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19 November 1943
War in the Air
Eighth Air Force Heavy Bomber Mission No. 134: 161 aircraft sent to attack targets of opportunity in Western Germany. 127 aircraft find targets. No aircraft lost.
War at Sea
German submarine U-211 sunk with all hands off the Azores
German submarine U-341 sunk with all hands south west of Iceland
Final Allied bombardment of the Gilbert Islands, Marshall Islands and Nauru before the start of the American invasion of the Marshalls.
History Through Our Eyes: Nov. 19, 1943, N.D.G. children's library
Dozens of dignitaries, along with at least 350 children, crammed the premises when the new Notre Dame de Grâce Children’s Library opened.
Dozens of dignitaries, along with at least 350 children, crammed the premises when the new bilingual Notre Dame de Grâce Children's Library opened on Nov. 19, 1943. Montreal Gazette archives
USS <em>Independence</em> Historical Timeline
The fourth Independence (CVL 22), which began as the light cruiser USS Amsterdam (CL 59) was launched in August 1942 and commissioned in January 1943. Independence represented the first of a new class of carriers built on converted cruiser hulls. She joined the Pacific Fleet in June 1943. She participated in attacks on Rabaul, Tarawa, Luzon, and Okinawa. Most notably, Independence was part of the carrier group that sank the last remaining vestige of the Japanese Mobile Fleet at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. She was later used as a target during the Operation Crossroads atomic testing and subsequently towed and sunk near the Farallon Islands in 1951.
Click the segments below for a detailed timeline history of USS Independence.
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Photo Captions: Captain George Richard Fairlamb, Jr. (Photo Courtesy Author John Lambert)
Christening of the future USS Independence (CV-22) by Mrs. Dorothy Warner, wife of Rawleigh Warner, President of the Pure Oil Company. Saturday, 22 August 1942. (NAVSOURCE/Dale Hargrave)
(L to R) Assistant Secretary of the Navy Ralph Bard, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox, Ship Sponsor Mrs. Rawleigh Warner, Maid of Honor Ms. Suzanne Warner, and COMINCH Admiral Ernest J. King (Photo Courtesy Author John Lambert)
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Note: This was the first time the Grumman F6F Hellcat was used in combat.
Photo Captions: Grumman F6F-3 Hellcat fighters and two Grumman TBF-1 Avenger torpedo bombers on the light aircraft carrier USS Independence sometime in 1943. (NAVSOURCE)
Aerial view attack on Marcus Island on 31 August 1943. The attack was carried out by a task force consisting of the U.S. aircraft carriers USS Essex (CV-9), USS Yorktown (CV-10), and USS Independence (CVL-22), the battleship USS Indiana (BB-58), two cruisers, and ten destroyers. The photo was taken from a plane from the USS Yorktown. (NARA)
Marcus Island (Minami Torishima) under attack by U.S. Navy aircraft of Carrier Air Group 5 (CVG-5) from the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-10), on 31 August 1943. (NNAM Photo # 2003.143.015)
“Up until this time, we had not seen any Japanese planes. Then all at once, there were about 110 of them over us. They made several strafing runs on our ship however, they did very little damage. I was told, in fact, that as the Japanese strafed our flight deck, some of our crew members were digging the lead out of the deck for souvenirs.”
– Herman Brown, “My Navy Story and Life on the Independence”
Following the Allied invasion of Bougainville, the Japanese sent a large force of cruisers from Truk to Rabaul in order to engage Allied supply lines and disrupt shipping. Task Group 50.3 of the 5 th Fleet, including the carriers USS Bunker Hill, USS Essex, and USS Independence, arrived outside Rabaul on 7 November. Rabaul was considered one of the most important and heavily defended bases of the Japanese Army and Navy in the South Pacific. According to Independence historian John G. Lambert, the island was fortified “with over 350 antiaircraft guns, and over 40 coastal guns and numerous airbases.” Fighting alongside Halsey’s TF 38, carrier-based planes struck in a combined offensive on 11 November. Gunners aboard Independence shot down six Japanese planes during the attack.
Photo Captions: Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman, Task Force commander, gets good news from Commander Joseph Clifton, fighter group commander on the raid, on board USS SARATOGA (CV-3). With Admiral Sherman (in cap, center) are (l-r): Captain Robert C. Sutliffe, Commander Robert E. Dixon, & Lieutenant Albert F. Howard. Commander Clifton’s fighters escorted the strike, in which 24 Japanese planes were shot down. Photo released 15 Dec. 1943. The two strikes on Rabaul occurred on 5 & 11 November 1943. (NHHC Photo # 80-G-44090)
A Japanese bomber explodes on the water just astern of USS ESSEX (CV-9), after being shot down by anti-aircraft fire. USS INDEPENDENCE (CVL-22) is in the right background. (NHHC Photo # 80-G-206615)
“I dove to the deck, and all Hell broke loose. We did get hit by a very powerful aerial torpedo from a twin-engine Betty. Then word came over the speaker to abandon ship. I surely hated to hear such a command. Luckily, almost immediately, the order was cancelled. This was good news, since I really was not looking forward to going into the water with all the sharks, and possibly the Japanese coming back to finish us off.”
