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Battle of Varna - History

Battle of Varna - History


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The Ottoman forces fought a constant series of battles along its Hungarian border. Murad the Ottoman sultan decided to end the strife once and for all. He attacked Belgrade, the chief fortress on the Hungarian border. He was repulsed from Belgrade. Encouraged by their victories the Christians declared a new Crusade against the Ottomans, whose goal was to drive them from Europe. The Christian armies were led by Hunyadi who acheived two important victories, the first at the battle of Hermanstadt, and then at the battle of Nissa in which the Ottomans are driven from Bulgaria. In 1444 Murad proposed a peace treaty with Hungary seding all of Servia and Wallachia to the Hungarians. The King of Hungary accepted the agreement, a vowed 10 years of peace. The Roman Catholic church opposed the agreement as the purpose of the Crusade driving the Ottomans from Europe had not been accomplished. Once the fortresses of Servia and Wallachia were turned over the Christians, they attacked the Ottomans. The forces of Hunyadi advanced along the coast of the Black Sea all the way to Varna which he captured.
The Ottomans under Sultan Murad responded by attacking Hunyadi from the rear. Murad totally routed the army of Hunyadi. The result of the battle was the establishment of Servia, Wallachia and Bosnia as Ottoman vassal states.

Random Important Battles From History That Nobody Talks About (12 items)

The Carthaginian commander Hannibal is still remembered as one of the most brilliant military strategists of all time, and his accomplishments during the Second Punic War are still admired today: he guided an army that included war elephants over the treacherous Alps so he could launch a devastating surprise attack on Northern Italy he terrorized the Romans in their own territory for over a decade and at the Battle of Cannae in 216 BCE, he encircled and slaughtered the Roman army. This defeat shocked and humbled the Romans, who considered themselves the Mediterranean's dominant military power.

But as impressive as Hannibal's victories were, the Carthaginians still lost the war. The truly decisive battle of the Second Punic War was the Roman victory at Zama. In the years following Cannae, the Romans had struggled to stop Hannibal on their own soil. So the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio gave Hannibal a taste of his own medicine, launching a surprise invasion on the Carthaginian homeland in 203 BCE. This forced Hannibal to withdraw his entire army from Europe to defend Carthage. Crucially, Hannibal couldn't bring his cavalry horses back to Carthage, and he had to slaughter them. Meanwhile, the Romans formed an alliance with the Numidian king Masinissa, who commanded a powerful cavalry force of his own.

Hannibal arrived with an army about the same size as Scipio's, about 40,000 strong. But lacking adequate cavalry and the ability to chose the site of the battle, Hannibal's fortunes were reversed. Scipio spread out his formation to neutralize the effect of Hannibal's war elephants, and the Roman forces and their Numidian allies destroyed most of the Hannibal's army. Hannibal lost Carthage, and the Romans went on to establish an empire.

(#6) Battle of Castillon

In the 21st century, most people know the British Empire as a predominantly naval power that ruled more territory around the world than any predecessor. But during the Middle Ages, England's imperialist aims were more local. Starting in the 12th century, England repeatedly invaded French territory and controlled several fiefdoms on the French mainland, which it used as a power base to threaten the French throne for the next 300 years. It all ended with the the Battle of Castillon. The battle was the culmination of the Hundred Years' War, which began in 1337 C.E. following the French conquest of the English duchy of Guyenne. (But fighting had been going on for decades before then.)

In the middle of the 15th century, England was ruled by the Lancastrian King Henry VI. Internal conflicts between the Lancasters and their rivals, the House of York, as well as Henry's mental health issues, weakened England's ability to defend its foreign territories. The French King Charles VII took advantage of the situation, sacking English-held Bordeaux in 1451. In response, the English dispatched an army led by John, Earl of Shrewsbury, who retook Bordeaux in October 1452. The next summer, the English and French armies met near the English fortress of Castillon.

During the ensuing battle, Shrewsbury, mistakenly believing the French camp was undefended, attacked without the cover of his artillery. Charles returned and fired with his own cannons, and the English army was slaughtered - including Shrewsbury. Not only did the battle strip England of all their French territories except the port of Calais, it also proved the effectiveness of gunpowder artillery (still a relatively recent invention). Following Castillon, England descended into a bloody civil war known as the War of the Roses. England never again tried to conquer the European mainland, instead focusing its imperial ambitions on the New World.

(#5) Battle of Ain Jalut

The Mongol Empire was one of the greatest military powers the world has ever known. Using his devastating horse archers, Genghis Khan had managed to conquer most of China, Central Asia, and Persia by the time of his passing in 1227. When he passed, it looked like his empire was poised to conquer not just the remaining steppe peoples, but the known world. But 34 years later, an army of enslaved soldiers finally proved the Mongols weren't invincible, and saved their civilization in the process.

In 1251, the new Great Khan, Genghis's son Mongke, ordered his brother Hulagu to finally expand outward from Persia and conquer the remaining Islamic nations in the Middle East and North Africa. Seven years later, Hulagu's forces took Baghdad and executed its caliph, an important symbolic demise that symbolized the end of the caliphate. Hulagu next took the Levant and set his sights on the Egypt, the last major Islamic nation that was controlled by the Mamluks.

A century earlier, the Mamluks had primarily been an elite military force consisting of enslaved soldiers - one that was so respected that some Egyptian parents sold their children into slavery so they could earn the honor of enlisting. They played a major role in helping Saladin repel the Christian Crusades, and over the next century, they eventually became the ruling class in Egypt.

Hulagu sent emissaries to the Mamluk sultan, Quduz, demanding unconditional surrender. But then fate intervened. Hulagu's brother Mongke perished and set off a succession dispute, forcing Hulagu to take the majority of his army to Azerbaijan in case he needed to intervene back home. He left behind a still-formidable force of 20,000 Mongol soldiers.

The Mongols and their new commander, Ked-Buqa, met the Mamluk army at Gaza. During the battle, the Mamluk general Baybars executed a plan that many military commanders have found successful since: using the enemy's favored tactic against them. Baybars ordered a feigned retreat to draw in Ked-Buqa's forces, then fired down on them from three sides until the Mongols were forced to retreat.

Both sides endured heavy losses, but the Mongols fell back to their stronghold in Persia. They would never again seriously threaten the Middle East. As for the Mamluks, Baybars leveraged his success to assassinate Quduz and take power for himself. He established positive diplomatic relationships with many European and Middle Eastern powers and ensured that Mamluk Egypt survived.

(#1) Battle of Tours

In the Seventh century C.E., the Umayyad dynasty expanded from Syria and established a Muslim caliphate covering most of the Middle East, Turkey, and North Africa. And at the beginning of the eighth century, the Umayyads set their sights on mainland Europe.

An unstable political situation allowed the Umayyads to establish a foothold in Spain. In 710 C.E., Witiza, king of Gothic Spain, died and set off a succession dispute. Rather than support Witiza's heir, Akhila, the Gothic nobles elected Roderick, Duke of Baetica, to be their ruler. Akhila's supporters reached out to the Umayyad ruler for assistance, and the Umayyads helped them defeat Roderick. But they refused to return to Morocco and controlled most of the Iberian peninsula by 712.

