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Crosby DD-164 - History

Crosby DD-164 - History


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Crosby

Pierce Crosby, born 16 January 1824 in Delaware County Pa., was appointed midshipman in 1838. He served in Decatur and Petrel in the Mexican War, and gave distinguished service in the Civil War in command of Fannie, Pinola, Florida Keystone State, and Metacomet and as fleet captain in the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. In Pinola, assisted by Itaska, he broke the chain barrier across the Mississippi to make possible the passage upriver of Flag Officer D. G. Farragut's squadron, and the capture of New Orleans. Rear Admiral Crosby retired in March 1882, and died in Washington, D.C., 15 June 1899.

(DD-164: dp. 1,060; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 8'6"; s. 36 k.;
cpl. 101; a. 4 4"; 4 21" tt.; cl. Wickes)

Crosby (DD-164) was launched 28 September 1919 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass. sponsored by Mrs. C. Tittman, commissioned 24 January 1919, Lieutenant Commander F. T. Berry in command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet.

Crosby joined in exercises in Guantanamo Bay until sailing for Trepassey Bay, Newfoundland in May 1919, to serve as plane guard during the historic flight of Navy seaplanes, the first aerial crossing of the Atlantic.

On 1 July 1919 Crosby was assigned to the Pacific Fleet, and a week later she sailed from New York for San Diego, arriving 7 August. She visited Portland, Oreg., and Seattle, Wash., then was placed in reserve status with reduced complement at San Diego 30 January 1920. She continued in reserve and was decommissioned 7 June 1922.

Recommissioned 18 December 1939, Crosby sailed on Neutrality Patrol out of San Pedro from 1 April 1940. On 1 July 1940 she was assigned to the 11th Naval District Defense Forces, and after a reserve training cruise resumed her patrols and provided services to Destroyer Base, San Diego for the training of destroyer crews.

With the entry of the United States into the war, Crosby continued to patrol the waters of the 11th Naval District and to escort convoys locally until 1 February 1943 when she entered Mare Island Navy Yard for conversion to a high-speed transport. She was reclassified APD-17. 22 February 1943.

Clearing San Francisco 27 February 1943, Crosby sailed by way of Pearl Harbor, Samoa, Viti Levu, and Noumea to Espiritu Santo arriving 27 March for training exercises with the 4th Marines. Beginning the distinguished active service which was to bring her a Navy Unit Commendation, Crosby cleared 29 April for Guadalcanal as a transport screen. She made two similar voyages until 6 June, then reported for patrol and escort duty in the Solomons. Crosby effectively aided in the consolidation of the Solomons, landing troops on New Georgia between 30 June and 5 July; on the Treasury Islands under heavy gunfire on 27 October; and on Bougainville on 6 and 17 November. She sailed 21 November for overhaul at Brisbane Australia, returning to Milne Bay, New Guinea, 12 December. She trained Army and Marine personnel in amphibious landings, then landed troops at Cape Gloucester, New Britain, between 24 and 29 December 1943 and at Dekays Bay. New Guinea on 2 January 1944.

Clearing Milne Bay 6 January 1944, Crosby escorted convoys from Espiritu Santo to the Solomon Islands through January, remaining in the Solomons on antisubmarine patrol and screening duty. She landed troops on Green Island from 15 to 20 February and on Emirau Island on 20 March. Returning to the New Guinea operations 6 April, she landed troops at Aitape on 22 and 26 April escorted convoys to Hollandia, participated in the invasion of Biak Island on 27 May; and served as flagship for landing craft in Humboldt Bay from 31 May to 6 July. Following a brief overhaul at Manus, she landed troops on Cape Sansapor on 30 July,then sailed to Sydney Australia for replenishment and repairs. She returned to Humboldt Bay 30 August and landed troops on Morotai 15 September to complete her operations in the New Guinea area.

Crosby put out from Humboldt Bay 12 October 1944 and put men of the 6th Rangers ashore on Sulunn Island, Leyte, 17 October, for a reconnaissance mission. In preparation for the invasion landings, she landed troops on Dinagat Island, at the opening of Leyte Gulf on 19 and 20 October. Reloading troops at Humboldt Bay, she landed them in Ormoc Bay 7 December. She recovered the survivors of Ward (DD-139) which was sunk by American gunfire after severe damage from Japanese coastal guns. Crosby participated in the landings on Mindoro 15 December and again returned to Humboldt Bay for additional men. After landing her troops at Lingayen Gulf on 11 January 1945, Crosby continued to support the Luzon landings, landing men successfully at Nasugbu on 31 January; Mariveles on 15 February; and Corregidor on 17 February. On 25 February she cleared for Ulithi and an overhaul.

