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Trinity Timeline


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Trinity

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Latin: Trinitas, lit. 'triad', from Latin: trinus "threefold") [1] holds that God is one God, and exists in the form of three coeternal and consubstantial persons: [2] [3] the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. The three persons are distinct, yet are one "substance, essence or nature" (homoousios). [4] In this context, a "nature" is what one is, whereas a "person" is who one is. [5]

The subset of Christianity that accepts this doctrine is collectively known as Trinitarianism, while the subset that does not is referred to as Nontrinitarianism (see also Arianism). Trinitarianism contrasts with positions such as Binitarianism (one deity in two persons) and Monarchianism (no plurality of persons within God), of which Modalistic Monarchianism (one deity revealed in three modes) and Unitarianism (one deity in one person) are subsets.

While the developed doctrine of the Trinity is not explicit in the books that constitute the New Testament, the New Testament possesses a "triadic" understanding of God [6] and contains a number of Trinitarian formulas. [7] The doctrine of the Trinity was first formulated among the early Christians and fathers of the Church as early Christians attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions. [8]


Trinity Timeline - History

Historical Background of the Trinity

The current mainstream teaching in Christianity is that God is a coequal, coeternal, one-substance trinity, and that Jesus Christ is God. This doctrine is considered by many as the cornerstone of Christianity, but where did this doctrine come from? The historical record is overwhelming that the church of the first three centuries did not worship God as a coequal, coeternal, consubstantial, one-substance three in one mysterious godhead. The early church worshipped one God and believed in a subordinate Son. The trinity originated with Babylon, and was passed on to most of the world's religions. This polytheistic (believing in more than one god) trinitarianism was intertwined with Greek religion and philosophy and slowly worked its way into Christian thought and creeds some 300 years after Christ. The idea of "God the Son" is Babylonian paganism and mythology that was grafted into Christianity. Worshipping "God the Son" is idolatry, and idolatry is Biblically condemned it breaks the first great commandment of God of not having any gods before him (Exodus 20:3). Then three centuries after Christ the corrupt emperor Constantine forced the minority opinion of the trinity upon the council of Nicea. The Christian church went downward from there in fact some of the creeds and councils actually contradict each other. The council of Nicea 325 said that "Jesus Christ is God," the council of Constantinople 381 said that "the Holy Spirit is God," the council of Ephesus 431 said that "human beings are totally depraved," the council of Chalcedon 451 said that "Jesus Christ is both man and God." If you follow the logic here then first you have Jesus Christ as God, then you have man totally depraved, and then you have Jesus Christ as man and God. If Jesus Christ is both man and God does this mean that God is also totally depraved? Well maybe the doctrine of the coequal, coeternal, one-substance, mysterious three in one triune godhead is deprived of any historical foundation tying it into the Christianity of the Bible and the Christianity of the first three centuries. However the historical information ties the trinity into various pagan origins.

And yet most Christian churches continue to teach and believe the doctrine that God is a coequal, coeternal, one-substance, mysterious three in one triune godhead, and that Jesus Christ is God, and that the trinity is "the cornerstone of Christianity".

The Church of the First Three Centuries 1865 Alvan Lamson

" . . . The modern doctrine of the Trinity is not found in any document or relic belonging to the Church of the first three centuries. . . so far as any remains or any record of them are preserved, coming down from early times, are, as regards this doctrine an absolute blank. They testify, so far as they testify at all, to the supremacy of the father, the only true God and to the inferior and derived nature of the Son. There is nowhere among these remains a coequal trinity. . . but no un-divided three, -- coequal, infinite, self-existent, and eternal. This was a conception to which the age had not arrived. It was of later origin."

During the first three centuries, Christians did not believe that Jesus Christ was coequal, and coeternal with God, or that he was God the Son, they believed that Jesus Christ was subordinate to God, and that he had a beginning, that he was born. Those that believed otherwise were the exception.

The Doctrine of the Trinity Christianity's Self-Inflicted Wound 1994 Anthony F. Buzzard Charles F. Hunting

"Those Trinitarians who believe that the concept of a Triune God was such an established fact that it was not considered important enough to mention at the time the New Testament was written should be challenged by the remarks of another writer, Harold Brown:"

"It is a simple fact and an undeniable historical fact that several major doctrines that now seem central to the Christian Faith – such as the doctrine of the Trinity and the doctrine of the nature of Christ – were not present in a full and self-defined generally accepted form until the fourth and fifth centuries. If they are essential today – as all of the orthodox creeds and confessions assert – it must be because they are true. If they are true, then they must always have been true they cannot have become true in the fourth and fifth century. But if they are both true and essential, how can it be that the early church took centuries to formulate them?"

A History of the Christian Church 2nd Ed. 1985 Williston Walker

"AD 200. . Noetus had been expelled from the Smyrnaean church for teaching that Christ was the Father, and that the Father himself was born, and suffered, and died."

Man's Religions John B. Noss 1968

"The controversy first became heated when Apollinarius, a bishop in Syria . . . asserted that Christ could not have been perfect man united with complete God, for then there would not have been one Son of God, but two sons, one by nature and one by adoption, the first with a divine, the second with a human will. Such a thing seemed inconceivable, religiously abhorrent."

"Nestorius . . . preached a sermon against calling the virgin Mary "the mother of God" declaring she did not bear a deity, she bore a man,"

Numbers 23:19 states that God is not a man. God was not born, and God certainly did not die, but when people deviate from what the Bible teaches you can come up with the bizarre complexities of trinitarian religious mysteries that contradict logic, common sense and God's Word.

New Bible Dictionary 1982

"The word trinity is not found in the Bible . . ."

". . . it did not find a place formally in the theology of the church till the 4th century."

". . . it is not a biblical doctrine in the sense that any formation of it can be found in the Bible, . . ."

"Scripture does not give us a formulated doctrine of the trinity, . . ."

The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism 1995

". . . scholars generally agree that there is no doctrine of the trinity as such in either the Old Testament or the New Testament."

If the trinity is the cornerstone of Christianity then how did the church of the first three centuries get along so well without it? If the trinity is the cornerstone of Christianity then why is it not mentioned in the Bible?

The Encyclopedia Americana 1956

"Christianity derived from Judaism and Judaism was strictly Unitarian (believing in one God). The road which led from Jerusalem to Nicea was scarcely a straight one. Fourth century trinitarianism did not reflect accurately early Christian teaching regarding the nature of God it was, on the contrary, a deviation from this teaching."

The trinity is a deviation from believing in one God it is a deviation from what the early church taught and it is a deviation from the scripture.

The New Catholic Encyclopedia 1967

"The formulation 'one God in three persons' was not solidly established, certainly not fully assimilated into Christian life and its profession of faith, prior to the end of the 4th century."

Who is Jesus? Anthony Buzzard

"The Old Testament is a strictly monotheistic. God is a single personal being. The idea that a trinity is to be found there or even in any way shadowed forth, is an assumption that has long held sway in theology, but is utterly without foundation."

The New Encyclopedia Britannica 1976

"Neither the word trinity, nor the explicit doctrine as such, appears in the New Testament, nor did Jesus and his followers intend to contradict the Shema in the Old Testament: 'Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord' (Deut. 6:4). . . The doctrine developed gradually over several centuries and through many controversies. . . . By the end of the 4th century . . . the doctrine of the trinity took substantially the form it has maintained ever since."

The Shema consists of three sections of scripture Deuteronomy 6:4-9, 11:13-21, and Numbers 15:37-41. It is called the Shema after the Hebrew word hear, the first word in Deut. 6:4. The Shema was to be recited twice daily once upon arising and once when going to bed. So the Old Testament Jews would start and finish their day with 'Hear O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord.'

The Complete Word Study Old Testament 1994

"To the Jew, (Deut. 6:4-9) this is the most important text in the Old Testament. Jesus himself called the injunction in 6:5 'the first and great commandment' Matt.22:36-38. . . Moses is teaching not only the priority of belief in one God, but also a means to preserve that belief. As time went on, the proper understanding of the Shema with its spiritual implications was no longer grasped by the people. This absence of saving knowledge became a factor in their spiritual downfall."

Whenever God's people forget that there is only one God and they follow after other gods this will result in their downfall. This can be seen time and time again in the Old Testament where God's people forsook the Lord and then evil came upon them. God does not send this evil, but He warns us to stay away from the evil of worshipping more than one God.

Dictionary of The Bible 1995 John L. Mckenzie

"The trinity of God is defined by the church as the belief that in God are three persons who subsist in one nature. The belief as so defined was reached only in the 4th and 5th centuries AD and hence is not explicitly and formally a biblical belief."

Why You Should Believe In The Trinity 1989 Robert M. Bowman Jr.

"The New Testament does not contain a formalized explanation of the trinity that uses such words as trinity, three persons, one substance, and the like."

The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology 1976

"The Bible lacks the express declaration that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are of equal essence. [said Karl Barth]"

Exploring The Christian Faith 1992

"nowhere in the Bible do we find the doctrine of the trinity clearly formulated"

"People who are using the King James Version might be inclined to point to I John 5:7 'For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word and the Holy Ghost' But it is now generally recognized that this verse does not belong to the original text of the letter it is a later insertion."

"The theological formulation took place later, after the days of the apostles."