As the Umayyads began to venture eastward into modern-day France, this brought them into conflict with the Frankish kingdom, which was ruled by the Merovingian dynasty. In 732 C.E., Abd al-Raḥmān al-Ghafiqi and his Umayyad army sacked Bourdeaux. Shortly after that, the Umayyads met the Frankish army led by its de facto ruler Charles Martel. The clash came to be called the Battle of Tours.

Today, the exact location of the Battle of Tours is unknown, as is what exactly happened. We know that Charles defeated al-Raḥmān, with either a decisive cavalry charge or a heavy infantry attack. In strategic terms, the Frankish victory stopped the Umayyad advance.

To be sure, losing the Battle of Tours wasn't the only reason the Umayyads stopped advancing - there were also internal political divisions that undermined the effort - but it did represent the furthest expansion by a Muslim army into Christian territory. If the Battle of Tours had gone differently, it's possible that Islam would be the dominant religion in at least some of Europe today.

(#3) Battle of Tsushima

When the Japanese Empire attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, it brought America into a war to decide who would control the Pacific Ocean. But Japan never would have been in this position without first becoming a naval superpower. And that process culminated 36 years earlier, with the Japanese victory at the Battle of Tsushima.

In the 1600s, Russia had become a power in the West, but it was only beginning to expand into the East. For the next 200 years, Russia encroached on Chinese territory, and in 1858, the instability surrounding the Taiping Rebellion allowed the Russians to seize a large region of China north of the Amur River. This gave them a foothold into the Pacific, threatening the nearby kingdoms of Korea and Japan.

Meanwhile, in Japan, Emperor Mutsuhito, elevated to power above the declining Tokugawa Shogunate, was established as Emperor Meiji in 1867. Meiji abolished feudalism and initiated a series of Western-style reforms, including a new educational system and a modernized military. Japan became a regional power and pursued its own territorial ambitions against China and Korea. By the end of the 19th century, an expansionist Russia and a newly emergent Japan were on a collision course.

When the Russo-Japanese war began in 1904, most Western nations, including Russia, didn't consider Japan a military threat. Japan began the war with a surprise attack on the Russian Port Arthur, then won several more battles. In response, Tsar Nicholas II dispatched his veteran Baltic Fleet, confident it would crush the Japanese. The fleet sailed around the world to the strait of Tsushima, where Admiral Togō Heihachirō&rsquos fleet waited. The faster and better-armed Japanese navy destroyed or captured 30 of the 45 Russian ships, proving to the world that Japan was a military force to be reckoned with.

(#2) Battle of Plataea

Even before the movie 300 , the Battle of Thermopylae was by far the most famous battle from the wars between Greece and Persia in the fifth century BCE. But in this case, "most famous" doesn't mean "most important." King Leonidas's brave stand against a numerically superior King Xerxes definitely inspired the ancient Greek world, but it didn't significantly slow the Persian advance. Shortly after Thermopylae, Xerxes sacked Athens and established a presence in Greek territory. (Also, Leonidas had quite a few more soldiers under his command than just the 300. It was more like 7,000.)

The real decisive battle in the Persian wars was at Plataea. Soon after defeating the Spartans at Thermopylae, Xerxes suffered a major loss at the naval Battle of Salamis and retreated to Persia. But he left behind a large army led by his general Mardonius, who, according to Herodotus, had goaded Xerxes into attempting the invasion in the first place.

By 479 BCE, the Persians had set up their base in the Greek city of Plataea. That spring, a combined army of Greek city-states that included Sparta and Athens marched to Plataea to confront them.

The Greek army was only about 40,000 men strong, compared with a Persian army that numbered as many as 120,000. (As with all ancient army sizes, these numbers can only be estimated.) But even though the Greeks were outnumbered, they were much better at close-quarters fighting than the Persians, who preferred long-ranged attacks using archers and cavalry. During the battle, disarray in the Greek lines enticed Mardonius to attack, which proved to be a fatal mistake. A Greek counter-attack trapped the over-confident Persians, and the well-trained Greek hoplites routed the Persian formation. Mardonius lost his life in the battle, and Xerxes was never able to mount a serious challenge to Greece again.

About This Tool

There have been many tragic wars unprecedented in human history, and many important wars have profoundly changed the pattern of the world. When it comes to the turning point of modern society, we have all learned some knowledge about World War II and modern world history in history classes. From the perspective of social development, some countries may have won the battle, but they have not won the war.

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Battle of Varna - History

This document has been shared, most graciously, with the Victorian Web by David Kelsey it has been taken from his website. Copyright, of course, remains with Mr Kelsey. &mdsh Added by Marjie Bloy Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, National University of Singapore.

The Moniteur of Saturday publishes the following letter from Constantinople, dated the 21st ult: —

The establishment of the siege batteries, which was much retarded by the nature of the ground, and annoyed during the 14th and 16th by the enemy's fire, was not completed until the evening of the 16th, except one battery of eight 50-pounders, intended to take the Quarantine Battery in the rear. The number of heavy guns in position is about 250. The fire commenced at half-past six in the morning of the 17th, and was well kept up on both sides until 10 o'clock. On the morning of the same day the fleets, anchored part at Katcha and others off the bay of Kamiech, began to advance on the batteries at the entrance of Sebastopol, the steam-frigates having the sailing vessels in tow. The English squadron were to fire on the north side and the French on the south and the Quarantine batteries. The French squadron advanced under the fire of all the batteries, and was in position at 1 o'clock, four three-deckers and three steam vessels forming the first line. The other vessels forming the second line arrived in succession, as well as two Ottoman ships of the line. About half-past 2 the English squadron took up its position to the north. The fire opened at 1 o'clock, and was warmly kept up on both sides until 3 o'clock, when that of the Russian batteries gradually fell off. They afterwards only fired occasional shots until 6 o'clock, at the moment when the squadrons, which for five hours had kept up a warm and uninterrupted fire, resumed their former anchorage. The smoke during the combat and the night which interrupted it prevented an exact judgment being formed of the damage caused to the enemy. The French siege batteries discontinued their fire about noon on the same day, in consequence of the explosion of a powder magazine which damaged the batteries near it. The English batteries continued their fire, and appeared to profit by the diversion made by ruining the works which were opposed to them. On the morning of the 18th the fire of all the siege batteries recommenced, and was continued during the whole day, and caused several fires in the town at 1 o'clock a Russian powder magazine blew up. General Canrobert sent word on the 18th to Admiral Hamelin that the bombardment of the previous day appeared to have very much injured the Quarantine Battery, which much impeded the French operations. The large forts at the entrance, without being entirely demolished, are much damaged.

A letter from Therapia, of the 20th ult, in the Moniteur , says -

You will hear from all sides that our sailors fought valiantly everyone did his duty, and in the most noble manner. The Charlemagne arrived at her station the first, and for half an hour supported alone the fire of all the Russian forts, returning their fire with a vigour which was the admiration of both squadrons. A shell burst on the stern of the Ville de Paris , and the poop was knocked to pieces. By a kind of miracle Admiral Hamelin was not injured, but of his four Aides-de-Camps, one, M. Sommeiller, was killed, and the others were wounded, as well as several other persons who were standing near. M. Bouet-Willaumez, the chief of the staff, escaped as fortunately as the Admiral.