Crosby arrived at Okinawa 18 April and for hazardous antisubmarine patrol and radar picket duty, narrowly escaping damage from a suicide plane 13 May. She stood out for San Francisco 18 May and arrived 19 June. Overage and badly battered from her long and strenuous service, it was considered unfeasible to repair her. Crosby was decommissioned 28 September 1946 and sold 23 May 1946.

In addition to her Navy Unit Commendation, Crosby earned 10 battle stars for World War II service.


USS Crosby (DD 164)

Decommissioned 7 June 1922
Recommissioned 18 December 1939
Converted to High Speed Transport APD-17 on 22 February 1943
Decommissioned 28 September 1945
Stricken 24 October 1945
Sold 23 May 1946 and broken up for scrap.

Commands listed for USS Crosby (DD 164)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

CommanderFromTo
1Lt.Cdr. Knowlton Williams, USN18 Dec 193915 Dec 1941
2Lt.Cdr. John Francis Gallaher, USN15 Dec 194121 Nov 1942
3T/Cdr. Roy Arthur Newton, USN21 Nov 19421 Feb 1943
4Alan George Grant, USNR1 Feb 194320 Jul 1943
5Marston Walton Burdick, USNR20 Jul 19438 Nov 1943
6William Edward Sims, USNR8 Nov 19433 Oct 1944
7George Galbraith Moffat, USNR3 Oct 194428 Sep 1945

You can help improve our commands section
Click here to Submit events/comments/updates for this vessel.
Please use this if you spot mistakes or want to improve this ships page.

Media links


Crosby DD-164 - History

USS Crosby , a 1060-ton Little class destroyer built at Quincy, Massachusetts, was commissioned on 24 January 1919. In her first half-year of service she took part in exercises in the Caribbean Sea region, served as a plane guard during the trans-Atlantic flight attempt of the NC flying boats, and transited the Panama Canal to join the Pacific Fleet. Crosby spent the next six months operating along the Pacific Coast, then was in reserve status until June 1922, when she was formally decommissioned.

Laid up for over seventeen years, Crosby was brought back into commissioned service in December 1939 as part of the Nation's response to the outbreak of World War II in Europe. She had patrol and Naval Reserve training duties off the West Coast until December 1941, when the United States was abruptly brought into the war, and remained employed on patrol and escort work for the next fourteen months.

In February 1943 Crosby was converted to a fast transport and redesignated APD-17. She then steamed to the south Pacific, where she took part in landing operations at New Georgia, the Treasury Islands, Bougainville and Cape Gloucester between late June and the end of 1943. Her amphibious service continued through the next year with participation in assaults in the Bismarck Islands, along the northern shore of New Guinea, at Morotai, and at Leyte. On 7 December 1944, during the landings at Ormoc Bay, Leyte, she helped recover survivors of USS Ward after that ship was fatally damaged by a Kamikaze.

During 1945 Crosby put troops ashore at Lingayen Gulf in January and carried out further landings as the Luzon campaign closed in on Manila. Following an overhaul she conducted patrol and picket missions off Okinawa, beginning in mid-April. A month later the now very elderly ship left the war zone to return to the United States. USS Crosby was decommissioned in late September 1945, several weeks after the Second World War's end. She was sold for scrapping in May 1946.

USS Crosby was named in honor of Rear Admiral Peirce Crosby, USN (1824-1899), an important figure in the Naval history of the Civil War.

This page features all the views we have related to USS Crosby (Destroyer # 164, later DD-164 and APD-17).

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

USS Crosby (Destroyer # 164)

At the Boston Navy Yard, Massachusetts, 25 January 1919.
Panogramic photograph by J. Crosby, Naval Photographer, # 11 Portland Street, Boston.

Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 70KB 900 x 355 pixels

USS Crosby (Destroyer # 164)

At New York City, 8 July 1919, just prior to departing for the West Coast.

Courtesy of Jack L. Howland, 1983.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 35KB 740 x 500 pixels

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 115KB 740 x 595 pixels

Off the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, 24 February 1943, following conversion to a high-speed transport.

Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives.

Online Image: 62KB 740 x 610 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

At Acapulco, Mexico, circa 1919, with several destroyers alongside.
Destroyers off Cuyama 's starboard side are (from left to center:
USS Walker (Destroyer # 163)
USS Crosby (Destroyer # 164) and
USS Thatcher (Destroyer # 162).
USS Gamble (Destroyer # 123) is moored along Cuyama 's port side.

Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1976.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 78KB 740 x 510 pixels

USS Birmingham (Scout Cruiser # 2, later CL-2), center foreground

At San Pedro, California, circa 1919-1921, with a group of destroyers. Among the latter are USS Crosby (Destroyer # 164, later DD-164), at right, and USS Wickes (Destroyer # 75, later DD-75), which is the outboard ship in the nest immediately ahead of Crosby .
Note the rail lines in the foreground, with many passenger cars on the tracks.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 94KB 740 x 455 pixels

Trans-Atlantic Flight of the "NC" Aircraft, May 1919

Diagram of the third leg of the flight of the NC-1, NC-3 and NC-4 aircraft, between Trepassy Bay, Newfoundland, and the Azores, during 16 May to 20 May 1919. It also shows the positions of the 21 U.S. Navy destroyers stationed along the way.
Printed by the Matthews-Northrup Works, Buffalo, New York.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 109KB 900 x 605 pixels

USS Crosby (DD-164) is seen in the background of the following photograph of another ship:

Leading other destroyers into a harbor, circa 1919-1921.
The next ship astern is USS Crosby (DD-164).

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 82KB 740 x 550 pixels

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Page made 2 April 2004
Name source information corrected 1 May 2007


USS Crosby DD-164 (APD-17)

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Dixie Lee was an alcoholic

Although Dixie Lee was once an entertainer herself, her relationship with the spotlight was much more complex and destructive than Bing Crosby's. As revealed in Bing Crosby: Crooner of the Century, Lee didn't solely duck out of the spotlight in order to propel her husband's career further — she did it "because she was uncomfortable in front of the camera or an audience."

As it turned out, leaving the limelight wasn't all the former starlet needed. "My mother was the kind of person who needed to hear, 'Sweetheart, darling, I love you,' and he just couldn't do it," recalled Gary Crosby in his memoir, Going My Own Way (via People). Avoiding her husband's invitations to join him on movie sets or parties, Gary further revealed, "I think she got lonely because Dad was working all the time."

While Bing Crosby managed to kick his alcohol addiction to the curb after marrying Dixie Lee, his wife found solace in the bottle. "It got so that she didn't leave the house and she would pass out and the kids would come home," detailed Bing's daughter, Mary Crosby, in 2014 PBS documentary, American Masters: Bing Crosby Rediscovered. "She'd be, you know, on the floor, and I think that's permanently scarring on just about every level for anybody."


Crosby DD-164 - History

Dominar un tema

Asegúrese de estudiar detenidamente el tema antes de avanzar en el curso. Se le harán preguntas sobre los materiales cubiertos en el tema. Si el tema contiene un video, puede verlo, pausarlo, reanudarlo o volver a verlo tantas veces como lo necesite para dominar el contenido. Sin embargo, debe ver el video completo para completar el tema. Después de ver el video, haga clic en el botón Continuar que aparecerá en la pantalla para marcar el Tema como completo y continuar en la Lección. Una vez que se haya completado un tema, verá un círculo verde junto a Progreso del tema en la parte superior de la página.

Completando una lección

Aquí está la anatomía de una lección:

  • Si es necesario, encontrará en la parte superior una breve descripción
  • Una lista de temas con indicadores mostrando que completó la lección
  • Una lista de los cuestionarios con indicadores mostrando como completó la lección.

Para completar una lección, primero debe completar todos los temas y todos los cuestionarios. Puede navegar a la Lección anterior o la siguiente utilizando los enlaces de navegación en la parte inferior de la página.

Suerte en el test

No se preocupe, el test no está medido en tiempo, así que relájese y concéntrese en las preguntas y lo hará genial. Durante la prueba, puede hacer clic en el botón Revisar pregunta para marcar la pregunta en amarillo como un recordatorio visual para volver a visitar la pregunta antes de enviar las respuestas de la prueba. Al hacer clic en el botón de una pregunta numerada, accederá directamente a esa pregunta en el cuestionario. Cuando esté seguro de haber revisado y respondido la pregunta de la mejor forma que pueda, debe hacer clic en Revisar pregunta nuevamente para eliminar el color amarillo del botón de pregunta.

Si obtiene una puntuación inferior al 100% en el cuestionario, deberá volver a tomarla hasta que obtenga una puntuación del 100% para completar la lección. Si desea volver a tomar la Prueba de inmediato, el botón Continuar en la pantalla de resumen de puntaje de la Prueba lo llevará al comienzo de la Prueba. Si obtuvo un puntaje del 100% en el cuestionario, ¡buen trabajo! En ese caso, el botón Continuar lo llevará a la próxima Lección del curso.