"the doctrine of the trinity is not found in the Bible"

"The doctrine was to develop along mainly Greek lines"

Take note of the words "explicitly and formally", "formalized explanation", "express declaration", and "clearly formulated". These words are indicative of the fact that all the clear verses on the subjects of God, Jesus Christ, and Holy Spirit do not even hint at a trinity. There are only a few verses that seem to hint at a trinity, and then only when they are twisted. The difficult or unclear verse must always be interpreted in light of the clear verses. If God is a coeternal, coequal, one substance, three-in-one Godhead, trinity, if that is what God really is, then he would have made himself known as such to the first century apostles they would have made the trinity part of their beliefs teachings and writings. They would have used words like God the Son, coequal, coeternal, one substance, or trinity, but the scripture is devoid of all of these trinitarian words and phrases because the first century apostles did not believe or teach, or write about God being a trinity, or Jesus Christ being God. But the pagan and Greek and Babylonian religions used those words.

Dictionary Of The Bible 1995 John L. Mckenzie

"The trinity of persons within the unity of nature is defined in terms of 'person' and 'nature' which are Greek philosophical terms actually the terms do not appear in the Bible. The trinitarian definitions arose as the result of long controversies in which these terms and others such as 'essence' and 'substance' were erroneously applied to God by some theologians."

The Rise of Christianity W.H.C. Frend 1985

"For him [Clement] the trinity consisted of a hierarchy of three graded beings, and from that concept - derived from Platonism - depended much of the remainder of his theological teaching."

The Doctrine of the Trinity Christianity's Self-Inflicted Wound 1994 Anthony F. Buzzard, Charles F. Hunting

"Eberhard Griesebach, in an acedemic lecture on "Christianity and humanism" delivered in 1938, observed that in its encounter with Greek philosophy Christianity became theology. That was the fall of Christianity. The Problem thus highlighted stems from the fact that traditional orthodoxy, while it claims to find its origins in scripture, in fact contains elements drawn from a synthesis of Scripture and Neo-Platonism. The mingling of Hebrew and Greek thinking set in motion first in the second century by an influx of Hellenism through the Church Fathers, whose theology was colored by the Platonists Plotinus and Porphyry. The effects of the Greek influence are widely recognized by theologians, though they go largely unnoticed by many believers."

". . . the Trinity is an unintelligible proposition of platonic mysticisms that three are one and one is three" [quote from Thomas Jefferson]

The Greek mythology and pagan religious beliefs were derived from Babylon.

Nouveau Dictionnaire Universel 1870

"The Platonic trinity, itself merely a rearrangement of older trinities dating back to earlier peoples, appears to be the rational philosophic trinity of attributes that gave birth to the three hypostases or divine persons taught by the Christian churches . . . This Greek philosopher's (Plato, 4th century BC) conception of the divine trinity . . . can be found in all ancient (pagan) religions"

The Two Babylons 1916 Rev. Alexander Hislop

"Egypt and Greece derived their religion from Babylon"

Microsoft Encarta Funk & Wagnalls 1994

"Neoplatonism is a type of idealistic monism in which the ultimate reality of the universe is held to be an infinite, unknowable, perfect One. From this One emanates nous (pure intelligence), whence in turn is derived the world soul, the creative activity of which engenders the lesser souls of human beings. The world soul is conceived as an image of the nous, even as the nous is an image of the One both the nous and the world soul, despite their differentiation, are thus consubstantial [one substance] with the One."

Microsoft Encarta Funk & Wagnalls 1994

"The theologians Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and St. Augustine were early Christian exponents of a Platonic perspective. Platonic ideas have had a crucial role in the development of Christian theology"

The Rise of Christianity W.H.C. Frend 1985

"we find Christianity tending to absorb Greek philosophical values, until by the end of the third century the line between the beliefs of educated Christian and educated pagan in the east would often be hard to draw."

The early Christians began mixing Greek and pagan and Babylonian philosophical and religious trinitarian concepts with their Christian doctrine which lead them to begin considering the trinity, and after three centuries that thinking finally took hold. Acts 17:22 says that the Greeks were too superstitious, and I Corinthians 1:22 says that the Jews require a sign and the Greeks seek after wisdom. The Greeks were too intellectual in their approach to God's Word. They became wise in their own eyes and the truth of God’s Word became foolishness to them, so they grafted their own superstitious philosophical wisdom into God’s Word and changed the truth into a lie they changed Son of God to God the Son.

Catholic Encyclopedia 1991

"The term 'Trinity' does not appear in scripture"

"(The Doctrine of the Trinity) - hammered out over the course of three centuries of doctrinal controversy against modalism and subordinationism"

Why You Should Believe In The Trinity 1989 Robert M. Bowman Jr.

"Roman Catholics . . often claim that the trinity is not a biblical doctrine and was first revealed through the ministry of the church centuries after the Bible was written. This is in keeping with the Roman Catholic belief that Christian doctrine may be based either on the Bible or on church tradition."

The Roman Catholic Church did not get the doctrine of the trinity from the Bible, they hammered out their own theology of what they wanted God to be over several hundred years, and mixed Greek philosophy with Babylonian mystery religion, and their own private interpretations of the Bible.

I Peter 1:20, 21 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

II Timothy 2:15 Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.

People don't respect God's Word, they are more interested in inventing their own theology by the will of man instead of believing the word of God, they are not interested in rightly dividing God's word of truth. The trinity is private interpretation and wrong dividing of God's word.

Jesus Christ is not God 1975 Victor Paul Wierwille

"Long before the founding of Christianity the idea of a triune god or a god-in-three persons was a common belief in ancient religions. Although many of these religions had many minor deities, they distinctly acknowledged that there was one supreme God who consisted of three persons or essences. The Babylonians used an equilateral triangle to represent this three-in-one god, now the symbol of the modern three-in-one believers."

"The Hindu trinity was made up of the gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The Greek triad was composed of Zeus, Athena and Apollo. These three were said by the pagans to 'agree in one.' One of the largest pagan temples built by the Romans was constructed at Ballbek (situated in present day Lebanon) to their trinity of Jupiter, Mercury and Venus. In Babylon the planet Venus was revered as special and was worshipped as a trinity consisting of Venus, the moon and the sun. This triad became the Babylonian holy trinity in the fourteenth century before Christ."

"Although other religions for thousands of years before Christ was born worshipped a triune god, the trinity was not a part of Christian dogma and formal documents of the first three centuries after Christ."

"That there was no formal, established doctrine of the trinity until the fourth century is a fully documented historical fact."

"Clearly, historians of church dogma and systematic theologians agree that the idea of a Christian trinity was not a part of the first century church. The twelve apostles never subscribed to it or received revelation about it. So how then did a trinitarian doctrine come about? It gradually evolved and gained momentum in late first, second and third centuries as pagans, who had converted to Christianity, brought to Christianity some of their pagan beliefs and practices."

Who is Jesus? Anthony Buzzard

". . . we shall find not a hint that Jesus believed himself to be an uncreated being who had existed from eternity. Matthew and Luke trace the origin of Jesus to a special act of creation by God when the Messiah's conception took place in the womb of Mary. It was this miraculous event which marked the beginning-the genesis, or origin of Jesus of Nazareth"

Arius and his followers believed that Jesus Christ was created, that he was not in the beginning with God. They believed that he had a beginning, whereas God has no beginning. This makes Jesus Christ substantially different from God, which means he cannot be of one-substance with God as the trinitarians believe.

Documents of the Christian Church 2nd Ed 1963 Henery Bettenson

(quotes from Arius and his followers)

"If, said he, the Father begat the Son, he that was begotten had a beginning of existence hence it is clear that there was a [a time] when the son was not."

"The Son of God is from what is not and there was [a time] when he was not saying also that the Son of God, in virtue of his free will, is capable of evil and good, and calling him a creature and a work."

The Rise of Christianity 1985 W.H.C. Frend

"If the Father begat the son, there must be when he was not. He could not therefore be coeternal with the Father."[said by Arius]

Man's Religions 1968 John B. Noss

"Arius held that Christ, . . . was a created being he was made like other creatures out of nothing, . . . The Son, he argued, had a beginning, while God was without beginning."

The Church in History 1964 B. K. Kuiper

"The heathen believe in many gods. Arius thought that to believe that the Son is God as well as that the Father is God would mean that there are two Gods, and that therefore the Christians would be falling back into heathenism."

Arius believed that Jesus Christ was born, that he had a beginning, he believed that Jesus Christ was the created Son, not the Creator, and for taking the Word of God literally he was excommunicated and anathematized. Starting with Nimrod in ancient Babylon until today man has stubbornly rebelled against the doctrine of one God.

Exodus 20:3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

Exodus 34:14a For thou shalt worship no other god:

The trinity is idolatry, it puts Jesus Christ as a god before God.

Forgers of the Word 1983 Victor Paul Wierwille

"To say Jesus Christ is God the Son is idolatry. To say Jesus is the Son of God is truth."

I Samuel 15:23 For Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry.

Deuteronomy 6:4 Hear O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord:

The Lord God Almighty, the Creator, the Father of Jesus Christ is one God not three, not three-in-one, not one-in-three, ONE! and only ONE! God is not a three-headed multi-personality trinity.

