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Churchill's Crusade, Clifford Kinvig
Churchill's Crusade, Clifford Kinvig
The British Invasion of Russia, 1918-1920
This book looks at what could be described as the last campaign of the First World War, the Allied intervention in Russia. This began during 1918 partly in an attempt to re-open the Eastern Front and partly to protect the vast stockpile of military stores that had been shipped to Russia before the revolution. After the end of the First World War the intervention continued, this time with the official aim of helping the Whites overthrow the Bolshevik regime. It was at this point that Churchill played a major part in the campaign, having already developed a deep and enduring hatred for the Bolsheviks.
Kinvig gives us a good clear account of this complex and little known campaign, which involved fighting in the extreme north, east and south of Russia, and on occasions seemed to be close to success. The book covers both the military action on the ground in Russia and the political manoeuvring in London and in Russia that helped to prolong it or hinder it. The result is a good clear narrative of the war that still puts things in their wider perspective.
Author: Clifford Kinvig
Publisher: Hambledon Continuum
Early life [ edit | edit source ]
Clifford Kinvig was born on 22 November 1934 to a family of Manx origins. His father was Frank Kinvig, a Liverpool warehouseman, and his mother was Dorothy. The Times, in their 2017 obituary of Kinvig, noted that the name was an anagram of Viking and that it was not unusual on the Isle of Man which had been settled by the Vikings in the tenth century. Kinvig was educated at Waterloo Grammar School in Liverpool and subsequently read history at the University of Durham. Ώ]
Kinvig married Shirley Acklam in 1956 and they had three children. Ώ]
ISBN 13: 9781852854775
This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.
The story of Britain's invasion of Russia at the end of the First World War has remained largely untold. Although not its initial architect, its chief advocate, was the passionately anti-Bolshevik, Winston Churchill. Churchill's Crusade is the first complete account of a unique military operation - one which, if it had succeeded, would have changed the history of Russia, Europe and the World.
"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.
Major-General Clifford Kinvig is the author of River Kwai Railway and Scapegoat: General Percival of Singapore. He is a former Senior Lecturer at RMA Sandhurst and Director of Army Education.
'General Kinvig has done a service by pointing a spotlight on the campaign and Churchill's involvement. It has been said that military intelligence is to serious intelligence what military music is to serious music but this military history deserves a place as serious history, being written with authority, conviction and a strong narrative momentum.' (John Ure Times Literary Supplement )
"The threads of the undeclared, little known, and less understood, British invasion of Russia at the end of First World War is pulled together by Maj Gen Kinvig. If it had succeeded, this remarkable campaign would certainly have changed the history of Russian, Europe and the whole world."Soldier - Magazine of the British Army, April 2007
"General Kinvig is to be congratulated for an excellent piece of research and writing that should do much to correct decades of neglect."Contemporary Review (Contemporary Review )
"Nicely illustrated with photographs and necessary maps, this work may be regarded as authoritative and, equally, a useful addition to the shelf of works about Churchill. Summing up: Highly recommended. All levels/libraries." -B. M. Gough, CHOICE, Vol 45, No. 02, October 2007
(B. M. Gough )
Title mentioned in Evergreen, 2008.
"In researching and writing this book, General Kinvig has made a very considerable contribution to undestanding the military and political history of the twentieth century and has certainly established hismelf as a competent historian who writes extremely well." Reviewed by Anthony Trythall in The Torch, Summer 2007
Title mentioned following article in History Today, 2008.