Navegando el curso

En la página del curso, se enumeran todas las lecciones junto con una indicación de su progreso. Puede hacer clic en una Lección para ir a ella y ver el Tema y la Prueba asociada. Alternativamente, también puede hacer clic en un Tema debajo de la Lección para ir directamente a un Tema. A medida que avance en el curso y complete cada tema, aparecerá un círculo verde junto al tema. Una vez que haya completado el tema y el cuestionario, la lección se completará y mostrará una marca de verificación verde. Este progreso se guarda en su cuenta de Crosby, puede abandonar el curso en cualquier momento y reanudarlo más tarde.


Crosby DD-164 - History

Back in early June I posted a blog with a list of the 21 ships that were part of &ldquoOperation Toenails&rdquo from late June to early July of 1943. Operation Toenails was the push to land allied troops on New Georgia Island to push the occupying Japanese forces further west away from central Solomons control. One of the ships listed was the USS CROSBY DD164/APD17, a re-fitted Wickes class destroyer that was used as a troop transport. CROSBY carried 4th Marine Raiders to the landing sites at Segi Point and other areas of New Georgia Island. Soon after the posting I received an email from a man whose father was a signalman on the CROSBY, a Mr. Albert R. Johnson. His son Mark provided me with some of his father's written observations of his time in the South Pacific. I always love getting these notes from family. Albert was not on STRONG or part of Desron 21, but he was involved in the actions. One of his shared observations is about where he was when he learned of the attack on Pearl Harbor. I thought I'd share his writings in a blog.

From Albert R. Johnson, Signalman USS CROSBY DD164/APD17:
&ldquoI joined the Naval Reserve on October 10, 1940 and was discharged October 3, 1945. During that four years, eleven months and twenty-four days I had many memorable experiences on the USS Crosby DD 164/APD 17. The first year December 17th, 1940 to December 7th, 1941 was spent in what was called &ldquoneutrality patrol&rdquo of the west coast of the US. Europe was involved in an all out war of the allies (England, France, Etc.) with the axis countries mainly Germany and Italy. The United States remained neutral until December 7th, 1941 just 10 days before our 1 year of active duty was to end.
At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the USS Crosby was at the destroyer base at San Diego, California for an overhaul that was to take two months. I was on liberty standing on the steps of the Broadway Street YMCA, when the word was flashed that the Naval base at Pearl Harbor, HI was under attack, and that all military personnel should return to the bases or ships. I was about five miles from the destroyer base. I had no transportation, so I began walking. I noticed armed Marines going into the bars and ordering military personnel to get out and into large trucks waiting in the middle of Broadway. It was hard to believe that we were at war.
I finally got to the base and to the Crosby. Practice ammunition, torpedoes and depth charges had to be replaced with live ammunition, torpedoes and depth charges. After eight hours of feverish labor by all hands, including the officers we got underway. Our mission was to escort the aircraft carrier Saratoga to Pearl Harbor. The Saratoga was loaded with planes, supplies and personnel needed at Pearl Harbor. Men and boys who had joined the Navy that morning were going to active duty in a war zone with no training &ndash all they had were the necessary shots and inoculations.
As we stood out ahead of the Saratoga, people were waving and hollering &ldquogood luck&rdquo, little did anyone realize that half of the Navy ships that were guarding the west coast were leaving. The Japanese could have landed anywhere they wanted to. After a few hundred miles of screening for the Saratoga, it was decided that she would go on unescorted as the destroyers would need to fuel at sea due to high amount of oil used at flank speed.
We returned to base and were occupied chasing Japanese subs, training armed guard gun crews that would be stationed on merchant ships in convoys mainly to Europe. We also were used to train a new Marine corps group called the &ldquoMarine Raiders&rdquo - Colonels James Roosevelt (son of the President) and Edson (?) units aboard the Crosby.
In December of 1942 we were sent to Mare Island, California where we would be converted to a high speed transport. Basically the forward boilers were taken out and living spaces for a company (about 100 men) replaced the fire room and boilers. Thus, the destroyer transports were able to carry specially trained troops to lead the large landing forces into battle.
I was a signalman and on the invasions. I went into the beach with the troops to provide communication between the ship and shore party. This meant facing often severe enemy fire on the way into the beach. From February 1943 until June 1945 we made no more opposed landings into enemy held islands. In February 1943, we left San Francisco for the South Pacific.&rdquo
Thank you Mark, for sharing this information about your father. For more information on the history of the CROSBY: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ravenillini/sets/72157680268324950/
-Tammi


David Crosby, Stephen Stills and Graham Nash speak

In 1969, the supergroup Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young recorded "Déjà Vu." It's considered one of the greatest albums of the rock era. When asked what he thinks about it when he hears it now, Stephen Stills replied, "There's masterpieces in there. Ain't a dog in the bunch!"