The Bible clearly refers to Jesus Christ as the Son of God 50 times it never refers to him as God the Son. The phrase, Son of God, is in the genitive case showing that Jesus Christ originated from and belongs to God. In no way can the Son of God be the same as God the Son, that violates grammar, language and common sense. God the Son is not a biblical term, it does not appear in the Greek, Hebrew, or Aramaic texts. God the Son is however a Babylonian term. The Babylonians made Nimrod a god, and when he died they deified his son Tammuz as God the Son. Making God a man and man a god was invented in Babylon. This idolatry and false belief has been carried into pagan religions, and it has worked its way into Christianity as the doctrine of the trinity.

Ravaged By The New Age 1996 Texe Marrs

"Nimrod, the first of the great Babylonian rulers, was also declared to be the first of the man-gods."

The Two Babylons 1916 Rev. Alexander Hislop

"He was worshipped in Babylon under the name of El-Bar, or 'God the Son'."

It is clear that the trinity does not have a Biblical origin. It can be traced back to ancient Babylon, pagan Greeks and Romans. It was forced upon the Christian Church by the emperor Constantine. It was adhered to by bishops who were afraid to speak against it. Then when the Protestants broke away from the corrupt Roman Church most of them still carried the pagan doctrine of the trinity, because they had practiced error for so long that they accepted the trinitarian doctrine.

Encyclopedia Britannica 1968

"The Council of Nicaea met on May 20, 325. Constantine himself presiding, actively guiding the discussion, and personally proposed the crucial formula expressing the relation of Christ to God in the creed issued by the council 'of one substance with the father.' Over-awed by the emperor, the bishops, with two exceptions only, signed the creed, many of them against their inclination. Constantine regarded the decision of Nicaea as divinely inspired. As long as he lived no one dared openly to challenge the creed of Nicaea."

The Origins of Pagan and Christian Beliefs Edward Carpenter 1920 1996

"And when at the Council of Nicea (325 AD) it [the early church] endeavored to establish an official creed, the strife and bitterness only increased."

"-the Nicean creed had nothing to propound except some extremely futile speculations about the relation to each other of the Father and the Son, and the relation of both to the Holy Ghost,"

Man's Religions 1968 John B. Noss

"This creed, adopted under pressure from the emperor, who wanted peace, did not immediately solve the doctrinal difficulties or save the peace. The phrases (not made) and (of the same substance with the Father) were bitterly denounced by many"

The Rise of Christianity 1985 W.H.C. Frend

"The Emperor exerted all his influence toward winning unanimous acceptance and nearly succeeded. Only two bishops stood out against it but two other senior bishops refused to sign the anathemas against Arius and were exiled."

Constantine was really only interested in unifying the empire and gaining more power. He broke truces, started wars, and even had relatives killed to further his power. Constantine was more interested in unity than in getting the correct doctrine of the trinity. In fact before he died Constantine switched sides and took Arius' position regarding the trinity instead of the position that he forced through the council of Nicea. Without Constantine's presiding, actively guiding, and actively controlling the discussion there would not have been a 'coequal' 'coeternal' 'God the Son' Nicene creed. But what manner of man was this person who pushed through this doctrine which was to become the cornerstone of Christianity?

A History of Christianity Volume 1 1997 Kenneth Scott Latourette

"Constantine. . . although only a catechumen, [One who is being instructed in a subject at an elementary level] presided over its [the council of Nicea] opening session, and was active in its deliberations. Whether Constantine appreciated the niceties of the questions at issue is highly doubtful, for he was a layman, a warrior and administrator, not a philosopher or an expert theologian."

The Rise of Christianity 1985 W.H.C. Frend

"Like all great conquerors from Alexander to Napoleon or even Hitler his [Constantine's] aim was unity and unification on a worldwide scale."

A History of the Christian Church 2nd Ed. 1985 Williston Walker

"He [Constantine] accepted the pagan title of Pontifex Maximus, and his coins still showed the emblems of the Sun-God."

Babylon Mystery Religion 1981 Ralph Woodrow

". . his [Constantine's] conversion is to be seriously questioned. Even though he had much to do with the establishment of certain doctrines and customs within the church, the facts plainly show that he was not truly converted-not in the Biblical sense of the word."

"Probably the most obvious indication that he was not truly converted may be seen from the fact that after his conversion he committed several murders-including the murder of his own wife and son!"

"Yet in 326-very shortly after directing the Nicean Council-he had his son put to death."

The Doctrine of the Trinity Christianity's Self-Inflicted Wound 1994 Anthony F. Buzzard Charles F. Hunting

"It was Constantine who by official edict brought Christianity to believe in the formal division of the Godhead into two – God the Father and God the Son. It remained the task of a later generation to bring Christianity to believe in the Triune God."

". . . years after winning this heaven-inspired triumph, history divulges that the alleged follower of Jesus murdered an already vanquished rival, killed his wife by having her boiled alive in her own bath – and murdered an innocent son." [speaking of Constantine]

A History of Christianity 1976 Paul Johnson

". . . appears to have been a sun-worshipper, one of a number of the late pagan cults which had observances in common with Christians. Worship of such gods was not a novel idea. Every Greek or Roman expected that political success followed from religious piety. Christianity was the religion of Constantine's father. Although Constantine claimed that he was the thirteenth apostle, his was no sudden Damascus conversion. Indeed it is highly doubtful that he ever truly abandoned sun-worship. After his professed acceptance of Christianity, he built a triumphal arch to the sun god and in Constantinople set up a statue of the same sun god bearing his own features. He was finally deified after his death by official edict in the Empire, as were many Roman rulers."

". . . His private life became monstrous as he aged . . . His abilities had always lain in management . . . [he was] a master of . . . the smoothly-worded compromise."

It would be an understatement to say that Constantine was a crooked politician yet this is the man who is mainly responsible for the Nicene Creed's doctrine of the coequal, coeternal, one substance three in one God. One day he is setting the doctrine for the Christian church another day he is murdering people it would seem that to anyone with any common sense that formulating church doctrine should not be done by a non-repentant murderer. How many of you would like to have a non-repentant murderer setting your Christian doctrine? Yet if you believe the Nicene Creed you have done just that.

Documents of the Christian Church 2nd Ed 1963 Henery Bettenson

"The decisions of Nicea were really the work of a minority, and they were misunderstood and disliked by many"

Forgers of the Word 1983 Victor Paul Wierwille

"The truth of Jesus Christ the Son of God was deliberately forged into the doctrine of God the Son. Seeds of Jesus Christ as God were planted and sprouted during the lifetime of Paul, continued growing during Timothy's lifetime and flourished shortly thereafter, reaching full bloom for all future creeds by 325 AD"

"The doctrine that Jesus Christ the Son of God was God the son was decreed by worldly and ecclesiastical powers. Men were forced to accept it at the point of the sword or else, Thus, the error of the trinity was propounded to the end that ultimately people believed it to be the truth. Thus Christianity became in essence like Babylonian heathenism, with only a veneer of Christian names."

A History of Christianity Volume 1 1997 Kenneth Scott Latourette

"To enforce the decisions of the Council of Nicea, Constantine commanded, with the death penalty for disobedience, the burning of all books composed by Arius, banished Arius and his closest supporters, and deposed from their sees Eusebius of Nicomedia and another bishop who had been active in the support of Arius."

The Rise of Christianity 1985 W.H.C. Frend

"the controversial term, defining the son as Consubstantial with [homoousios] the father was introduced by Constantine. The term was objectionable to any Origenist bishop and had been rejected by Dionysius of Alexandria when used by the Libyan bishops, and the Council of Antioch"

"The great majority of the eastern bishops were placed in a false position. they dared not challenge the emperor"

A History of the Christian Church 2nd Ed. 1985 Williston Walker

"The majority (of the bishops) were conservatives in the sense that they represented . . . subordinationism of the eastern tradition. The Emperor himself was present at the assembly and dominated its proceedings."

"From the very beginning, however, people like Eusebius of Caesarea had doubts about the (Nicene) creed, doubts focused on the word 'homoousios'. (Greek for one substance) . . . The term was non-Scriptural, it had a very doubtful theological history."

"Eusebius of Nicomedia and all save two of the other bishops, signed the creed-willing no doubt, to go along with what the emperor wanted. Yet he and many others continued to suspect its language."

The majority of the bishops at the council of Nicea believedin what is called subordinationism, which is a belief that Jesus Christ is subordinate to God the Father, not coequal, not coeternal, and not God the Son. The teachings of Arius were condemned in 325, but the teachings of Arius did not die, by 359 Arianism was widely accepted, that is until the minority trinitarian bishops found another emperor that they could get to propose their trinitarian creed at the Council of Constantinople in 381.

Man's Religions John B. Noss 1968

"The doctrine of the trinity he [Michael Servetus] felt to be a Catholic perversion and himself to be a good New Testament Christian in combating it. . . According to his conception, a trinity composed of three distinct persons in one God is a rational impossibility"

Saying that Jesus Christ is not God does not degrade Jesus Christ it merely sets things in their proper order so we can know God and worship Him in spirit and truth.

John 14:6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way the truth and the life: no man cometh to the Father, but by me.

John 14:13 And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do that the Father may be glorified in the Son.

Satan the Devil strongly desires man to worship him instead of the one true God, and when he can't achieve his primary goal then his next desire is to get man to worship anything other than the true God. Satan has been quite successful in tricking good Christians into worshipping Jesus Christ as God instead of worshipping the one true God, the Father of Jesus Christ.

Eph 5:14 Wherefore he saith Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.

