The Blues", Maggie Smith in "Travels With My Aunt", Cicely Tyson in "Sounder", Liv Ullmann in "The Emigrants"
Supporting Actor:
JOEL GREY in "Cabaret", Eddie Albert in "The Heartbreak Kid", James Caan in "The Godfather", Robert Duvall in "The Godfather", Al Pacino in "The Godfather"
Supporting Actress:
EILEEN HECKART in "Butterflies Are Free", Jeannie Berlin in "The Heartbreak Kid", Geraldine Page in "Pete 'n' Tillie", Susan Tyrrell in "Fat City", Shelley Winters in "The Poseidon Adventure"
BOB FOSSE for "Cabaret", John Boorman for "Deliverance", Francis Ford Coppola for "The Godfather", Joseph L. Mankiewicz for "Sleuth", Jan Troell for "The Emigrants"

There was a tremendous incongruity in the 1972 awards between the top two, front-running films:

    The Godfather (with ten nominations and only three wins) - Best Picture for producer Albert S. Ruddy, Best Actor (Marlon Brando), and Best Screenplay Adaptation (for Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola's brilliant re-working of Puzo's novel). Paramount's The Godfather told the epic story of the patriarchal, aging figurehead of a 'Mafia' dynasty who also served as 'godfather' to the New York Sicilian immigrants in the late 1940s - one of The Godfather's eleven nominations was removed, Best Music (Original Dramatic Score), when it was determined that Nino Rota's score had been used for a previous film

The classic musical-drama that revised the Broadway stage musical Cabaret (based on John Kander's hit musical taken from the Christopher Isherwood stories) was set in 1931 Germany - it used the cabaret night-club in Berlin as a cinematic device to tell the story of two young lovers and the political horrors of the encroaching, surrounding Nazi regime in the pre-World War II era

The other three Best Picture nominees included:

  • the English-dubbed The Emigrants (with four nominations and no wins) - the sad tale of impoverished farmers leaving Sweden in the mid 1880s to come to Minnesota for the promise of a better life in America. [The film was also nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film award in 1971. It was the third non-English language film to be nominated for Best Picture. It also set a record - 1972 was the only year in which a film, The Emigrants (1972) (a Best Picture nominee) and its sequel, The New Land (1972) (Best Foreign Language film nominee) were both nominated]
  • director Martin Ritt's film of William Armstrong's adapted novel, Sounder (with four nominations and no wins) about the struggles of a rural, black sharecropper family in Depression-era Louisiana
  • the exciting action film based on James Dickey's novel, Deliverance (with the fewest number of nominations - only three - and no wins) about a horrific, holiday weekend canoe trip down a southern river for four civilized professional men from Atlanta, who discover primal fear and alienation - and most remembered for its "Dueling Banjos" sequence.

Four of the five directors of Best Picture nominees were also nominated for Best Director. The director of Best Picture-nominated Sounder was replaced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz who was nominated as director for Sleuth (with four nominations and no wins). Mankiewicz' last directed film, an adaptation of Anthony Shaffer's Tony-winning 1970 drama, was an intelligent, twisting, theatrical stage play/mystery and actor's showcase brought to the screen, a rivalry between a wealthy mystery novelist and his wife's hairdresser/lover, his romantic rival.

Dancer/choreographer/ and director Bob Fosse (with his first of three career nominations) won the Best Director Oscar (his only Best Director win) for his exquisitely-directed Cabaret - it was his second film as director following his first musical Sweet Charity (1969). His film updated the Kurt Weill-Brecht world of The Threepenny Opera (and Josef von Sternberg's The Blue Angel), as well as borrowed from Christopher Isherwood's Berlin Stories. [As an interesting sidenote, Bob Fosse would be nominated two more times as Best Director - in 1974 (for Lenny) and 1979 (for All That Jazz), and both times, Fosse found himself in direct competition against the same Best Director nominee Francis Ford Coppola (for The Godfather, Part II (1974) and Apocalypse Now (1979)).]

The other nominated directors were:

  • John Boorman (with his first of two unsuccessful nominations) for his gripping, breath-taking direction of the shockingly-violent Deliverance
  • Jan Troell for the first part of a two-part epic, The Emigrants (followed by The New Land)

Francis Ford Coppola, a representative of the next generation of movie-makers, failed to win in the Best Director category. His three-hour Best Picture epic The Godfather skillfully and artfully brought Mario Puzo's novel to life. One of the film's most oft-quoted lines was: "Luca Brazzi sleeps with the fishes" -- referring to the fate of one of the Corleone family enforcers. [The film soon became the biggest box-office hit of all time, even surpassing Gone With The Wind (1939) and The Sound of Music (1965).]

For the first time in Academy history, three of the Best Actor and Best Actress nominees were black performers - Paul Winfield and Cicely Tyson in Sounder, and Diana Ross in Lady Sings the Blues. (However, none of the trio of black 'actors' won.)

Marlon Brando (with his sixth of eight career nominations) won his second Best Actor Oscar for his definitive screen role as the aged 'Mafia' chief Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather. [Robert DeNiro won the Best Supporting Actor Oscar two years later for playing the same character in a different film - The Godfather, Part II (1974).] As George C. Scott had done two years earlier, Brando protested the on/off-screen treatment of Native Americans (through alleged American Indian spokeswoman and half native-American Sacheen Littlefeather, president of the Native American Affirmative Image Committee, who was dressed in feathers and buckskin) and declined the award. [Note: Her birth name was Maria Cruz, a B-film Mexican actress, and she had been named Miss American Vampire 1970. And she would soon afterwards appear in a pictorial in the October 1973 issue of Playboy Magazine.]

The two major cast members of Sleuth were also nominated for Best Actor awards:

  • Laurence Olivier (with his eighth of ten career nominations) as the snobbish detective-mystery novelist Andrew Wyke
  • Michael Caine (with his second nomination) as his game-playing adversary Milo Tindle - a hair-salon chain owner who is having an affair with Wyke's estranged wife. [This is only one of three instances when a film's entire cast has been nominated - the other instances were Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966) and Give 'em Hell, Harry! (1975).]