"CBS This Morning" co-host Anthony Mason asked David Crosby, "Were you conscious while you were making the record of what you were making?"

"Yeah," he replied. "Yeah, we knew. When you hear 'Carry On,' you know what you heard!"

The record would sell eight million copies. "'Déjà Vu was intense, tragic in many ways," said Nash. "But a really decent album."

Crosby, Stills & Nash had released their highly-successful debut album earlier in 1969.

David Crosby had come from The Byrds Stephen Stills from Buffalo Springfield and Graham Nash from The Hollies. But Stills wanted to add another member &hellip

Mason asked, "What were you looking to add to the band?"

Music

"I wanted to be able to do what the Springfield used to do," Stills replied. "I didn't want to be a 'folk group.' I wanted to play rock 'n' roll as well."

He settled on his former Buffalo Springfield bandmate, Neil Young.

A composite publicity photo, circa 1970, of Neil Young (by Henry Diltz), and David Crosby, Stephen Stills and Graham Nash (by Michael Ochs). Getty Images

Nash said he wasn't originally in favor of adding Young, "at all. We had created, between me and David and Stephen, a vocal sound that was completely unique."

But Nash agreed to meet Young for breakfast in New York: "I said to him, 'Why should we invite you into this band?' And he looked at me and he said, 'Have you ever heard me and Stephen play guitar together?' I went, 'Yeah, I have.' He was in the band from that moment on."

But the band was entering a dark period. Stills had just broken up with Judy Collins. Nash's relationship with Joni Mitchell was growing rocky. And Crosby's girlfriend, Christine Hinton, had been killed in a car crash.

"I was in terrible shape," Crosby said. "I was damn near destroyed. I'm just really lucky we were making that record, because it gave me a raison d'être. It gave me a &ndash "

"A reason to get up in the morning?" asked Mason.

"Damn right. And it's what kept me alive."

Mason asked Stills, "How would you describe the period of recording that album?"

"You talk about how you guys butt heads all the time."

"Well, it was glancing blows, but they were continuous," Stills said. "And that tends to numb your skull, and you turn into numbskulls."

David Crosby, Stephen Stills and Graham Nash. CBS News

And Neil Young [the only band member who didn't talk to us for this story] also went his own way in the studio. Crosby said, "Neil, when he joins the band doesn't really join the band. He made his tracks outside by himself and brought them. And we sang on 'em. Which is kind of snotty. But, they were good!"

Mason asked Nash, "He didn't even perform on either of your songs, did he?"

"No. He never sang or played on 'Teach Your Children,' and he never sang or played on 'Our House.'"

"No," Nash shrugged. "Listen to 'em. They're decent records!"

Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young had started touring in the summer of '69. Their second gig was Woodstock .

The song "Woodstock" (written by Joni Mitchell) would be the biggest hit off of "Déjà Vu" when it was released in 1970.

At L.A.'s Morrison Hotel Gallery, Stills recently signed prints of the famous cover photo taken by Tom O'Neal. "The whole point was that the rebellion's getting very serious. That's why the uniforms," he said.

The 50th anniversary edition (a year late because of the pandemic) includes some memorable outtakes, said Nash: "There's a demo of me singing 'Our House,' and Joni was there and sat with me at the piano, and she started to play the top end of the keys."

"I wanted the fans of the 'Déjà vu' record to be thrilled about what they were listening to, and get an idea of what we went through, as four people, to make that one record," Nash said.

But the band that made that record may never play together again.

Mason asked, "How are you all with each other?"

"Stephen and Neil and I are great," Nash said. "We talk often. We don't talk to David."

Crosby said, "I don't expect to be friends with Graham at any point. Neil hates my guts."

Why? "I said bad stuff about his girlfriend. Probably &hellip Don't say it, Dave &hellip"

Mason asked, "Do you regret saying it?"

Nash said, "You know, when that silver thread that connects a band gets broken, it's very difficult to glue the ends together. It doesn't quite work. And so, things that happened to me in David's life broke that silver thread, and for the life of me, I can't put it back together."

"Do you wish you could?" Mason asked.

"Yes, I do," Nash replied. "I do wish I could, only because of the loss of the music."

