History Podcasts

Gigantic Spruce Goose Flies - History

Gigantic Spruce Goose Flies - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

In May of 1942 Howard Hughes began to build the world's largest airplane, or what he called at the time "an unsinkable liberty ship". The aircraft was designed to carry 700 troops. Initially the plane was to be a product of a joint venture between Hughes and Kaiser shipping. Kaiser however, pulled out. Hughes ultimately spent $7 million of his own money on the project, while the US government spent $17 million. Many people said that the plane would never get off the ground. On November 2nd 1947 they were proved worng as the giant Spruce Goose whoe wing span was over 320 feet lifted off for a one mile flight across the harbor. The plane was never to fly again.


Spruce Goose

Support Our Channel : https://www.patreon.com/PeriscopeFilmNote: This footage is copyright registered and solely owned by the Periscope Film LLC Archive.Rare.. The Spruce started life at Wellington airport as the original NAC domestic terminal and then became the home of the Wellington Aero Club for over 50 years. After much negotiation and discussion between Wellington Airport and entrepreneur Nick Mills SPRUCE GOOSE the café was created

H-4 Hercules, I don't get the controversy over the derogatory name of Spruce Goose after all it was made of birch, so media for the win, again.Also, it was t.. Visitors to the famous Spruce Goose, located at the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in McMinnville, Oregon, find that their museum entry fee includes bas.. Spruce Goose, Wellington: See 685 unbiased reviews of Spruce Goose, rated 4 of 5 on Tripadvisor and ranked #120 of 950 restaurants in Wellington

spruce goose waffles - banana, bacon, & cinnamon cream w/ maple: 18: caeser salad - streaky bacon, marinated chicken, poached egg & parmesan: 22: wellness bowl - avocado, tofu, sesame carrots, tahini roasted chickpeas, ancient grains & seasonal lettuce : 18: todays special (ask the friendly wait staff) poa: pulled pork tacos - coleslaw, mayo. Spruce Goose Booking conditions: Please note we do not accept phone bookings or bookings on public holidays. Bookings in our main restaurant are available Mon-Fri 8am-7pm and on Sat 5pm-7pm. Our full brunch menu is available 7am-3pm and our full dinner menu is available from 5pm.A snack menu option is available between 3pm-5pm.. Online bookings for 1-10 people can be done below Cnr Moa Point Rd & Cochrane St, Lyall Bay, Wellington City . ©2021 Spruce Goose . Website by Orchid.. Spruce Goose Beefeater, Basingstoke: See 1,256 unbiased reviews of Spruce Goose Beefeater, rated 3.5 of 5 on Tripadvisor and ranked #51 of 248 restaurants in Basingstoke Spruce Goose, Basingstoke: See 1,256 unbiased reviews of Spruce Goose, rated 3.5 of 5 on Tripadvisor and ranked #51 of 248 restaurants in Basingstoke

This new weapon is more of a 21st-century version of the Spruce Goose—the massive military transport plane Howard Hughes built for service during World War II that would only take to the skies. Directed by Lech Majewski. With Karen Black, Betsy Blair, Dennis Christopher, Krzysztof Janczar. A Pittsburgh miner kidnaps a model and drives her to Hollywood to see Howard Hughes' plane, the Spruce Goose Spruce Goose, Wellington: See 682 unbiased reviews of Spruce Goose, rated 4 of 5 on Tripadvisor and ranked #121 of 946 restaurants in Wellington Thus the Spruce Goose was born. You'll find us on Moa Point Road overlooking the waters of Lyall Bay. We're open from 7am till late, so whether you're after a quick morning coffee, a late night knees-up or anything in between simply swing on in to the Spruce Goose. Because we'll be waiting with good food, good drinks and a big smile

Jan 14, 2021 - Explore Patrick Burke's board Spruce Goose, followed by 51464 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about spruce goose, flying boat, howard hughes This air museum has the famous Spruce Goose aircraft, an eight engine float plane that was built by Howard Hughes. It also has many antique and WW II planes and full-size models of early planes. There is a huge Boeing 747 sitting on top of a building, with a water slide coming out of it. A fascinating and fun place for everyone Spruce goose In het artikel van Lex Veldhoen (W&O 2 juni) laat hij Howard Hughes, na zijn vlucht met de Spruce Goose, zeggen: 'Hij voelde zo licht en goed aan, dat ik hem als vanzelf even optrok.

The Spruce Goose Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum

The Spruce Goose is a marvel even now, over 70 years since its first, and last, flight. You can even go inside which I did. The Spruce Goose, SR-71, spaceplanes and MiGs at Evergreen Aviation. FSX - Flying Ship Hughes H-4 Spruce Goose. The Hughes ASircraft Company H-4 was due to WWII designed as strategic airlift the biggest flying boat ever proposed as troup transporter. Lack of Aluminium the world hugest aircraft was made almost entirely of birch wood and this made her communly known as Spruce Goose

Why The Spruce Goose Only Flew Once - Simple Flyin

Spruce Goose, Basingstoke: Bekijk 1.254 onpartijdige beoordelingen van Spruce Goose, gewaardeerd als 3,5 van 5 bij Tripadvisor en als nr. 50 van 248 restaurants in Basingstoke. </cf> De belangrijkste attractie is de Spruce Goose, 's werelds grootste propelleraangedreven vliegtuig dat door Howard Hughes werd gebouwd. Het museum is gelegen vlak bij het voormalig hoofdkantoor van Evergreen International Airlines, en werd opgericht door Michael Smith, een voormalig Air Force-piloot www.upinthesky.n Hughes H-4 Hercules Rôle Hydravion de transport militaire Constructeur Hughes Aircraft company Équipage 3 Premier vol 2 novembre 1947 Dimensions Longueur 66,65 m Envergure 97,54 m Hauteur 24,18 m Aire alaire 1 061,8 m 2 Masse et capacité d'emport Max. à vide 122,5 t Max. au décollage 181,5 t Kérosène 14 000 gallons ou 52 996 l Passagers 750 soldats équipés Fret ou 2 chars Sherman. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website

Howard Hughes's Spruce Goose Flies - HISTOR

PropertiesData The Spruce Goose is an unsplicable hand item which was added as part of WinterFest 2020. When equipped, this item grants the Punch Damage: Spruce Goose mod, which allows the player to break blocks faster. Add a photo to this galler Barack Obama's actual record on Abortion: 0% rating with the National Right to Life Committee and 100% rating with NARAL Pro-Choice America Co-Sponsor of the Freedom of Choice Act (S.1173), legislation that would nullify nearly all state and federal limitations on abortion, including the federal ban on partial-birth abortion, parental notification laws and waiting periods

- Spruce Goose

  1. Unwrap the goose and remove anything in the cavity. Rinse and trim any excess fat from the neck and/or tail end of the goose and place into the brine so that it is completely submerged. Cover and refrigerate overnight, or up to 24 hours
  2. Spruce Goose Christmas Tree Farm Chesterfield, New Jersey. COVID - 19 W hen visiting our farm or fields A FACE COVERING IS REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES PLEASE MAINTAIN SOCIAL DISTANCE OF AT LEAST 6 FT. WHILE ON OUR FARM. Your health and safety are important to us
  3. The Spruce Goose had a wingspan of 320 feet and its tail flew 60 feet above the water. Each of the flying boat's eight Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major 28-cylinder engines produced 3,000 horsepower and sucked down 100 gallons of fuel per hour
  4. Ontdek de perfecte stockfoto's over Howard Hughes Spruce Goose en redactionele nieuwsbeelden van Getty Images Kies uit premium Howard Hughes Spruce Goose van de hoogste kwaliteit
  5. An intense sexual postion, involving vertical insertion. Widely known to be a play on words for the originating term Spruce Moose from the Simpsons episode.

Spruce Goose: Where Is It Now? - AAFO

  • Find the perfect spruce goose stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register, buy now
  • Spruce Goose vertaling in het woordenboek Nederlands - Italiaans op Glosbe, online woordenboek, gratis. Bladeren milions woorden en zinnen in alle talen
  • Spruce Goose Flying Giclee Art Print Poster from Original Travel Artwork by Artist Paul A. Lanquist ArtofPlaceArtwork. 5 out of 5 stars (535) $ 19.95 FREE shipping Favorite Add to Goose Ornaments Christmas Ornaments CraftyNatVinyl. 5 out of 5 stars (107) Sale Price $4.50.
  • COVID update: Spruce Goose Cafe has updated their hours, takeout & delivery options. 105 reviews of Spruce Goose Cafe This is the kind of locals only place that I always dream about going to every weekend like a diner version of Cheers. Where the waitresses call you Hon, the coffee is great and the conversation better. I love the diner prices (my giant breakfast was less than $7.
  • About Me. Greetings! My name is Jennifer Ross, owner of The Spruce Goose. To read about our services, click here.Read on if you'd like to learn a little about me, how I got started as an organizer, and the code of ethics that I follow