Other Best Actor nominees were:

  • Peter O'Toole (with his fifth of eight career nominations) as Jack - the insane 14th Earl of Gurney who believes he's either Jesus Christ or Jack the Ripper in director Peter Medak's satirical, British tragi-comedy cult film, The Ruling Class (the film's sole nomination)
  • Paul Winfield (with his sole nomination) as black sharecropper Nathan Lee Morgan (Cicely Tyson's husband) who is sentenced to jail for stealing food for his family in Sounder

Liza Minnelli (with her second and last career nomination) in her fourth adult film role won the Best Actress award for her star-making role in Cabaret as the free-spirited ex-patriate American Sally Bowles - a wild, starry-eyed and 'divinely decadent' singer/dancer in the Kit Kat Club, made memorable with a black bowler, mascara, and suspenders. Some interpreted her win as 'compensation' for the many Oscar losses that her mother, Judy Garland, experienced.

The other Best Actress competitors included two black actresses (a first):

  • Cicely Tyson (with her sole nomination) as sharecropper Rebecca Morgan in Sounder
  • Diana Ross (with her sole nomination for her screen debut) as drug-addicted singing great Billie Holliday in director Sidney Furie's biopic Lady Sings the Blues (with five nominations and no wins)

Also nominated were Maggie Smith (with her third nomination) as overbearing Aunt Augusta who travels across Europe in George Cukor's screen version of Graham Greene's comedy novel Travels With My Aunt (with four nominations and one win - Best Costume Design), and Liv Ullmann (with her first of two unsuccessful career nominations) as Swedish emigrant Kristina in The Emigrants.

Both winners in the supporting categories were repeating their stage roles on the screen.

The winner in the Best Supporting Actor category was the sinister, lewd, sexually-ambiguous and androgynous, sardonic, untrustworthy and impish emcee Joel Grey (with his sole career nomination!) as 'The Master of Ceremonies' in Cabaret - a personification of the decadence and decay in Nazi Germany. [Grey was reprising his Broadway role in his first film in eleven years.]

Three of the co-stars of The Godfather were also nominated in the Best Supporting Actor category - all of them for the first time. [This was record-tying! - this was the first time since On The Waterfront (1954) that three performers from the same film were nominated together]:

  • James Caan (with his first and sole nomination in a break-through role) as the Don's hot-headed, sexy and volatile son Sonny Corleone
  • Al Pacino (with his first of eight career nominations and in his first major film) as intense Michael Corleone - the second son [Coincidentally, Pacino had more on-screen time than Best Actor winner Marlon Brando, and should have been nominated in the Best Actor category instead.]
  • Robert Duvall (with his first of five career nominations and in his break-through role) as Tom Hagen, the Corleone's family's lawyer

The last nominee was Eddie Albert (with his second and last unsuccessful career nomination) as Mr. Corcoran (Cybill Shepherd's father) in director Elaine May's version of Neil Simon's marital comedy, The Heartbreak Kid (with two nominations and no wins).

The Best Supporting Actress category included nominees in films which were not major prize winners. The winner in the category was veteran Broadway actress Eileen Heckart (with her second of two career nominations) who recreated her stage role as Mrs. Baker - the concerned, over-possessive, domineering and overbearing San Francisco mother of blind, song-writing son Eddie Albert (who opposes her son's relationship with funky, next-door-neighbor Goldie Hawn) in director Milton Katselas' Butterflies are Free (with three nominations and one win - Best Supporting Actress).

The other Best Supporting Actress nominees were:

  • Jeannie Berlin (with her sole nomination) as Lila Kolodny - the nice Jewish girl (director Elaine May's real-life daughter) who faces abandonment on her honeymoon by husband Charles Grodin in The Heartbreak Kid
  • Geraldine Page (with her fifth of eight career nominations) as Tillie's (Carol Burnett) bitchy friend and matchmaker Gertrude in director Martin Ritt's Pete 'n' Tillie (with two nominations and no wins)
  • Susan Tyrell (with her sole nomination) as Oma - the alcoholic, temporary girlfriend of a boxing contender (Stacey Keach) in director John Huston's Fat City (the film's sole nomination)
  • Shelley Winters (with her fourth and last career nomination) as Belle Rosen - a Jewish grandmother-passenger who saves Gene Hackman's life (and loses her own) in Irwin Allen's all-star cast/disaster film epic The Poseidon Adventure (with eight nominations and two wins - Best Song ('The Morning After') and a Special Achievement Award for Visual Effects!)

Never-nominated actor Edward G. Robinson (1893-1973) received an Honorary statuette posthumously, although he knew of the honor. He had died two months prior to the Oscars show. His widow, Jane Adler, accepted the award for Robinson ("who achieved greatness as a player, a patron of the arts and a dedicated citizen. in sum, a Renaissance man. From his friends in the industry he loves"), and read a speech that Robinson had written upon hearing of his honor a week before his death. He had experienced a memorable film career, in such films as Little Caesar (1930), Double Indemnity (1944), and Key Largo (1948).

The most unlikely Oscar nomination in the history of the Academy Awards was this year's Best Original Song nomination of "Ben" from the grade-Z horror film Ben about killer rats. The title song was sung by 14 year-old child star Michael Jackson during the end credits and for the Oscar ceremony. The song, which won the Golden Globe for Best Original Song, lost the Oscar to "The Morning After" from The Poseidon Adventure.

Charlie Chaplin's film Limelight (1952) , made twenty years earlier, finally became eligible for Oscar consideration this year. According to the Academy's rules at the time, a movie could not be considered for an Academy Award until it had played in Los Angeles. When Limelight finally played at a theater in Los Angeles in 1972, it became eligible for an award. Chaplin was co-awarded the film's sole Oscar nomination and win - for Best Original Dramatic Score. It was Chaplin's ONLY competitive Academy Award win.

Oscar Snubs and Omissions:

Like Edward G. Robinson, win-less Rosalind Russell (after four unsuccessful Best Actress nominations in 1942, 1946, 1947, and 1958), accepted the Hersholt Humanitarian Award. Cinematographer Gordon Willis' work on the Best Picture winner, The Godfather, was completely overlooked. His first career nomination occurred almost a decade later for Zelig (1983), and he wasn't honored again until the Academy nominated him a third time - for one of his weakest efforts, The Godfather, Part III (1990).