We can no longer be lulled to sleep by the bizarre, complex, confusing, ritualistic, mysterious Babylonian traditions of trinitarian doctrines. We must come back to God's Word and worship the one true God the Father of Jesus Christ.

1 Corinthians 8:4b there is none other God but one.

1 Corinthians 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.

The Doctrine of the Trinity Christianity's Self-Inflicted Wound 1994 Anthony F. Buzzard Charles F. Hunting

"The God of Moses, Isaiah, Jesus, and the apostles was one person, the Father. One cannot be made equal to two or three. All that can be done with one is to fractionalize it. Divide it into smaller segments and it is no longer one. Expand it, and in spite of prodigious mental gymnastics on the part of Trinitarians, it cannot be made into two or three and still remain one."

". . . it is not uncommon for religious leaders to insist that you must believe in the Trinity to be a Christian, or be branded a cultist."

"One of the great marvels of Christian history has been the ability of theologians to convince Christian people that three persons are really one God."

A Statement of Reasons for Not Believing the Doctrine of the Trinitarians Concerning the Nature of God and the Person of Christ 1833 Andrews Norton

"When we look back through the long ages of the reign of the Trinity . . . we shall perceive that few doctrines have produced more unmixed evil."

The Bible does not give us a doctrine of a trinity, the historical record shows that modern Christian trinitarian beliefs were not formulated until about 300 years after the death of Jesus Christ, but in pagan religions trinitarian beliefs date back to ancient Babylon, thousands of years before Jesus Christ. The coequal, coeternal, one substance, three in one trinity is not a Christian Biblical doctrine yet there are those who insist that it is the cornerstone of Christianity.

In our day and time the doctrine of the trinity is a cornerstone of idolatry.

If you have any comments or suggestions, please email the site administrator.


The Surprising Origins of the Trinity Doctrine

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The Surprising Origins of the Trinity Doctrine

"And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free" (John 8:32 John 8:32 And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
American King James Version× ).

Most people assume that everything that bears the label "Christian" must have originated with Jesus Christ and His early followers. But this is definitely not the case. All we have to do is look at the words of Jesus Christ and His apostles to see that this is clearly not true.

The historical record shows that, just as Jesus and the New Testament writers foretold, various heretical ideas and teachers rose up from within the early Church and infiltrated it from without. Christ Himself warned His followers: "Take heed that no one deceives you. For many will come in My name . . . and will deceive many" (Matthew 24:4-5 Matthew 24:4-5 [4] And Jesus answered and said to them, Take heed that no man deceive you. [5] For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ and shall deceive many.
American King James Version× ).

You can read many similar warnings in other passages (such as Matthew 24:11 Matthew 24:11 And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.
American King James Version× Acts 20:29-30 Acts 20:29-30 [29] For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. [30] Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them.
American King James Version× 2 Corinthians 11:13-15 2 Corinthians 11:13-15 [13] For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. [14] And no marvel for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. [15] Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also be transformed as the ministers of righteousness whose end shall be according to their works.
American King James Version× 2 Timothy 4:2-4 2 Timothy 4:2-4 [2] Preach the word be instant in season, out of season reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and doctrine. [3] For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears [4] And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned to fables.
American King James Version× 2 Peter 2:1-2 2 Peter 2:1-2 [1] But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privately shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring on themselves swift destruction. [2] And many shall follow their pernicious ways by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of.
American King James Version× 1 John 2:18-26 1 John 2:18-26 [18] Little children, it is the last time: and as you have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists whereby we know that it is the last time. [19] They went out from us, but they were not of us for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us. [20] But you have an unction from the Holy One, and you know all things. [21] I have not written to you because you know not the truth, but because you know it, and that no lie is of the truth. [22] Who is a liar but he that denies that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist, that denies the Father and the Son. [23] Whoever denies the Son, the same has not the Father: he that acknowledges the Son has the Father also. [24] Let that therefore abide in you, which you have heard from the beginning. If that which you have heard from the beginning shall remain in you, you also shall continue in the Son, and in the Father. [25] And this is the promise that he has promised us, even eternal life. [26] These things have I written to you concerning them that seduce you.
American King James Version× 1 John 4:1-3 1 John 4:1-3 [1] Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world. [2] Hereby know you the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God: [3] And every spirit that confesses not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof you have heard that it should come and even now already is it in the world.
American King James Version× ).

Barely two decades after Christ's death and resurrection, the apostle Paul wrote that many believers were already "turning away . . . to a different gospel" (Galatians 1:6 Galatians 1:6 I marvel that you are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ to another gospel:
American King James Version× ). He wrote that he was forced to contend with "false apostles, deceitful workers" who were fraudulently "transforming themselves into apostles of Christ" (2 Corinthians 11:13 2 Corinthians 11:13 For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.
American King James Version× ). One of the major problems he had to deal with was "false brethren" (2 Corinthians 11:26 2 Corinthians 11:26 In journeys often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by my own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brothers
American King James Version× ).

By late in the first century, as we see from 3 John 9-10, conditions had grown so dire that false ministers openly refused to receive representatives of the apostle John and were excommunicating true Christians from the Church!

Of this troubling period Edward Gibbon, the famed historian, wrote in his classic work The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire of a "dark cloud that hangs over the first age of the church" (1821, Vol. 2, p. 111).

It wasn't long before true servants of God became a marginalized and scattered minority among those calling themselves Christian. A very different religion, now compromised with many concepts and practices rooted in ancient paganism (such mixing of religious beliefs being known as syncretism, common in the Roman Empire at the time), took hold and transformed the faith founded by Jesus Christ.

Historian Jesse Hurlbut says of this time of transformation: "We name the last generation of the first century, from 68 to 100 A.D., 'The Age of Shadows,' partly because the gloom of persecution was over the church, but more especially because of all the periods in the [church's] history, it is the one about which we know the least. We have no longer the clear light of the Book of Acts to guide us and no author of that age has filled the blank in the history . . .

"For fifty years after St. Paul's life a curtain hangs over the church, through which we strive vainly to look and when at last it rises, about 120 A.D. with the writings of the earliest church fathers, we find a church in many aspects very different from that in the days of St. Peter and St. Paul" (The Story of the Christian Church, 1970, p. 33).

This "very different" church would grow in power and influence, and within a few short centuries would come to dominate even the mighty Roman Empire!

By the second century, faithful members of the Church, Christ's "little flock" (Luke 12:32 Luke 12:32 Fear not, little flock for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.
American King James Version× ), had largely been scattered by waves of deadly persecution. They held firmly to the biblical truth about Jesus Christ and God the Father, though they were persecuted by the Roman authorities as well as those who professed Christianity but were in reality teaching "another Jesus" and a "different gospel" (2 Corinthians 11:4 2 Corinthians 11:4 For if he that comes preaches another Jesus, whom we have not preached, or if you receive another spirit, which you have not received, or another gospel, which you have not accepted, you might well bear with him.
American King James Version× Galatians 1:6-9 Galatians 1:6-9 [6] I marvel that you are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ to another gospel: [7] Which is not another but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. [8] But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than that which we have preached to you, let him be accursed. [9] As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other gospel to you than that you have received, let him be accursed.
American King James Version× ).

Different ideas about Christ's divinity lead to conflict

This was the setting in which the doctrine of the Trinity emerged. In those early decades after Jesus Christ's ministry, death and resurrection, and spanning the next few centuries, various ideas sprang up as to His exact nature. Was He man? Was He God? Was He God appearing as a man? Was He an illusion? Was He a mere man who became God? Was He created by God the Father, or did He exist eternally with the Father?

All of these ideas had their proponents. The unity of belief of the original Church was lost as new beliefs, many borrowed or adapted from pagan religions, replaced the teachings of Jesus and the apostles.

Let us be clear that when it comes to the intellectual and theological debates in those early centuries that led to the formulation of the Trinity, the true Church was largely absent from the scene, having been driven underground. (See the chapter "The Rise of a Counterfeit Christianity" in our free booklet The Church Jesus Built for an overview of this critical period.).

For this reason, in that stormy period we often see debates not between truth and error, but between one error and a different error—a fact seldom recognized by many modern scholars yet critical for our understanding.

A classic example of this was the dispute over the nature of Christ that led the Roman emperor Constantine the Great to convene the Council of Nicaea (in modern-day western Turkey) in A.D. 325.

Constantine, although held by many to be the first "Christian" Roman Emperor, was actually a sun-worshiper who was only baptized on his deathbed. During his reign he had his eldest son and his wife murdered. He was also vehemently anti-Semitic, referring in one of his edicts to "the detestable Jewish crowd" and "the customs of these most wicked men"—customs that were in fact rooted in the Bible and practiced by Jesus and the apostles.

As emperor in a period of great tumult within the Roman Empire, Constantine was challenged with keeping the empire unified. He recognized the value of religion in uniting his empire. This was, in fact, one of his primary motivations in accepting and sanctioning the "Christian" religion (which, by this time, had drifted far from the teachings of Jesus Christ and the apostles and was Christian in name only).

But now Constantine faced a new challenge. Religion researcher Karen Armstrong explains in A History of God that "one of the first problems that had to be solved was the doctrine of God . . . a new danger arose from within which split Christians into bitterly warring camps" (1993, p. 106).

Debate over the nature of God at the Council of Nicaea

Constantine convened the Council of Nicaea in the year 325 as much for political reasons—for unity in the empire—as religious ones. The primary issue at that time came to be known as the Arian controversy.