The Spruce Goose and its journey to McMinnville, OR - YouTub

  • The Spruce Goose never flew again, but it remains to this day the biggest aircraft ever built. At Hughes' insistence, the plane was stored in a specially-built, climate-controlled hangar, entombed in mystery for the next 32 years, at an annual cost of $1 million
  • ZGF partnered with Google to transform the landmark Spruce Goose Hangar in Playa Vista, California. A 450,000+ SF, four-level building-within-a-building was developed inside the seven-story, 750-foot-long historic wooden structure. Built by Howard Hughes in 1943 for the construction of the Hercules IV airplane (aka the Spruce Goose), the hangar now comprises office, meeting, food service.
  • We don't know about any in-box reviews for this The 'Spruce Goose' (#1607) from Minicraft Model Kits. Stash. Login to manage your stash. Wishlist (1 mates) Stash (4 mates) Started (0 mates) Nobody. Completed (1x) Related products. There are no related products covering the Hughes H-4 Hercules in 1:200 on scalemates.com

Color Footage of Howard Hughes' Spruce Goose Flight 1947

© 2011-2020 Spruce Goose Cafe 302 Airport Rd, Port Townsend, WA 98368-9709 (360) 385-3185 Open Daily from 7am to 4pm breakfast served until 11:30am weekdays and. Spruce Goose Hangar Dome is a geodesic dome and aircraft hangar that was completed in 1982. The project is located in Long Beach, Los Angeles County, California, USA

Spruce Goose Services, Dawsonville, Georgia. 1,147 likes · 23 talking about this · 59 were here. Auto & Boat detailing/pressurewashing Landscaping Lawncare,light hauling,unlock car Grand Banks 49 Motoryacht 'Spruce Goose' met rompnummer 121.Deze Grand Banks 49 'Spruce Goose' uit 1996 heeft een galley up layout met een ruime en gezellige salon. Perfecte accomodatie voor 6 personen. Goed uitgerust met extra groot zwemplatform, genera Spruce Goose, Wellington, New Zealand. 4,470 likes · 88 talking about this · 21,910 were here. tb The Spruce Goose was kept out of the public eye for 33 years. After Hughes' death in 1976, it was purchased by entrepreneur Jack Wrather and moved into a domed hangar in Long Beach, California. The Spruce Goose is on display at the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in McMinnville OR. For additional information go to www.sprucegoose.or Spruce Goose LLC | 48 followers on LinkedIn. Helping local business take flight. A group of industry experts coming together to solve problems. | 'Goose is a b2b commerce platform that enables a.

Dit werk vrijgegeven in het publieke domein door de auteur, San Diego Air and Space Museum.Dit is wereldwijd van toepassing. In sommige landen is dit wettelijk niet mogelijk in die gevallen geldt: San Diego Air and Space Museum staat iedereen toe dit werk voor eender welk doel te gebruiken, zonder enige voorwaarden, tenzij zulke voorwaarden door de wet worden voorgeschreven Jul 15, 2018 - Explore Melody Alexander's board spruce goose on Pinterest. See more ideas about spruce goose, flying boat, aviation Spruce Goose, Wellington, New Zealand. 4,469 likes · 28 talking about this · 21,860 were here. tb Spruce Goose is beschikbaar in 35 andere talen. Terug naar Spruce Goose. Talen. Afrikaans asturianu català Deutsch English español euskara français Frys

Spruce Goose - Spruce Goose

Inspired by the singular flight of the Spruce Goose as depicted in the vintage animated film Yogi Bear and the Magical Flight of the Spruce Goose, West's abstracted forest of gold-tipped palm trees and drippy, technicolor blooms forms a dreamy homage to what one might have seen from the air on that day in November 1947 Spruce Goose Restaurant, Shannon: Bekijk 5 onpartijdige beoordelingen van Spruce Goose Restaurant, gewaardeerd als 4 van 5 bij Tripadvisor en als nr. 22 van 28 restaurants in Shannon. </cf> The Spruce Goose overshadows -- literally -- all of the other planes in the museum, as well as its rockets and space ships and even its world's largest privately-held collection of machine guns. This museum has its access road painted like a runway, and its own vineyard, but it's difficult to get any attention with a bird as big as Spruce Goose in your nest The Spruce Goose was originally conceived by Henry J. Kaiser, a steel maker and builder of Liberty ships. The aircraft was designed, constructed, and engineered by Howard Hughes and his staff. The Spruce Goose's exterior was created with material using the duramold process of laminating plywood and it was the largest plane ever to fly Spruce Goose, Wellington, New Zealand. 4,469 likes · 28 talking about this · 21,843 were here. tb

Howard Hughes puppet in the cockpit of the Spruce Goose.jpg 1,280 × 908 126 KB Howard Hughes TIME Magazine cover, July 19, 1948.jpg 944 × 1,280 311 KB Hughes H-4 (Spruce Goose)-.jpg 1,024 × 692 594 K The Spruce Goose type of aircraft is called a flying boat, but sometimes a seaplane. Although the name seaplane is usually thought of as a smaller aircraft on floats. On July 9, 1990 custody of the Spruce Goose went to the Evergreen Aviation Museum, located in McMinnville, Oregon where it is currently on display

Howard Hughes and the Spruce Goose' First Flight - Stock

spruce goose door emblem - spruce goose stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Detail of the interior of the Spruce Goose hangar renovation project, leased for conversion to Google Inc. Office space, stands under construction in.. Spruce Goose De Hughes H-4 Hercules, bijgenaamd Spruce Goose, is een vliegtuig ontworpen en gebouwd door Howard Hughes` Hughes Aircraft company. De eerste en enige vlucht die de machine ooit maakte was op 2 november 1947. Tot op de dag van vandaag is de H-4 Hercules het vliegtuig met de grootste vleugelspanwijdte dat ooit heeft gevlogen

Video: Spruce Goose VIP Tour - YouTub

Spruce Goose, Wellington - Menu, Prices & Restaurant

  1. The Spruce Goose Only Took One Flight, But This One-Of-A-Kind Aircraft Has A Special Spot In Oregon. In 1942, World War II was raging across the globe, and German submarines were sinking Allied ships by the hundreds
  2. The Gigantic Spruce Goose. On September 17, Kaiser-Hughes received authorization to proceed with design engineering and construction of three prototype flying boats
  3. After The Spruce Goose Organizes: This quilting room is now less cluttered, items are grouped in logical places, space is getting cleared enough to work. A cupboard in an office before The Spruce Goose organizes. A cupboard in an office after The Spruce Goose organizes

A family-owned business since 1994 Spruce Goose Cleaning Company, LLC, is the premier residential and commercial cleaning company serving Lake Havasu City and Parker, Arizona. Our mission is to provide our customers with the best cleaning service. Let us keep your business and residence clean . Get in touch with the tea Eventually the Spruce Goose had to leave the dome. That's when Aero Club struck a bargain with Evergreen and the behemoth was floated up the West Coast on barges in a spectacular 138-day moving. Google Spruce Goose Hangar. Image Courtesy of ZGF Architects. ZGF architects have completed Google's new L.A. office by transforming California's landmark Spruce Goose Hangar.Designed as a.

De Hughes Flying Boat - het grootste vliegtuig ooit gebouwd - wordt bestuurd door ontwerper Howard Hughes op zijn eerste en enige vlucht. Gebouwd met gelamineerd berken en sparren . 5.0 out of 5 stars 1. Poster Wisconsin's Flying Trees in World War II: A Victory for American Forest Products and Allied Aviation. by Sara Witter Connor | Feb 18, 2014 The office, called Google Spruce Goose, is located in Playa Vista - a neighbourhood near LAX airport. The project entailed the overhaul of a large timber-framed hangar that was constructed in.

FOODS - Spruce Goose

English: The Hughes H-4 Hercules, or Spruce Goose, is a large wooden flying boat, which was the largest aircraft in history for decades, and still has the largest wingspan of any aircraft.It currently resides at the Evergreen Aviation Museum in McMinnville, Oregon HUGHES SPRUCE GOOSE The largest airplane ever constructed, and flown only one time, the Spruce Goose represents one of man's greatest attempts to conquer the skies. It was born out of a need to move troops and material across the Atlantic Ocean, where in 1942, German submarines were sinking hundreds of Allied ships. H Spruce Goose is lid van Facebook. Word lid van Facebook om met Spruce Goose en anderen in contact te komen. Facebook geeft mensen de kans om te delen en maakt de wereld toegankelijker

Find GIFs with the latest and newest hashtags! Search, discover and share your favorite Goose GIFs. The best GIFs are on GIPHY Spruce Goose Christmas Tree Farm 194 Bordentown Rd, Chesterfield, NJ 08515 (609) 298-2498 Closed Tuesdays Wednesdays and Thursdays.‼️LAST DAY FOR TREES FRIDAY 12/11‼️ Last day for Christmas trees Friday, December 11, 9am to 5pm

Reservations - Spruce Goose

Lakeside Spruce Goose, small type 10 x 20 mature, shade perennial, purple flowers, green and white pointed leaves, free ship LacyCreekGrowers. From shop LacyCreekGrowers. 5 out of 5 stars (195) 195 reviews $ 14.99 FREE shipping Favorite Add to. Spruce goose downloads [freeware] Home | About Us | Link To Us | FAQ | Contact Serving Software Downloads in 976 Categories, Downloaded 34.245.414 Time

Menu - Spruce Goose

MATT constructed a new 450,000+ sf tech campus headquarters for Google in the historic wooden hangar originally erected by Howard Hughes to build the Spruce Goose airplane. The ambitious adaptive reuse project has realized a four-story, state-of-the-art office structure within the hangar that leaves visibility on all sides to the historic wood fabric of the original building The vast wooden sea-plane 'Spruce Goose', seen near completion in Long Beach, California. Photograph: Popperfoto/Getty Images Powered by the same type of engines used by Boeing 747s, the.