– Herman Brown, “My Navy Story and Life on the Independence”
Following the engagement at Rabaul, Independence went to refuel at Espiritu Santu and headed for the Gilbert Islands for pre-landing strikes on Tarawa. On the last day of the strikes, the Japanese counterattacked the American carriers. Independence was targeted by a group of Japanese planes low to the water. Although six planes were shot down, one of their torpedoes managed to score a direct hit on the ship’s starboard quarter, causing serious damage.
Independence steamed to Funafuti on 23 November for repairs, eventually making it to San Francisco on 2 January 1944 for more repairs. During that time, an extra catapult was fitted onto the ship, which helped in the crew’s training in night carrier operations after arriving at Pearl Harbor in July. She became the first aircraft carrier to do so. The crew continued to train at Eniwetok in late August before sailing with a large task group to support the Palau operation. There, Independence provided night reconnaissance and night combat air patrol for Task Force 38.
Photo Captions: Burial at sea, Battle of Tarawa, Nov. 22, 1943. (Al Hiegel, CVL 22 Reunion Group)
USS Independence (CVL-22) torpedo damage diagram, 20 November 1943, off Tarawa. Source: Navy Department Library, USS Independence (CVL-22) War Damage Report No. 52.
USS Independence (CVL-22) torpedo damage diagram, 20 November 1943, off Tarawa. Source: Navy Department Library, USS Independence (CVL-22) War Damage Report No. 52.
“I remember during a short break in the action, I had a chance to relax and look around and saw the three big carriers in TG 38.2 with flight deck fires causes by kamikaze hits.”
– RADM M. Dick Van Orden, “Operation of the Fast Carrier Task Force in the Battles of Leyte Gulf, October 25, 1944”
In September the fast carrier task force regularly pounded the Philippines in preparation for the invasion. When no Japanese counterattacks developed in this period, Independence shifted to regular daytime operations, striking targets on Luzon. After replenishment at Ulithi in early October, the great force sortied 6 October for Okinawa. In the days that followed the carriers struck Okinawa, Formosa, and Philippines in a striking demonstration of the mobility and balance of the fleet. Japanese air counterattacks were repulsed, with Independence providing day strike groups in addition to night fighters and reconnaissance aircraft for defensive protection.
As the carrier groups steamed east of the Philippines 23 October, it became apparent, as Admiral Carney later recalled, that “something on a grand scale was underfoot.” And indeed it was, as the Japanese fleet moved on a three-pronged effort to turn back the American beachhead on Leyte Gulf. Planes from Independence’s Task Group 38.2, under Rear Admiral Bogan, spotted Kurita’s striking force in the Sibuyan Sea 24 October and the carriers launched a series of attacks. Planes from Independence and other ships sank giant battleship Musashi and disabled a cruiser.
That evening Admiral Halsey made his fateful decision to turn Task Force 38 northward in search of Admiral Ozawa’s carrier group. Independence’s night search planes made contact and shadowed the Japanese ships until dawn 25 October, when the carriers launched a massive attack. In this second part of the great Battle for Leyte Gulf, all four Japanese carriers were sunk. Meanwhile, American heavy ships had won a great victory in Suriago Strait and a light carrier force had outfought the remainder of Kurita’s ships in the Battle of Samar. After the great battle, which virtually spelled the end of the Japanese Navy as a major threat, Independence continued to provide search planes and night fighter protection for Task Force 38 in strikes on the Philippines. In these operations the ship had contributed to a major development in carrier group operations.
Independence returned to Ulithi for long-delayed rest and replenishment 9 to 14 November, but soon got underway to operate off the Philippines on night attacks and defensive operations.
On 17 December 1944, the ships of Task Force 38, seven fleet and six light carriers, eight battleships, 15 cruisers, and about 50 destroyers were operating about 300 miles east of Luzon in the Philippine Sea. The carriers had just completed three days of heavy raids against Japanese airfields, suppressing enemy aircraft during the American amphibious operations against Mindoro in the Philippines. Although the sea had been becoming rougher all day, the nearby cyclonic disturbance gave relatively little warning of its approach. On 18 December, the small but violent typhoon overtook the Task Force while many of the ships were attempting to refuel. According to an official casualty report on the Naval History and Heritage Command website, one sailor was confirmed killed or missing from the Typhoon aboard USS Independence. In all, approximately 790 officers and men were lost or killed, with another 80 injured.
From 3 to 9 January, carriers of Task Force 38 supported the Lingayen landings on Luzon, after which Halsey took his fleet on a daring foray into the South China Sea. In the days that followed the aircraft struck at air bases on Formosa and on the coasts of Indo-China and China. These operations in support of the Philippines campaign marked the end of the carrier’s night operations, and she sailed 30 January 1945 for repairs at Pearl Harbor.
Photo Captions: Units of task force 38 at anchor, at Ulithi Atoll, Caroline Islands, on 6 November 1944, following the Battle of Leyte Gulf. (NHHC Photo # 80-G-291054)
Four Japanese ships under attack by task force 38 planes, off the north tip of Luzon, 18 October 1944. Ships may be the HOTEN MARU, TSINGTAO MARU, TAIHO MARU and TERUKUNI MARU. Photographed from a USS INTREPID (CV-11) plane. (NHHC Photo # NH 95946)
One of many violent rolls during typhoon in the Pacific, Oct 4, 1944. (Photo courtesy Al Hiegel, USS Independence Reunion Group/NAVSOURCE)
Independence returned to Ulithi 13 March 1945 and got underway next day for operations against Okinawa, last target in the Pacific before Japan itself. She carried out preinvasion strikes 30 to 31 March, and after the assault 1 April remained off the island supplying Combat Air Patrol and strike aircraft. Her planes shot down numerous enemy planes during the desperate Japanese attacks on the invasion force. Independence remained off Okinawa until 10 June when she sailed for Leyte.