"In the hope of securing for his throne the support of the growing body of Christians he had shown them considerable favor and it was to his interest to have the church vigorous and united. The Arian controversy was threatening its unity and menacing its strength. He therefore undertook to put an end to the trouble. It was suggested to him, perhaps by the Spanish bishop Hosius, who was influential at court, that if a synod were to meet representing the whole church both east and west, it might be possible to restore harmony.

"Constantine himself of course neither knew nor cared anything about the matter in dispute but he was eager to bring the controversy to a close, and Hosius' advice appealed to him as sound" (Arthur Cushman McGiffert, A History of Christian Thought, 1954, Vol. 1, p. 258).

Arius, a priest from Alexandria, Egypt, taught that Christ, because He was the Son of God, must have had a beginning and therefore was a special creation of God. Further, if Jesus was the Son, the Father of necessity must be older.

Opposing the teachings of Arius was Athanasius, a deacon also from Alexandria. His view was an early form of Trinitarianism wherein the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were one but at the same time distinct from each other.

The decision as to which view the church council would accept was to a large extent arbitrary. Karen Armstrong explains in A History of God: "When the bishops gathered at Nicaea on May 20, 325, to resolve the crisis, very few would have shared Athanasius's view of Christ. Most held a position midway between Athanasius and Arius" (p. 110).

As emperor, Constantine was in the unusual position of deciding church doctrine even though he was not really a Christian. (The following year is when he had both his wife and son murdered, as previously mentioned).

Historian Henry Chadwick attests, "Constantine, like his father, worshipped the Unconquered Sun" (The Early Church, 1993, p. 122). As to the emperor's embrace of Christianity, Chadwick admits, "His conversion should not be interpreted as an inward experience of grace . . . It was a military matter. His comprehension of Christian doctrine was never very clear" (p. 125).

Chadwick does say that Constantine's deathbed baptism itself "implies no doubt about his Christian belief," it being common for rulers to put off baptism to avoid accountability for things like torture and executing criminals (p. 127). But this justification doesn't really help the case for the emperor's conversion being genuine.

Norbert Brox, a professor of church history, confirms that Constantine was never actually a converted Christian: "Constantine did not experience any conversion there are no signs of a change of faith in him. He never said of himself that he had turned to another god . . . At the time when he turned to Christianity, for him this was Sol Invictus (the victorious sun god)" (A Concise History of the Early Church, 1996, p. 48).

When it came to the Nicene Council, The Encyclopaedia Britannica states: "Constantine himself presided, actively guiding the discussions, and personally proposed . . . the crucial formula expressing the relation of Christ to God in the creed issued by the council . . . Overawed by the emperor, the bishops, with two exceptions only, signed the creed, many of them much against their inclination" (1971 edition, Vol. 6, "Constantine," p. 386).

With the emperor's approval, the Council rejected the minority view of Arius and, having nothing definitive with which to replace it, approved the view of Athanasius—also a minority view. The church was left in the odd position of officially supporting, from that point forward, the decision made at Nicaea to endorse a belief held by only a minority of those attending.

The groundwork for official acceptance of the Trinity was now laid—but it took more than three centuries after Jesus Christ's death and resurrection for this unbiblical teaching to emerge!

Nicene decision didn't end the debate

The Council of Nicaea did not end the controversy. Karen Armstrong explains: "Athanasius managed to impose his theology on the delegates . . . with the emperor breathing down their necks . . .

"The show of agreement pleased Constantine, who had no understanding of the theological issues, but in fact there was no unanimity at Nicaea. After the council, the bishops went on teaching as they had before, and the Arian crisis continued for another sixty years. Arius and his followers fought back and managed to regain imperial favor. Athanasius was exiled no fewer than five times. It was very difficult to make his creed stick" (pp. 110-111).

The ongoing disagreements were at times violent and bloody. Of the aftermath of the Council of Nicaea, noted historian Will Durant writes, "Probably more Christians were slaughtered by Christians in these two years (342-3) than by all the persecutions of Christians by pagans in the history of Rome" (The Story of Civilization, Vol. 4: The Age of Faith, 1950, p. 8). Atrociously, while claiming to be Christian many believers fought and slaughtered one another over their differing views of God!

Of the following decades, Professor Harold Brown, cited earlier, writes: "During the middle decades of this century, from 340 to 380, the history of doctrine looks more like the history of court and church intrigues and social unrest . . . The central doctrines hammered out in this period often appear to have been put through by intrigue or mob violence rather than by the common consent of Christendom led by the Holy Spirit" (p. 119).

Debate shifts to the nature of the Holy Spirit

Disagreements soon centered around another issue, the nature of the Holy Spirit. In that regard, the statement issued at the Council of Nicaea said simply, "We believe in the Holy Spirit." This "seemed to have been added to Athanasius's creed almost as an afterthought," writes Karen Armstrong. "People were confused about the Holy Spirit. Was it simply a synonym for God or was it something more?" (p. 115).

Professor Ryrie, also cited earlier,writes, "In the second half of the fourth century, three theologians from the province of Cappadocia in eastern Asia Minor [today central Turkey] gave definitive shape to the doctrine of the Trinity" (p. 65). They proposed an idea that was a step beyond Athanasius' view—that God the Father, Jesus the Son and the Holy Spirit were coequal and together in one being, yet also distinct from one another.

These men—Basil, bishop of Caesarea, his brother Gregory, bishop of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus—were all "trained in Greek philosophy" (Armstrong, p. 113), which no doubt affected their outlook and beliefs (see "Greek Philosophy's Influence on the Trinity Doctrine").

In their view, as Karen Armstrong explains, "the Trinity only made sense as a mystical or spiritual experience . . . It was not a logical or intellectual formulation but an imaginative paradigm that confounded reason. Gregory of Nazianzus made this clear when he explained that contemplation of the Three in One induced a profound and overwhelming emotion that confounded thought and intellectual clarity.

"'No sooner do I conceive of the One than I am illumined by the splendor of the Three no sooner do I distinguish Three than I am carried back into the One. When I think of any of the Three, I think of him as the whole, and my eyes are filled, and the greater part of what I am thinking escapes me'" (p. 117). Little wonder that, as Armstrong concludes, "For many Western Christians . . . the Trinity is simply baffling" (ibid.).

Ongoing disputes lead to the Council of Constantinople

In the year 381, 44 years after Constantine's death, Emperor Theodosius the Great convened the Council of Constantinople (today Istanbul, Turkey) to resolve these disputes. Gregory of Nazianzus, recently appointed as archbishop of Constantinople, presided over the council and urged the adoption of his view of the Holy Spirit.

Historian Charles Freeman states: "Virtually nothing is known of the theological debates of the council of 381, but Gregory was certainly hoping to get some acceptance of his belief that the Spirit was consubstantial with the Father [meaning that the persons are of the same being, as substance in this context denotes individual quality].

"Whether he dealt with the matter clumsily or whether there was simply no chance of consensus, the 'Macedonians,' bishops who refused to accept the full divinity of the Holy Spirit, left the council . . . Typically, Gregory berated the bishops for preferring to have a majority rather than simply accepting 'the Divine Word' of the Trinity on his authority" (A.D. 381: Heretics, Pagans and the Dawn of the Monotheistic State, 2008, p. 96).

Gregory soon became ill and had to withdraw from the council. Who would preside now? "So it was that one Nectarius, an elderly city senator who had been a popular prefect in the city as a result of his patronage of the games, but who was still not a baptized Christian, was selected . . . Nectarius appeared to know no theology, and he had to be initiated into the required faith before being baptized and consecrated" (Freeman, pp. 97-98).

Bizarrely, a man who up to this point wasn't a Christian was appointed to preside over a major church council tasked with determining what it would teach regarding the nature of God!

The Trinity becomes official doctrine

The teaching of the three Cappadocian theologians "made it possible for the Council of Constantinople (381) to affirm the divinity of the Holy Spirit, which up to that point had nowhere been clearly stated, not even in Scripture" (The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism, "God," p. 568).

The council adopted a statement that translates into English as, in part: "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages . . . And we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets . . ." The statement also affirmed belief "in one holy, catholic [meaning in this context universal, whole or complete] and apostolic Church . . ."

With this declaration in 381, which would become known as the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, the Trinity as generally understood today became the official belief and teaching concerning the nature of God.

Theology professor Richard Hanson observes that a result of the council's decision "was to reduce the meanings of the word 'God' from a very large selection of alternatives to one only," such that "when Western man today says 'God' he means the one, sole exclusive [Trinitarian] God and nothing else" (Studies in Christian Antiquity, 1985,pp. 243-244).

Thus, Emperor Theodosius—who himself had been baptized only a year before convening the council—was, like Constantine nearly six decades earlier, instrumental in establishing major church doctrine. As historian Charles Freeman notes: "It is important to remember that Theodosius had no theological background of his own and that he put in place as dogma a formula containing intractable philosophical problems of which he would have been unaware. In effect, the emperor's laws had silenced the debate when it was still unresolved" (p. 103).

Other beliefs about the nature of God banned

Now that a decision had been reached, Theodosius would tolerate no dissenting views. He issued his own edict that read: "We now order that all churches are to be handed over to the bishops who profess Father, Son and Holy Spirit of a single majesty, of the same glory, of one splendor, who establish no difference by sacrilegious separation, but (who affirm) the order of the Trinity by recognizing the Persons and uniting the Godhead" (quoted by Richard Rubenstein, When Jesus Became God, 1999, p. 223).