SPRUCE GOOSE BEEFEATER, Basingstoke - Menu, Prices

  • um Wall Sign, Wall Decor Ready to Hang) $14.99 $ 14. 99. FREE Shipping
  • The Hughes Spruce Goose Flying Boat is legendary. This GMax version for FS2004 includes a gauge package, sound package, a VC and appropriate files to recreate her famous flight. Full GMax animations are also incorporated. By Dennis Simanaitis
  • Find out what's popular at Spruce Goose in Wellington, Wellington in real-time and see activit
  • THE SPRUCE GOOSE - professional organizer, San Antonio, Texas. 308 likes. Home Organizing, Home Office Organizing, Pre-Home Staging, Home Transitions..

#322 Spruce Goose HK-1 A beautifully laser cut static display model of the famous Howard Hughes Flying Boat Besides offering the cleanest laser cuts and most comprehensive plans of any free flight kit we provide the following quality features: *Hand Selected Balsa *Color Peel and Stick Decals *F. Empty the Spruce Goose weighed almost twice what a fully loaded B-29 weighed at takeoff when at combat overload weight. They were just insane numbers for the era. The largest wooden airplane ever constructed, and flown only one time, the Spruce Goose represents one of humanity's greatest attempts to conquer the skies Spruce Goose. Situated at the gateway to Wellington Airport the Spruce Goose Cafe is a premium location to plane spot, watch the surf and enjoy the most amazing views of Lyall Bay. There's no better place to sit and gaze than at SPRUCE GOOSE Spruce Goose Trees Search. Search This Blog Spruce Lane Apartments Richland Mi April 19, 2019 Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Other Apps Willow Lane 5549 Blue Spruce Ln Kalamazoo Mi 49009 Zillow Mls Search For Ironton Arcadia And Surrounding Area Homes And Apartments For Rent In Richland Mi 131 Rentals Apartmentguide Co

Log into Spruce to access your conversations and communicate with your patients, and colleagues At Spruce Goose our instructors are passionate and talented within the sport. We offer hands-on invaluable coaching sessions from our pro rider instructors. If you think you could benefit from an informal one on one session with a pro rider that can help you nail your latest trick, or give some direction on what to try next then look no further

SPRUCE GOOSE, Basingstoke - Menu, Prices & Restaurant

The Spruce Goose Diner Sydney The Spruce Goose Diner, Moore Park Get Menu, Reviews, Contact, Location, Phone Number, Maps and more for The Spruce Goose Diner Restaurant on Zomat Jan 29, 2012 - On Nov. 2, 1947, the Spruce Goose took to the air. It flew once, and for less than a minute, but we still talk about it, and of course Howard Hughes. Click here to find out what happened to the Spruce Goose


The Legend of the Spruce Goose: It Flew Once (and We Still Talk about It)

America wanted a giant flying boat Howard Hughes made it.

The Time magazine article was titled “It Flies!” It was a note of triumph and vindication, but also an epitaph, of an aircraft that was five years in the making—the “Spruce Goose,” a plane that should not have existed. Many things were against it, even, to a certain degree, its creator.

The week of May 4-10, 1942, saw the loss of 300,000 deadweight tons of Allied shipping to German U-boats, loss rates that were twice new ship launches. Imaginative use of America’s industrial and technological strengths to deal with such problems was the mission of the War Production Board’s planning committee.

On May 22, F.H. Hoge, Jr., a member of the committee, proposed the use of extremely large flying boats, pointing out that current aircraft on transoceanic flights devoted 38 percent of their takeoff weight to fuel and oil, but that a 300,000-pound plane would use only 20 percent, and, that since flying boats did not require landing gear, an additional 15 percent in aircraft weight would be saved.

But it was the industrialist Henry J. Kaiser who saw the opportunity. He approached such problems with big schemes, limitless energy, and a genius for organization and improvisation. He had moved from constructing mammoth hydroelectric dams, such as the Hoover and Grand Coulee, to shipbuilding in 1941.

Faced with the terrible loss of shipping that was threatening the Allies, Kaiser suggested two possible solutions. One was to convert some of his shipyards to the mass production of giant seaplanes. The other was to mass produce antisubmarine aircraft carriers on Liberty Ship hulls. In the latter case, Kaiser facilities would produce some 70 escort carriers during the war.

But in the summer of 1942, after the Germans sank 681 Allied ships in the first seven months of the year, the idea of flying boats captured the nation’s imagination. In July, Kaiser outlined plans for flying boats of 200 to 500 tons and launched a publicity and lobbying campaign telling the press that he envisioned a fleet of 5,000 flying boats.

He followed with a proposal to the Army and Navy. And, though they considered it impractical, they knew that the public and some members of Congress believed otherwise. The Aircraft Division of the War Production Board was asked to review Kaiser’s proposal.

Merrill C. Meigs, deputy director of the board’s Aircraft Division, told Kaiser that it took more than four years to develop a new aircraft, but Kaiser was undaunted. Regarding possible resource requirements, Kaiser said he would build a steel foundry and educate and develop technicians and engineers in support of his proposal.

Meigs then set up a committee of aircraft manufacturers to hear Kaiser’s plans. But the manufacturers were not enthusiastic about the possible entry of another aircraft company into their industry. Donald Douglas, head of Douglas Aircraft, advised that to prepare a preliminary design for a 200-ton aircraft would require at least 100,000 engineering hours.

During July and August, Kaiser made two proposals—mass production of the Martin Mars flying boat and the design and development of the 200-ton flying boat––both taken under consideration by the War Production Board, headed by Donald Nelson. The Mars, first flown in June 1942, was a four-engine, 200-foot wingspan, 75,000-pound aircraft capable of carrying a 32,000-pound payload, or 133 troops, over a range of 5,000 miles. But Nelson was concerned about the possible impact on existing programs by manufacturers working at full capacity.

Kaiser then approached the well-known aviator, Howard Hughes, with a pitch to jointly develop the large flying boat. Though aware of the problems in designing a new aircraft, Hughes was intrigued with the possibility of coming up with the world’s largest airplane, especially after being told that the Douglas, Martin, and Northrup aircraft companies all thought that it couldn’t be done.

By August 22, 1942, after several weeks of discussion, a handshake agreement was reached—Hughes would design the plane and Kaiser would build it. Subsequently, a written contract between Hughes and Kaiser called for the design and construction of 500 aircraft.

The Gigantic Spruce Goose

On September 17, Kaiser-Hughes received authorization to proceed with design engineering and construction of three prototype flying boats. Among the conditions imposed were that all construction would use a minimum of any critical or strategic materials, that no engineers or technicians working for manufacturers already engaged in the war effort could be employed without the permission of their employers, that they could spend no more than $18 million, and that the program would be limited to 24 months. But the Kaiser-Hughes partnership soon dissolved and Hughes proceeded alone. During the first seven months of the project, Hughes acted as general manager. Kaiser, unsuccessful in his attempt at combining forces with Hughes, had nothing more to do with the project except to help out with providing a few personnel.

Design presented several challenges—such a plane would require an overhang wingspan 50 percent greater than the Martin Mars, which would present new torsional, wing flutter, vibration, deflection, and control problems never before tested.

Seven aircraft configurations were drawn up, including twin-hull and single-hull designs with four to eight engines. Hughes settled on a design gross weight of 400,000 pounds. This number was reached based on creating the largest aircraft possible using eight of the largest engines then under development. Eight was considered the maximum number of engines that seemed practical.

In the final design, the HK-1, as it was called, would be built mostly of wood, its elevators and rudder fabric covered. It was referred to as the “Flying Lumberyard” by critics, while Hughes detested the other nickname, “Spruce Goose.” To him she was “The Flying Boat,” though one story was that Hughes’s nickname for the plane was the “Jesus Christ,” since those were the first words out of the mouths of individuals when Hughes took them into the hangar where the plane was being built.

The giant airplane was made mostly of birch, not spruce, with a wingspan of 320 feet, a vertical fin of 85 feet, and a weight of 300,000 pounds. It was designed to carry 120,000 pounds of cargo, or 750 combat-ready troops, or two Sherman tanks. Its eight massive engines, with 17-foot propellers, generated over 3,000 horsepower each. It was to have a range of 3,000 miles at a speed of approximately 200 mph.

The Project That Wouldn’t Die

During the design phase, Hughes was rarely seen by other members of the team. He was a night owl, had a penchant for secrecy, and was involved in multiple simultaneous projects, as well as a reluctance to delegate authority. Key decisions were delayed for days in some cases because of problems contacting Hughes. Even as the project began to fall behind schedule, Hughes refused to relinquish control. He continued to be involved in the smallest of details but then would disappear for weeks.

Despite Hughes’s management style, some progress was made during 1943 on the aircraft’s design, but major problems resulted from combining wood construction with the plane’s giant size. Elaborate and costly jigs had to be devised and new glues and gluing processes developed. Development of new tools, materials, and methods was by trial and error, consuming time, material, and money.

Years later Hughes partially blamed delays on the requirement that he build the plane of nonstrategic materials however, government records indicate that Hughes was given the option of switching to metal, but declined. Given the progress that had been made in pioneering innovative methods in wood construction, and Hughes’s attraction to the smooth finish of the Duramold plywood used, he was reluctant to change materials. Hughes was meticulous regarding materials, workmanship, and appearance.