The Government received today the following telegraph, addressed to Lord Westmorland by the British Consul-General at Varna:-

On the 25th an imposing force suddenly attacked three Turkish batteries near Balaklava, and carried them by storm. The Turks retreated, after spiking some of their guns. The Russian artillery and infantry continuing to advance, our light brigade of cavalry charged them, but sustained a considerable loss. The regiment of Scots Grays, however, coming to their assistance, with the 5th Dragoons, the enemy was completely routed, and withdrew behind the batteries taken from the Turks. The French took part in the affair with admirable bravery. In the evening of the 26th the Russians sallied out of Sebastopol, and attacked the division of General de Lacy Evans but in less than half-an-hour they were repulsed, with a loss of 1,000 men left on the field. The loss of the English in this second action consists of one officer killed and a few men wounded. The fire from the city had considerably slackened. The allies were fully confident of the proximate fall of Sebastopol.

The Courier de Marseilles quotes the following, under date Constantinople, the 20th ult: —

The French steamer Ajaccio arrived this morning from the Crimea with the mails from the armies and fleets. The letters are of the 18th. The bombardment of Sebastopol commenced on the 17th, at 6 o'clock a.m., by land, and at 10 o'clock the combined fleets took part in the action, by attacking the outer batteries of the Marine, and particularly that of the Quarantine. Two small batteries close to the latter had ceased firing, and were partly demolished at noon, but the principal battery continued to fire. The guns used by the Russians carried to a great distance, and several of the ships were more or less damaged. Among those which suffered most were, on the English side, the Sanspareil , which had 12 killed and 60 wounded Albion , nearly the same number of killed and wounded Agamemnon , four killed and 22 wounded Queen , one killed and 11 wounded, &c. On the side of the French, the Ville de Paris , ten killed and 30 wounded Valmy , four killed and 30 wounded Montebello , ten killed and 30 wounded. The four aides-de-camp of Admiral Hamelin were put hors de combat. One of them was cut in two by a cannon ball another, M. Zédè, had his two legs shattered the other two were not dangerously wounded. At nightfall the fleets suspended their firing, and returned to their anchorage. The result obtained on the land side is not exactly known. The Russians defend themselves with an obstinacy bordering on despair. But, notwithstanding the 3,000 guns mounted on the ramparts, the fall of the place is considered certain in the allied camp. The resistance, however, will be longer and more sanguinary than was at first supposed. The occupation of Eupatoria by the Russians, which caused so much joy to the Greeks at Constantinople, was of short duration. The village was guarded by a few seamen and marines, who, on the approach of a considerable body of Cossacks, retired on board their ships. The next day, however, they landed with reinforcements and drove the Russians out of the place.

The Moniteur of yesterday contains the following articles:—

The Marshal Minister of War has received from General Canrobert, Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the East, the following report, dated from the headquarters before Sebastopol, the 18th of October, and forming a continuation of that of the 13th, inserted in the Moniteur of the 28th of October —

'Monsieur le Marechal — Yesterday, at sunrise, we opened our fire in concert with the English army. Matters were proceeding favourably, when the explosion of the powder magazine of a battery, which unfortunately was of a serious character, threw our attack into disorder. This explosion produced greater effect from the fact that our batteries were accumulated round the point where it took place. The enemy profited by it to increase his fire, and, in accord with the General commanding the Artillery, I was of opinion that it was necessary for us to suspend ours in order to make repairs, and to complete towards our right, by fresh batteries connected with those of the English army, the system of our attack. This delay is no doubt to be regretted, but we must resign ourselves to it, and I am taking every necessary step to render it as short as possible.

The place kept up the fire better than was expected. The circle is of such formidable development in a right line, and comprises guns of such large calibre, that it can prolong the struggle. On the 17th our troops took possession of the height before the point of attack called the Bastion of the Mat, and occupied it. This evening we shall raise upon it a masked battery of 12 pieces, and, if it be possible, also a second battery at the extreme right above the ravine.

All the means of attack are concentrated upon this bastion, and will enable us, I hope, soon to take possession of it, with the assistance of the English batteries, which are directed against its left face.

Yesterday, about 10 o'clock in the morning, the English fleet attacked the external batteries of the place, but I have not yet received any particulars to enable me to give you an account of the result of this attack.

The English batteries are in the best possible condition. Eight new mortars have been placed in them, calculated to produce great effect. Yesterday there was, in the battery which surrounds the tower situated to the left of the place, a tremendous explosion, which must have done much injury to the enemy. Since then this battery has fired very little, and this morning there are only two or three guns which can fire.

I have no precise information about the Russian army. There is nothing to indicate that it has changed the positions it occupied, where it awaits reinforcements.

I have received almost the whole of right reinforcement of artillery which I expected from Gallipoli and Varna. General Levaillant has just arrived with his staff, which increases to five divisions the effective force of infantry which I have under my orders. Their state of health is satisfactory and their discipline excellent, and we are all full of confidence.

The French Government has received from Vice-Admiral Hamelin the following despatch: —

Ville de Paris, before Katcha, Oct 18th.

Monsieur le Ministre, — In my letter of the 13th of October I announced to your excellency that I had embarked with all my staff on board the frigate Mogador , in order to anchor as near as possible to the French headquarters, and arrange with the General-in-Chief a general attack by the land and sea forces against Sebastopol on the day when the fire of the siege batteries should commence. On the 14th I had an interview with General Canrobert, whose views were in conformity with mine. On the 15th a meeting of the Admirals of the allied squadrons took place on board the frigate Mogador, and the arrangements for the general attack were made with common accord, and were then submitted to the Generals of the land forces, who heartily agreed to them. This general attack was fixed for the 17th, the day of the opening of the fire of the siege batteries.

With respect to the squadrons, they were to effect what follows:-- The French squadron undertook to place itself towards the rocks to the south, and at about 7 cables' length to operate against the 350 guns of the Quarantine Battery, the two batteries of Fort Alexander, and the battery of the Artillery.

The English squadron had to attack towards the rocks to the north, at about the same distance, the 130 guns of the Constantine Battery, the Telegraph Battery, and the Maximilian Tower to the north.

If your Excellency would imagine a line traced along the entry to Sebastopol from the east to the west, that line would separate into two parts the locality of the attack which devolved upon each squadron.

The Turkish Admiral with two vessels, all that he retained at the time, was to cast anchor to the north of the two French lines — that is to say in an intermediate position between the English and French vessels. On the morning of the 17th the attack of the siege batteries commenced but, as the weather was calm, it was necessary to attach the ships of the line to the steam frigates before developing against Sebastopol the line of the 26 ships of the allied squadrons. Nevertheless, in spite of this difficulty, and the separation which had taken place between the ships of the allied squadrons, a part of which had anchored at Kamisch and part before the Katcha, I have the satisfaction to announce to your Excellency that the ships of our first line advanced about half-past 12 in the day under the fire of the batteries of Sebastopol, which they stood against at first during more than half-an-hour without replying. A few minutes afterwards they replied vigorously to the fire, which did not fail to incommode them, from their small number. Afterwards the other French and English vessels successively arrived, and the attack became general.

Towards half-past 2 o'clock the fire of the Russian batteries slackened it was stopped at the Quarantine Battery. This was the exact object desired by the French squadron, but our firing was redoubled and continued without interruption till night.

At the time I am writing to your Excellency I am not aware of what was the success of our siege batteries, whose fire had commenced before ours, and which attacked the Russian fortifications on the land side.