During July and August, the carrier took part in the final carrier strikes against Japan itself, attacks which lowered enemy morale and had much to do with the eventual surrender. After the end of the war 15 August, Independence aircraft continued surveillance flights over the mainland locating prisoner of war camps, and covered the landings of Allied occupation troops. The ship departed Tokyo 22 September 1945, arriving San Francisco via Saipan and Guam 31 October.
Independence joined the “Magic Carpet” fleet beginning 15 November 1945, transporting veterans back to the United States until arriving San Francisco once more 28 January 1946.
Photo Captions: A view of the target fleet immediately after the “Able” Day aerial burst, 1 July 1946. USS SARATOGA (CV-3) is in the center with USS INDEPENDENCE (CV-22) burning at left-center. Ex-Japanese battleship NAGATO is between them. (NHHC Photo # 80-G-K-20262)
Afire aft, soon after the Able Day atomic bomb air burst test at Bikini on 1 July 1946. The bomb had exploded off the ship’s port quarter, causing massive blast damage in that area, and progressively less further forward. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. (Photo # 80-G-627502)
Iew of the ship’s port quarter, showing severe blast damage caused by the Able Day atomic bomb air burst at Bikini on 1 July 1946. Photographed at Bikini anchorage on 23 July 1946. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. (Photo # 80-G-627471)
3.25 USS INDEPENDENCE (CV-22) and USS SARATOGA (CV-3) burning at Bikini Atoll, 1 July 1946. (NHHC Photo # NH 85251-K)
Correspondents aboard an LCU view the badly damaged USS INDEPENDENCE (CVL-22) on 3 July 1946, two days after the “Able Day” burst. This was the unengaged side of the ship. (NHHC Photo # 80-G-627512)
From 22-26 August of 2016, Dr. Bob Ballard’s team is scheduled to dive on Independence as part of their “Greater Farallones Cruise Plan.” The plan includes a number of survey dives on Independence, including visual inspection and imaging of the wreck as well as a photomosaic of the largely intact flight deck.
Nov. 28, 1943 | Allied Leaders Meet at Tehran ConferenceU.S. Signal Corps Josef Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill are pictured at the Russian Embassy during the Tehran Conference, a four-day event which began on Nov. 28, 1943.
Learn about key events in history and their connections to today.
On Nov. 28, 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Britain and the Soviet leader Josef Stalin met in Tehran during World War II for the start of a four-day conference. It was the first meeting between the 𠇋ig Three” Allied leaders.
News of the conference was not released until three days after its completion, when it was announced by Moscow radio. The Dec. 4 New York Times reported that “Moscow radio had not indicated the nature of political and military discussions that took place in the Iranian capital, but it was generally assumed they dealt with the coordination of military plans for the final assault on Nazi Germany and with the unification of political plans for making peace with Germany on the basis of ‘unconditional surrender.’”
Churchill and Roosevelt, who had met many times before, sought the continued support of the Soviet Union in the war, and were willing to agree to Stalin’s demands that they support the Soviet Union’s dealings in Poland and Yugoslavia.
Talks centered around the opening of a second front in Western Europe, something Stalin had asked Churchill for in 1942 at their only previous meeting. At the time, Churchill said a second front was impossible, but by the Tehran Conference, it was clear that the Allies had to do something to take pressure off the Soviet army. It had been fighting the invading Nazi forces on the Eastern Front, which was opened in the summer of 1941.
At Tehran, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to open the front in the spring of 1944. They would fulfill their promise, launching an invasion of Western Europe on June 6, 1944, with the D-Day landings at Normandy.
The Times reported, “There are reasons for believing, however, that in Tehran very little if anything remained to be settled on the question of the second front except perhaps that of coordination of attacks on Germany from the east and west.”
The 𠇋ig Three” would meet one more time, at Yalta in February 1945. With their armies advancing against the Nazi military on both the eastern and western fronts, the leaders focused their discussions on how to manage postwar Europe.
Connect to Today:
In addition to war fronts and border discussions, the Big Three powers tentatively agreed to help form what would become the United Nations organization at the Tehran Conference. These days, however, Tehran is making headlines because of a November 2011 United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency report regarding Iran’s nuclear program.
An Exclusive Look at the Greatest Haul of Native American Artifacts, Ever
At dawn on June 10, 2009, almost 100 federal agents pulled up to eight homes in Blanding, Utah, wearing bulletproof vests and carrying side arms. An enormous cloud hung over the region, one of them recalled, blocking out the rising sun and casting an ominous glow over the Four Corners region, where the borders of Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico meet. At one hilltop residence, a team of a dozen agents banged on the door and arrested the owners—a well-respected doctor and his wife. Similar scenes played out across the Four Corners that morning as officers took an additional 21 men and women into custody. Later that day, the incumbent interior secretary and deputy U.S. attorney general, Ken Salazar and David W. Ogden, announced the arrests as part of “the nation’s largest investigation of archaeological and cultural artifact thefts.” The agents called it Operation Cerberus, after the three-headed hellhound of Greek mythology.