Numerous elements lined up against the project. In October 1943 the Aircraft Production Board proposed cancelling the contract because it offered no useful contribution to the war effort. In early 1944 it was determined that successful development of the Mars flying boat would make the HK-1 unnecessary. In March 1944 the Cargo Plane Committee of the War Production Board was of the opinion that a change in the character of the war had abated a need for a giant cargo aircraft.

The War Production Board dispatched Grover Loening, seaplane designer and consultant to the board, to evaluate the plane’s design. But his report called the plane’s design amazing and the most remarkable flying boat he had ever seen.

On March 17, Hughes advised the board against stopping construction,saying, “If we are going to keep abreast of development in aviation, then we must reconcile ourselves to the necessity of building bigger and bigger airplanes.”

Despite the many efforts to kill the project, highly placed administration officials renewed it, though the plan was reduced to one plane.

At the same time that the HK-1 was under development, Hughes was also active in pushing development of the Lockheed Constellation—a postwar, four-engine transport and civilian airliner.

The First and Last Flight of the Spruce Goose

The project continued into 1947, when a Senate committee began investigating Hughes for defense contract irregularities. Hughes was called before the Senate War Investigating Committee in the late summer of 1947. During testimony Hughes stated, “The Hercules was a monumental undertaking. It is the largest aircraft ever built. It is over five stories tall with a wingspan longer than a football field. That’s more than a city block. Now, I put the sweat of my life into this thing. I have my reputation all rolled up in it and I have stated several times that if it’s a failure, I’ll probably leave this country and never come back. And I mean it.”


The Recluse

After a terrible plane crash in 1946, Hughes began to retreat from the world. He bought part of RKO Pictures in 1948, but he never visited the studio. In the 1960s, he lived on the top floor of the Desert Inn in Las Vegas, Nevada, and conducted all of his business from his hotel suite. Few people ever saw him, which led to much public speculation and rumors about his activities. It was thought that he suffered from obsessive-compulsive disorder and had a drug problem. Hughes eventually left Las Vegas and began living abroad. In 1972 an allegedly authorized biography of famed recluse was announced, but it turned out to be a scam. The author, Clifford Irving, was later imprisoned for fraud.


Gigantic Spruce Goose Flies - History

1946 First Meeting of UN General Assembly- (1/10/46) The first meeting of the UN General Assembly took place in London. Trygve Lie, a Norwegian diplomat, was elected the first Secretary General of the UN.
1946 Bank of England Nationalized - (2/14/46) The Bank of England was nationalized by the Labor government. The bank had been privately owned since its founding in 1694.
1946 DC-6 Introduced - (2/15/46) Douglas Aircraft introduced the DC-6 airplane. The DC-6 was a derivative of the DC-4. It used the same wings as the DC-4, but had more powerful engines and a longer fuselage. The DC-6 could seat 52 passengers. A total of 702 DC-6 were produced in three civilian and two military versions of the aircraft.
1946 Peron becomes Dictator of Argentina - (2/24/46) Colonel Juan Perón was elected President of Argentina. His supporters won absolute control of both houses of the legislature. In 1948, he was granted unlimited power, thereby transforming him into an absolute dictator.
1946 Iron Curtain Descends on Europe - (3/12/46) Prime Minister Churchill, at an address in Fulton, Missouri, on March 12, stated: "From Stettin in the Baltics, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent." Thus, Churchill put forth the concept that Europe had been divided between East and West.
1946 Chinese Civil War Resumes - (4/14/46) Upon the surrender of Japan, which concluded World War II, war once again broke out between the Communists and the Nationalists in China. Attempts were made to come to an agreement, but all efforts failed. By the beginning of 1946, full-scale fighting had developed between the two sides. Initially, the war went well for the Nationalists.
1946 Republican Government Organized in Italy - (6/2/46)The Italian people voted in a referendum to abolish the Monarchy and establish a Republic. Victor Emmanuel III had abdicated in 1944, in favor of his son, Umberto. Umberto now went into exile in Portugal. Enrico de Nicola became the provisional president and served until the new constitution went into effect, on January 1, 1948.
1946 Republic of the Philippines Inauguration - On the 4th of July, 1946, the independent Republic of the Philippines was officially declared. In order to help the Philippines rebuild the country after the ravages of World War II, the US Congress had passed the Rehabilitation Act, providing for payment of war claims.
1946 Atomic Test At Bikini Atoll - (6/30/46) The United States began a series of tests at Bikini Islands in the Pacific. The tests included the first underwater test of the atomic bomb.
1946 Congress Party Dominates Indian Assembly - (7/25/46) Congress Party, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, won 201 of the 210 seats put aside for the Hindus. The Muslim League, who favored Muslim separation, won 73 of the 78 seats reserved for Muslims.
1946 Greeks Vote For Return of Monarchy - (9/1/46) In a special referendum, seventy percent of Greeks voted in favor of returning King George II to power. This return resulted in the outbreak of a civil war between Monarchists and Communist opponents of the government.
1946 Vietnamese Resist, French Try To Regain Control - In September 1946, Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Nationalist opposition to the Japanese, declared Vietnam independent. France was not willing to grant full independence. Attempts were made to reach an agreement with Ho Chi Minh for Vietnam to be a Free State within the French Union. When talks broke down, the French Navy bombarded Haiphong, killing 6,000 people. The French did reach an agreement with Boa Dai, the former emperor of Annan, who agreed to the French plan of an independent state within the French Union. The result was a war that lasted for 30 years.
1946 Meteor Sets World Speed Record - (9/7/46) The Meteor, Britain's jet fighter, attained a speed of 611 mph, setting a new world speed record.
1946 Spock Publishes Book on Baby Care - Benjamin Spock published "The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care." The book went on to sell 25,000,000 copies and revolutionize childcare.
1946 First Electronic Computer - The first all-electronic computer was designed by John William Mauchly. The computer, called the ENIAC, weighed 30 tons.
1946 Baruch Plan For Atomic Control - The United States Representative to the UN Atomic Energy Commission unveiled a plan under which the US would surrender its monopoly of atomic weapons to an international body. The Soviets refused the proposal, and proceeded to develop their own weapons.
1946 Verdicts at Nuremberg - (10/16/46) Nine of Nazi Germany's top leaders were hung at the end of their trials. They were accused of crimes "so calculated, so malignant, and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored, because it cannot survive their being repeated." The crimes included the murder of at least six million European Jews.

1947 Truman Doctrine- (3/12/47) In 1946, Communist guerrillas had begun a civil war against the government of Greece. The Communist government of Yugoslavia gave substantial support to the guerrillas, while the British had provided the Greek government with aid. Eventually, the British informed the United States that Britain could no longer help support the regime in Greece.

The Greeks officially requested American aid and, on March 12th, President Truman went before Congress and requested support for Greece as well as for Turkey. A total of $400 million was requested. Truman stated: "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure."

The Senate approved his request, 67 to 23, and the House approved it, 287 to 107.
1947 Revolt Against French Rule Madagascar- (3/29/47)A nationalist rebellion broke out in Madagascar. White settlers were assaulted, plantations burned and French garrisons attacked. It took the French more than a year to put down the revolt.
1947 Marshall Plan Unvieled - (6/5/47) On June 5th, Marshall gave a commencement address at Harvard. He stated: "It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is directed, not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desertion and chaos."
1947 Taft-Hartley Act -(6/23/47) The Taft-Hartley Act provided the President with the power to obtain an 80–day injunction against any strike. It also gave him the power of appointing a board of inquiry to oversee collective bargaining. It also banned closed shops. The bill was passed, over the veto of the President, in response to a wave of strikes.
1947 India/Pakistan Gain Independence - (8/15/47) In 1942, Indian Nationalists had spurned the British offer of autonomy within the British Empire. They demanded complete independence. After the Second World War, the British agreed to independence. However, no agreement could be reached between the Hindus and Moslems. Large scale rioting ensued, in which thousands died. An accord was finally reached to establish two states: Hindu India and Moslem Pakistan. On August 15th, the two new states achieved independence. Millions of refugees were created in both countries.
1947 Yaeger Breaks Sound Barrier -(10/14/47) American test pilot Captain Charles Yaeger broke the sound barrier on October 14. He flew a Bell X-1 test plane, that was dropped from a specially modified B-29. Yaeger reached a speed of 670 miles per hour, at an altitude of 42,000 feet.
1947 Unrest In Palestine - Britain Turns Problem Over To UN -On November 29, 1947, the U.N. General Assembly met to vote on the proposal to partition Palestine. All of Zionist foreign policy was tied to this one moment. Members of the Zionist delegation lobbied continually to ensure that the partition motion was passed. The members of the American Zionist Movement were especially instrumental in influencing many wavering delegations to vote for the partition. The final results were as follows:

Supporting the partition:
Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussia (part of the Soviet Union), Canada, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, Liberia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Sweden, Ukraine, Union of South Africa, U.S.S.R., U.S.A., Uruguay and Venezuela.

Against partition:
Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq,Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey and Yemen.

Abstaining:
Argentina, Chile, China, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Mexico, United Kingdom.