'Kinvig provides a lucid narrative of the many British engagements around Russia . The book is enjoyable to read and successful in its main aim of providing a military history of the British forces . It deserves to be in libraries and personal collections' Revolutionary Russia, July 2008
'General Kinvig has done a service by pointing a spotlight on the campaign and Churchill's involvement. It has been said that military intelligence is to serious intelligence what military music is to serious music but this military history deserves a place as serious history, being written with authority, conviction and a strong narrative momentum.' (, Times Literary Supplement )
"General Kinvig is to be congratulated for an excellent piece of research and writing that should do much to correct decades of neglect."Contemporary Review (, )
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Clifford Kinvig, Churchill’s Crusade. The British Invasion of Russia 1918-1920, Hambledon, 373 s., Norfolk 2006
Bolshevikkien vallankaappaus Venäjällä marraskuussa 1917 johti Venäjän irtaantumiseen maailmansodasta ja Brest-Litovskin rauhansopimukseen Saksan kanssa keväällä 1918. Saksaa vastaan sotineiden liittoutuneiden ensimmäinen huoli tästä koski niiden Pohjois-Venäjälle toimittamien sotatarvikkeiden päätymistä Saksan käsiin, mikä saksalaisten noustua huhtikuussa maihin Suomessa käynnisti brittien yhdessä ranskalaisten ja amerikkalaisten kanssa toimeenpaneman maihinnousun Kuolan niemimaalle. Siperiaan lähetettiin joukkoja, joiden alkuperäinen tarkoitus oli auttaa sinne jumiutunutta Tshekkilegionaa palaamaan Eurooppaan. Eniten joukkoja Siperiaan lähetti kuitenkin Japani, jolla oli ihan omia suunnitelmiaan vasallivaltion perustamisesta Kauko-Itään.
Saksan romahdettua ja maailmansodan marraskuussa 1918 päätyttyä muuttui interventiopolitiikan luonne avoimesti Venäjän sisällissodan osaksi, jossa tarkoituksena oli bolshevikkien kukistaminen ja valkoisten voimien valtaan palauttaminen. Liittoutuneet osallistuivat näiden valkoisten kenraalien hankkeiden tukemiseen pohjoisessa (Miller), luoteessa (Judenits), etelässä (Wrangel) ja idässä (Koltshak).
Innokkain interventiopolitiikan ajaja oli brittien sotaministeri Winston Churchill. Hänen osuutensa oli jopa siinä määrin keskeinen, että sotahistorioitsija ja kenraali Clifford Kinvig on voinut nimetä sen suorastaan Churchillin ristiretkeksi. Churchill vastasi interventiopolitiikasta vuoden 1919 alusta alkaen Lloyd Georgen hallituksen sotaministerinä. Hän toimi oman toiveajattelunsa ja bolshevisminvihansa pohjalta hyvin omavaltaisesti ja johti useissa kohdin selvästi harhaan muuta hallitusta, joka Churchilliä paremmin ymmärsi sotaan väsyneiden kansalaisten innottomuuden uusiin seikkailuihin. Lopputulos oli selvä tappio ja vetäytyminen Venäjältä, mitä tuskin olisi ollut vältettävissä edes suuremmilla ja paremmin johdetuilla brittijoukoilla tilanteessa, jossa sotakoalition heikoin lenkki olivat ne valkoiset kenraalit, jotka oli määrä astuttaa bolshevikkien paikalle.
Churchill itse oli kuitenkin reaalipoliitikko ja brittinationalisti, joka seuraavassa maailmansodassa havaitsi lopulta liittoutuneensa Stalinin kanssa ehdittyään vielä talvisodan aikana suunnitella ranskalaisten kanssa apujoukkojen lähettämistä Suomeen puna-armeijaa vastaan, tai ainakin matkalle sattuvien Kiirunan kaivosten miehittämiseksi.
Suomalaisia tämä brittien maailmansodan jälkeinen interventiopolitiikka kosketti monilla tavoin. Intervention alussa britit kokosivat Kuolan alueelle paenneista punakaartilaisista ns. Muurmannin legioonan, jonka eräänlaisena poliittisena komissaarina toimi brittien everstiluutnantin uniformuun puettu Oskari Tokoi. Joukon alkuperäinen tarkoitus oli brittien kanssa torjua liittoutuneiden Venäjälle toimittaman sotakaluston päätyminen Saksan haltuun ja Saksan kanssa liittoutuneiden valkosuomalaisten rajan yli suuntautuneet retkikunnat, mutta sen käyttökelpoisuus brittien aloittaessa bolshevikkien karkottamiseen tähdänneet operaatiot oli vähäinen. Se hajotettiin sen jälkeen kun britit pääsivät sopimukseen rivimiesten armahtamisesta ja palauttamisesta Suomeen. Nyt alkoi uusi vaihe suomalais-brittiläisissä suhteissa, kun brittiläiset asemiehet ja laivastoyksiköt saivat vapaasti majoittua Suomeen ja johtaa täältä käsin iskuja Kronstadtia ja Pietaria vastaan, ilman että tästä oli varsinaista sopimusta maitten välillä olemassa.