From This Story
The search-and-seizures were the culmination of a multi-agency effort that spanned two and a half years. Agents enlisted a confidential informant and gave him money—more than $330,000—to buy illicit artifacts. Wearing a miniature camera embedded in a button of his shirt, he recorded 100 hours of videotape on which sellers and collectors casually discussed the prices and sources of their objects. The informant also accompanied diggers out to sites in remote canyons, including at least one that agents had rigged with motion-detecting cameras.
The haul from the raid was spectacular. In one suspect’s home, a team of 50 agents and archaeologists spent two days cataloging more than 5,000 artifacts, packing them into museum-quality storage boxes and loading those boxes into five U-Haul trucks. At another house, investigators found some 4,000 pieces. They also discovered a display room behind a concealed door controlled by a trick lever. In all, they seized some 40,000 objects—a collection so big it now fills a 2,300-square-foot warehouse on the outskirts of Salt Lake City and spills into parts of the nearby Natural History Museum of Utah.
In some spots in the Four Corners, Operation Cerberus became one of the most polarizing events in memory. Legal limitations on removing artifacts from public and tribal (but not private) lands date back to the Antiquities Act of 1906, but a tradition of unfettered digging in some parts of the region began with the arrival of white settlers in the 19th century. Among the 28 modern Native American communities in the Four Corners, the raids seemed like a long-overdue attempt to crack down on a travesty against their lands and cultures—“How would you feel if a Native American dug up your grandmother and took her jewelry and clothes and sold them to the highest bidder?” Mark Mitchell, a former governor of the Pueblo of Tesuque, asked me. But some white residents felt that the raid was an example of federal overreach, and those feelings were inflamed when two of the suspects, including the doctor arrested in Blanding, committed suicide shortly after they were arrested. (A wrongful-death lawsuit filed by his widow is pending.) The prosecution’s case was not helped when its confidential informant also committed suicide before anyone stood trial.
Ultimately, 32 people were pulled in, in Utah, New Mexico and Colorado. None of them were Native American, although one trader tried vainly to pass himself off as one. Twenty-four were charged with violating the federal Archaeological Resources Protection Act and the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, among other laws. Two cases were dropped because of the suicides, and three were dismissed. No one went to prison. The remainder reached plea agreements and, as part of those deals, agreed to forfeit the artifacts confiscated in the raid.
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This story is a selection from the November issue of Smithsonian magazine.
The federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM), which has custody of the collection, spent the last five years simply creating an inventory of the items. “Nothing on this scale has ever been done before, not in terms of investigating the crimes, seizing the artifacts and organizing the collection,” BLM spokeswoman Megan Crandall told me. Before they were seized, these objects had been held in secret, stashed in closets and under beds or locked away in basement museums. But no longer. Recently the BLM gave Smithsonian an exclusive first look at the objects it has cataloged.
Beyond the sheer size of the collection is its range: Some of the objects, such as projectile points and metates, or grinding stones, date to about 6,000 B.C. Among the more than 2,000 intact ceramic vessels, many appear to be from the Ancestral Puebloan people, or Anasazi, who lived on the Colorado Plateau for some ten centuries before they mysteriously departed around A.D. 1400. The Hohokam, who occupied parts of Arizona from A.D. 200 to 1450, are represented by shell pendants and ceramic bowls the Mogollon, who thrived in northern Mexico and parts of Arizona and New Mexico from A.D. 300 to 1300, by pottery and painted arrow shafts. An undated sacred headdress belonged to the White Mountain Apaches, while a buffalo mask from the early 20th century is being returned to the Pueblo people in Taos. “You won’t find some of these items anywhere else,” said Kara Hurst, who was a curator of the BLM trove for three years until 2013, when she became supervisory registrar at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian. “We’ve heard stories about some of these objects. But not even Native Americans had seen some of these things before.”
It’s possible that no one will be able to see them outside the Cerberus collection, because archaeologists today rarely dig in the alcoves and cliff dwellings from which many items were taken. “There’s no money to support legitimate excavations of alcoves today,” said Laurie Webster, a research associate at the American Museum of Natural History who specializes in Southwestern perishable objects. “So you’ll never be able to excavate artifacts like these again.”
Many of the artifacts are remarkably well-preserved, even though they’re composed of delicate materials such as wood, hide and fiber. That’s partly a testament to the desert climate of the Four Corners—but also an indicator that at least some of the objects may have come from caves or other well-protected funerary sites, which has been a source of particular anguish to Native peoples. “The dead are never supposed to be disturbed. Ever,” Dan Simplicio, a Zuni and cultural specialist at Crow Canyon Archaeological Center in Cortez, Colorado, told me.
Roughly a quarter of the collection has high research potential, according to a preliminary survey by Webster. At the same time, the mass of objects is an archaeologist’s nightmare, because so many lack documentation of where and in what context they were found. “Stolen pieces usually don’t come with papers unless those papers are hot off the printer,” Crandall said.
In some cases, it’s not clear whether the relics are even genuine. Two human effigies, about six inches tall and made of corn stalk, yucca cordage and wood, are a case in point. One has an oversize erection, while the other has a dent between the legs. A dealer called them “fertility figures,” labeled them as from southeastern Utah, and dated them to about 200 B.C. to A.D. 400.