After the vote, Abba Hillel Silver spoke on behalf of the Jewish Agency, saying, "The Jewish people will be forever grateful to the nations which contributed to the decision we're especially appreciative of the leadership provided by the United States and the Soviet Union, and are happy that, in the solution of the Palestine problem, these two great powers worked harmoniously together."
1947 Gigantic Spruce Goose Flies -(11/2/47)In May 1942, Howard Hughes began to build the world's largest airplane, or what he called at the time "an unsinkable liberty ship." The aircraft was designed to carry 700 troops. Initially, it was a joint venture between Hughes and Kaiser shipping, but Kaiser pulled out. Ultimately, Hughes spent $7 million of his own money on the project, while the US Government spent $17 million. Many people said that it would never get off the ground. On November 2, they were proved wrong. The giant Spruce Goose, whose wing span was 320 feet, lifted off for a one mile flight across the harbor. The plane was never to fly again.
1947 B - 47 Enters Service -(12/17/47) On December 17, the first Boeing B-47 flew. It was the first all-jet bomber. It carried a crew of three. The B-47 had a revolutionary design. It was the first bomber built with a swept wing. A total of 2,040 B-47s were delivered to the Airforce.

1948

1948 Communists Take Over Czechoslavakia - (2/25/48) In a bloodless coup, the Communists seized control of Czechoslovakia. Threatening violence, they created a majority Communist government under Klement Gottwald. Czechoslovakian President Benes resigned, and Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk was found dead a week later, as a reported suicide.
1948 Civil War In Costa Rica - (3/1/48) After incumbent President Teodora Picado attempted to annul the election won by Otilio Ulate, a civil war broke out. The forces of José Figueras, which opposed Ulate, were victorious.
1948 Soviets Recall Advisors From Yugoslavia - Significant differences developed between Soviet leader Stalin and Yugoslav leader Tito. When compared to other Easter European leaders, Tito was largely independent. He was primarily concerned with the interests of Yugoslavia. Tito was able to maintain this independence, since Russian forces had not been the liberators of Yugoslavia. Rather, the Yugoslav partisans, under Tito, had forced the Germans out.

As Tito did not follow the Soviet line, Stalin recalled all Soviet advisors from Yugoslavia and canceled all economic agreements. Tito responded by reaching economic agreements with the West. It became clear that Communism in Europe was not monolithic.
1948 Berlin Blockaded- (4/1/48) No agreement could be reached with the Soviets on continued control of Germany. When the Allies decided to introduce a new currency into West Germany to counter inflation, the Soviets opposed the move. As a response, and as a means of stopping the reunification of Western Germany, the Soviets imposed a blockade on Berlin, which had been and remained under four-power control.

The American Commander in Germany, General Clay, stated that if the Soviets managed to push the US out of Berlin the next step could be the expulsion of the US from Germany, and then from Europe altogether. He suggested that the US break the blockade by force. President Truman decided on an airlift. The airlift was very successful, and the Soviets lifted the blockade eleven months after it was imposed.
1948 Organization of American States (OAS) Created - (4/30/48) The Pan American Conference, held in Bogotá, established the OAS as the United Nations' regional grouping for North and South America.
1948 State of Israel Declared- On May 14, as the British Mandate was ending, the Jews of Palestine declared themselves independent. They created the State of Israel, with David Ben-Gurion as the Prime Minister. Immediately, the neighboring Arab nations attacked. Israel succeeded in repulsing the attacks. By the end of the war, the Jewish State was larger than the territory originally assigned to it under the partition plan. In the course of the war, hundreds of thousand of Palestinian Arabs were displaced, some under their own volition and some by force.
1948 US Recognizes Israel - (5/14/48) After being a supporter of the rights of the Jews to create an independent state, President Truman extended American recognition 14 minutes after the State had been declared in Tel Aviv. Immediately after the State's independence was declared, it was attacked by the surrounding Arab States.
1948 South Africa Embraces Apartheid - (5/26/48)In a general election, the coalition of United and Labor Parties, under Prime Minister Smuts, was defeated by a Nationalist Afrikaaner bloc, led by Daniel Malan. Malan's new government had been elected on a platform of racial segregation (apartheid), and soon this policy was implemented. The government outlawed marriages between whites and non-whites. It also passed the Group Areas Bill that divided the country into zones for separate ethnic groups.
1948 Soviets Introduce MIG - 15- The Soviets introduced their first modern jet fighter: the MIG-15. The plane, borrowing heavily on German designs, was the first in a long series of "MIG" planes developed by the Soviets.
1948 Polaroid Camera On Sale - Edwin Land developed the first instant camera that developed photos on the spot. The camera became known as the Polaroid Land Camera.
1948 Improved Quantum Dynamics Theory Developed - The improved Theory of Quantum Dynamics was developed by Richard Feynman. The theory predicted the effect that electrically charged particles would have on one another.
1948 Major Nationalist Defeat in Manchuria- (10/30/48) On October 30th, Nationalist troops were defeated in Manchuria after the Communists captured the city of Mukden. Three hundred thousand Nationalist troops were captured. The defeat in Mukden marked the beginning of the end for the Nationalist forces.

1949 NATO Founded -(4/4/49) The Berlin Blockade provided compelling evidence that, in order to deter the Soviets from further aggression, an alliance was necessary between nations of Western Europe and the United States. On April 4, 1949, the foreign ministers of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States formally signed the North Atlantic Treaty. The key paragraph was Article 5. It stated that "an armed attack against one or more of the European signatories or the North American signatories would be considered an attack against all of them."
1949 Ireland Becomes Independent - (4/18/49) The Republic of Ireland proclaimed its complete independence from Britain, and left the Commonwealth of Nations.
1949 Federal Republic of Germany Created - (5/21/49) The zones of Germany occupied by the US, Great Britain and France were transformed into the Federal Republic of Germany. A new constitution was adopted, and elections were held. The Christian Democratic Party and its ally, the Christian Socialist Party, won a plurality in the first election. Konrad Adenauer became the first Chancellor.
1949 "Comet"- First Commercial Jet Unveiled -(7/27/49) On July 27, De Havilland unveiled the DH-106 Comet aircraft. The plane was a 36-passenger jet aircraft. Its cruising speed was 490 mph. The Comet's service was to be cut short after a number of them crashed in the late 1950's.
1949 Soviets Detonate A-Bomb -(9/23/49) America's monopoly on atomic weapons ended when President Truman announced, on September 23, that the Soviets had successfully detonated an atomic bomb. As a result, the nuclear arms race, that was to last until 1990, was born.
1949 Communist Victory in China- (10/1/49) The Nationalist Army essentially disintegrated after the fall of Tientsin and Peking. By July, the Nationalists announced that they would begin to withdraw to Taiwan. On October 1st, the People's Republic of China was officially proclaimed, with Peking as its capital.
1949 Stratocruiser Goes into Service -The Boeing "Stratocruiser" made its commercial debut on April 1, 1949, when Pan Am began using it on its service between San Francisco and Honolulu.
1949 Non-Stop Around The World Flight - A US Army Boeing 50-A made a flight around the world. It flew for a total of 94 hours and one minute. It was refueled in the air four times. The plane carried its full crew of 13.

1950 USSR and China Sign a Thirty Year Pact Mao Tse-Tung signed a 30-year Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union. The treaty was one of alliance and mutual assistance. A series of economic agreements followed.
1950 North Korea Invades the South The Korean War began with an attack made by North Korean forces across the 38th parallel dividing North and South Korea. The attack took place on June 24, 1950, and was a complete surprise to the American administration. It was feared that this attack heralded the beginning of World War III.
1950 Super Contellation Tested Lockheed unveiled its new "Super Constellation" on October 13. The "Super Constellation" was a stretched version of the C-69. The Tourist Class section grew from 69 to 92.
1950 Truman Announces National Emergency To respond to the strain on economic and military resources caused by the Korean War, President Truman announced a National Emergency. This gave him broad economic powers.
1950 Aramco Gives Half Oil Income Saudi Arabia and Arabian-American Oil Company reached an agreement under which the government was to receive 50% of the income from oil.


Feast Your Eyes on the Spruce Goose: The Biggest Aircraft Ever

Here's What You Need to Remember: During testimony Hughes stated, “The Hercules was a monumental undertaking. It is the largest aircraft ever built. It is over five stories tall with a wingspan longer than a football field. That’s more than a city block. Now, I put the sweat of my life into this thing. I have my reputation all rolled up in it and I have stated several times that if it’s a failure, I’ll probably leave this country and never come back. And I mean it.”

The Time magazine article was titled “It Flies!” It was a note of triumph and vindication, but also an epitaph, of an aircraft that was five years in the making—the “Spruce Goose,” a plane that should not have existed. Many things were against it, even, to a certain degree, its creator.

The week of May 4-10, 1942, saw the loss of 300,000 deadweight tons of Allied shipping to German U-boats, loss rates that were twice new ship launches. Imaginative use of America’s industrial and technological strengths to deal with such problems was the mission of the War Production Board’s planning committee.

On May 22, F.H. Hoge, Jr., a member of the committee, proposed the use of extremely large flying boats, pointing out that current aircraft on transoceanic flights devoted 38 percent of their takeoff weight to fuel and oil, but that a 300,000-pound plane would use only 20 percent, and, that since flying boats did not require landing gear, an additional 15 percent in aircraft weight would be saved.