Another edict from Theodosius went further in demanding adherence to the new teaching: "Let us believe the one deity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title of Catholic Christians but as for the others, since, in our judgement, they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles [assemblies] the name of churches.

"They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of the divine condemnation, and the second the punishment which our authority, in accordance with the will of Heaven, shall decide to inflict" (reproduced in Documents of the Christian Church, Henry Bettenson, editor, 1967, p. 22).

Thus we see that a teaching that was foreign to Jesus Christ, never taught by the apostles and unknown to the other biblical writers, was locked into place and the true biblical revelation about the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit was locked out. Any who disagreed were, in accordance with the edicts of the emperor and church authorities, branded heretics and dealt with accordingly.

Trinity doctrine decided by trial and error

This unusual chain of events is why theology professors Anthony and Richard Hanson would summarize the story in their book Reasonable Belief: A Survey of the Christian Faith by noting that the adoption of the Trinity doctrine came as a result of "a process of theological exploration which lasted at least three hundred years . . . In fact it was a process of trial and error (almost of hit and miss), in which the error was by no means all confined to the unorthodox . . . It would be foolish to represent the doctrine of the Holy Trinity as having been achieved by any other way" (1980, p. 172).

They then conclude: "This was a long, confused, process whereby different schools of thought in the Church worked out for themselves, and then tried to impose on others, their answer to the question, 'How divine is Jesus Christ?' . . . If ever there was a controversy decided by the method of trial and error, it was this one" (p. 175).

Anglican churchman and Oxford University lecturer K.E. Kirk revealingly writes of the adoption of the doctrine of the Trinity: "The theological and philosophical vindication of the divinity of the Spirit begins in the fourth century we naturally turn to the writers of that period to discover what grounds they have for their belief. To our surprise, we are forced to admit that they have none . . .

"This failure of Christian theology . . . to produce logical justification of the cardinal point in its trinitarian doctrine is of the greatest possible significance. We are forced, even before turning to the question of the vindication of the doctrine by experience, to ask ourselves whether theology or philosophy has ever produced any reasons why its belief should be Trinitarian" ("The Evolution of the Doctrine of the Trinity," published in Essays on the Trinity and the Incarnation, A.E.J. Rawlinson, editor, 1928, pp. 221-222).

Why believe a teaching that isn't biblical?

This, in brief, is the amazing story of how the doctrine of the Trinity came to be introduced—and how those who refused to accept it came to be branded as heretics or unbelievers.

But should we really base our view of God on a doctrine that isn't spelled out in the Bible, that wasn't formalized until three centuries after the time of Jesus Christ and the apostles, that was debated and argued for decades (not to mention for centuries since), that was imposed by religious councils presided over by novices or nonbelievers and that was "decided by the method of trial and error"?

Of course not. We should instead look to the Word of God—not to ideas of men—to see how our Creator reveals Himself!


Timeline

2019: As part of Trinity’s campus revitalization plan, the new Student Services Centre opened in Fall 2019 (front hall of the main Trinity College building). The Centre brings key student services such as the Office of the Registrar and the Office of the Dean of Students together into one space.

2017: The College has built a future for Trinity’s past—the new Trinity College Archives opened.

2015: Trinity’s endowments reached $90 million the Friends of the Library celebrated its 40th annual Book Sale and the College enhanced its Health and Wellness program and launched the Anne Steacy Counselling Initiative.

2014: Trinity established two new streams in the Margaret MacMillan Trinity One Program: Anne Steacy Biomedical Health and Anne Steacy Health Science and Society.

2013: The Bill Graham Centre for Contemporary International History opened. The Centre is a collaborative academic enterprise between Trinity College and the Munk School of Global Affairs.

2005: In September, Trinity introduced a new program for first-year students— Trinity One (later named the Margaret MacMillan Trinity One Program) in the International Relations and Ethics streams. The Public Policy stream started in 2012.

2000: The John W. Graham Library opened previously, the library was located in the basement level of the main building.

1995: Through the generosity of Trinity alumni and friends, the Humphrys Chaplaincy was endowed at the College. This was followed by the Margaret E. Fleck Chair in Anglican Studies, the positions of the Rolph-Bell Archivist and the Nicholls Librarian, and the Raymond Pryke Chair in the Margaret MacMillan Trinity One Program.

1988: Trinity now sponsored three interdisciplinary undergraduate programs on behalf of the Faculty of Arts & Science: International Relations (1976), Immunology (1984) and Ethics, Society & Law (1988).

1979: Named after Trinity’s 9th Provost, the George Ignatieff Theatre opened on November 12.

1974: The Memorandum of Understanding between Trinity College and the University of Toronto was signed Trinity’s undergraduate program became fully integrated with the University’s Faculty of Arts & Science.

1961: Opening on January 15, the new academic building was named in honour of Gerald Larkin, one of Trinity’s most important benefactors.

1955: Trinity College Chapel opened in October. Until then, Seeley Hall had been the College Chapel.

1943: Together with Emmanuel, Knox and Wycliffe Colleges, the Faculty of Divinity formed the future Toronto School of Theology (established in 1969), which joined the University of Toronto in 1978 to grant degrees conjointly.

1938: The new St. Hilda’s Residence building on Devonshire Place opened in 2004, all residences at Trinity became coeducational.

1925: The College acquired its present property on Hoskin Avenue in 1913, but construction was not completed until 1925 because of the war. The foundation stone for the new building was laid on June 4, 1923, and the College held its formal opening and dedication ceremony on October 21, 1925.

1904: Trinity federated with the University of Toronto on October 1 this also saw the cessation of the Trinity Medical College and the Faculties of Law, Dentistry and Music.

1888: St. Hilda’s College was created as the women’s college of Trinity it was incorporated on February 11, 1890.

1884: The College admitted its first female students.

1870: Trinity Medical School opened in 1870 (later the Trinity Medical College).

1867: The Right Rev’d John Strachan died on November 1.

1850-1852: Founded by the Right Rev’d John Strachan, Trinity College purchased its original site on Queen Street West in 1850. Trinity College was incorporated and the cornerstone was laid on April 30, 1851. On January 15, 1852, the College opened. Also in 1852, the Cobourg Diocesan Theological Institute (which had begun teaching in 1842) became the Faculty of Divinity in the new Trinity College.


Debate shifts to the nature of the Holy Spirit

Disagreements soon centered around another issue, the nature of the Holy Spirit. In that regard, the statement issued at the Council of Nicaea said simply, “We believe in the Holy Spirit.” This “seemed to have been added to Athanasius’ creed almost as an afterthought,” writes Karen Armstrong. “People were confused about the Holy Spirit. Was it simply a synonym for God or was it something more?” (p. 115).

Professor Ryrie, also cited earlier, writes, “In the second half of the fourth century, three theologians from the province of Cappadocia in eastern Asia Minor [today central Turkey] gave definitive shape to the doctrine of the Trinity” (p. 65). They proposed an idea that was a step beyond Athanasius’ view—that God the Father, Jesus the Son and the Holy Spirit were coequal and together in one being, yet also distinct from one another.

These men—Basil, bishop of Caesarea, his brother Gregory, bishop of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus—were all “trained in Greek philosophy” (Armstrong, p. 113), which no doubt affected their outlook and beliefs (see “Greek Philosophy’s Influence on the Trinity Doctrine,” beginning on page 14).

In their view, as Karen Armstrong explains, “the Trinity only made sense as a mystical or spiritual experience . . . It was not a logical or intellectual formulation but an imaginative paradigm that confounded reason. Gregory of Nazianzus made this clear when he explained that contemplation of the Three in One induced a profound and overwhelming emotion that confounded thought and intellectual clarity.

“ ‘No sooner do I conceive of the One than I am illumined by the splendor of the Three no sooner do I distinguish Three than I am carried back into the One. When I think of any of the Three, I think of him as the whole, and my eyes are filled, and the greater part of what I am thinking escapes me’ ” (p. 117). Little wonder that, as Armstrong concludes, “For many Western Christians . . . the Trinity is simply baffling” (ibid.).


The Test

Many at the Trinity site, despite the hundreds of man-hours spent preparing for this moment, were still unsure that the bomb would detonate the way it was designed to. There were many theoretical variables that no one at the site could be sure how to predict. Many precautions were taken to prepare for all sorts of doomsday scenarios. Soldiers were posted in several nearby towns in the event that they needed to be evacuated. Groves, who was already concerned for the safety of Amarillo, Texas, a city of 70,000 only 300 miles away, placed a call to New Mexico Governor John J. Dempsey explaining that martial law might need to be implemented in the event of an emergency at the site. The Army Public Relations Department prepared somber explanations in the event that disaster occurred and lives were lost.

On July 16, a thunderstorm delayed the test, which was initially scheduled for 4:00 AM. Hubbard’s team determined that the optimal weather conditions would be only be present between 5:00 and 6:00 AM. Groves famously told Hubbard that “I will hang you” if he was incorrect. Luckily for Hubbard, the weather did clear.