Webster had never seen any figures like them before, and she initially thought they were fakes. But on closer inspection she saw that the yucca cordage appears to be authentic and from somewhere between 200 B.C. and A.D. 400. Now, she believes the figures could be genuine—and would be of extreme cultural value. “This would be the earliest example of a fertility figure in this region,” said Webster, earlier than the flute-playing deity Kokopelli, who did not appear until about A.D. 750. To investigate this artifact further, scholars will have to find their own research funds.
A multicolored ceramic bowl tells a more bittersweet tale. The exterior is the color of a flaming desert sunset, and the interior features bold geometric shapes and black and red lines it is clearly in what archaeologists call the Salado style, a genre that appeared around A.D. 1100 and blended elements of Anasazi, Mogollon and Hohokam pottery. The piece was slightly marred by a few cracks, but more damaging are the “acid blooms” inside the bowl—evidence that someone used a contemporary soap to clean away centuries of dirt. The idea is that restored or “clean” vessels will fetch more money on the black market, said Nancy Mahaney, a BLM curator. “It’s been very interesting to work with the collection, because you can see the extent to which people will go to gain financially.”
With its inventory done, the BLM will give priority to returning whatever objects it can to the tribes from which they were taken. Even though the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act has highly specific guidelines for repatriating artifacts, several experts in the Native American community said the process will be complicated by the lack of documentation.
Once the BLM’s repatriation effort is complete, which will take several more years, the agency will have to find homes for the artifacts that remain. It hopes to form partnerships with museums that can both display the artifacts and offer opportunities for scholars to research them. “Part of our hope is that we will form partnerships with Native American communities, especially those that have museums,” said Mahaney. The Navajo have a large museum, while the Zuni, Hopi and others have cultural centers. Blanding, Utah, where several of the convicted looters live, has the Edge of the Cedars State Park Museum. Even so, it will take years of study before the Cerberus collection begins to yield its secrets.
About Kathleen Sharp
Kathleen Sharp is a contributor to Salon, the New York Times, and the Los Angeles Review of Books. She is the author of several books, including Blood Medicine: The Man Who Blew the Whistle on One of the Deadliest Prescription Drugs Ever. Her work has appeared in Elle, Vanity Fair, Parade and other magazines.
Overview of the case
A certain quantity of monetary gold was removed by the Germans from Rome in 1943. It was later recovered in Germany and found to belong to Albania. The 1946 Agreement on Reparation from Germany provided that monetary gold found in Germany should be pooled for distribution among the countries entitled to receive a share of it. The United Kingdom claimed that the gold should be delivered to it in partial satisfaction of the Court’s Judgment of 1949 in the Corfu Channel case. Italy claimed that the gold should be delivered to it in partial satisfaction for the damage which it alleged it had suffered as a result of an Albanian law of 13 January 1945. In the Washington statement of 25 April 1951, the Governments of France, the United Kingdom and the United States, to whom the implementation of the reparations agreement had been entrusted, decided that the gold should be delivered to the United Kingdom unless, within a certain time-limit, Italy or Albania applied to the Court requesting it to adjudicate on their respective rights. Albania took no action, but Italy made an Application to the Court. Later, however, Italy raised the preliminary question as to whether the Court had jurisdiction to adjudicate upon the validity of its claim against Albania. In its Judgment of 15 June 1954, the Court found that, without the consent of Albania, it could not deal with a dispute between that country and Italy and that it was therefore unable to decide the questions submitted.
This overview is provided for information only and in no way involves the responsibility of the Court.
A Brief History of Zines
Zines have now become so mainstream that even Kanye West has one. In February 2016, the hip-hop artist tweeted: “Season 2 Zine pronounced Zeen short for magazine. A lot of people pronounce it wrong.” The tweet included a picture of the publication Kanye had made to accompany his second line of footwear for his brand, Yeezy. After decades of existence, zines are no longer strictly counter-culture, but they originated as small-scale DIY efforts—many with an anti-authoritarian message.
Most definitions of zines include the fact that they are small-circulation, self-published, and often inexpensive or free. That’s generally true, although these are more guidelines than hard-and-fast rules. The most important aspect of a zine is generally that the publication identifies as one. Many zine-makers will say zines are as much about the community as the product, and that identifying as a zine is what separates these publications from comics, literary journals, websites, and other types of independent publications.
The first zine is often traced back to a 1930s effort by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago. It was called The Comet, and it started a long-lasting trend of sci-fi related zines. The important sci-fi zine Fantasy Commentator began in 1943, and ran in various iterations (though not continuously) until 2004. One of the pieces serialized in Fantasy Commentator eventually became Sam Moskowitz’s book on the history of sci-fi fandom, The Immortal Storm. The interconnectedness of zines and sci-fi is reflected in the World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon) Hugo award for Best Fanzine, first given out in 1955 and still awarded today. (As the name of that award shows, zines were originally called fanzines, alluding to the fans who made them. Eventually, fanzine was just shortened to zine, and the range of topics widened to include practically anything.)
The relationship between zines and sci-fi deepened after 1967, when the first Star Trek fanzine, Spockanalia, was produced. It gained plenty of attention, and the second issue included letters by members of the show, including writer D.C. Fontana and actors James Doohan, DeForest Kelley, and Leonard Nimoy. (The actors all wrote their letters in character.) In 1968, Star Trek was reportedly going to be canceled after two seasons, but a letter-writing campaign—partly organized through fanzines—that generated over 160,000 missives was able to help get the show back on the air for another year.