Writer/star Woody Allen's Play It Again, Sam and his performance as klutsy Bogey-film buff Allan Felix were overlooked in 1972, and so was Jon Voight's performance as Ed and Ned Beatty's role as chubby and assaulted Bobby Trippe in director John Boorman's exciting adventure film Deliverance. Never-nominated Howard Da Silva was ignored for his role as Benjamin Franklin in 1776, as were Alastair Sim (as apoplectic Bishop Lampton) and Arthur Lowe (as drinking butler Daniel Tucker) in The Ruling Class.

And two actresses were un-nominated in Peter Bogdanovich's screwball comedy What's Up, Doc?: Madeline Kahn in her film debut as Ryan O'Neal's fiancee Eunice Burns and Barbra Streisand as Judy Maxwell. Stacy Keach should have been nominated for his role as come-back boxer Billy Tully in director John Huston's Fat City. And Robert Redford missed out on nominations for his early roles as political candidate Bill McKay in Michael Ritchie's political satire The Candidate, and as a wilderness mountain man - the title role - in Sydney Pollack's Jeremiah Johnson.

First-rate Michael York was overlooked for his underappreciated role as bisexual British writer and Cambridge doctoral candidate Brian Roberts in Cabaret - a role that enhanced Liza Minnelli's Oscar-winning performance. John Cazale was denied nominations for his two roles as Fredo in The Godfather, and The Godfather, Part II (1974).

1963 Chevy Truck

Similar in appearance to earlier years but with new grill design. Front suspension now uses variable rate coil springs. Clutch uses mechanical linkage. Grill has CHEVROLET embossed in lower bar and single headlamps surrounded by smaller round bezels. Center of grill consists of 56 rectangular holes formed by 3 horizontal and 13 vertical bars. Front bumper vertical bolt holes are now 4 3/4” apart. First year for the 230 and 292 cubic inch engines. Side emblem is a vertical rectangle with series designation (10 - 1/2 ton, 20 - 3/4 ton, 30 - 1 ton) on upper portion and red Bow Tie below. C models are 2 wheel drive, and K models are 4 wheel drive.

History of the Clean Water Act

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 was the first major U.S. law to address water pollution. Growing public awareness and concern for controlling water pollution led to sweeping amendments in 1972. As amended in 1972, the law became commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  • Established the basic structure for regulating pollutant discharges into the waters of the United States.
  • Gave EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry.
  • Maintained existing requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters.
  • Made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained under its provisions.
  • Funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants program.
  • Recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution.

Subsequent amendments modified some of the earlier CWA provisions. Revisions in 1981 streamlined the municipal construction grants process, improving the capabilities of treatment plants built under the program. Changes in 1987 phased out the construction grants program, replacing it with the State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund, more commonly known as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund. This new funding strategy addressed water quality needs by building on EPA-state partnerships.

Records of the United States Forces in Southeast Asia, 1950-1975

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records: Historical records relating to U.S. Army activities in Vietnam, 1961-74, among records of the Historical Services Division of the U.S. Army Center of Military History, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff. "Litigation Research Collection," consisting of copies of Vietnam War documents assembled for use in the 1983 libel suit lodged against the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) by Gen. William C. Westmoreland, Commander of the U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV, 1964-68) and of the U.S. Army Vietnam (USARV, 1965-68), in RG 407, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1917- .

Subject Access Terms: Vietnam War.

Textual Records Washington Area 9,000 cu. ft.
Motion Pictures College Park 5 reels
Sound Recordings College Park 7 items

154 lin. ft.

History: MAAG Indochina established September 17, 1950. Reorganized and redesignated MAAG Vietnam, November 1, 1955. Abolished May 15, 1964, with functions transferred to the U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV). SEE 472.3.

Textual Records: Records maintained by the Adjutant General's Office, 1950-64, including correspondence, incoming and outgoing messages, reports, and general orders and other issuances. Incoming and outgoing messages of the Combat Arms Training and Organization Division, 1956-58. Records relating to policies and procedures, maintained by the executive officer of the Temporary Equipment Recovery Mission, 1957-58.

Related Records: Records of the U.S. Military Assistance Command Thailand/Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group Thailand (MACTHAI/JUSMAGTHAI) UNDER 472.8. Records of MAAG Cambodia, 1955- 64 (11 ft.) records of MAAG Laos, 1962 (less than 1 ft.) and additional records of JUSMAGTHAI, 1950-58 (7 ft.), have recently been reallocated to this record group from RG 334, Records of Interservice Agencies. These recently reallocated records are described UNDER RG 334.

2,270 lin. ft. and 1,654 rolls of microfilm

History: Established May 15, 1962. Acquired mission and functions of MAAG Vietnam (SEE 472.2), May 15, 1964. Abolished March 29, 1973.

472.3.1 Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Joint Staff

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1972-73.

472.3.2 Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for
Economic Affairs

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1969-73.

472.3.3 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for
Personnel (J-1)

Textual Records: General correspondence of the Adjutant General Advisory Branch of the Personnel Advisory Division, 1970-72.

472.3.4 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for
Intelligence (J-2)

Textual Records: Daily journals of the Command Center Element, 1967-71. Reports and publications of the Air Reconnaissance, Exploitation, and Intelligence Divisions, 1965-73. Interrogation case files of the Combined Military Interrogation Center, 1965- 68. Microfilm copy of records of the Combined Document Exploitation Center (CDEC), consisting of captured North Vietnamese records, with English-language translations and summaries prepared by CDEC staff, 1966-72 (913 rolls) and CDEC intelligence bulletins, 1965-72 (41 rolls).

Finding Aids: William Cunliffe, Timothy Duskin, and David H. Wallace, comps., Captured North Vietnamese Documents of the Combined Document Exploitation Center, SL 60 (1993).

472.3.5 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for
Operations (J-3)

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, reports, planning files, and other records, 1963-73, of the following component organizations: Executive, Manpower Control, Special Operations, Evaluation and Analysis, Surface Operations, Air Operations, Command and Control, Chemical Operations, and Psychological Operations Divisions Plans, Requirements, and Force Structure Division Joint Liaison Group and Railway Security Advisory Detachment.