Fifty years later, the friendships may not have endured. But the songs have.

You can stream the 50th Anniversary Edition of "Déjà vu" by Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young by clicking on the embed below (Free Spotify registration required to hear the tracks in full):


Contents

" was a shorthand for an "N". Thus, this inscription is read "Tanto monta" ("it amounts as much").
It was engraved in Alhambra after Reconquista by the Catholic Monarchs, meaning that both Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon were equivalent in power ("Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando").

Historically, ñ arose as a ligature of nn the tilde was shorthand for the second n, written over the first [2] compare umlaut, of analogous origin. It is a letter in the Spanish alphabet that is used for many words—for example, the Spanish word año (anno in Old Spanish) meaning "year" and derived from Latin annus. Other languages used the macron over an n or m to indicate simple doubling.

Already in medieval Latin palaeography, the sign that in Spanish came to be called virgulilla (meaning "little comma") was used over a vowel to indicate a following nasal consonant (n or m) that had been omitted, as in tãtus for tantus or quã for quam. This usage was passed on to other languages using the Latin alphabet although it was subsequently dropped by most. Spanish retained it, however, in some specific cases, particularly to indicate the palatal nasal, the sound that is now spelt as ñ. The word tilde comes from Spanish, derived by metathesis of the word título as tidlo, this originally from Latin TITVLVS "title" or "heading" compare cabildo with Latin CAPITULUM. [3]

From spellings of anno abbreviated as año, as explained above, the tilde was thenceforth transferred to the n and kept as a useful expedient to indicate the new palatal nasal sound that Spanish had developed in that position: año. The sign was also adopted for the same palatal nasal in all other cases, even when it did not derive from an original nn, as in leña (from Latin ligna) or señor (from Latin SENIOR).

Other Romance languages have different spellings for this sound: Italian and French use gn, a consonant cluster that had evolved from Latin, whereas Occitan and Portuguese chose nh and Catalan ny even though these digraphs had no etymological precedent.

When Morse code was extended to cover languages other than English, the sequence ( — — · — — ) was allotted for this character.

Although ñ is used by other languages whose spellings were influenced by Spanish, it has recently been chosen to represent the identity of the Spanish language, especially as a result of the battle against its obliteration from computer keyboards by an English-led industry. [4]

In Spanish it represents a palatal nasal. This is also the case of Philippine languages, Aymara, Quechua, Mapudungún, Guarani, Basque, Chamorro, Leonese, Yavapai, and Iñupiaq, whose orthographies have some basis in that of Spanish. Many languages of Senegal also use it in the same way. Senegal is unique among countries of West Africa in using this letter.

It also represents a palatal nasal in Galician and Uruguayan Portuguese.

In Tetum, it was adopted to represent the same sound in Portuguese loanwords represented by nh, although this is also used in Tetum, as is ny, influenced by Indonesian.

In Tagalog, Visayan, and other Philippine languages, most Spanish terms that include ñ are respelled with ny. The conventional exceptions (with considerable variations) are proper names, which usually retain ñ and their original Spanish or Hispanicised spelling (Santo Niño, Parañaque, Mañalac, Malacañan). It is collated as the 15th letter of the Filipino alphabet. In old Filipino orthography, the letter was also used, along with g, to represent the velar nasal sound [ŋ] (except at the end of a word, when ng would be used) if appropriate instead of a tilde, which originally spanned a sequence of n and g (as in n͠g), such as pan͠galan ("name"). That is because the old orthography was based on Spanish, and without the tilde, pangalan would have been pronounced with the sequence [ŋɡ] (therefore pang-GAlan). The form ñg became a more common way to represent n͠g until the early 20th century, mainly because it was more readily available in typesets than the tilde spanning both letters.

It is also used to represent the velar nasal in Crimean Tatar and Nauruan. In Malay, the Congress Spelling System (1957–1972) formerly used it for /ŋ/ before /g/. In Turkmen, it was used for /ŋ/ until 1999. In Latin-script writing of the Tatar language and Lule Sami language, ñ is sometimes used as a substitute for n with descender, which is not available on many computer systems. In addition to Tatar, ñ has the value of /ŋ/ in the Common Turkic Alphabet.

In the Breton language, it nasalises the preceding vowel, as in Jañ /ʒã/ , which corresponds to the French name Jean and has the same pronunciation.