The technological innovations of the ‘70s made zines easier to create than ever. In particular, the rise of copy shops allowed zine-makers to produce their work cheaply and quickly. (Previously, zines had been produced using mimeographs, which push ink through a stencil to make multiple prints, but the process was impractical for large-scale production.) Steve Samiof, one of the people behind the popular punk zine Slash, told Dazed in an interview earlier this year that the copy shops of the '70s were “extremely inexpensive—you could pay under $800 for 5000 copies and that would be the actual printing cost.”
In the ‘70s and ‘80s, the main hub of zine culture became the punk scene in London, LA, and New York. Compared to the earlier sci-fi zines, punk zines had a grungier, DIY aesthetic that reflected the subjects being covered. Slash and other popular zines like UK-based Sniffin’ Glue covered seminal punk bands like The Clash, The Ramones, and Joy Division. The first issue of Punk, published in 1976, featured an interview with Lou Reed.
The dedication of the early punk scene allowed zines to get interviews with people who would go on to be big names before they had achieved fame. When punk started to gain popularity, many of the zines that previously helped define the scene shut down. Sniffin’ Glue ended in 1977 and in 1979 Punk followed suit.
In the 1990s, zines flourished again thanks to the riot grrrl scene. As an alternative to the male-driven punk world of the past, riot grrrl encouraged young girls and women to start their own band, make their own zine, and get their voices heard. Key bands included Bikini Kill, Heavens to Betsy, Bratmobile, L7, and Sleater-Kinney. By 1993, an estimated 40,000 zines were being published in North America alone, many of them devoted to riot grrrl music and politics.
But riot grrrl was more than just a musical genre, it was a feminist movement—though it was often difficult to pin down the specifics of that movement. As Max Kessler wrote in Paper, “Whatever riot grrrl became—a political movement, an avant-garde, or an ethos—it began as a zine.” Riot grrrl spread from its epicenter in Olympia, Washington to across the country and other parts of the world.
Many of the members of these bands also had their own zines. Bikini Kill ran a zine of the same name, and Tobi Vail, a member of the band, ran her own popular zine called Jigsaw. The zine Snarla was made by artist Miranda July and musician Johanna Fateman. Both Bust, first published in 1993, and Bitch, published in 1996, started out as zines connected to the riot grrl movement and have since grown into full-scale magazines.
Today, zines are more diverse than ever. The rise of the internet has helped make the cost of production almost zero, and online zines such as Plasma Dolphin, Pop Culture Puke, Cry Baby, and Cherry have brought young artists together to collaborate. However, zines are also still sold in person through zine fairs as well as online via Etsy and Big Cartel. The internet has also made it easier for zine makers to connect and find community regardless of location.
While the zines of the past have been shaped by the predominant themes of sci-fi, punk music, and the riot grrrl movement, there have always been zines on a variety of subjects. Today, that diversity is reflected in publications like Home Zine, which invites artists to explore the concept of feeling at home Filmme Fatales, which explores feminism in film and Dad Tweets—a short, humorous collection of selected tweets from a real-life dad. There is even a zine about what plants are best for attracting bees and other pollinators. In fact, there is an entire magazine, Broken Pencil, dedicated to covering zines and zine culture. (In the 1980s and early 1990s, Factsheet Five, a zine of zines, performed a similar function.)
The usefulness of zines as historical documents is now being recognized. Many universities have their own zine collections and there are also numerous independent zine libraries both in America and around the world. It’s easier than ever to learn about zines first-hand. However, the best way to learn and be involved in the community is the same as always: start reading and then start creating.
69 years ago, a president pitches his idea for national health care
This past July 30, we celebrated the 49th anniversary of Medicare and Medicaid. Readers of this column will recall it was on that date in 1965 when President Lyndon Baines Johnson formally signed these two programs into law in Independence, Missouri, as former president Harry S. Truman and his steadfast wife, Bess, looked on with pride. As LBJ handed “Give ‘Em Hell Harry” and Bess the pens he used to affix his signature to the document, the President proclaimed Mr. Truman as “the real daddy of Medicare.”
President Harry S. Truman proposed a universal health care program in 1945. Photo by Edmonston Studio — The Library of Congress
Today marks the reason why LBJ bestowed such presidential credit to Harry Truman.
Back in 1945 — a mere seven months into a presidency he inherited from Franklin D. Roosevelt — Truman proposed a “universal” national health insurance program. In his remarks to Congress, he declared, “Millions of our citizens do not now have a full measure of opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health. Millions do not now have protection or security against the economic effects of sickness. The time has arrived for action to help them attain that opportunity and that protection.”
The Truman plan was quickly converted into a Social Security expansion bill sponsored by Sens. Robert Wagner (D-NY) and James Murray (D-MT) and Rep. John Dingell Sr. (D-MI). A version of this bill had been proposed in 1943, when FDR was still president, but died in committee both because of the pressures of the war and the lack of presidential pressure on Congress.
At first, things looked somewhat rosy for the reinvigorated 1945 bill: the Democrats still controlled both the House of Representatives and the Senate and a number of prominent Americans vociferously supported it. Still, the nation was weary from war, the high taxes necessary to pay for FDR’s New Deal, and what many Americans perceived to be a too intrusive federal government.