If the Russians had not closed the entrance to Sebastopol by sinking two ships of the line and two frigates, I do not doubt that the vessels of the squadrons, after the first fire, would have been able successfully to enter the port and place themselves in communication with the army. Perhaps they would not have lost many more men in doing this than we have now to regret but the extreme measure which the enemy adopted of sacrificing a portion of his ships forced us to confine ourselves to attacking for five hours the sea batteries of Sebastopol, with the object of silencing them more or less, of occupying a great many men of the garrison at the guns, and of giving thus to our army material as well as moral assistance.

Today, the 18th, I have only time to give a hasty sketch to your Excellency of this affair, which, in my opinion, does great honour to the French navy.

I subjoin to this sketch a list of the men killed and wounded on board of each ship. Without delay I shall send you a detailed report upon all the phases of the attack, and in reference to the part, more or less active, which each ship took in it.

At the commencement of the affair the enthusiasm was extreme. During the combat the tenacity of everyone was not less so. Before commencing the fire I signalled to the squadron "France has her eyes upon you," a signal which was received with cries of Vive l'Empereur!

I am, with deep respect, Monsieur le Minister, your Excellency's very obedient servant, the Vice-Admiral Commander-in-Chief of the squadron of the Mediterranean,


The Rise of Goldsmithing and Wealth

Evidence suggests that it was between 4600 and 4200 BC when goldsmithing first started in Varna. As advances were made, and craftsmen mastered metallurgy of copper and gold, the inhabitants now had something extremely valuable to trade. Increased contacts with neighbors in both the north and south eventually opened up trade relations within the Black Sea and Mediterranean region, which was of great importance for the development of the society. The deep bay, along which the settlements of Varna, provided a comfortable harbor for ships sailing across the Black Sea and Varna became a prosperous trading center.

Increased trading activity allowed the metallurgists to accumulate wealth, and very quickly a societal gap developed with metallurgists at the top, followed by merchants in the middle, and farmers making up the lower class. Incredible discoveries made at a nearby cemetery also suggest that Varna had powerful rulers or kings – but we will come back to that.

And so, the foundations had been laid for the emergence of a powerful and flourishing culture, whose influence permeated the whole of Europe for thousands of years to come.


The battle of Varna

I have written up the first few pages of a TL I've come up with, just wondering what people think of it, it will be written in the post after this one, but I'm a slow typer and because it is written in a book it has some flaws which need rectifying and so it should be about 30mins after this post. But now I will just describe the battle and the events leading up to it.

The Battle of Varna took place on November 10 , 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria . In this battle the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad II defeated the Polish and Hungarian armies under Władysław III of Poland and Janos Hunyadi . It is often referred to as the crusade of Varna.


Prelude
After a failed expedition in 1441/1442 against Belgrade , the Ottoman sultan Murad II signed a ten-year truce with Hungary. After he had made peace with the Karaman Emirate in Anatolia in August 1444, he resigned the throne to his twelve year-old son Mehmed II .
Despite the peace treaty, Hungary co-operated with Venice and the pope , Eugene IV , to organize a new crusader army. On this news Murad was recalled to the throne by his son. Although Murad initially refused this summoning persistently on the grounds that he was not the sultan anymore, he was outwitted by his son who on the news of his refusal wrote to him: "If you are the sultan, lead your armies but if I am the sultan, I hereby order you to come and lead my armies." Murad then had no choice but to reclaim the throne.

Forces
A mixed Christian army consisting mainly of Hungarian and of Polish forces, but with detachments of Czechs , papal knights, Bosnians , Croatians , Serbs , Bulgarians , Romanians and Ruthenians , met with a numerically superior force of Ottoman Turks. The Hungarians were ill-equipped, and promised support from Wallachia , Albania and Constantinople did not arrive. The Hungarian army was smaller and very imbalanced. It contained almost no infantry, except one hundred to three hundred Czech mercenary handgunners. There were also one hundred war wagons probably with crews, though none are mentioned. The rest of the army was heavy cavalry, mostly Royal and foreign mercenaries, with some Episcopal and Noble banners as well. They had promises from Venetians that their fleet would not allow Turkish army to cross the Bosphorus . There they would meet up with elements of the Papal fleet and move down the coast to Constantinople, pushing the Ottomans out of the Balkans as they went.
In Hungary also the Armenians participated in the wars of their new country against the Turks although as early as the battle of Varna in 1444, some Armenians were seen amongst their forces.

The battle
The 20,000 (or 30,000) Crusaders were overwhelmed by about 60,000 Turks. Over half of the soldiers from the united army perished. The king Władysław III was also killed in the battle (he fell in a trap and was beheaded) while launching an attack without waiting for Janos Hunyadi and his forces to join him.

Aftermath
The death of Władysław III in the battle left Hungary in the hands of the four-year-old Ladislaus Posthumous of Bohemia and Hungary . In an expression of gratitude, the Bulgarian people affectionately gave Władysław III the name 'Varnenchik' (Warneńczyk in Polish), after the city of Varna, where he fought and died.
The defeat ended any serious attempts to prevent the conquest of eastern Europe by Turks for several decades. It also set the stage for the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Another website I used as a source was this one, although I am not oo sure of its reliability. I will not copy and paste this part because of its length http://library.thinkquest.org/04apr/00040/varna.htm#

This is also something i found on wikipedia about the battle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janos_Hunyadi)

The burden of the Ottoman War now rested with him. In 1441 he delivered Serbia by the victory of Semendria. In 1442 , not far from Sibiu , on which he had been forced to retire, he annihilated an immense Ottoman presence, and recovered for Hungary the suzerainty of Wallachia . In February 1450 , he signed an alliance treaty with Bogdan II of Moldavia .
In July, he vanquished a third Turkish army near the Iron Gates . These victories made Hunyadi a prominent enemy of the Ottomans and renowned throughout Christendom , and stimulated him in 1443 to undertake, along with King Władysław, the famous expedition known as the "long campaign". Hunyadi, at the head of the vanguard, crossed the Balkans through the Gate of Trajan , captured Niš , defeated three Turkish pashas , and, after taking Sofia , united with the royal army and defeated Sultan Murad II at Snaim . The impatience of the king and the severity of the winter then compelled him (February 1444 ) to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the Sultan's power in Bosnia , Herzegovina , Serbia, Bulgaria , and Albania .
No sooner had he regained Hungary than he received tempting offers from Pope Eugene IV , represented by the Legate Julian, Cardinal Cesarini , from Đurađ Branković , despot of Serbia, and Gjergj Kastrioti , prince of Albania, to resume the war and realize his ideal of driving the Ottomans from Europe. All the preparations had been made when Murad's envoys arrived in the royal camp at Szeged and offered a ten years' truce on advantageous terms. Branković bribed Hunyadi -he gave him his vast estates in Hungary- to support the acceptance of the peace. Cardinal Cesarini found a traitorous solution. The king swore that he would never give up the crusade, so all future peace and oath was automatically invalid. After this Hungary accepted the Sultan's offer and Hunyadi in Władysław's name swore on the Gospels to observe them.
Two days later Cesarini received tidings that a fleet of Venetian galleys had set off for the Bosporus to prevent Murad (who, crushed by his recent disasters, had retired to Anatolia ) from recrossing into Europe, and the cardinal reminded the King that he had sworn to cooperate by land if the western powers attacked the Ottomans by sea. In July the Hungarian army recrossed the frontier and advanced towards the Black Sea coast in order to march to Constantinople escorted by the galleys.
Branković, however, fearful of the sultan's vengeance in case of disaster, privately informed Murad of the advance of the Christian host, and prevented Kastrioti from joining it. On reaching Varna , the Hungarians found that the Venetian galleys had failed to prevent the transit of the Sultan, who now confronted them with four times their forces, and on November 10 , 1444 they were utterly routed in the Battle of Varna , Władysław falling on the field and Hunyadi narrowly escaping.