But it was the industrialist Henry J. Kaiser who saw the opportunity. He approached such problems with big schemes, limitless energy, and a genius for organization and improvisation. He had moved from constructing mammoth hydroelectric dams, such as the Hoover and Grand Coulee, to shipbuilding in 1941.

Faced with the terrible loss of shipping that was threatening the Allies, Kaiser suggested two possible solutions. One was to convert some of his shipyards to the mass production of giant seaplanes. The other was to mass produce antisubmarine aircraft carriers on Liberty Ship hulls. In the latter case, Kaiser facilities would produce some 70 escort carriers during the war.

But in the summer of 1942, after the Germans sank 681 Allied ships in the first seven months of the year, the idea of flying boats captured the nation’s imagination. In July, Kaiser outlined plans for flying boats of 200 to 500 tons and launched a publicity and lobbying campaign telling the press that he envisioned a fleet of 5,000 flying boats.

He followed with a proposal to the Army and Navy. And, though they considered it impractical, they knew that the public and some members of Congress believed otherwise. The Aircraft Division of the War Production Board was asked to review Kaiser’s proposal.

Merrill C. Meigs, deputy director of the board’s Aircraft Division, told Kaiser that it took more than four years to develop a new aircraft, but Kaiser was undaunted. Regarding possible resource requirements, Kaiser said he would build a steel foundry and educate and develop technicians and engineers in support of his proposal.

Meigs then set up a committee of aircraft manufacturers to hear Kaiser’s plans. But the manufacturers were not enthusiastic about the possible entry of another aircraft company into their industry. Donald Douglas, head of Douglas Aircraft, advised that to prepare a preliminary design for a 200-ton aircraft would require at least 100,000 engineering hours.

During July and August, Kaiser made two proposals—mass production of the Martin Mars flying boat and the design and development of the 200-ton flying boat––both taken under consideration by the War Production Board, headed by Donald Nelson. The Mars, first flown in June 1942, was a four-engine, 200-foot wingspan, 75,000-pound aircraft capable of carrying a 32,000-pound payload, or 133 troops, over a range of 5,000 miles. But Nelson was concerned about the possible impact on existing programs by manufacturers working at full capacity.

Kaiser then approached the well-known aviator, Howard Hughes, with a pitch to jointly develop the large flying boat. Though aware of the problems in designing a new aircraft, Hughes was intrigued with the possibility of coming up with the world’s largest airplane, especially after being told that the Douglas, Martin, and Northrup aircraft companies all thought that it couldn’t be done.

By August 22, 1942, after several weeks of discussion, a handshake agreement was reached—Hughes would design the plane and Kaiser would build it. Subsequently, a written contract between Hughes and Kaiser called for the design and construction of 500 aircraft.

The Gigantic Spruce Goose

On September 17, Kaiser-Hughes received authorization to proceed with design engineering and construction of three prototype flying boats. Among the conditions imposed were that all construction would use a minimum of any critical or strategic materials, that no engineers or technicians working for manufacturers already engaged in the war effort could be employed without the permission of their employers, that they could spend no more than $18 million, and that the program would be limited to 24 months. But the Kaiser-Hughes partnership soon dissolved and Hughes proceeded alone. During the first seven months of the project, Hughes acted as general manager. Kaiser, unsuccessful in his attempt at combining forces with Hughes, had nothing more to do with the project except to help out with providing a few personnel.

Design presented several challenges—such a plane would require an overhang wingspan 50 percent greater than the Martin Mars, which would present new torsional, wing flutter, vibration, deflection, and control problems never before tested.

Seven aircraft configurations were drawn up, including twin-hull and single-hull designs with four to eight engines. Hughes settled on a design gross weight of 400,000 pounds. This number was reached based on creating the largest aircraft possible using eight of the largest engines then under development. Eight was considered the maximum number of engines that seemed practical.

In the final design, the HK-1, as it was called, would be built mostly of wood, its elevators and rudder fabric covered. It was referred to as the “Flying Lumberyard” by critics, while Hughes detested the other nickname, “Spruce Goose.” To him she was “The Flying Boat,” though one story was that Hughes’s nickname for the plane was the “Jesus Christ,” since those were the first words out of the mouths of individuals when Hughes took them into the hangar where the plane was being built.

The giant airplane was made mostly of birch, not spruce, with a wingspan of 320 feet, a vertical fin of 85 feet, and a weight of 300,000 pounds. It was designed to carry 120,000 pounds of cargo, or 750 combat-ready troops, or two Sherman tanks. Its eight massive engines, with 17-foot propellers, generated over 3,000 horsepower each. It was to have a range of 3,000 miles at a speed of approximately 200 mph.

The Project That Wouldn’t Die

During the design phase, Hughes was rarely seen by other members of the team. He was a night owl, had a penchant for secrecy, and was involved in multiple simultaneous projects, as well as a reluctance to delegate authority. Key decisions were delayed for days in some cases because of problems contacting Hughes. Even as the project began to fall behind schedule, Hughes refused to relinquish control. He continued to be involved in the smallest of details but then would disappear for weeks.

Despite Hughes’s management style, some progress was made during 1943 on the aircraft’s design, but major problems resulted from combining wood construction with the plane’s giant size. Elaborate and costly jigs had to be devised and new glues and gluing processes developed. Development of new tools, materials, and methods was by trial and error, consuming time, material, and money.

Years later Hughes partially blamed delays on the requirement that he build the plane of nonstrategic materials however, government records indicate that Hughes was given the option of switching to metal, but declined. Given the progress that had been made in pioneering innovative methods in wood construction, and Hughes’s attraction to the smooth finish of the Duramold plywood used, he was reluctant to change materials. Hughes was meticulous regarding materials, workmanship, and appearance.

Numerous elements lined up against the project. In October 1943 the Aircraft Production Board proposed cancelling the contract because it offered no useful contribution to the war effort. In early 1944 it was determined that successful development of the Mars flying boat would make the HK-1 unnecessary. In March 1944 the Cargo Plane Committee of the War Production Board was of the opinion that a change in the character of the war had abated a need for a giant cargo aircraft.

The War Production Board dispatched Grover Loening, seaplane designer and consultant to the board, to evaluate the plane’s design. But his report called the plane’s design amazing and the most remarkable flying boat he had ever seen.

On March 17, Hughes advised the board against stopping construction,saying, “If we are going to keep abreast of development in aviation, then we must reconcile ourselves to the necessity of building bigger and bigger airplanes.”

Despite the many efforts to kill the project, highly placed administration officials renewed it, though the plan was reduced to one plane.

At the same time that the HK-1 was under development, Hughes was also active in pushing development of the Lockheed Constellation—a postwar, four-engine transport and civilian airliner.

The First and Last Flight of the Spruce Goose

The project continued into 1947, when a Senate committee began investigating Hughes for defense contract irregularities. Hughes was called before the Senate War Investigating Committee in the late summer of 1947. During testimony Hughes stated, “The Hercules was a monumental undertaking. It is the largest aircraft ever built. It is over five stories tall with a wingspan longer than a football field. That’s more than a city block. Now, I put the sweat of my life into this thing. I have my reputation all rolled up in it and I have stated several times that if it’s a failure, I’ll probably leave this country and never come back. And I mean it.”

During a break in the Senate hearings, Hughes returned to California to run taxi tests on the renamed H-4 Hercules. On November 2, 1947, the taxi tests began with Hughes at the controls. His crew included Dave Grant as co-pilot, two flight engineers, Don Smith and Joe Petrali, 16 mechanics, and two other flight crewmen. In addition, the H-4 carried seven invited guests from the press and seven industry representatives.

After the first two taxi runs, Hughes made a third and surprised all the onlookers and crew as the Hercules lifted off, remaining airborne at 70 feet off the water at a speed of 135 miles per hour for around a mile. Having proven to his detractors that the aircraft was flight worthy, Hughes felt vindicated in the development of the aircraft and receipt of the government’s $18 million funding.

But the flight was not without concerns. Harry Kaiser, engine man, went down to the cargo deck after touchdown and saw the tail twisting around. Bill Noggle, hydraulic mechanic, posted in the tail, reported, “It’s about ready to leave us.”

After landing, Hughes was asked if he had expected to get the plane airborne. “Exactly,” said Hughes. “I like to make surprises.” Carl Babberger, Hughes’s chief aerodynamicist, stated, “All the factors were present for take-off—a high head wind, the 15-degree flap setting, and a light load. It probably got airborne before he expected it to, but on the other hand it wouldn’t surprise me that being under fire from Senator [Ralph Owen] Brewster, he was prepared to gamble. If it took off, fine. If it didn’t, fine.”

Several months after the test, through a spokesman, Hughes wanted it understood that the Hercules was only a research aircraft. That it would never be used in competition with military or commercial planes, but would help to deal with the problems of large aircraft—that the Hercules would point the way for big planes.

After the test a full-time crew of 300 workers, all sworn to secrecy, maintained the aircraft in flying condition in a huge, $1.75 million, climate-controlled hangar. A million dollars a year was spent maintaining the plane, as the engines were cycled and flight controls exercised weekly. Many modifications were designed and installed. For several years the crew expected that it would fly again as several more test flights were scheduled, then cancelled.

There was a great deal of speculation about why the aircraft was never flown again. Some said Hughes was afraid to, but his closest associates denied this.