Almost as soon as the reinvigorated bill was announced, the once-powerful American Medical Association (AMA) capitalized on the nation’s paranoia over the threat of Communism and, despite Truman’s assertions to the contrary, attacked the bill as “socialized medicine.” Even more outrageous, the AMA derided the Truman administration as “followers of the Moscow party line.” During congressional hearings in 1946, the AMA proposed its own plan emphasizing private insurance options, which actually represented a political shift from its previous position opposing any third party members in the delivery of health care.
Another historical actor entering the fray was Senator Robert Taft (R-OH), who introduced the Taft-Smith-Ball bill, which called for matching grants to states to subsidize private health insurance for the needy. Although the AMA supported this bill, Truman was against it because he believed it would halt the political progress he had made in guaranteeing every American health insurance.
Hearings and politics continued through 1946 but little progress was made. During the midterm elections of 1946, the Republicans regained control of both the Senate and the House for the first time since 1929, making the bill a dead issue.
Harry Truman continued to make health insurance a major issue of his campaign platform in 1948 and specifically castigated the AMA for calling his plan “un-American”:
“I put it to you, it is un-American to visit the sick, aid the afflicted or comfort the dying? I thought that was simple Christianity.”
Truman famously fooled the pollsters by winning re-election in 1948 and even the Congress was restored to Democratic control that fall. But this political power was no match for the AMA’s redoubled lobbying and advertising efforts, which were endorsed by more than 1,800 national organizations, including the American Bar Association, the American Legion and the American Farm Bureau Federation. Public support waned — and the bill quietly died (again) — as the middle class purchased private health insurance plans, labor unions began collectively bargaining for their members’ health benefits, and the advent of the Korean War.
Truman later called the failure to pass a national health insurance program one of the most bitter and troubling disappointments in his presidency. He must have been overjoyed in 1965 to watch Lyndon Johnson enact a health insurance plan for the elderly and the needy. Nevertheless, the nation would have to wait another 45 years before the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, a law that remains in jeopardy after Nov. 7, when the U.S. Supreme Court took on still another legal challenge to its constitutionality. That said, many would insist there remains a great more work to do to make health care affordable and accessible for all Americans.
Left: President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Medicare Bill at the Harry S. Truman Library in Independence, Missouri, with President Truman seated next to him. Twenty years earlier, President Truman proposed his idea for nationwide health care. Archive photo from the White House Press Office
Charley Pride Was 'Admitted to Hospital in Late November' with COVID-19 Symptoms, CMAs Speak Out
Charley Pride was "unable to overcome" the coronavirus, according to a new statement shared on his official Facebook page. The singer died on Saturday in Dallas, Texas, at the age of 86.
Hours after news of his death was announced, a statement on Pride&aposs Facebook page detailed his coronavirus diagnosis. "It is with great sadness that we confirm that Charley Pride passed away this morning, Saturday, December 12, 2020, in Dallas, Texas of complications from Covid-19 at age 86," the statement read.
"He was admitted to the hospital in late November with Covid-19 type symptoms and despite the incredible efforts, skill and care of his medical team over the past several weeks, he was unable to overcome the virus," the statement continued. "Charley felt blessed to have such wonderful fans all over the world. And he would want his fans to take this virus very seriously."
On Nov. 11, Pride made his final performance and received the Willie Nelson Lifetime Achievement Award at the Country Music Association Awards, which drew controversy for being held indoors despite the COVID-19 pandemic. Many, including country stars Maren Morris, Mickey Guyton and Brandi Carlile, expressed concern about Pride possibly contracting the coronavirus at the CMAs.
However, the CMAs and representatives for Charley Pride issued a joint statement on Saturday.
"Everyone affiliated with the CMA Awards followed strict testing protocols outlined by the city health department and unions. Charley was tested prior to traveling to Nashville. He was tested upon landing in Nashville, and again on show day, with all tests coming back negative. After returning to Texas following the CMA Awards, Charley again tested negative multiple times," the statement read. "All of us in the Country Music community are heartbroken by Charley&aposs passing. Out of respect for his family during their grieving period, we will not be commenting on this further."
Pride, who was the first Black artist to be inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame and only the second Black artist to perform at the Grand Ole Opry, was best known for his songs “Kiss an Angel Good Morning” and “Is Anybody Goin&apos to San Antone.”
Among his many accolades, the country trailblazer won a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017 and became a member of the Grand Ole Opry in 1993
Pride is survived by his children — Carlton Kraig Pride, Charles Dion Pride, and Angela Rozene Pride — and his grandchildren and great-grandchildren — Carlton Kraig Pride, Jr., Malachi Pride, Syler Pride, Ebby Pride, Arrentino Vassar, Skyler Pride and Carlton Kraig Pride, III — as well as his siblings Harmon Pride, Stephen Pride, Catherine Sanders and Maxine Pride.
"In lieu of flowers, the family asks for donations to The Pride Scholarship at Jesuit College Preparatory School, St. Philips School and Community Center or The Food Bank," the statement on Pride&aposs Facebook page said.
History of Israel and Palestine: 1947 UN Partition Proposal
|Percentage of the land of Palestine |
that was proposed for each State
|Proposed Jewish State on 56.47% of the land (excluding Jerusalem)|
|Proposed Arab Palestinian State on 43.53% of the land |
|Proposed Internationally Administered Zone that would have included Jerusalem|
|Population for the International trusteeship regime in Jerusalem|
|105,000 Arabs||100,000 Jews|
|Population for the proposed |
|Population for the proposed |
|325,000 Arabs||10,000 Jews|
In practice, Zionists did not accept the UN Partition Plan. Zionists seized areas beyond the proposed Jewish State and did not recognize the International Zone. Using force and terrorism months before May 1948, Jews seized land beyond the UN proposed borders. The UN Plan was used as a pretense for taking over most of Palestine.