472.3.6 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for
Logistics (J-4)

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1967-72, of the Logistics Advisory Directorate and of the following divisions: Materiel and Services, Plans and Special Projects, Procurement Policy, and Transportation.

472.3.7 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for
Plans (J-5)

Textual Records: Records, 1968-72, consisting of security- classified general correspondence, with separate top secret file and awards case files.

472.3.8 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for
Communications--Electronic (J-6)

Textual Records: General correspondence of the Advisory, Plans and Programs, and Operations Divisions, 1967-73.

472.3.9 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for
Military Assistance

Textual Records: Reports of the Organization and Programs Division, 1970-71.

472.3.10 Records of the Office of Civil Operations for Rural
Development Support (CORDS)

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and other records, 1958-73, of the following component organizations: Chieu Hoi ("Open Arms"), Community Development, Management Support, Phung Hoang ("Phoenix"), Public Safety, Reports and Analysis, Territorial Security, and War Victims Directorates Plans, Policy and Programs Directorate, including the CORDS Historical Working Group CORDS Information Center Pacification Study Group and Central Pacification and Development Council Control Center Liaison Group.

Related Records: Records of CORDS military regions UNDER 472.4.4.

472.3.11 Records of the Construction Directorate

Textual Records: Records, 1966-73, consisting of monthly military construction reports army, navy, and air force construction directives and records relating to projects funded by assistance in kind.

472.3.12 Records of the Training Directorate

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and other records, 1969-71, of the following component organizations: Administrative Office Plans and Programs, Service Schools, Support, and Training Center Divisions and advisory detachments to Vietnamese military schools and training centers.

472.3.13 Records of the Free World Military Assistance Office

Textual Records: General correspondence maintained by the Administrative Office, 1970-73.

472.3.14 Records of the Adjutant General's Office

Textual Records: Records maintained by the Administrative Services Division, 1964-72, including correspondence, the staff duty officer's daily journal, general orders, and publications. Individual and unit awards case files of the Personnel Actions Division, 1967-73.

472.3.15 Records of the Office of the Comptroller

Textual Records: General correspondence of the Management Division, 1966-72 and the Financial Affairs Division, 1967-72.

472.3.16 Records of the Office of the Chaplain

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1968-73.

472.3.17 Records of the Office of the Command Historian

Textual Records: Records, 1965-73, including MACV annual command histories, background files, and a microfilm copy of records concerning the Historical Information Management System ("HIMS," 700 rolls).

472.3.18 Records of the Information Office

Textual Records: Correspondence, issuances, publications, and accreditation files, 1965-72, of the following component organizations: Administrative Branch Public Information, Command Information, and Special Projects Divisions and American Forces Vietnam Network.

472.3.19 Records of the Office of the Inspector General

Textual Records: Reports, 1967-72, of the Inspection Division and the Investigations Division.

472.3.20 Records of the Office of the Provost Marshal

Textual Records: General correspondence of the Security and Investigation Division, 1967-72 the Prisoner of War Division, 1968-72 the Drug Suppression Division, 1970-72 and the Advisory Element, 1972. Advisors' monthly reports, 1969.

472.3.21 Records of the Office of the Command Surgeon

Textual Records: Records maintained by the Administrative Division, 1968-72, including correspondence, medical advisory activity reports, and the staff duty officer's daily journal. General correspondence of the Plans and Operations Division, 1971-73 and the Professional Services Division, 1971-72. Records of the Advisory Element relating to Military Provisional Health Assistance Progress (MILPHAP) teams, 1968-72.

472.3.22 Records of the Office of the Staff Judge Advocate

Textual Records: General correspondence maintained by the Administrative Office, 1966-73. Records of the Advisory Division, 1966-73. Records of the International Law and Military Justice Division, consisting of general and special court-martial proceedings, 1968-73.

2,270 lin. ft.

472.4.1 Records of the Army Advisory Group

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1972-73, of the following directorates: Personnel and Administration Plans, Programs and Special Actions Support Operations and Field Liaison. Correspondence, reports, and other records, 1967-72, of the Training and Combined Arms Directorates, together with their subordinate advisory detachments.

472.4.2 Records of the Air Force Advisory Group

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and other records, 1971-73, of the following component organizations: Personnel and Comptroller Directorates and Offices of the Inspector, the Surgeon, and Safety. Correspondence and reports of air force advisory teams, 1971-73.

472.4.3 Records of MACV Special Troops

Textual Records: Records, 1972-73, including correspondence, reports, daily journals, general orders, and an organizational history.

472.4.4 Records of Civil Operations for Rural Development Support
(CORDS) military regions

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and other records of Military Region 1, 1965-72 Military Region 2, 1965-73 Military Region 3, 1962-73 and Military Region 4, 1966-73.

Related Records: Records of the CORDS headquarters office UNDER 472.3.10.

472.4.5 Records of the First Regional Assistance Command (FRAC)

Textual Records: Records, 1966-73, including correspondence, reports, daily journals, and an organizational history.

472.4.6 Records of the Second Regional Assistance Command (SRAC)

Textual Records: Records, 1964-73, including correspondence, reports, daily journals, and issuances. Records of the U.S. Army advisory team with the 24th Special Tactical Zone, 1966-70.

472.4.7 Records of the Third Regional Assistance Command (TRAC)

Textual Records: Records, 1967-73, including correspondence, reports, daily journals, issuances, awards files, and an organizational history. Records of the advisory team with the Dong Nai Sensitive Area/Long Binh Special Zone, 1967 and the Special Liaison Section that coordinated activities of the Royal Thai Army Volunteer Force, 1968-72.

472.4.8 Records of the Delta Regional Assistance Command (DRAC)

Textual Records: Records, 1965-73, including correspondence, reports, daily journals, and issuances.

Sound Recordings (1 item): IV Corps Medical Advisory Group briefing for staff of the Civilian War Casualty Hospital, Can Tho, conducted by Maj. John D. Proe, January 23, 1968. SEE ALSO 472.13.