The weather seemed to hold, and the scientists and soldiers took their positions for the test a few hours before the rescheduled 5:30 AM detonation. The closest were stationed at shelters 10,000 yards north, west, and south from the tower. These shelters were populated by soldiers and led by Manhattan Project Scientists who were testing for the effects of radiation. The project’s leadership observed the shelter from Compania Hill, about twenty miles from the tower.

At 5:29:45, Gadget detonated with between 15 and 20 kilotons of force, slightly more than the Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The Atomic Age had begun.

The Trinity test, 15 seconds after detonation. Photo courtesy of David Wargowski.

After years of difficult work, everything finally went according to plan. The test actually yielded more kilotons of TNT than it was predicted to. The complex array of cables, wires, switches, and detonators all worked in unison to create an explosion of energy unlike any the world had ever seen.

Brigadier General Thomas F. Farrell was bewildered by how “the whole country was lighted by a searing light with the intensity many times that of the midday sun. It was golden, purple, violet, gray and blue. It lighted every peak, crevasse and ridge of the nearby mountain range with a clarity and beauty that cannot be described but must be seen to be imagined. It was that beauty the great poets dream about but describe most poorly and inadequately.”

Many others were also invigorated by the test’s success. Greisen observed that “between the appearance of light and the arrival of the sound, there was loud cheering in the group around us. After the noise was over, we all went about congratulating each other and shaking hands. I believe we were all much more shaken up by the shot mentally than physically.”

For photos of the test, please see the gallery below. For rare photographs taken by Marvin Davis, an MP stationed at the Trinity site, click here. For more videos of the Trinity test, visit our YouTube channel. Click here to read more eyewitness accounts of the test.


The Manhattan Project

Beginning in 1939, some American scientists–many of them refugees of fascist regimes in Europe�vocated the development of ways to use nuclear fission for military purposes. By late 1941, the federal government’s Office of Scientific Research and Development, headed by scientist Vannavar Bush, took control of the project. After the United States entered World War II, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was tasked with building the great quantity of necessary plants, laboratories and other research and testing facilities.

Did you know? The residents of Los Alamos–known as site or project "Y"–lived highly restricted lives: Their mail was censored, their phone calls were monitored and even their interaction with family members was tightly controlled. All mail and official documents listed the site&aposs location only as P.O. Box 1663, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Much of the initial research had been performed at Columbia University in New York City, and the top-secret research was thereafter known by the code name Manhattan Project. More than 30 laboratories and sites and more than 130,000 people were eventually involved in different facets of nuclear research and development, with three primary locations–in Oak Ridge, Tennessee Richland, Washington and Los Alamos, New Mexico–that became virtual top-secret atomic cities.


Chronology of Selected Historical Events

1675: (a) Census (Sir John Berry) records planters named: Tho. Carmen & Wife, David Horton & wife, Edward Horton, James Horton, and Tho. Gabriell (b) Hydrographer Henry Southwood describes & maps planters living in cove on the east side [Pease Cove], identifies a cove inside of Fort Point as the site of the Admiral’s Room, and a cove on the west side as the Vice-Admiral’s Room.

1696: H.M.S Bonaventure of the Admiralty convoy, put into Trinity Harbour for repairs.

1697: April 2-3, French forces burn two settlements inside Trinity Harbour . Capture 6 men in one all flee from other.

1699-1700: Poole merchants (Whites) concentrate shipping and supplies for protection being deemed defensible if guns were mounted at its narrow entrance (Admiral’s/Fort Point). Sam White first used Sam White’s Cove 1699.

1700: Capt. Thos. Cleasby RN of HMS Mary Gally draughts and awards a fishing room [formerly rear-admirals room] to William Taverner, a Poole trader formerly at Bay de Verde

1702-5: Poole traders & ship-owners petition for fortification.

1702: Census Planter families: Davis, Harvey, Gifford, Roberts and Taverner (Harvey & Taverner were resident on Westside)

1705: Settlement destroyed again by the French (de Montigny) from Placentia .

1708: Census Planters: Davis, Harvey, Taverner, Barbeome, Foulks, Sweet, Thaine and Martin

1719-29: Capt. John Moors, a ship-owner from Christchurch , Hampshire acts as a lay minister of the Church of England at Trinity, English Harbour , Hants Harbour and Old Perlican

1720s: Shore-based sealing conducted by winter & spring crews from skiffs

1720s: Poole merchants begin recruiting servants for the fishery in southern Irish ports – Cork , Waterford and Youghall – and using these ports for wet provisions -butter, pork and beef (salted)

1723: Brig Joseph (100 tons) first ship known to be built at Trinity by Poole Quaker merchant Joseph White (his mother Mary Taverner of Bay de Verde).

1730s: Quaker Whites built the ships: Charlton (200 tons), Willing Mind (90 tons), Adventure (90 tons), Samuel and Dove (70 ton) and Speedwell (40 ton). Shipbuilding was now on a firm footing.

1729: Justices of the Peace appointed: Jacob Taverner and Francis Squibb Parochial church built by Jacob Taverner and Rev. Robert Kilpatrick, missionary, Society for Propagation of Gospel ( SPG ) arrives.

1739: Kilpatrick reports most Trinity families removed “up the bay” during winter months (for shelter, wood cutting & sawing, boat-building, hunting and trapping)

1746: Fort built and garrisoned on Admiral’s Point.

1747: Missionary Rev. Henry Jones describes Trinity Harbour as “ye centre of Trade, not only for this Bay but all ye Northern Harbours.” Now a major Poole mercantile centre.

1753: summer census enumerated 63 Family Heads including 83 women, 167 children, 1368 servants (488 during the previous winter). Total summer population 1680(servants 81 percent).

1756-63: Seven Years War. July 17-August 1, 1762 Trinity Harbour was captured and occupied by a French expeditionary force. Some fishing rooms burned but major merchant properties preserved. Benjamin Lester, Poole merchant & resident JP, chief liaison with French.

1764-6: Benjamin Lester built large brick house and enlarged his shop and counting house. Both still preserved (Lester-Garland House and Ryan’s Shop)

1766: Migratory ships ordered to return home unemployed servants (mostly Irish) at the end of the fishing season.

1770: SPG Missionary Balfour wrote: “Trinity being the principal Port of this northern part of the Land, I have a decent audience every Sunday during the summer season of about three hundred People… “Summer populations of Trinity Harbour in this period reach levels of 1500-1700 people.

1774: Balfour complained that Samuel White, "a Rich Miser Quaker . . . built a huge flake . . . over part of the Garden . . . which Flake obstructed the Smoke of my Chimney, Darkened my Windows, and rendered my House hardly Habitable . . ." White was ordered to remove the flake. Complaint emphasizes that good land near waterfront was much crowded with fishery infrastructure.

1775-83: American Revolutionary War. No report of attempts to invade but much disruptions to trade, fishing activities and shipping by American privateers on the coast and Grand Banks. Food supplies (bread, flour, & c) were scarce and expensive. Settler population declined. Balfour removes to Harbour Grace.

1778: Court House and gaol built with “a tax of one shilling on all servants…”

1780: Methodist preacher, John Hoskins, visits Trinity - taunted and tarred by English sailors.

1783: Arrival of Dr. John Clinch, surgeon. Clinch also became J.P and SPG missionary.

1791: Clinch appointed stipendiary Magistrate.

1791-92: Clinch records Beothuk vocabulary from Indian girl named Oubee and possibly from John August, another native who fished for the firm of Jeffery & Street at Catalina in the summer and reportedly went back to his people during the winter.

1799: Clinch experimented successfully with smallpox vaccination sent from London by his boyhood friend and medical colleague, Dr. Edward Jenner. This was a major milestone in world medical history.

1800-1: "A Return of the Number of Houses, Inhabitants, Fishing Rooms, Rents of Rooms etc. etc. in the District of Trinity, Newfland in the Winter of 1800 and 1801 with the Number of Servants, Boats, etc. employed in the Fishery in the Summer 1800 and the Totals of Wages given" Benjamin Lester owned five fishing room (or plantations) and 23 dwelling house in Trinity Harbour 19 rooms and 20 dwellings in 12 other Trinity Bay settlements. Population of Trinity Harbour c 800.

1802: Benjamin Lester of Poole , Trinity’s principal merchant from the 1760s, died. Property and Trade acquired by his son-in-law, George Garland.

1804: Robert Slade of Poole established trade on former premises of Joseph White and Jeffery & Street facing Northwest Arm towards Hog’s Nose and on Southwest Arm

1810-34: The off-shore seal fishery (ice hunting), using schooners and brigs, flourished at Trinity, becoming an important part of local economy. Marks a period of rapid growth in the resident population the heyday of Trinity as a port and place of commerce and expansion and rebuilding of community infrastructure.

1812-14: (War of) Loyal Trinity Volunteer Rangers formed (a local militia force under Slade’s agent Wm. Kelson). Fort rebuilt by Garlands & Slades. A company of British marines arrived in September 1812. No active military engagements in war. Signalling system established to alert residents of enemy ships. One false alarm recorded.

1815: October. The first recorded visit by a Roman Catholic priest, the Rev. Fr. J. Sinnott, stationed at King’s Cove in Bonavista Bay .

1816: First resident Methodist preacher, the Rev. John Haigh Freemasonry lodge established, a branch of Lodge of Amity #137, of Poole, Dorset, Dr. John Clinch, Master.

1819: Rev. Dr. Clinch died, having served in Trinity for over 35 years.