The aircraft did have its weaknesses. According to one of Hughes’s mechanics, “Maybe one of the reasons why they didn’t fly it [again] was there was a little fluctuation in the tail, and maybe it wasn’t beefed up enough to suit him.”

But there was also no reason to continue the project because the need for big seaplanes had evaporated, especially an aircraft made of wood.

Even before the flight Hughes admitted that the plane was too large to be economical. However, claiming there were still research lessons to be learned, he stubbornly kept the work going. But he was distracted by other ventures and increasingly reclusive. After Hughes’s death on April 5, 1976, the plane was put on exhibit at Long Beach, California. In 1977, the U.S. Navy considered test flights with the H-4 as part of its research into low-altitude transoceanic flight, but never carried out the tests. The plane was moved from Long Beach to the Evergreen Aviation Museum in McMinnville, Oregon, southwest of Portland, in 1992.

Perhaps the key reason Hughes continued maintenance of the plane was that he saw it as his greatest aviation achievement. Despite being a short flight, the one and only flight of the Hercules may have been Hughes’s finest hour.

This article by Allyn Vannoy originally appeared on Warfare History Network .


Contents

Origins Edit

Schwimmkran nr. 1 (Floating crane no. 1) was built by Demag AG in Bremerhaven for the Kriegsmarine. [3] It was captured along with a sister ship by British forces at Kiel. [4]

Herman the German (YD-171) Edit

"Herman the German" was seized as a war prize following the end of World War II. "Herman" was dismantled and transported across the Atlantic through the Panama Canal to Long Beach, where it subsequently served at the Long Beach Navy Yard from 1946 (following its reassembly) to 1994 (when the shipyard was closed). YD-171 was reassembled on-site by ex-Kearsarge, a former battleship converted to a large floating crane.

Panama Titan Edit

Following the closure of the shipyard, the crane was sold to the Panama Canal Commission and it was transported on the semi-submersible ship Sea Swan (IMO number: 8001000) in 1996 to the Panama Canal Zone, where it currently serves as the floating crane Titan. Titan retired Ajax and Hercules that has served the Panama Canal since construction in 1914. [5]

Selected service history Edit

Over the years, "Herman the German" performed numerous notable heavy lifts, including:

  • Refitting of the battleships USS Missouri and New Jersey in the 1980s
  • Lifting the Hughes H-4 ("Spruce Goose") from its original hangar in Long Beach when it was relocated to its geodesic dome from 1980 to 1982 for tourist display by the Wrather Corporation. [6]

The jib is equipped with a level luffing linkage which keeps the main hook at approximately the same horizontal level through its operating radius.

Capacity Edit

Titan is a large self-propelled crane vessel with the tip of its main boom standing at 374 feet (114 m) above the typical water line and a lifting capacity of 385 short tons (349 t). [3] In 1957, it was claimed to be the largest floating crane in operation. [7] Its rated capacity is 350 tonnes (340 long tons 390 short tons) at up to 114 feet (35 m) from the center of rotation the lift capacity drops to 50 tonnes (49 long tons 55 short tons) at 210 feet (64 m) from center, and a single rotation about its pedestal takes 10 minutes. [4]

Sister ships Edit

Of the four Schwimmkräne built by Demag, one was destroyed during World War II by bombs, and the remaining three were seized by the Allies as war reparations. One went to the Americans, and was transported to the Long Beach Naval Shipyard.

Hamburg Schwimmkran Edit

The crane stationed at Hamburg served in the Blohm & Voss shipyards and was presumed to be damaged beyond repair during the July 1943 Operation Gomorrah bombing raids. It was reportedly raised after the war and rebuilt with a lower capacity, eventually serving Hamburger Hafen & Logistik AG (HHLA) as HHLA III (MMSI number: 211339980). [8]

British Schwimmkran Edit

The crane eventually seized by the British was initially stationed at Gdynia, then moved to Denmark in 1943–44 to raise Danish Navy ships scuttled during Operation Safari on August 29, 1943. It was subsequently moved back to Gdynia, then Kiel, where it was seized by the British Army at the conclusion of the war. Later, it was sold to France, but it capsized and sank in the North Sea approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) off the coast of Denmark while under tow on 25 June 1951. It was being towed without disassembling the heavy mast structures. [8]

Soviet Schwimmkran Edit

A partially-assembled crane was sent to the Soviet Union. It had been ordered by the Soviet government when the governments of Germany and the Soviet Union were friendly, [4] and was reportedly sent to Leningrad, where the Demag technicians sent with the crane to help assemble it were recalled before it could be completed. The partially-assembled structure served as an artillery spotting tower. [8] It was presumed lost after the war until it was spotted in 2015 working in the Admiralty Shipyard at Saint Petersburg (MMSI number: 273435590). [3]


Tucker: The Man and His Dream Summary and Analysis of : One Last Chance

A phone crashes against a door. Tucker has flown into a full-on fit of rage over Bennington. But just then, the phone in the next room over starts to ring. Tucker's son says it's Howard Hughes, and Tucker's demeanor changes instantly as soon as he realizes it's true. Preston and Preston Jr. fly out to meet Howard Hughes in the hangar where his infamous Spruce Goose resides. Hughes offers the two pistachios that he scoops out of his jacket pocket, and they're remiss to turn him down. Hughes has invited Tucker out because he also has a grudge against Senator Ferguson and wants to tell Tucker about a failing helicopter company in Buffalo with a big cache of steel unregulated by the government a good design aluminum engine.

At the old Tucker shop in Ypsilanti, the engineering crew look over the helicopter engine, and Jimmy says he'll try to convert it to a water-cooled engine so it can run in a car. Tucker advises that they'll have to construct the engine in that shop, hidden from Bennington. They have one night to make it work. In the morning, they have trouble starting it up. Is this engine dead in the water? As soon as Jr. grabs a new battery for it, the engine is going. It's the first real win the Tucker camp has had in a while.

The Tucker team goes to a race track to drive the car with the new engine for 24 hours straight to see how it holds up. Upon nightfall, the private investigator who we encountered at the unveiling event calls Senator Ferguson to tell him the car is running. Ferguson is enraged and calls someone in Detroit to report that Tucker successfully built the car. But don't worry, says the senator, Tucker can still be stopped. It doesn't seem that way at the race track, though. We watch the car flip over as it rounds a lap and the team flocks to the wreck to pull Eddie out. But Eddie is fine and he notes that the windshield popped out, just like they said it would. Eddie says he bets the car will still start, and sure enough it does. "Hell of a car!" Eddie exclaims.

Bennington storms into the engineering workshop in the factory when he hears that Tucker has resumed production on the rear-engine car. Preston informs him that his lawyer said Bennington signed up to built the original Tucker, so that's what they'll build. Bennington says Tucker will soon hear from his attorney, and storms right back out. Next, we watch Preston reviewing a commercial that was shot for the car, where a gas station attendant is shocked by the luggage under the hood and the engine in the trunk. Preston wants Abe to see the ad, but Abe lures Tucker away.

They step outside the Tucker plant and tells him that the plant is wired. Abe continues: every since Tucker road-tested the new car, 40 FBI agents have been following him around the clock. Tucker says it doesn't matter, since in two weeks, they'll be producing 100 cars a day. Abe responds that in two weeks, Preston will be dead and buried by the Big Three. This is when Abe submits his letter of resignation to Preston, which Tucker takes as some sign that Abe is trying to hustle him. But Abe admits that he did prison time for bank fraud, and would prove too great a legal liability to the company going forward.

Right before Abe departs, he says that if Tucker wants to hear how they'll finish him off, then listen to Drew Pierson the next night on the radio. Indeed, Tucker, his family, and his crew gather around the radio the next night to learn that the SEC is going to come after the Tucker company for perpetrating a fraud on the American people. The broadcaster says that the Tucker car is assembled from junkyard parts and includes none of the futuristic features originally promised. Senator Ferguson will be raising a congressional probe to find out what happened to the $26 million Tucker raised.

Preston walks into his office the next day with his staff reading about the investigation in the papers. He asks if the feds were in to take the files last night, and his secretary says nobody took anything. Just when Preston is about to call the paper's editor to tell him that they reported incorrectly that his files were confiscated, the feds come in and take his files. He calls the editor of the Chicago Tribune and says that this is the first newspaper he's ever seen that prints the news before it happens.

George Lucas is perhaps the man most responsible for this film getting made. At the request of Coppola, Lucas gladly agreed to produce the film, turning it from a dream project of Coppola's into reality. Both men have said that Lucas remained relatively hands-off with the actual making of the film, but that he guided its development. It was Lucas who suggested that Coppola make this an optimistic film or, to put it another way, Disney-fy it a bit. Coppola gladly agreed, since he figured that his old buddy George knew exactly what it took to make something successful at the box office. Well, Tucker wasn't really successful at the box office, but it does bear Lucas's mark.

The scene with Howard Hughes is a great example, and it makes you wonder if Lucas had a little more say when they were shooting it. First off, we see Hughes's gigantic Spruce Goose airplane, a weird resonance with the massive spacecraft that often fill the screen and overwhelm the characters in the Star Wars films. Secondly, the dress, lighting, and camerawork in this Howard Hughes scene is really reminiscent of the first two Indiana Jones vehicles, which were Lucas's other gargantuan hit films in the 1980s. But the atmosphere in this scene is all Coppola, with the misty air lending a secretive tone to Hughes's and Tucker's conversation, and the weird pistachios aside providing a subtle and satisfying comedic foil.