472.4.9 Records of division combat assistance teams and
advisory teams

Textual Records: Records, 1964-73, arranged by team designation, and including correspondence, daily journals, reports, and other records.

2,000 lin. ft.

History: U.S. Army, Ryukyu Islands, Support Group (Provisional) established, effective February 2, 1962, by General Order 19, Headquarters U.S. Army, Ryukyu Islands, February 5, 1962. Redesignated U.S. Army Support Group, Vietnam, by General Order 32, Headquarters U.S. Army Pacific, April 1, 1962. Further redesignated U.S. Army Support Command, Vietnam, by General Order 14, Headquarters U.S. Army Ryukyu Islands, March 1, 1964. Reorganized, and redesignated U.S. Army, Vietnam, by General Order 226, Headquarters U.S. Army Pacific, July 20, 1965. Acquired mission and functions of 1st Logistical Command, June 16, 1970. Reorganized, and further redesignated U.S. Army Vietnam/Military Assistance Command Vietnam (USARV/MACV) Support Command, May 15, 1972. Abolished, effective March 28, 1973, by General Order 54, Headquarters U.S. Army Pacific, February 13, 1973. 472.5.1 Records of the Office of the Secretary of the General Staff

Textual Records: Commander's Notes, 1970.

472.5.2 Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for
Personnel and Administration

Textual Records: Records, 1968-73, including correspondence, daily journals, and personnel reports, of the following component organizations: Administrative and Modern Volunteer Army Branches and Military Personnel Policy, Non-Appropriated Funds, Plans and Programs, and Special Actions Divisions.

472.5.3 Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for
Operations, Plans and Security

Textual Records: Records, 1965-73, including correspondence, daily journals, intelligence reports, operational reports-- lessons learned (ORLL), tables of distribution and allowance, modification tables of organization and equipment, and accident case files, of the Administrative Office and the following divisions: Civil Military Operations (formerly Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Civil Affairs) Doctrine, Systems Analysis and Evaluation Force Development Intelligence and Security (formerly Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence) Operations and Training and Plans.

472.5.4 Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, and other records, 1966-73, of the following component organizations: Administrative, Procurement Officer's, and Logistics Management Offices Ammunition, Maintenance, Materiel, Plans and Operations, Retrograde, Supply, and Transportation Divisions Audit Review Team and Criminal Investigation Division Team.

472.5.5 Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff,

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, and other records, 1966-73, of the Administrative Office and the Budget, Finance and Accounting, and Management Divisions.

472.5.6 Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for
Management Information Systems

Textual Records: Correspondence and daily journals, 1968-70.

472.5.7 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for

Textual Records: Correspondence and daily journals, 1968-70.

472.5.8 Records of the Adjutant General's Office

Textual Records: Records, 1962-73, including correspondence, memorandums, reports, daily journals, issuances, and pamphlets. General correspondence of the Administrative Services and Enlisted Replacement Divisions, 1968-70. Records of the Military Personnel Division, 1969-73, including Congressional correspondence, individual and unit awards case files, casualty case files, and prisoner of war and missing in action (POW/MIA) case files.

472.5.9 Records of the Aviation Section

Textual Records: Daily journals, 1968-70. Aircraft accident reports maintained by the Aviation Safety Division, 1965-73. General correspondence of the Logistics Division, 1968-69.

472.5.10 Records of the Office of the Chaplain

Textual Records: Correspondence and daily journals maintained by the Administration and Management Division, 1965-73. Reports maintained by the Religious Plans, Training and Operations Division, 1968-70.

472.5.11 Records of the Civilian Personnel Office

Textual Records: General correspondence of the following component organizations: Office of the Director, 1966-73 Labor Relations Division, 1970-72 Employment and Services Division, 1972 Personnel Management Assistance and Evaluation Division, 1966-73 Position and Pay Management Division, 1970 Training and Development Division, 1969-70 Central Training Institute, 1971- 72 Saigon Civilian Personnel Office, 1969-73 Can Tho Civilian Personnel Office, 1973 and U.S. Citizen Civilian Personnel Office, 1971-73.

472.5.12 Records of the Office of the Engineer

Textual Records: Daily journals and general orders of the U.S. Army Engineer Command Vietnam (Provisional), 1966-68. Daily journals and general orders of the U.S. Army Construction Agency, Vietnam, 1968-70. Correspondence, daily journals, general orders, and reports of the U.S. Army Engineer Command Vietnam, 1970-72.

472.5.13 Records of the Office of the Command Historian

Textual Records: Records, 1965-72, including correspondence, daily journals, operational reports--lessons learned (ORLL), after-action reports, and senior officer debriefing reports.

472.5.14 Records of the Information Office

Textual Records: Correspondence and daily journals maintained by the Administrative Office, 1967-71. Correspondence, reports, and publications of the Public Information and Command Information Divisions, 1968-72.

472.5.15 Records of the Office of the Inspector General

Textual Records: Records maintained by the Administrative Division, including daily journals, 1966-73, and general correspondence, 1968. Reports of the Inspection Division concerning the annual general inspection, 1968-73 command effectiveness inspections, 1971-72 and special inspections, 1969-72. Reports of the Investigation and Complaint Division on investigations, 1967-72 and on redeployment base closure assistance team inspections, 1973.

472.5.16 Records of the Office of the Provost Marshal

Textual Records: Correspondence and daily journals maintained by the Administrative Office, 1968-70. Records of the Plans and Operations Division, including correspondence, 1972-73, and serious incident reports, 1968, 1972-73. Correspondence and physical security survey reports of the Protective Services Division, 1970-73.

472.5.17 Records of the Office of the Staff Judge Advocate

Textual Records: Daily journals, 1965-69.

472.5.18 Records of the Office of the Surgeon

Textual Records: Daily journals, general orders and other issuances, and organizational histories of the Office of the Surgeon, 1967-73, and the U.S. Army Health Service Group, Vietnam, 1972-73. Correspondence, reports, and other records, 1965-73, of the Administrative Office and the Medical Materiel, Medical Records and Statistics, Plans and Operations, and Preventive Medicine Divisions.