Suomi on Kinvigin perusteellisessa tutkimuksessa vain sivuosassa. Tämäkin kirja kuitenkin herättää sen verran uteliaisuutta, että toivoisi jonkun historioitsijan vielä tarttuvan tarkemmin tähän vaiheeseen Suomen historiassa, erityisesti suomalais-brittiläisten suhteiden kannalta. Kinvigin kuvaus Churchillin johtamasta interventiosta on kuitenkin hyvin kirjoitettu tiivis ja asiapitoinen kattava katsaus aiheeseen.
Churchill's Crusade: The British Invasion of Russia 1918-1920
A new and expansive official history of the USPG commissioned to mark the tercentenary in 2001. The first half tells a compelling global story from the mission to the Americas in the 18th century, through the North China Mission in the late 19th century to today's Social Development Programme in Bangladesh. There is a particular focus on the post-1945 period of decolonization, development and dialogue with other religions. The second half is a collection of essays that give a wide range of themes and perspective from a history of missionary wives by Deborah Kirkwood to a discussion of the evolving role of the church in Zambia by Musonda Mwamba. Three Centuries of Mission emphasizes the key instrumentality of the USPG in the emergence of a worldwide network of Churches in the Anglican Communion and their significance in the world at the beginning of the new century.
"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.
Title mentioned following article in History Today, 2008.
Mentioned in Contemporary Review, 2008.
The story of Britain's invasion of Russia at the end of the First World War has remained largely untold. Although not its initial architect, its chief advocate, was the passionately anti-Bolshevik, Winston Churchill. "Churchill's Crusade" is the first complete account of a unique military operation - one which, if it had succeeded, would have changed the history of Russia, Europe and the World.
A voice in the wilderness?
'Those who have met Herr Hitler face to face in public business or on social terms have found a highly competent, cool, well-informed functionary with an agreeable manner, a disarming smile, and few have been unaffected by a subtle personal magnetism.” (Churchill).
Legend has it that throughout the thirties Churchill was a lone voice desperately trying to convince uncomprehending British politicians and the public against the evils of fascism and the menace of a Germany re-armed he was the only one with the prescience to foresee the dangers. What nonsense! Any blithering idiot would be well aware of the danger of a revived, re-armed Germany, still seething from the injustices inflicted upon it by the Versailles Treaty, flexing its military muscles and re-asserting itself in Western Europe, as a force to be reckoned with.
Nor is it true that Churchill was more vociferous than others in calling for Britain to strengthen its air and military forces, in fact Neville Chamberlain had been advocating rearmament for much longer, at a time when Churchill was calling for cuts in defence. Churchill and most of the leading politicians were not really anti-fascist (the opening quotation comes from one of his books, published 1937). In fact he, like the rest of the British establishment, welcomed Nazi Germany as a buffer between Soviet Russia and Western Europe. With such conflicting ideologies it seemed much more likely that Germany and Russia would end up fighting each other, in which case France and Britain could sit back and enjoy the show.
But Hitler had other plans for expanding the Reich. In defiance of the Versailles Treaty he had built up his armed forces and in March 1936 his army marched into the Rhineland which was supposed to be a demilitarized zone as a buffer between Germany and France in 1937 his Kondor legion infamously bombed Guernica in 1938 Germany occupied Austria without meeting any resistance. In 1938, on the pretext that its three and a half million Germans were being persecuted, Hitler annexed the part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (Poland also helped itself to part of Czech territory) with the acquiescence of Britain, France and Italy.