And now I shall start writing it up. If anyone has anything to query me on or tips, what ever, don't hesitate to say a thing. Thanks.

The following is the only map I could find close enough to the real thing at the time:

KieronAntony

Freedom to the Balkans, Freedom to Bulgaria.

Part one – The Road To Varna

They threatened Europe, worried the powerful nations, the great Leaders and skilled armies, they were expanding, absorbing their neighbouring countries and surrounding tribes, they were becoming too powerful, too rich and far too strong, and they, they were, The Ottomans, and they needed to be stopped.

The year is 1444 and as the powerful state of the Ottomans arises in Asia minor and begin to threaten European States, but it is not long before this thread is rivalled, the Polish King, Wladyslaw III, combined with a strong but ill-equipped force of Hungarian soldiers (who were later re-equipped, though at a large cost to the Polish economy as they were bought at a high price from the Portuguese, by King Wladyslaw who would be later repaid by the Hungarians) and a large mix of others unite to take this threat head on and march through the Balkan peninsula to cleanse Europe of the Ottomans once and for all. This Challenge was countered by the Ottomans when Sultan Mehmed II requested his father, Murad II, to lead his armies and defeat this menace.

Supported by not only Hungarians but Czechs, Papal Knights, Bosnians Croats, Serbs, Bulgarians, Ruthenians, Romanians, and a considerable contingent of forces which arrived a few days before the battle from Walachia, Albania, and particularly Constantinople, in which many fire-armed infantry were drafted into the mixed army. Also, very crucially, the Venetians and Papal States promised their fleets to sail to Varna and Guard the troops Flank on the Black Sea against Turkish landings. The Polish-Hungarian-mixed army was still outnumbered about 2 to one though.

Below is a quick and rough table of the troop count where the Polish Hungarian army is at its max a few days before the battle and for the Ottomans just before the battle of the Bosporus, which took place at the southern mouth of the Bosporus between the combined Venetian and Papal fleets against the Turkish fleet.

Note that where siege weaponry is concerned the number means the actual of amount of men it is to crew each and every piece.

Unit Type: (in order shown below)
Heavy Cavalry
Janissaries
Hand-gunners
Archers
Arquebuses
Horse Archers
Siege Weaponry, War wagons and Ballistics
Swordsmen
Pikemen
Spearman

Polish-Hungarian:
12,000
0
2,000
3,000
3,000
1,000
500
7,000
5,500
2,500
36,500

Ottomans:
5,000
22,000
1,500
9,000
500
13,000
1,000
9,000
2,000
5,000

(What does everyone think of that troop count? Bear in mind that for the Polish Hungarian Army my alterations of History have altered that quite a lot, for example more better equipped men and more men in general. At the actual battle of Varna the Ottoman army would have been reduced by about a quarter, with many losses incurred to the cavalry because of the naval confrontation in that Bosporus straight about 15 days earlier..)

1444, March-Sept: The “Great Army” as it became known by the people of Eastern Europe, particularly South-Eastern Europe, marched on a long road to Varna, where from there it would journey to Constantinople, hoping to rid Europe of the Ottomans, and curb their expansion into Europe, or quite possibly, stop it altogether. During its advance to Varna, it was slowly joined by roaming bands of soldiers, mercenaries (who would be paid after the battle), the occasional anti-Turkish rabble, and on numerous circumstances, nationalistic Bulgarians who valued their country and its long standing traditions.

The plan was that the combined Italian fleet (Venetian and Papal) would sail from their ports in the Mediterranean, meet up at Gallipoli, and sail through the Bosporus into the Black sea and guard the flank of the army against any possible Turkish landings to try and get their army into Europe.

Oct 25th: And so the fleet set sail, some from the Adriatic Sea, some the Tyrrhenian Sea and many from Crete, and by September 25th they were all fully crewed, loaded and ready to embark on their journey, little did they know what was in store for them.

Oct 26th: Throughout most of their travelling, the voyage was easy, save for some gales in their time through the Aegean Sea. The fleet anchored at the mouth of the Dardanelles straight to go over plans of attack and strategies with each other and when they were all fully organised they again set sail, travelling through the Dardanelles Straight, coming up to the Sea of Marmara. After some more light storms, alike to that of those in the Aegean Sea but with some heavy rain, they had crossed the Sea of Marmara and reached the Mouth of the Bosporus, where, what lay ahead of them, was the enormous fleet of the Ottoman Empire.

Oct 27th: Luckily for the Italians, the Turkish were off guard and the Italian fleet was at the flank of the Turkish one, something which the Italians took full advantage of. They penetrated through the formation of the Ottoman ships and destroying several of their transport ships. And now something that will go down in History as being one of the most selfless and courageous things undertaken by a leader in the filed of battle, or sea as it were, every Italian ship was ordered to find and destroy all the Turkish transports, ignoring their galleys and battleships, in an attempt to give their allies back on land a much smaller numerical disadvantage than what was before, doing this many Italian ships were destroyed, only three of the original number returning back to Italian ports, all of which were badly damaged and all had only a small fraction of their crews left on them alive. And so the Turks had obliterated their foes… but at a high price, during the conflict they lost over 16,000 men, almost a quarter of their original force, and worse still, about half of these were cavalry, the rest were small portions of each of the other units. That day, October 27th 1444, on the Bosporus straight, the Ottomans won a Pyrrhic victory over the Italians, in one of the most important naval battles for centuries to come, and what was popularly known as “The Battle for the Balkans”.

Nov 5th: As news of this reached the King, he sent an emissary to the Doge of Venice, Francesco Forescari, and the Pope himself, Pope Eugene IV, personally thanking them for all their support, of which he assured them would not be in vein.

Nov 6th: The Turkish army had been camped close to the south bank at the mouth of the river Vanensko, a few miles south of Varna, where they were recuperating from their losses and reorganising their army for the upcoming battle. They then broke camp and set off for the town of Varna, about 5 hours march Northwards from their position.

Nov 7th: When they reached Varna and its unwelcoming populace the Turks were shocked at the hostilities shown by the people towards the army, the people want to remain Bulgarian, this was clear, and they didn’t care how many tens of thousands of Turks were occupying their City, they wanted to remain Bulgarian. Because of the peoples such negative hospitality, the Sultan who was in current command of the army, ordered that almost every piece of food in the city be given to the army so it could rest and feed its hungry souls. Those who refused were executed, and so the traditional stubbornness of the Bulgarian people shone through, and many hundreds beheaded and a mass grave was dug outside of Varna- as a warning to those defying Ottoman orders- the Ottomans were confident they were there, and going to stay, for a LONG time.

The Army under King Wladyslaw arrived at a large plain an ideal place to set up camp, their camp was situated about halfway between the town of Balchik and the City of Varna. The Kings scouts reported that the Turks had already set up camp outside Varna, but because his men were in need of a long rest he had no choice but to set up camp, as he could not afford to fight with weary soldiers.