In some ways, Tucker: The Man and His Dream is ahead of its time. Tucker tends to feel a lot like it was made for kids, certainly as a result of Lucas's urging that this should be a family-friendly film. But the 1980s were not a time when mainstream fare by big-name directors was necessarily family-friendly. In fact, it wouldn't really be until the 21st century when just about all of the films that major studios put out would be vehicles intended to satisfy viewers of all ages, to maximize the number size of the target audience. Today, most of what we're served are superhero movies and romantic comedies, and it's pretty rare that a studio throws serious money into a R-rated film unless it's a horror flick.

Tucker, if anything, would make a lot more sense in this current landscape than during a period when films like Platoon (1986) and Fatal Attraction (1987) were critical and box office smashes. But then again, Tucker really exists as a strange film that could never make sense in any time period. Bridges' constant quips and mugging are fitting for a screwball comedy from the 1930s or '40s, but this film feels significantly more sanitized that screwball classics like Bringing Up Baby (1938). While the way that Tucker responds to the SEC men and the editor of the Chicago Tribune is cute in a way, it really comes off as awkward, and perhaps this speaks to a more broadly awkward move over all: Francis Ford Coppola making a family-friendly film. After all, his most famous films are known for their violence and brooding atmospherics.


Ambitious Queen Mary plan sparks memories of derailed past projects

“Spruce Goose,” the flying boat that belonged to the late millionaire Howard Hughes, sits perched on a barge as it was eased across the harbor in Long Beach on Feb. 11, 1982, on the way to its new display home, the large aluminum dome in left background. At right background is the former luxury liner Queen Mary, its decks filled with sightseers watching the cross-channel move. (AP Photo/Wally Fong)

“Spruce Goose,” the flying boat belonging to the late millionaire Howard Hughes, emerges from its large dome home in Long Beach on Oct. 2, 1992, as workers prepare to put it on a barge for shipment to Oregon. The plane will be featured at the Evergreen AirVenture Museum in McMinnville, Oregon. (AP Photo/Nick Ut)

Workers walk along a 300-foot gangway from the Carnival Cruise terminal, the former Spruce Goose Dome. Photo by Jeff Gritchen/Long Beach Press-Telegram

Urban Commons is not the first operator to unveil ambitious plans for the 45 acres of waterfront land surrounding the Queen Mary. But it might have envisioned the first project that could actually come to fruition.

It has long been a dream of local politicos to turn the land around the historic vessel into a bustling tourist destination, but operators, besieged by financial troubles, have struggled to turn enough profit to cover maintenance and operations, let alone fund a large-scale development.

Projects floated over the years include a card room and casino, a sports arena and a maritime theme park. At least a half-dozen operators have tried to make a go of it, including the Walt Disney Co., which oversaw the Queen Mary leasehold from 1988 to 1992.

For a decade — from 1982 to 1992 — the Queen Mary was even paired as an attraction with Howard Hughes’ gigantic Spruce Goose, which was housed beneath the Long Beach Dome until it was dismantled and shipped to Oregon.

Carnival Cruise lines, which has plans to expand its Long Beach presence in 2018, now uses the dome for arrivals and departures. But Urban Commons intends to integrate the dome into its $250 million Queen Mary Island complex, a proposed waterfront development that would feature a 5,000- to 7,500-seat outdoor amphitheater, a retail destination with cafes, bars and shops, and California’s first indoor adventure park.

The Los Angeles-based real estate investment firm said it will build a new terminal for Carnival in coming years so Urban Commons can use the dome.

Long Beach leaders say the partnership with Urban Commons is the solution they’ve long been looking for to capitalize on the Queen Mary leasehold.

“What we can’t do is what we’ve been doing for the past 30 years, and that’s investing modestly in the ship and not developing the land around it,” Mayor Robert Garcia said. “The Queen Mary is an iconic piece of Long Beach’s history, and we are going to ensure it remains an important piece of Long Beach’s future.”


The Tragic Life and Curious Death of Howard Hughes

When Howard Hughes took his last breath it was 1:27 on the morning of April 5, 1976, and he was in an airplane over northern Mexico on his way to a Texas hospital. Decades earlier he'd built the planet's largest seaplane and aviated the circumference of the world in a record-setting 3 days, 19 hours, 14 minutes and 10 seconds. Dying aloft might seem a fitting end for such a man, and in many ways, it was. But it was also a lonely exit. In the years leading up to his death, Hughes had become increasingly isolated due in part to health issues that included advancing deafness and a steadily worsening obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The Early Life of Howard Hughes

He was born 70 years earlier in Houston, Texas, to Howard Hughes Sr., a dashing, if mercurial, industrialist and Allene (née) Gano, a debutante descendant of southern aristocracy. The year was 1905, and Allene nearly lost her life while giving birth. Although she was only 22 at the time, the doctor present at the birth recommended she not have any more children, and she didn't, leaving Howard to be raised an only child. The family moved around as Howard Sr. prospected for oil. Then, in 1909, he patented a new kind of drill bit that could bore through solid rock. Together with his business partner, Walter Sharp, Howard Sr. founded the Sharp-Hughes Tool Company and began building a fortune.

Without that fortune who knows what Howard Hughes would have done with his life. He was shy to the point of being antisocial, disinterested in school and deeply attached to his mother. His father sent him to a series of boarding schools in which he failed to distinguish himself. He did, however, show an early aptitude for tinkering. Doorbell components, for instance, became a working radio under his ministrations. And when his mother refused to buy him a motorcycle, he motorized a bicycle instead. Then, his mother and father abruptly died, leaving him a grief-stricken and fabulously wealthy orphan at the age of 18.

Hughes and the Movies

In lieu of friends, young Howard Jr. had the movies. He loved them so much he decided to make them and thanks to his fortune he could. He began by producing a stinker called "Swell Hogan" that bombed. "Two Arabian Knights" won an Academy Award and then came "Hell's Angels." After a series of directors quit because working with Hughes was too difficult, he took the helm himself and poured so much money into the production that it became the most expensive film made in Hollywood at the time. It was a World War I epic full of aerial combat scenes (hence the expense), and Hughes himself piloted one of the planes. "Hell's Angels" was a massive hit and established him as a serious player in Hollywood. He would go on to produce films like 1932's "Scarface," based on the life of Al Capone, and "The Outlaw," which starred a young Jane Russell. Here, once again, his tendency to micromanage production manifested itself when he designed a specialized bra for Russell whose assets were not, in his opinion, being sufficiently optimized. Russell refused to wear the contraption, but the film was another huge success nonetheless.

He kept his hand in the production of films, even going so far as to become the first single owner of a Hollywood studio when he bought RKO Pictures. But he now began turning his attention to his other great love — airplanes. In addition to building the above-mentioned mammoth seaplane (nicknamed the "Spruce Goose" because it was constructed from wood) and besides setting the round-the-world speed record in 1937, he also bought an airline: TWA.

Never content to simply own things, he continued his derring-do exploits, until a couple of crashes finally grounded him. One of these occurred when he was piloting a prototype reconnaissance plane he was building for the military. The test flight was a catastrophe, and Hughes ended up plowing through a neighborhood in Burbank, California, miraculously failing to kill anybody, including himself. But, despite (barely) managing to survive, Hughes was never physically the same again. In fact, it was probably while recovering from his many injuries from the crash that he began to develop a dangerous, and ultimately fatal, addiction to painkillers.

For all his adventures, Hughes was a canny businessman. So canny that he was, at one point, in a virtual dead-heat with J. Paul Getty for the title of richest man in America. Sometimes what at first appeared to be an eccentric buying spree turned out to be a prescient investment. For instance, when a hotel in Las Vegas tried to kick him out because he wasn't gambling, he retaliated by buying the place. Then he decided to double-down, and triple, and quadruple and so on, buying up real estate all over the city. By the time he was done he owned more of Las Vegas than any other individual, and he began the process that transformed it from a city of gangsters into the surreal entertainment vortex we know and love today.

But wealth and brilliance couldn't forestall the effects of ill health, mental and otherwise. As the years went by, Hughes became increasingly withdrawn and isolated until, in the end, he was shuttling from hotel to hotel, hooked on codeine, health rapidly declining and minimally looked after by a few business associates. When he died in the air over northern Mexico in April 1976, he was malnourished, dehydrated and overmedicated on codeine. And although there were several other people onboard the plane, he was, in most senses of the word, alone. He had no direct descendants or immediate family and, while his estate was worth $2.5 billion ($11 billion in today's dollars), he didn’t leave behind a will.

Hughes was a talented golfer and for a time even contemplated going pro. And just to add one more surprising story to a surprising lifetime, he once provided cover for the CIA. When the agency decided to raise a sunken Soviet sub in 1970, they asked Hughes to help out. The billionaire obligingly told the press that the CIA's salvage boat was actually part of a mining operation he was undertaking.



Comments:

  1. Zachaios

    It is good when so!

  2. Frascuelo

    Said in confidence.

  3. Dushakar

    Totally agree with her. I think this is a very different concept. Fully agree with her.

  4. Mataur

    New episodes of bleach come out so rarely, I even lazyu on blogs .. Author, thanks.

  5. Habib

    It is not pleasant to you?



Write a message