It was not the fate of small defenceless countries that worried Britain: it was the imbalance of power in Western Europe. It was all very well having fascist Germany as a bulwark against “Soviet expansionism” but it was quite another thing for Germany to get too powerful and become a threat to Britain's position in Europe and to her colonies. So Chamberlain went off to Munich and returned with his worthless “Peace in our time” scrap of paper. There really wasn't anything else he could do as Britain was not prepared for war at that time and the British public was not interested in going to war for the sake of a country they knew so little about. Encouraged by his easy successes Hitler decided to occupy the rest of Czechoslovakia as well. This, however, was too much. Britain and France guaranteed the territorial integrity of Greece, Poland, Turkey and Romania, hoping that this would put a brake on Hitler's expansionist policies. Adolph was not impressed.
In the early hours of September 1 st 1939 the people of Poland awoke to the noise of the Luftwaffe in their skies and the march of German infantry boots in their streets ‑ the Nazi invasion of Poland had begun! Chamberlain immediately formed a War Cabinet which included Winston Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty. Both France and Britain issued Hitler an ultimatum to withdraw from Poland. The ultimatum was ignored and on September 3rd war was declared on Germany. Those in command in the navy at that time were well aware that it was madness to go hunting for U-boats in the open sea the best way to defeat them was to combat them when they tried to attack escorted convoys. But Churchill was having none of it. He insisted that the navy must aggressively take the war to the enemy. As a consequence of his idiocy HMS Courageous was sent out into the open sea to hunt submarines and on September 17th it was sunk by a German U-boat. Hitler could thank Winston Churchill for his first major U-boat success of WWII.
It is widely believed that Chamberlain and other “appeasers” were responsible for Britain's unreadiness for war in 1939, and that Churchill was the “voice in the wilderness”, the only one who constantly advocated the building up and modernising of the armed forces, the only one who foresaw the threat of Nazi Germany. This is a myth propagated by Churchill and his cronies, a lie that should be corrected if historical truth is to mean anything at all. Chamberlain had in fact been one of the first to call for rearmament and would have fought the 1935 General Election with a policy of improving Britain's defences but was stopped from doing so by Baldwin. Churchill's record is somewhat different: in 1920 he campaigned for battleships when those who knew better wanted to switch to aircraft-carriers in 1925 he opposed reinforcement of Singapore, claiming that the Japanese could never take Singapore by surprise in 1928 he recommended extension of the 10-year rule (no need to spend extra money on armed forces for at least 10 more years) fought to reduce the naval estimates in 1928 and the army estimates in 1929. As Gordon Corrigan put it in his well researched book Blood, Sweat and Arrogance: “It was only when he was out of office, and increasingly unlikely to regain it, that Churchill underwent a conversion that makes the Black Death look like a minor outbreak of the sniffles, and began to bang the drum of opposing dictators and building up Britain's military strength. He was right, but he must also take the blame for contributing to that weakness in the first place.”
But the loss of HMS Courageous was by no means the only disaster incurred by Churchill's arrogant and incompetent interference during his time as First Lord of the Admiralty. It was expected that Germany would soon try to occupy Norway and a plan was drawn up involving both the Royal Navy and troops to prevent this happening. But in April 1940, when Germany did invade, attacking at various key points along the entire Norwegian coast, our modern day Nelson again knew better than his admirals. Troops were disembarked and warships were sent in all directions but the right one Admiral Sir Charles Forbes, in command of the Home Fleet, had his orders cancelled by Churchill and the result was that Germany occupied Norway with relatively little loss. Had anyone else but Churchill shown such incompetence, even downright stupidity, he would have been sacked. But the farce continued. It was decided that Narvik, in the northernmost region of Norway, must be taken. Churchill wanted part of the Narvik force to be diverted to Namos, about 230 miles south, with a view to taking Trondheim. General Ironside, the CIGS, refused, stating that there were not enough troops for the Narvik expedition as it was. Three days later Ironside was awakened by Churchill at 2am, while the Narvik force was at sea, and told that the navy was to attack Trondheim and 146 Brigade was to be landed at Namos and Andalsnes to form a pincer attack from north and south.