Nov 8th: After only being occupied by the Ottomans for two days the inhabitants of Varna were NOT happy, and were very much against seeing permanent Ottoman rule in the region, and so many people began organising themselves, one former commander in the Bulgarian Army, a Romelian by birth, the former soldier was very intelligent, his name was Vladimir Petranev he successfully navigated, some 300 people and 60 odd carts, full of food and weapons out of the city, he did this by creating a diversion, by gathering 20 horseman and convincing them to attack a small Turkish infantry patrol on, guarding the west route out of the city, and enticing them into the nearby forest which gave the people enough time to also flee into the forest but heading Northwards instead and linking up with the nearby army of Wladyslaw (most of the Turkish Army was camping on the large plain just north of the city, with about 2000 swordsmen. on watch throughout it). Although, some people were not this fortunate, anyone found leaving the city with weapons or food, were brutally dragged towards the city centre, and cruelly hung, drawn and quartered, for all to see.

Nov 9th: Both armies readied themselves for the up coming battle, and both sent out scouts to get a good eye of the surrounding terrain, particularly the Polish Hungarian army which took the best position on the field, a small hillside facing south-east towards the city of Varna and the Sea, they then awaited for the Turks to arrive, who did, and at a snails pace, both armies were ready and in position by early morning the next day,

Nov 10th: As the plans had been drawn, the troops in their positions, and everyman eager to fight, the time for battle was soon to begin, the King of Poland and the various commanders of each of the nationalities in the Polish-Hungarian army began rallying their men, while the Turks blew their horns which echoed across the hills, and then they advanced on their foes position. The battle was commencing….


Any criticism is welcomed, if there are any harrowing errors please let me know.
(But cut me atleast small bit of slack, I'm only sixteen after all )

DuQuense

Oct 25th: And so the fleet set sail, some from the Adriatic Sea, some the Tyrrhenian Sea and many from Crete.
Oct 26th: Throughout most of their travelling, the voyage was easy, .

Oct 27th: Luckily for the Italians, the Turkish were off guard and the Italian fleet was at the flank of the Turkish one.

6 mph for sailing ships, of the time. you may want to redate this.

Thermopylae

A pretty good TL thus far, Kieron. Glad I could be of assistance.

And I second what DuQuense said.

But besides that, very, very nice. Keep going.

Midgard

Abdul Hadi Pasha

1. The Ottoman army is way too big - it wasn't likely more than the size of the Crusader army - in fact, in their initial clashes in 1443, the Ottoman army was much smaller, consisting of only the Janissaries and a few hastily scraped-up auxilliaries. There were at most 10,000-12,000 Janissaries in the entire empire.

2. The Bosphorus is really narrow - there's no room for a huge naval battle. If the Ottomans have a huge fleet, they're getting across, and there's nothing that can really stop them. I don't think you need the naval battle, since the armies were equal enough to just have the Crusaders win. Have the Sultan get killed or something. I don't even think the Ottomans really had much of a fleet at this time - IIRC, the Genoese helped them cross. You certainly won't see any Venetians heroically sacrificing themselves for a bunch of Poles and Hungarians.

3. You're writing modern nationalism into your scenario, which didn't exist in the slightest until late in the 19th c. The Balkan populations were actually pretty lukewarm about Christian rulers, since Ottoman rule was much lighter, with way, way lower taxes, better security, and more religious toleration than the oppressive feudal system it replaced. Nobody would have had any sense at all of being "Bulgarian", and you certainly wouldn't see popular resistance to the Ottomans like you have it. You'll note that not one Bulgarian joined the Crusaders in OTL. There's a reason the Ottomans were able to absorb the Balkans to easily and quickly (and it wasn't overwhelming numbers).

4. Rather than working hard to manufacture conditions where the Crusaders can win, just a) have the timing be better, perhaps with Karaman giving the Ottomans more trouble in Anatolia, or b) have the Crusaders win the battle. If they had, the empire would have been in trouble.

I think in general you're working under the premise that the Crusaders were badly outnumbered and are writing to correct that, when it's not true.

It's still interesting and I hope you continue - this is probably the last point where it was still possible to stop the Ottomans in Europe. It would have been very hard to eject them, but they certainly could have been slowed down.

Smaug

1. The Ottoman army is way too big - it wasn't likely more than the size of the Crusader army - in fact, in their initial clashes in 1443, the Ottoman army was much smaller, consisting of only the Janissaries and a few hastily scraped-up auxilliaries. There were at most 10,000-12,000 Janissaries in the entire empire.

2. The Bosphorus is really narrow - there's no room for a huge naval battle. If the Ottomans have a huge fleet, they're getting across, and there's nothing that can really stop them. I don't think you need the naval battle, since the armies were equal enough to just have the Crusaders win. Have the Sultan get killed or something. I don't even think the Ottomans really had much of a fleet at this time - IIRC, the Genoese helped them cross. You certainly won't see any Venetians heroically sacrificing themselves for a bunch of Poles and Hungarians.

3. You're writing modern nationalism into your scenario, which didn't exist in the slightest until late in the 19th c. The Balkan populations were actually pretty lukewarm about Christian rulers, since Ottoman rule was much lighter, with way, way lower taxes, better security, and more religious toleration than the oppressive feudal system it replaced. Nobody would have had any sense at all of being "Bulgarian", and you certainly wouldn't see popular resistance to the Ottomans like you have it. You'll note that not one Bulgarian joined the Crusaders in OTL. There's a reason the Ottomans were able to absorb the Balkans to easily and quickly (and it wasn't overwhelming numbers).

4. Rather than working hard to manufacture conditions where the Crusaders can win, just a) have the timing be better, perhaps with Karaman giving the Ottomans more trouble in Anatolia, or b) have the Crusaders win the battle. If they had, the empire would have been in trouble.

I think in general you're working under the premise that the Crusaders were badly outnumbered and are writing to correct that, when it's not true.

It's still interesting and I hope you continue - this is probably the last point where it was still possible to stop the Ottomans in Europe. It would have been very hard to eject them, but they certainly could have been slowed down.

3. You're writing modern nationalism into your scenario, which didn't exist in the slightest until late in the 19th c. The Balkan populations were actually pretty lukewarm about Christian rulers, since Ottoman rule was much lighter.

I'm afraid I agree with this post. All to often we apply modern nationalistic sentiments to much older cultures.

In my opinion, you have to immerse yourself into the times that these events happened. Its too easy to apply the rationale(?) of our times, to the all too often brutal, and usually backstabbing, way in which things were done at this time.

The Ottomans were actually rather tolerant overlords compared to many others at this time. They offered limited self-rule, and religious tolerance. Europe offered neither. Just my two cents.

KieronAntony

Well thanks for your comments everyone, it is helpful when coming up with the new update.

Apologies. I know its not very clear but I mentioned that the battle was at the mouth of the bosporus ( obviously still not too large but more realistic) and so it was more like Bosporus/Marmara battle.

And about the size of the Ottoman Army, I wasn't too sure on the size I could only go on what wikipedia said which was that it was about 60,000 but could have been as large as 100,000.

6 mph for sailing ships, of the time. you may want to redate this.

Agreed, I was'nt sure about ship speed at this time, with constant sailing at about 6mph, I think it should have all the ships ready and wating at the foot of the Gallipoli strait by the 26th of October, but have those that have the longest Journey, i.e those form Venice itself, to depart abut 8 days earlier, they 18th should giv them adequate time.