472.5.19 Records of the Office of the Weather Officer

Textual Records: Daily journal, 1967.

500 lin. ft.

472.6.1 Records of Headquarters Special Troops

Textual Records: General records, 1966-72, including correspondence, reports, and daily journals. Records, 1966-72, of the following subordinate organizations: USARV Advisor School Dog Training Detachment Woman's Army Corps Detachment U.S. Army Data Service Center, Vietnam and U.S. Army Marine Maintenance Activity, Vietnam.

472.6.2 Records of Headquarters Support Troops

Textual Records: General orders, 1969-71.

472.6.3 Records of U.S. Army Headquarters Area Command

Textual Records: Records, 1966-72, including correspondence, daily journals, reports, issuances, and an organizational history.

472.6.4 Records of the U.S. Army Concept Team Activity

Textual Records: Records of the Administration/Supply Branch, 1967-72, including correspondence, daily journals, and an organizational history. Records of the Research and Development Division relating to projects, 1965-72.

472.6.5 Records of Headquarters USARV Training Support

Textual Records: Daily journals, 1971.

472.6.6 Records of the Special Services Agency (Provisional)

Textual Records: Correspondence, histories, and after-action reports of the Entertainment Branch of the Athletic, Recreation and Entertainment Division, 1966-72.

472.6.7 Records of the U.S. Army Postal Group, Vietnam

Textual Records: Correspondence and daily journal of the Personnel and Administration Division, 1971-73. Investigation reports of the Postal Inspector Division, 1971-73. Records relating to the Christmas mail program, 1969-72.

472.6.8 Records of the U.S. Army Central Finance and Accounting
Office, Vietnam

Textual Records: Correspondence and daily journal, 1972-73.

472.6.9 Records of the U.S. Army Garrison, Long Binh Post,
Vietnam (Provisional)

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journal, command reports, issuances, and operations planning files, 1966-70.

815 lin. ft.

History: USARV combat and support forces were organized into three corps-sized organizations, seven divisions, seven brigades, two engineer brigades, one medical brigade, one military police brigade, one signal brigade, one logistical command, and various tactical units.

472.7.1 Records of corps-sized organizations

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, reports, issuances, and publications of I Field Force Vietnam, II Field Force Vietnam, and the Capital Military Assistance Command, 1965- 72.

472.7.2 Records of combat divisions

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, reports, issuances, and organizational histories, 1965-72, of the following divisions: 1st, 4th, 9th, 23d (Americal), and 25th Infantry 1st Cavalry (Airmobile) and 101st Airborne.

472.7.3 Records of combat brigades

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, reports, issuances, and organizational histories, 1965-72, of the following brigades: 11th, 196th, 198th, and 199th Infantry (Light) 1st Brigade of the 5th Infantry Division (Mechanized) 3d Brigade of the 82d Airborne Division and 173d Airborne.

472.7.4 Records of combat support brigades

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, reports, issuances, and organizational histories, 1967-72, of the following combat support brigades: 1st Aviation, 18th and 20th Engineer, 44th Medical, 18th Military Police, and 1st Signal.

472.7.5 Records of logistical support organizations

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, reports, issuances, and organizational histories, 1965-73, of the following logistical support units: 1st Logistical Command U.S. Army Support Commands, Cam Ranh Bay, Da Nang, Qui Nhon, Saigon, and Vung Tau U.S. Army Depots, Cam Ranh Bay, Da Nang, Long Binh, and Qui Nhon Logistics Data Service Center U.S. Army Inventory Control Center, Vietnam U.S. Army Procurement Agency, Vietnam U.S. Army Property Disposal Agency, Vietnam and U.S. Army Mortuaries, Saigon and Da Nang.

472.7.6 Records of tactical organizations

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, operational and intelligence reports, issuances, and organizational histories, 1965-72, of groups, battalions, detachments, and company-level units, arranged by branch (armor and cavalry artillery aviation infantry engineer military police signal adjutant general chemical civil affairs and psychological operations finance maintenance medical military history military intelligence ordnance public information quartermaster service, supply, and support and transportation), and thereunder by unit designation.

472.7.7 Other records

Motion Pictures (5 reels): Formerly security-classified films, FLIR Demo--1st Flight (Reg. & Seq.), demonstrating the forward- looking infrared (FLIR) device, June 1968 (1 reel) and Combat TOW Firings, concerning the testing of tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missiles, 1972 (1 reel). Security- classified films, TOW at Kontum, July 24, 1972 (1 reel) an unidentified film showing weapons testing, May 16, 1972 (1 reel) and an unidentified film from records of the 94th Artillery Group, n.d. (1 reel).

Sound Recordings (6 items): After-action interviews of the commanding officer and a member of the 187th Combat Assault Helicopter Unit, 164th Combat Aviation Group, 1st Aviation Brigade, 1970 (1 item). Combat history (1968-69) of the 57th Transportation Battalion, 80th General Support Group, ca. 1969 (1 item). Interview of Brig. Gen. Frederick E. Davison, commanding officer of the 199th Infantry Brigade, April 28, 1969 (1 item). Interviews of two unidentified enlisted men at Fire Support Base Nancy, and three members of the 4th Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment, 199th Infantry Brigade, n.d. (1 item). Interview of Capt. Anthony F. Caggiano of the 199th Infantry Brigade, November 11, 1969 (1 item). "Booby Traps," n.d. (1 item). SEE ALSO 472.13.

38 lin. ft.

History: JUSMAGTHAI established September 22, 1953, superseding the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) Thailand, established September 1950. MACTHAI established May 15, 1962, with Gen. Paul D. Harkins, commanding MACV (SEE 472.3), given simultaneous command of MACTHAI. Coordination of MACTHAI and JUSMAGTHAI activities effected through the appointment of Chief of JUSMAGTHAI as Deputy Commander, MACTHAI, October 31, 1962, with responsibility for operational control of U.S. logistical troops in Thailand. Chief of JUSMAGTHAI named Commander, MACTHAI, July 10, 1965, with headquarters in Bangkok. MACTHAI and JUSMAGTHAI formally combined to form new organization, MACTHAI/JUSMAGTHAI, April 21, 1975. Abolished July 20, 1976.