NOTE: This is a critical fact often omitted when the history is presented and this leads to a very distorted view of what happened in 1948. The misleading story often told is that "Jews declared Israel and then they were attacked." The fact is from November 1947 to May 1948 the Zionists were already on the offensive and had already attacked Arabs. In the months before Israel was declared, the Zionists had driven 300,000 non-Jews off their land. In the months before Israel was declared, the Zionists had seized land beyond the proposed Jewish State. SEE Sources or this blog entry: Sources for the Israeli/Palestinian situation 1947-1948
It is the Zionists that pushed for the radical idea that the land be divided up so that a "pure" racially established state of Jews could be established. They didn't want to live as equal citizens as is expected of all religions in America. But the division was only considered temporary by them since their goal was and is to take over all of Palestine.
The key Zionists had no intention of accepting that UN partition, a recommendation to chop up Palestine into 7 parts. 67% of the population didn't what that done. In 1938 Ben-Gurion said to other Zionists, &ldquoafter we become a strong force, as the result of the creation of a state, we shall abolish partition and expand to the whole of Palestine .&rdquo Sure enough, after the creation of the state in 1948, Menachem Begin made clear how serious the &ldquoJews accepting the UN partition&rdquo was in reality, &ldquo The partition of the Homeland is illegal . It will never be recognized. The signature of institutions and individuals of the partition agreement is invalid. It will not bind the Jewish people. Jerusalem was and will forever be our capital. Eretz Israel (the land of Israel) will be restored to the people of Israel, All of it. And forever&rdquo.
"A partial Jewish state is not the end, but only the beginning . I am certain that we will not be prevented from settling in the other parts of the country, either by mutual agreement with our Arab neighbors or by some other means . [If the Arabs refuse] we shall have to speak to them in a different language. But we shall only have another language if we have a state." p162 Fateful Triangle The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians
"The Zionists were by far the more powerful and better organized force, and by May 1948, when the state of Israel was formally established, about 300,000 Palestinians already had been expelled from their homes or had fled the fighting, and the Zionists controlled a region well beyond the area of the original Jewish state that had been proposed by the UN. Now it's then that Israel was attacked by its neighbors - in May 1948 it's then, after the Zionists had taken control of this much larger part of the region and hundreds of thousands of civilians had been forced out, not before." p132 Understanding Power: The Indispensable Chomsky
The fact that the rights of the majority, 67% of the population, were violated is suppressed in the media. Why in the world would you think it is legitimate for 33% of a population to seize land and carve up the land into 7 parts? Why in the world should 67% of a population ever accept that? These population stats, which highlight just how undemocratic the UN proposal really was, are almost never mentioned in US media.
The 1947 proposal was not the first land division scheme, the Peel Commission suggested a partition plan in 1937. Also if you look into it, the Zionists had no intention of accepting any fair partition. As Ben-Gurion himself said in 1937, " No Zionist can forgo the smallest portion of Eretz Israel ." (see p162 Fateful Triangle The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians)
The May 1948 unilateral declaration was by less than 33% of the population who were imposing their will on 67% of the non-Jews. In Nov 1947 the UN made a recommendation for a three-way partition of Palestine into a Jewish State, an Arab State and a small internationally administered zone that would have included Jerusalem. This was a recommendation by the UN General Assembly and General Assembly recommendations have no force, they are only recommendations. In fact Israel is the greatest rejecter of General Assembly resolutions by the way. When the recommendation was made, war broke out between the Palestinians and the Zionists who had been planning on taking over and before the end of the war they had amassed much more arms. By May 1948, when the Jews (33%) unilaterally declared "the state of Israel", 300,000 Palestinians had already been ethnically cleansed (forced from their homes or had fled the fighting) by the Zionists and the Zionists had stolen a region well beyond the area of the original Jewish State that was proposed by the UN. Then, after the Zionists had taken control of this much larger part of the region and hundreds of thousands of civilians had been forced out, "Israel" was attacked by its neighbors.
In 1967 Israel attacked and took over the remaining part of Palestine with the intention of keeping it. All through the supposed "peace process" they have been illegally building on the occupied territories.
<< Terrorism by Jews can't be discounted. >>
These Jewish terrorists are subsidized (living on land illegally and in violation of the Geneva Convention and are not pursued by "the law" the same way other terrorists are) and they are ON TOP of the violence, the maiming and killing of thousands, against the Palestinians. The Israeli military have been targeting children and maiming them for life. Dramatic examples of other crimes go UNREPORTED or UNDERREPORTED here in America.
A Jewish State covering 56.47% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem) with a population of 498,000 Jews and 325,000 Arabs
* An Arab State covering 43.53% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem), with 807,000 Arab inhabitants and 10,000 Jewish inhabitants
* An international trusteeship regime in Jerusalem, where the population was 100,000 Jews and 105,000 Arabs.
The partition plan also laid down:
* A guarantee of the rights of minorities and religious rights, including free access to and the preservation of Holy Places
* A constitution of an Economic Union between the two states: custom union, joint monetary system, joint administration of main services, equal access to water and energy resources.