Well, I shall continue, but shall I simply continue, OR redraft my first post?

Also in my next update I will be mentioning the use of Arquebuses/Harquebusiers (sp?), when I looked up on them a bit they seemed to come into use in the early 1500's, would it be plausible to u se them now? As I think they do exist, as maybe more primitive versions of what most of us would think of them like at this time.

Also why would the venetians not sacrifice their men for the greater good, maybe they were worried that the Ottoamsn would take their possesions in Crete?

KieronAntony

Here is the second update, the battle itself:


Part two – Experimental methods, the Battle of Varna

Nov 10th, 8AM: The Turkish forces moved closer but then grinding to a halt with only their Horse Archers continuing the advance, as they did so, the Arquebuses of the mixed army stood parallel to them at the front of their Army. The Turkish strategy was to employ several waves of Horse archers (armed with a sword as well as a bow) to continually harass the ranged infantry of the Polish Hungarian army, although unfortunately for the Turks, they had little to no experience fighting an army which had a large, powerful but also highly skilled contingent of fire-armed soldiers, all of which their commander put to effective use.

As the Turkish cavalry drew closer, the line of Arquebuses which faced took aim, and with one loud shout, which was heard even by the Sultan who stood at the side of the battlefield, the Arquebus commander ordered his men to massacre the oncoming cavalry. A loud noise, and then the dust cleared to reveal the corpses of horses and men alike. Their number was greatly reduced, but regardless the horsemen rode, bravely onwards, firing as they went. As they came closer, they laid down their bows, only take up their swords, as they charged towards they reloading foes, they noticed sudden fast paced movements of their enemy, as the Arquebuses fell back, they were replaced by several hundred Hand-gunners, who had already took up aim, and began to fire, the number of horseman was severely reduced, and as they about 30 feet away from the front line, hordes of pike men charged through the loose formation of hand-gunners, obliterating those horseman still alive, leaving less than twenty to retreat back to the Turkish lines. The sultan became obsessed with the superiority of the fire-armed infantry to his men, for he had not expected them to be such a hindrance to him, he had underestimated them, he only used the few hundred he had left (as they were reduced somewhat after the battle of Bosporus) to guard his rear and his flanks.

9:30AM: Impressed by the actions of the Arquebuses and Hand-gunners of the mixed army, the Sultan employs more elite units to eliminate his foes, Ottoman scouts report that the mixed army is moving South-West, it does so and the Sultan orders his men to move northwards, they advance about five-hundred feet, then the mixed army suddenly wheels towards the east, facing the Turks, although the Turks now have more space to move around in, the mixed army still keeps control of the high ground. This time the Turks do not advance on their enemy, and simply wait for their rival to come towards them.

10:30AM: The Polish-Hungarian force, feeling that they had to move, because loosing the high ground would not be as much of a loss as letting the Sultan escape the battlefield and recuperate from his losses, did so and they advance down the hill, but at a slow rate, anticipating a crafty move by the Turks. As most of the mixed army has reached the foot of the hill, they wait, and not longer than about 10 minutes, a large formation of Turkish heavy cavalry is advancing on their position, realising that the ammunition carried by the Arquebuses and hand-gunners will not easily penetrate the thick army of the horsemen they retreat their fire-armed infantry, behind their Heavy Cavalry, Pike men and Spearmen. The King hastily orders his Spearmen forward to meet the horses, as they do, a skirmish takes place in the field, seeing his formation cut in half, the King orders the rest of his spearman forward followed by some Pike men, and, the Hungarian commander, John Hunyadi, acts instinctively, sending forth about two-thousand heavy cavalry from the left flank to meet the opposing Ottoman horses, as this is done, the Sultan sends in all of his cavalry to back up those who are in the battle. The skirmish slowly unfolds, showing minimal losses to the Hungarian Cavalry (about one-hundred and fifty in total, killed and badly injured) and only a small number to the Pike men who are of Walachian origin, about a two-hundred death were incurred to the Walachian contingent, the Polish spearman however did not fair so well, suffering almost complete losses with around two-thousand two-hundred dead and two-hundred wounded. Retreating before almost all their horses were killed, Ottoman casualties stood at about two and a half thousand dead with two-hundred badly wounded, leaving only two hundred retreating safely back to the Ottoman frontline.

12PM: After sacrificing virtually all of his horsemen to destroy the enemy ranged units, the Sultan felt that it was time to avoid wasting wave after wave on the enemy after inflicting only a few thousand casualties at his expense. The Sultan moved his entire army forward, seeing this, the Polish King ordered his men to advance back up the hill, with ranged units at the front. The Sultan could see perfectly well what Wladyslaw was doing but he didn’t care, telling his commanders that “Our overwhelming numbers are more than enough to overcome the disadvantage of a simple mound with which to walk up, it’s not a steep mound after all”, with which one of his commanders replied “But it is a mound never-the-less”. Word spread through the Turkish army, and their moral dropped, but they were constantly assured by their commanders that they outnumbered the enemy.
12:30PM: The mixed army’s moral was as high as the hill in which they stood upon most commanders were content that by out manoeuvring the enemy they would march home victoriously.
As the Turks reached the foot of the hill, the arrows began falling and it was the Turkish Swordsmen who would take the brunt of enemy’s arrows, as well as the casualties. The Arquebuses waited some time longer until they released their deadly array of metal, and when the enemy spearmen were in their line of sight they began firing, reducing their numbers significantly. With their siege equipment ready both sides deployed them ordering them to simply fire at the enemy causing as many casualties as possible. Although the Turks sustained heavy casualties because of the fact that their men were lightly armoured they still pressed on, and with both sides fully engaged with each other, the Polish Hungarian army began to feel the strain as well, suffering increasing casualties.
2PM: As the Polish King decided on what next to do with his Arquebuses and Hand-gunners, the Hungarian General was already ordering some three-thousand Hungarian heavy cavalry to charge down the flanks of both armies and engage the Ottoman Archers and Janissaries, and when possible their siege equipment. At first this attack was very successful as the archers were very weak against the heavily armoured cavalry and were poor at hand to hand combat but it became more difficult when they were worn down and the Janissaries began to take on the cavalry. The damage inflicted on the Hungarians did change somewhat as the infantry also wielded a sword and were much more adept at hand to hand combat, but still the highly skilled cavalry cut through them, despite their waning numbers. The Sultan finally realised what was happening and pulled back his pike men and ordered them to attack the horsemen, at which point the cavalry group started diminishing quickly.
2:30PM: John Hunyadi then ordered his men to pull back. They did so, but now there were only one-thousand of them left, although they had inflicted more than seven-thousand deaths to the Ottoman Archers and Janissaries and did destroy a few siege weapons. The Sultan hope that soon the stalemate on the middle of the hill would reveal the losses each army had inflicted on one another. But it did not, it only continued as it had done with both sides pouring in their infantry to make up for losses. Whilst conferring with his marshals, the Sultan agreed that a new plan of action must be undertook, and so he agree that he could spare about four-thousand men, a combined group of mainly Janissaries but also some fifteen-hundred spearmen, to pull out of battle for about an hour and quickly march southwards, then up the hill where they would not be seen and engage, the enemy horseman, relieving his men in the centre for some while.