Textual Records: Correspondence, messages, reports, issuances, and other records, 1952-76, of the following headquarters organizations: Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff Offices of the Assistant Chiefs of Staff for Personnel, Operations, Logistics, and Communications Adjutant General's Office Offices of the Provost Marshal, Judge Advocate General, Inspector General, Surgeon General (Medical Department), and Staff Chaplain Management, Joint Service, Public Affairs, and Civilian Personnel Divisions Headquarters Support Group Research and Development Center and 7th/13th Air Force. Records of subordinate units, ca. 1952-76.

Related Records: Additional records of JUSMAGTHAI, 1950-58 (7 ft.), as well as records of MAAG Cambodia, 1955-64 (11 ft.) and MAAG Laos, 1962 (less than 1 ft.), have recently been reallocated to this record group from RG 334, Records of Interservice Agencies. These recently reallocated records are described UNDER RG 334. Records of the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) Vietnam UNDER 472.2.

104 lin. ft.

History: Established as an element of the U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) by General Order 304, Headquarters MACV, January 28, 1973. Assumed MACV residual responsibilities upon deactivation of MACV, March 29, 1973. Evacuated from the Republic of Vietnam under emergency conditions, April 30, 1975. Continued to function at Fort Shafter, HI, until abolishment, August 31, 1975.

472.9.1 Records of the Secretary of the Joint Staff

Textual Records: Histories and background files of the command historian, 1973-75.

472.9.2 Records of the Executive Support Group

Textual Records: Correspondence, daily journals, and casualty case files, 1973-75, of the Physical Security Branch and the Medical Office.

472.9.3 Records of the Office of General Counsel

Textual Records: Property disposal and other records, 1973-75.

472.9.4 Records of the Logistics and Administrative Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, messages, directives, bulletins, award and commendation files, and other records, 1973-75.

472.9.5 Records of the Security Assistance Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, including tables of organization and equipment for the Republic of Vietnam Armed Force (RVNAF), 1973-75.

472.9.6 Records of the Army Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, reading files, directives, messages, and other records, 1973-75, of the following branches: Administrative Services Engineer, Maintenance and Transportation Procurement Programs and Resource Management.

472.9.7 Records of the Navy Division

Textual Records: Contract files, cost accounting files, and collection and travel vouchers, 1973-75.

472.9.8 Records of the Air Force Division

Textual Records: Instruction, project, and cost accounting files of the Civil Engineering Branch, 1973-75.

472.9.9 Records of the Special Assistant to the Ambassador for
Field Operations

Textual Records: Correspondence and reports, 1973-75.

1955-76 (bulk 1971-75)
41 cu. ft.

History: Established January 30, 1971, with staff located at Headquarters MACV. Moved to Phnom Penh, August 1971. Evacuated from the Khmer Republic under emergency conditions, April 12, 1975.

472.10.1 Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief

Textual Records: Records, 1955-75, including correspondence, incoming and outgoing messages, and a Cambodian background file.

472.10.2 Records of other headquarters organizations

Textual Records: Correspondence and messages of the Joint Liaison Office, 1972-75. Records of the Special Assistant for Coordination and Special Actions, 1971-75, including correspondence and records relating to training. Correspondence and reports of the Army Division, 1971-75. General correspondence of the Navy Division, 1973-76. Records of the Air Force Division, 1973-75, including records relating to the Khmer Air Force. Correspondence and reports of the Ammunition and Services Division, 1971-75. Correspondence, briefings, and reports of the Logistics Division, 1971-75.

32 lin. ft.

History: U.S. delegation established, effective January 26, 1973, by General Order 186, Headquarters MACV, January 24, 1973, pursuant to Article 16 of the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam ("Paris Agreement"), signed January 27, 1973, which called for the signatories to designate representatives to serve on a Four Party Joint Military Commission (FPJMC). FPJMC was to function for 60 days in order to implement specific provisions of the agreement, in particular the documentation of cease-fire violations, the arrangement of prisoner-of-war exchanges, and the collection of information on individuals missing in action. FPJMC terminated, March 31, 1973, with functions assumed by the Four Party Joint Military Team (FPJMT), established same date in accordance with Article 10 of the Paris Agreement. FPJMT evacuated from Republic of Vietnam under emergency conditions, April 30, 1975.

472.11.1 Records of headquarters organizations

Textual Records: Records maintained by the Secretary, 1973, including minutes of delegation chiefs' meetings, memorandums, reports, records of staff actions, historical background files, and interfiled photographs. General correspondence, 1973, of the following divisions: Administrative and Logistics Operations and Plans Liaison and Language and Public Affairs.

472.11.2 Records of regional teams

Textual Records: Daily journals, operations summaries, and other records of teams in Regions I (Hue) II (Da Nang) III (Pleiku) IV (Phan Thiet) V (Bien Hoa) VI (My Tho) and VII (Can Tho), 1973.



SEE UNDER 472.4.8 and 472.7.7.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

David Bowie: his style story, 1972-1973

A new book from Taschen is out soon, celebrating a short but highly memorable period in David Bowie’s career. From his relationship with East End tailors and local hairdressers to Kansai Yamamoto and the creation of Ziggy Stardust, here is a potted history of Bowie’s style from 1972-1973

Bowie at the Gaumont Theatre, June 4th, 1973 from The Rise of David Bowie 1972-1973 Photograph: Mick Rock/Taschen

Bowie at the Gaumont Theatre, June 4th, 1973 from The Rise of David Bowie 1972-1973 Photograph: Mick Rock/Taschen

Last modified on Mon 2 Jul 2018 15.02 BST

East End tailoring. A dash of 60s Mod. The first wave of Japanese avant-garde fashion design. Androgynous hair. London’s gay subculture, and even the postgraduate work of Sir Paul Smith’s future menswear maestro. All of these elements were combined by David Bowie into the shifting and striking series of identities he adopted on stage (and in private) during the fleeting existence of his space alien rock star persona, Ziggy Stardust.

Ziggy wasn’t with us for long. There was an 18-month stretch from the Brian Aris photoshoot for the cover of concept album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders From Mars, to the dramatic Hammersmith Odeon “retirement” gig in July 1973. But his impact, particularly in the field of personal expression, continues to bewitch and enthrall in the 21 st century.