It is used in a number of English terms of Spanish origin, such as jalapeño, piña colada, piñata, and El Niño. The Spanish word cañón, however, became naturalized as canyon. Until the middle of the 20th century, adapting it as nn was more common in English, as in the phrase "Battle of Corunna" [ citation needed ] . Now, it is almost always left unmodified. The Society for the Advancement of Spanish Letters in the Anglo Americas (SASLAA) is the preeminent organization focused on promoting the permanent adoption of ñ into the English language. [5]

In Gilbertese, ñ and ñg represents the geminated forms of n and ng. [ citation needed ]

The letter Ñ has come to represent the identity of the Spanish language. Latin publisher Bill Teck labeled Hispanic culture and its influence on the United States "Generation Ñ" and later started a magazine with that name. [6] Organizations such as the Instituto Cervantes and the National Association of Hispanic Journalists have adopted the letter as their mark for Hispanic heritage. It was used in the Spanish Republican Air Force for aircraft identification. The circumstances surrounding the crash of serial 'Ñ' Potez 540 plane that was shot down over the Sierra de Gúdar range of the Sistema Ibérico near Valdelinares inspired French writer André Malraux to write the novel L'Espoir (1937), translated into English as Man's Hope and made into the movie named Espoir: Sierra de Teruel. [7]

In 1991, a European Community report recommended the repeal of a regulation preventing the sale in Spain of computer products not supporting "all the characteristics of the Spanish writing system," claiming that it was a protectionist measure against the principles of the free market. This would have allowed the distribution of keyboards without an "Ñ" key. The Real Academia Española stated that the matter was a serious attack against the language. Nobel Prize winner in literature Gabriel García Márquez expressed his disdain over its elimination by saying: "The 'Ñ' is not an archaeological piece of junk, but just the opposite: a cultural leap of a Romance language that left the others behind in expressing with only one letter a sound that other languages continue to express with two." [4]

Among other forms of controversy are those pertaining to the anglicization of Spanish surnames. The replacement of ñ with another letter alters the pronunciation and meaning of a word or name, in the same manner that replacing any letter in a given word with another one would. For example, Peña is a common Spanish surname and a common noun that means "rocky hill" it is often anglicized as Pena, changing the name to the Spanish word for "pity", often used in terms of sorrow.

When Federico Peña was first running for mayor of Denver in 1983, the Denver Post printed his name without the tilde as "Pena." After he won the election, they began printing his name with the tilde. As Peña's administration had many critics, their objections were sometimes whimsically expressed as "ÑO."

Since 2011, CNN's Spanish-language news channel incorporates a new logo wherein a tilde is placed over two Ns.

Another news channel, TLN en Español, has "tlñ", with an ñ taking the place of the expected n, as its logo.

The Google Doodle for 23 April 2021 celebrated Ñ as part of UN Spanish Language Day. [8] [9]

Character information
Preview Ñ ñ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH TILDE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 209 U+00D1 241 U+00F1
UTF-8 195 145 C3 91 195 177 C3 B1
Numeric character reference &#209 &#xD1 &#241 &#xF1
Named character reference &Ntilde &ntilde

In Unicode Ñ has the code U+00D1 (decimal 209) while ñ has the code U+00F1 (decimal 241). Additionally, they can be generated by typing N or n followed by a combining tilde modifier, &#x303, U+0303, decimal 771.

In HTML character entity reference, the codes for Ñ and ñ are &Ntilde and &ntilde or &#209 and &#241 .

Ñ and ñ have their own key in the Spanish and Latin American keyboard layouts (see the corresponding sections at keyboard layout and Tilde#Role of mechanical typewriters). The following instructions apply only to English-language keyboards.

On Android devices, holding n or N down on the keyboard makes entry of ñ and Ñ possible.

On Apple Macintosh operating systems (including Mac OS X), it can be typed by pressing and holding the Option key and then typing N, followed by typing either N or n.

On the iPhone and iPad, which use the Apple iOS operating system, the ñ is accessed by holding down the "n" key, which opens a menu (on an English-language keyboard). Apple's Mac OS X 10.7 Lion operating system also made the "ñ" available in the same way.

The lowercase ñ can be made in the Microsoft Windows operating system by doing Alt + 164 or Alt + 0241 on the numeric keypad (with Num Lock turned on) [10] the uppercase Ñ can be made with Alt + 165 or Alt + 0209 . Character Map in Windows identifies the letter as "Latin Small/Capital Letter N With Tilde". A soft (not physical) Spanish-language keyboard is easily installed in Windows.

In Microsoft Word, Ñ can be typed by pressing Control-Shift-Tilde (

On Linux it can be created by pressing Ctrl+Shift+U and then typing '00d1' or '00f1', followed by space or Ctrl to end the character code input. This produces Ñ or ñ.