1819-21: John Bingley Garland rebuilt Benjamin Lester's Georgian house, making it a three-storey salt box type.

1820-1: Construction of a new parish church began ( St. Paul ’s) under committee chaired by J.B. Garland. The Rev. Aubrey Spencer, later the first Church of England Bishop of Nfld., became incumbent missionary at Trinity.

1822: Rev. William Bullock appointed SPG missionary married Mary Clinch, John’s daughter served also as magistrate, doctor, land surveyor & c until 1840 moved to Digby , Nova Scotia .

1822: October 15 "horrendous gale. " Journal of William Kelson

1825-26: Public school opened by Newfoundland School Society ( NSS ) in C of E Rectory, then in Court House. Benjamin Fleet the first teacher.

1826: Methodist Meeting House built - a cottage shaped structure.

1827: June 12. St. Paul ’s Church consecrated by Bishop Inglis of Nova Scotia . Hymn, "We Love the place, O God,” composed by Rev. Wm. Bullock for this occasion later gained widespread use in Christendom.

1828: NSS School with attached teacher house completed. Enrollment c 150-175 students.

1832: October 19, John Bingley Garland (Poole merchant) chosen member for Trinity District in the newly formed Representative Government elected first speaker of the House of Assembly resided part-time in St. John’s.

1833: Small Roman Catholic Church, Church of the most Holy Trinity, built on land donated by Garland. Original structure, with bell tower added in 1880, still standing. Reputedly - the oldest wooden church in the province.

1834: August 9, John Bingley Garland resigned from government and returned to Poole from Trinity following death of his brother George. Also disheartened by Newfoundland politics & prospects for trade.

1835: Sailing vessels sent ice hunting for seals: 16 schooners, 1 brigantine, and 6 brigs –tons total 1865, and 516 men. At this time the seal fishery was as important to the local economy as the cod fishery.

1835-36: A Road Committee established under the Revd. Bullock (a trained surveyor) network of roads and lanes designed (based on earlier footpaths) names assigned mostly after street names in Poole.

1838: Trinity Benefit Society, an organization –still extant - formed by Bullock, to provide financial aid to the sick or members unable to work (and death benefits) – a forerunner to modern disability and life insurance programs. Unique in Canada at that time.

1849: John Bingley Garland closed his establishment at Trinity dating to the Taverners c1700, the Lesters 1748-1802, and the Garlands 1802-49. Continued a trade at Greenspond into the 1860s in partnership with St. John’s firm (Robinson & Brooking).

1852: "Garland Plantation" leased to Robinson & Brooking of St. John's.

1861: Robert Slade & Co. bankrupt, last of the Poole merchants. “Slade Plantation” acquired by Grieve & Bremner (St. John’s & Catalina) NNS becomes Colonial and Continental School Society (CCCS School)

1866: William Kelson, former agent and partner of Robert Slade, died at Trinity a renowned citizen, one of Trinity’s most outstanding 19 th century community leaders.

1867: First wooden streamer S.S Wolf dispatched to the ice/seal hunt from Trinity by Grieve & Co., under Capt. George Gent and a crew of 103. Use of schooners in the seal hunt begins to decline.

1869: Walter Grieve & Co. combine the Slade & Garland Plantations, using the former mainly for landing seal pelts and processing oil the latter for general trade, storage, and shipping. Population of Trinity 814.

c1870: Commercial School opened primarily for the middle and upper classes.

1871 lighthouse constructed on Fort Point by the Newfoundland Lighthouse Service. Mr. James Rowe appointed first keeper

1872-80: Grieve’s S.S. Lion (229 tons) to the seal fishery each spring, Capt. Frank Ash.

1875: Capt. Edward Murray Cooksley, son-in-law of John Bingley Garland, arrives with family & friends from England attempts to re-develop Trinity house burned.

1877: A new Methodist Church built, Gothic style with spire (demolished in 1935) Trinity, Catalina and Bonavista connected by telegraph.

1881: Hiscock House built for Richard “Dick” Hiscock, blacksmith. A Provincial Historic Site.

1882: January 6, mysterious disappearance of S.S Lion (wooden steamer owned by Grieve & Bremen used in seal fishery), enroute St. John’s to Trinity, off Grate’s Cove with loss of Capt. Patrick Fowlow, crew of ten, and about 20 passengers.

1886: Newspaper Weekly Record / Trinity Bay Advertiser, editor & proprietor D.C. Webber (drowned 1893), then published until 1899 by John A. Barrett.

1892: February 27. The Trinity Bay Disaster caused by a blizzard striking suddenly with c. 215 men & boys from Trinity Byte sealing on the ice in the bay. Over twenty perished, most from English Harbour and Ship Cove [Port Rexton]

1893: Trinity connected by wagon road (40 miles) to Shoal Harbour via Goose Bay, Bonavista Bay.

1887: 17 schooners (849 tons) sent to the seal hunt with 330 men.

1891: Population 550 (declined from 814 in 1869)

1892-4: St. Paul’s Anglican Church, an impressive Gothic Revival edifice was constructed, based on plans designed for Trinity Anglican Church, Nova Scotia (built 1878) by Stephen Carpenter Earle consecrated November 13, 1894 by Bishop Llewelyn Jones. He labelled it "the Gem of the Diocese."

1898-1905: Parish Hall built by William Lockyer using Second Empire ornate features.

1900: Bankruptcy of R.S. Bremner, merchant in Trinity from 1866 last tenant of the Garland Plantation.

1901: CCCS School & Commercial School merge into a general High School (first principal Mr. A.T. Tulk, assistant Miss Bessie Gribble). Parish Hall used as school for ten years.

1904: Last schooner sailed ice hunting for seal (Captain Fowlow)

1904-14 whaling factory operated at Maggotty Cove by Atlantic Whaling and Manufacturing Co Ltd (Job Brothers of St. John’s). Processed 472 whales- mostly killed in Trinity Bay during the period.

1906: Ryan Brothers of Bonavista (James) & Kings Cove (Daniel) purchase Garland Plantation to outfit schooners for and receive cod from the Labrador fishery and general merchandising Trinity re-established as an important mercantile centre.

1909-1947: Newspaper Enterprise published by F.J. Brady (Breddy) gaps 1924-34.

1910-11: Construction of Bonavista Branch Railway linking Trinity to Clarenville. Trinity Loop, a feature designed for the steep slopes and hilly topography near Trinity, built 1911.

1921: lighthouse rebuilt with white cylindrical cast iron tower attached to base of earlier structure and fog horn added

1938: November Wreck of schooner Marion Rogers on rocks outside Fort Point just under the lighthouse. Seven persons perished.

1945: Census population 376.

1948: Trinity Cabins opened by Rupert Morris, a veteran of World War II, pioneering the modern day tourist industry in the community.

1951-55: Liquidation of Ryan Brothers Ltd., completing the mercantile abandonment of the ancient Taverner-Lester-Garland-Ryan Premises.

1964: Trinity Historical Society (THS initially Historic Sites Committee) formed to preserve historic sites, buildings and records

1966: Census population 323

1967: Museum opened in a traditional family house by THS (first museum outside St. John’s)

1969: Trinity incorporated as a municipality

1978-83: Projects to restore, refurbish and preserve historic buildings and sites including: Parish Hall & Court House: St. Paul’s Anglican Church Church of the Most Holy Trinity (RC) Mortuary Chapel Society of United Fisherman’s Hall (former Methodist School) Ryan’s Shop (former Garland and Lester) and Hiscock House. Palisades rebuilt around military site on Fort Point. Private dwelling acquired, remodelled and opened as an Interpretation Centre on the history of Trinity.

1991: Restoration of the Green Family Forge Trinity Trusts formed in Poole, England (Alan G Perry) and Trinity, Canada (David R.L. White), to reconstruct ( incorporating remnants of original) the Lester-Garland House. Project entailed documentary research, fund-raising, archaeological work in situ, and community engagement (Town Council, Trinity Historical Society, and local oral history).

1993: Rising Tide Theatre (formed in 1978 by Donna Butt) established “The Trinity Pageant -The New Found Lande” outdoor theatre presentations taking audiences through the lanes and roads of Trinity while re-enacting historical events of the Trinity Bight area.

1994: Rising Tide opened “The Summer in the Bight” as a companion event to the Pageant featuring plays, dinner theatre and concerts on Newfoundland cultural themes and history. Renamed “Seasons in the Bight” in 2002.

1996-7: Lester-Garland House reconstructed and officially opened June 25, 1997 The Story of Trinity by Gordon Handcock published by Trinity Historical Society (republished 2008).

2001: Trinity Historical Society Office and Archives located in Lester-Garland House Census population 240.


Equipment [ edit | edit source ]

Uniform [ edit | edit source ]

Trinity's initiated soldiers wear black jackets, boots, gloves, bulletproof vests and grey pants as standard uniform. Many also wear helmets or balaclavas.

When deploying troops to the jungle, Trinity soldiers wear camouflage combat fatigues and netting for further camouflage.

The Flamethrower trooper wears a flame retardant suit and a gas mask with a mirrored visor. The main difference between an initiated Trinity member and other hired mercenaries is that initiated Trinity soldiers have a patches and medals on their uniforms, which symbolize the organization.

Uninitiated troopers don't have a standard uniform, and seem to wear clothes based on personal preference.


Watch the video: Trinity Continuum: Aberrant, part 1: Timeline (July 2022).


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