Bowie at Haddon Hall, Beckenham in 1972, from The Rise of David Bowie 1972-1973. Photograph: Mick Rock/Taschen

It’s arguable that the potency of contemporary British menswear, and, in particular, the prevailing notions of transgression and gender display, owe much to Bowie’s sartorial innovations and experimentations during this crucial period of his career.

From the start – Bowie’s 25 th birthday party at his home in Haddon Hall, Beckenham, on 8 January, 1972 – the rock’n’roll chameleon, egged on by his whip-smart and visually acute American wife Angie, was out to dazzle and provoke.

As Bowie archivist Kevin Cann has recorded, on the night of the shebang – attended by the likes of Lou Reed and Lionel Bart – the singer made his entrance down the main staircase in the green Ziggy cover suit of his own design. Gone were the fey garments of The Man Who Sold the World and Hunky Dory eras: no more Mr Fish man-dresses, Dietrich-style locks, Oxford bags, floppy hats or flowing chemises.

Bowie displayed a tough yet ambiguous look of his own design, realised by his tailor friend Freddie Burretti alongside local seamstress Sue Frost. The matching bomber jacket and cuffed straight-legged trousers were produced in the geometric pattern of a 1930s furniture fabric, set off with a fresh haircut (replicating a spiky post-Mod coiffure sported by a model for Kansai Yamamoto spotted in a recent issue of Honey magazine). He accessorised with knee-high, lace-up, zip-sided boots, like those worn by Alex and his droogs in Stanley Kubrick’s film version of Anthony Burgess’s A Clockwork Orange.

David Bowie in 1973, from The Rise of David Bowie 1972-1973. Photograph: Mick Rock/Taschen

Bowie built up this aesthetic by drawing on a tight-knit circle of recently formed friendships, particularly those established during his residence in Beckenham: Bowie’s hair was cut by local hairdresser Suzi Fussey (who would dye it flame-red a couple of months later) and the boots – like the quilted suits, also sported by his backing band the Spiders – were bespoke, designed by Stan “Dusty” Miller, who worked for a branch of Russell & Bromley (before it was a nationwide chain).

The party adjourned to Bowie’s favourite London nightspot, The Sombrero, a tiny gay boîte in Kensington where he had met Burretti less than a year before. “Fred of the East End”, as Burretti styled himself, was a prodigiously talented pretty boy. In partnership with his closest friend Daniella Parmar, he wielded a strong influence over Bowie’s style choices, producing the jackets, trousers, shirts, ties and suits in shiny and bright materials which would mint his formal approach to “glam”.

Bowie occasionally selected designs which complemented his and Burretti’s tastes, among them versions of the box-jacketed, wide-trousered suit sold at design entrepreneur Tommy Roberts’ proto-goth Covent Garden boutique City Lights Studio.

The reverse album sleeve for Pin Ups. Photograph: RCA

This was the creation of Derek Morton, who had recently graduated from the Royal College of Art and later became Sir Paul Smith’s head of menswear. Once Mick Rock’s photograph of Bowie in one of Morton’s suits appeared on the back cover of his Pin Ups LP, it proved popular among the soul-boys and proto-punks who would later feed into the New Romantic scene of the 1980s.

“Bowie just wore and wore that suit,” the late Roberts told me in 2011. “We had teams of ‘Bowie Boys’ coming in demanding it ever afterwards.”

By the time of the Ziggy tour dates at London’s Rainbow Theatre in the late summer of 1972, Bowie was also introducing the extraordinary creations of Kansai Yamamoto as stage-wear. He also followed the Japanese designer’s instructions to his models to shave off their eyebrows (this last effect was combined with the adventurous work of in-house makeup artist Pierre LaRoche).

Bowie on tour in 1973, from The Rise of David Bowie 1972-1973. Photograph: Mick Rock/Taschen

Bowie first physically encountered Yamamoto’s work at Boston 151, the Fulham Road shop where he bought the platform-soled red patent leather boots which became one of the integral elements of the second-phase Ziggy look (arguably, as the promotion for his follow-up album Aladdin Sane kicked in).

And just before the world tour of 1973, Yamamoto delivered five newly designed costumes as gifts for Bowie in New York. In the spring of that year, the pair hooked up in Tokyo, where a new raft of designs was prepared for the final leg. This, of course, culminated amid hysterical scenes at Hammersmith Odeon on the night of 3 July when Bowie broke the news that he was retiring Ziggy and the Spiders.

As Bowie uttered the words, “Not only is the last show of the tour but it’s the last show we’ll ever do”, pandemonium broke out among weeping fans. Ziggy was gone, but his flamboyance and willingness to test the outer limits of male visual identity lives on, forever.

Paul Gorman is the author of The Look: Adventures In Rock & Pop Fashion.

Using the XLCR's frame, the new XLS model had cast wheels, extended front forks, 2-into-1 exhaust pipes and a 16" rear wheel. With a large, dual rear seat and short sissy bar, the XLS was decidedly un-Sportster like, and curiously named the "Roadster".

The Motor Company used several different VIN codes for XL models. A post-1970 Sportster VIN will start with a 3A or 4A. A Cafe Racer VIN will start with a 7F. An XLS Sportster VIN will start with a 4E.

"Ironhead Sportsters tend to get faster the longer you own them."

A large percentage of old Harleys have been "customized" through the decades. Many good-intentioned riders built choppers through the seventies and eighties, cutting and raking necks and removing/throwing away good factory parts. This is why, when you find an old bike that's original or not that far off, the best thing to do is restore it correctly or consider selling it to someone who will.

Read: Ironhead Sportster Project

Looking back over the decade, the Sportster had come a long way. It was still a great looking, powerful street-bike, and more reliable than ever. At 500 pounds and sporting a 59" wheelbase, cornering was not its strong suit, but a low center of gravity made the bike easy to manage, even when cruising slow. The softly sprung suspension gave a firm but comfortable ride at highway speeds.

Watch the video: На углу Арбата и улицы Бубулинас 1972 (July 2022).


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