Another option (for any operating system) is to configure the system to use the US-International keyboard layout, with which ñ can be produced either by holding Alt Gr and then pressing N, or by typing the tilde (

Yet another option is to use a compose key (hardware-based or software-emulated). Pressing the compose key, then

and n can be reversed.

Use in URLs Edit

The letter Ñ may be used in internationalized domain names, but it will have to be converted from Unicode to ASCII using punycode during the registration process (i.e. from www.piñata.com to www.xn--piata-pta.com). [11]

In URLs (except for the domain name), Ñ may be replaced by %C3%91 , and ñ by %C3%B1 . This is not needed for newer browsers. The hex digits represent the UTF-8 encoding of the glyphs Ñ and ñ. This feature allows almost any Unicode character to be encoded, and it is considered important to support languages other than English.


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Dominar un tema

Asegúrese de estudiar detenidamente el tema antes de avanzar en el curso. Se le harán preguntas sobre los materiales cubiertos en el tema. Si el tema contiene un video, puede verlo, pausarlo, reanudarlo o volver a verlo tantas veces como lo necesite para dominar el contenido. Sin embargo, debe ver el video completo para completar el tema. Después de ver el video, haga clic en el botón Continuar que aparecerá en la pantalla para marcar el Tema como completo y continuar en la Lección. Una vez que se haya completado un tema, verá un círculo verde junto a Progreso del tema en la parte superior de la página.

Completando una lección

Aquí está la anatomía de una lección:

  • Si es necesario, encontrará en la parte superior una breve descripción
  • Una lista de temas con indicadores mostrando que completó la lección
  • Una lista de los cuestionarios con indicadores mostrando como completó la lección.

Para completar una lección, primero debe completar todos los temas y todos los cuestionarios. Puede navegar a la Lección anterior o la siguiente utilizando los enlaces de navegación en la parte inferior de la página.

Suerte en el test

No se preocupe, el test no está medido en tiempo, así que relájese y concéntrese en las preguntas y lo hará genial. Durante la prueba, puede hacer clic en el botón Revisar pregunta para marcar la pregunta en amarillo como un recordatorio visual para volver a visitar la pregunta antes de enviar las respuestas de la prueba. Al hacer clic en el botón de una pregunta numerada, accederá directamente a esa pregunta en el cuestionario. Cuando esté seguro de haber revisado y respondido la pregunta de la mejor forma que pueda, debe hacer clic en Revisar pregunta nuevamente para eliminar el color amarillo del botón de pregunta.

Si obtiene una puntuación inferior al 100% en el cuestionario, deberá volver a tomarla hasta que obtenga una puntuación del 100% para completar la lección. Si desea volver a tomar la Prueba de inmediato, el botón Continuar en la pantalla de resumen de puntaje de la Prueba lo llevará al comienzo de la Prueba. Si obtuvo un puntaje del 100% en el cuestionario, ¡buen trabajo! En ese caso, el botón Continuar lo llevará a la próxima Lección del curso.

Navegando el curso

En la página del curso, se enumeran todas las lecciones junto con una indicación de su progreso. Puede hacer clic en una Lección para ir a ella y ver el Tema y la Prueba asociada. Alternativamente, también puede hacer clic en un Tema debajo de la Lección para ir directamente a un Tema. A medida que avance en el curso y complete cada tema, aparecerá un círculo verde junto al tema. Una vez que haya completado el tema y el cuestionario, la lección se completará y mostrará una marca de verificación verde. Este progreso se guarda en su cuenta de Crosby, puede abandonar el curso en cualquier momento y reanudarlo más tarde.


Watch the video: The Incredible Story of Asian American War Hero - Gordon Paiea Chung-Hoon (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Meztikazahn

    Agree, a useful piece

  2. Lorenz

    Good day, dear colleagues and friends. I spent a lot of time looking for a good blog on similar topics, but many of them did not suit me with the lack or lack of information, stupid interfaces, and so on. Now I found what I wanted and decided to add my own comment. I would like, dear sirs administrators, that your blog continues to develop at such a pace, the number of people grows steadily, and the pages become more and more. I remembered the address of your blog for a long time and I hope to enter the ranks of the most active users. Many thanks to everyone who listened to me and took a minute of free time to read this commentary. Thanks again. Vitaly.

  3. Daishya

    Again the same thing. Hey, can I give you some fresh ideas ?!

  4. Adolphus

    He is certainly not human

  5. Nodons

    Thanks for your help in this matter.



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