To divert 146 Brigade in this manner meant it would land without its commander (who was on one of the other ships), with no anti-aircraft guns and without much of its equipment. Ironside explained this to Churchill, but Churchill lied, saying he had the full agreement of the War Cabinet's Military Co-ordination Committee. The resulting landing at Namos was a fiasco, with the army and navy commanders receiving conflicting orders and Churchill changing commanders, making impossible demands and directing action from hundreds of miles away for a scenario about which he knew nothing. At last common sense prevailed and it was decided that the original plan, to occupy Narvik, should be focussed on and Churchill's “military masterstroke” of also attacking central Norway should be abandoned. The navy managed to evacuate most of the troops of 146 Brigade against Churchill's wishes: he wanted the troops to disperse into the mountains and conduct a campaign of guerrilla warfare. Inexperienced and ill-equipped Territorials were to go off into the mountains at a time when the temperature was 40 degrees below, with no training for such terrain and no means of being fed or supplied!? This was folly on an insane scale, even for a commander as hare-brained as Churchill it betrays not only his stupidity but also his contemptuous disregard for the lives of his soldiers.
Meanwhile the Scandinavian campaign had caught the attention of the House of Commons. Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, speaking with authority, made an impassioned speech in which he blamed everyone except the guilty man himself for the debacle. In the angry debate that followed blame was diverted from Churchill and pointed at Chamberlain. In one of history’s great ironies it was Chamberlain who was forced to resign and Churchill succeeded him as Prime Minister. In the words of military historian Gordon Corrigan: “So a debate on the mismanagement of the Norwegian campaign brought to power the man who had been mostly responsible for that mismanagement.” Narvik was eventually captured by the French, Norwegians and Poles on May 28th, then abandoned in early June. Thus was concluded another inglorious chapter in the career of our great military and naval strategist.
It must be pointed out here that the generals and admirals who allowed Churchill to overrule them and impose his own strategy and tactics on the conduct of the war were as much to blame as him for the fiasco just related, and the others that followed during WWII. They could have given him the ultimatum en masse of keeping his interfering nose out of their operations or facing their collective resignation. Churchill would have been forced to back down but instead they put their own careers before the lives of the men under their command.
Churchill: Of Words and Deeds
Fifty years on from Winston Churchill’s death, Chris Wrigley surveys the literature available, highlighting key works and lesser-known titles.
On January 24th, 1965, Sir Winston Churchill died. Much of the nation watched television six days later, when his state funeral was held in St Paul’s Cathedral. Just over 112 years earlier, in November 1852, a state funeral had been held there for another Conservative prime minister and soldier, the Duke of Wellington. Wellington was buried in a tomb beside Lord Nelson in St Paul’s, but Churchill was buried beside his parents and his brother at St Martin’s Church, Bladon, Oxfordshire. His funeral seemed to mark the end of an era, almost the last wheeze of Empire.
Churchill was a soldier in the late Victorian British Empire. His experiences fighting on the North-West Frontier of India coloured his understanding of India thereafter. He displayed great bravery when fighting in India, with Kitchener’s forces at Omdurman in 1898 and as a war correspondent in South Africa in 1899-1900. The importance of his military career has been discussed often, not least in the official biography by Randolph Churchill and Martin Gilbert. This career is surveyed well by Douglas S. Russell in Winston Churchill – Soldier: Life of a Gentleman at War (2008).
The important theme of Empire has been reappraised by Lawrence James in Churchill and Empire: Portrait of an Imperialist (2013). James is notable for reiterating Churchill’s dismay that his rearguard defence of the British Empire was undercut by US hostility to it and by the American desire for imperial markets to be freely open to US business. Recently, Churchill’s imperial role has been indicted for his failure to prioritise the supply of grain to starving people in Bengal in 1943. Madhusree Mukerjee’s Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II (2010) makes the case that Churchill blocked supplies of Australian wheat that could have been moved to Bengal in 1943. Her arguments have been contested, but, in my view, not convincingly on her central argument, by several historians, including James and Arthur Herman, author of Gandhi and Churchill (2008).
While James and Mukerjee rightly comment that Churchill held many of the contemporary views that saw African and Asian people as in some way inferior to the British (views not unknown now), Churchill was often enlightened with regard to Muslims, especially in the Middle East, and Churchill’s often complex relations here are fruitfully explored by Warren Dockter in Winston Churchill and the Islamic World: Orientalism, Empire and Diplomacy in the Middle East (2015). Churchill also respected the Jewish people, a theme explored by Martin Gilbert in Churchill and the Jews: A Lifelong Friendship (2007).
In later life, as the Empire crumbled, Churchill drew solace from his warm feelings for the US, which derived in part from his American mother, the former Jennie Jerome. The influence of the US politician Bourke Cochran on Churchill has been explored by Michael McMenamin and Curt J. Zoller in Becoming Winston Churchill (2007). Gilbert revisited the Anglo-American theme in Churchill and America (2005), while David Dilks wrote The Great Dominion: Winston Churchill in Canada, 1900-1954 (2005).
For much of his career, Churchill also made his mark by writing for the press. He was always well paid, including when writing about the campaigns he participated in as a young man, and his early journalism constitutes a form of ‘contemporary history’. He later wrote multi-volume histories of the First and Second World Wars. Jonathan Rose focuses on the significance of his writing and the literary influences on his career in The Literary Churchill: Author, Reader, Actor (2014). Rose proclaims that he has written ‘political history as literary history’ and takes a fresh view of Churchill’s career, often providing new insights, but occasionally pushing his arguments too far. He identifies such influences on Churchill’s writing as George Bernard Shaw and H.G. Wells and argues that Churchill was much influenced by Victorian melodrama at the theatre.
Churchill’s early career as a writer is also explored very ably by Richard Toye in Churchill’s Empire: The World that Made Him and the World He Made (2010), while in Mr Churchill’s Profession: Statesman, Orator, Writer (2012) Peter Clarke reviews his whole career as a writer and in so doing makes a case for according greater respect for Churchill’s A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, deeming it ‘the seedbed of much of his memorable wartime oratory’. The oratory and its impact have been reassessed by Toye in The Roar of the Lion: The Untold Story of Churchill’s World War II Speeches (2013).
Some of the best books on Churchill have analysed the links between his actions and his historical writings. Robin Prior shrewdly assessed Churchill’s ‘World Crisis’ as History (1983). With Churchill, Strategy and History (1992), Tuvia Ben-Moshe provided a very good but notably critical study of Churchill’s strategic policies in both world wars, with the focus heavily on the Second. David Reynolds’ In Command of History: Churchill Fighting and Writing the Second World War (2004) is an outstanding study of Churchill’s writing and rewriting his account of the Second World War, in which he took care to present most of his actions in the best light and was careful not to offend those still in power, such as President Eisenhower.
Churchill’s domestic policy has been superbly dealt with by Paul Addison’s Churchill on the Home Front 1900-55 (1992). Michael Shelden provides fresh detail on Churchill’s early career in Churchill: Young Titan (2013), which depicts him again as a giant among political pygmies.
Churchill’s anti-Bolshevik crusade after the First World War is ably examined in detail in Martin Kettle’s Churchill and the Archangel Fiasco (1992) and further discussed by Douglas Kinvig in Churchill’s Crusade: The British Invasion of Russia 1918-20 (2007). Churchill’s concentration on the Cold War in his postwar government is dealt with authoritatively by John Young’s Winston Churchill’s Last Campaign: Britain and the Cold War 1951-55 (1996) and added to by Uri Bar-Noi in The Cold War and Soviet Distrust of Churchill’s Pursuit of Détente 1951-55 (2007), drawing on the now available Soviet archives.
One of the more innovative books on Churchill is Man of the Century: Winston Churchill and His Legend Since 1945 (2002) by the late John Ramsden. This study of the Churchill legend is hard-headed, examining how the Churchillian myth was carefully constructed, not least by Churchill himself as he resurrected a career which had faltered badly in the 1930s. Ramsden’s book might well be read as a balance to Boris Johnson’s The Churchill Factor: How One Man Made History (2014).
Chris Wrigley is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Nottingham.
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