3:30PM: The battle continued as it had done and the Turks managed to slyly get their men up the hill and at the flank of the Polish and Hungarian cavalry, the Janissaries began firing and the Spearmen charged, as the cavalry saw them coming they realised they had to hold them off for about twenty minutes. They bravely fought on, it was easier to fight the spearmen than the pike men but regardless they were now at a disadvantage.
King Wladyslaw had an ace up his sleeve he had help off all of his Arquebuses and Hand-gunners because he did not want to risk them in the battle. The Turks then began to notice the Hungarians falling back, as they believed they had routed them they cheered, only then to see the force of almost five thousand Arquebuses and Hand-gunners taking aim. The Spearman charged towards their foe, but with no armour they were quickly cut down, the only damage being done was by the arrows falling on the Hand-gunners from the Janissaries. The fire-armed infantry were being reduced, and as the last spearman fell, it was simply a battle of attrition between the two forces. Again proving his useful tactics, the Hungarian general, John Hunyadi, had waited for this moment, when his cavalry were at pulled back they trotted off into the distance, convincing the Turks they had routed them, but they hadn’t, the bravery of the Hungarians was immense, they charged into the western flank of the Janissaries killing many of them instantaneously. All that was left now was for the Hungarian horses to finish them, although they did suffer relatively heavy losses the Janissaries went down fighting, fighting well.
Eager to get rid of the enemy siege weapons Wladyslaw and Hunyadi decided that with all their remaining cavalry, about seven-thousand, they would make one more charge down either flank and following them would be about one-thousand swordsmen, who would be instantly ordered to deal with any polearm units they encounter.
4:30PM: The plan worked fantastically, most of the remaining pike men were already stuck in the centre and unable to break away. Although one thing they did not count on was that the Ottomans still had eight thousand Janissaries in which they could throw against the mixed army. On either flank the Ottomans were overwhelmed, in the centre both sides had suffered heavily but the Ottomans pitted the wrong man against the wrong man, horses against spear, bows against swords, and spears against guns, they were destroyed, the remaining gunmen were charged upon by the cavalry, causing light deaths upon the mixed army, the Sultan and about three-thousand Janissaries, along with a few-hundred Swordsmen and spearmen, and his last hundred cavalry fled to the northern bank of the Kamchiya river, where their fleet was waiting there for them to depart and head back to the mainland of the Ottoman empire.
5PM: The Sultan was wholly against being captured by the mixed army so he left his five-thousand remaining Janissaries to fight the mixed army, and they were massacred, they did put up a fight, but after battling all day they were weary, and before they engaged the melee troops of the mixed army they were fired upon by everything the mixed army could throw at them, until they ran out. At which point every single foot soldier charged at them and fought them for the next hour, before being relieved by the remaining cavalry, who made short work of them.
6-10PM: For the Janissaries who remained, the situation was dire, and so they surrendered, honourably, King Wladyslaw and John Hunyadi escorted them to a Turkish general who was waiting for any fleeing Turks to come back with news about the final skirmish him on board his several ships, who paid a ransom to have his men back, a hefty one, and they were ferried back to the mainland. The army then marches to Varna to rest for the night.
Nov 11th: The army spends the night camping outside Varna with the Generals and King enjoying the fine hospitality, and wine, that the people have to offer, after resting some soldiers helped the people repair damages incurred to the city during the occupation by the Turks. The following morning, after the army has rested and eaten, they march to Constantinople, where they will receive a proper hero’s welcome.

The next update will probably be in a few days, maybe even later, got a lot of business at home to attend to, unfortunately, hope you guys enjoy reading.


Bulgaria Marks 575 Years since Battle of Varna in 1444, ‘Battle of Peoples’ in Which Ottoman Empire Defeated Christian Europeans

As they celebrate the 30 th anniversary since the Fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the communist regimes, Bulgaria and other countries in Central and Eastern Europe also mark with remembrance events the 575 th year since the Battle of Varna in 1444, in which the united forces of Christian Europeans aiming to liberate the Balkans were soundly defeated by the early Ottoman Empire.

The 1444 Battle of Varna, near today’s Black Sea city of Varna in Bulgaria, saw the Christian European force led by Vladislav (Wladyslaw) III Jagello, also known as Varnenchik (Warnenczyk), King of Poland and Hungary, and made up of Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, Wallachians, Bosnians, Croatians, Bulgarians, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, Germans, and Teutonic Knights pitted against the Ottoman Turks and their Janissaries (warriors forcefully converted to Islam when they were seized from their Christian families).

Polish and Hungarian King Vladislav III Jagello Varnenchik’s two campaigns against the Ottoman Empire – in 1443 and 1444 – are sometimes described as Crusades but are the last attempts to liberate Southeast Europe from the Ottomans and to preempt their subsequent incursions into Central Europe (which were successfully stopped only 2.5 centuries later by another Polish King, Jan Sobieski, during the 1683 Siege of Vienna).

The 575 th year since the Battle of Varna was marked with a military ritual of the Bulgarian Navy and a prayer for the memory of the killed warriors in the Vladislav Varnenchik Museum Park on the site of the battle.

The event has been attend by Bulgaria’s Deputy Prime Minister Mariana Nikolova, the Director of the Polish Institute in Sofia, representatives of the Embassy of Hungary in Sofia, Varna’s District Governor, and officials from the local authorities.

“This is battle which has always posed many questions, and which still harbors a lot of secrets,” says Assoc. Prof. Sonya Petkova, Director of the National Museum of Military History in Sofia, which is the parent of the Vladislav Varnenchik Museum Park in Varna.

“These are connected with Vladislav’s fate as well as with many other stories associated with it, which have remained in people’s memory,” Petkova has added.

As part of the Battle of Varna remembrance event, the Museum has opened an exhibition of relevant armaments from its collection, and has held a two-day international history conference entitled, “Vladislav Varnenchik’s Campaigns.”

“There are intriguing exhibits, which have never been shown before, such as an extremely interesting medieval sword from the battle, a bombard, and many other arms,” Petkova points out.

The official remembrance ceremony for the 575th year since the Battle of Varna at the Vladislav Varnenchik Museum Park in the Bulgarian Black Sea city of Varna. Photos: National Museum of Military History

The official remembrance ceremony for the 575th year since the Battle of Varna at the Vladislav Varnenchik Museum Park in the Bulgarian Black Sea city of Varna. Photos: BTA

The rump states of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1396/1422) were conquered by the invading Ottoman Turks around the turn of the 15 th century, prompting in 1396, Hungarian King Sigismund of Luxembourg (r. 1387-1437 AD, later Holy Roman Emperor in 1433-1437 AD), to stage the first united Christian European crusade-type campaign against the Ottoman Turks, which, however, ended in a disaster for the Christian forces in the Battle of Nicopolis (today’s Bulgarian town of Nikopol).

Several decades later, after reaching the region southeast of Sofia and retreating because of the winter in his first anti-Ottoman campaign in 1443, in 1444, King Vladislav (Wladyslaw) III Jagello and his ally John Hunyadi led an army of some 20,000 European Christian warriors, including Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Wallachians, Ruthenes (Rusyns), Bulgarians, Croatians, Saxons, Lithuanians, and Crusader Knights of Pope Eugene IV (r. 1431-1477).

Before reaching Varna on the Black Sea coast, the Christian Europeans’ forces advanced along the Danube in Northern Bulgaria, with Bulgarian rebels led by Fruzhin, the heir to the Bulgarian throne in Tarnovgrad (Veliko Tarnovo), son of Tsar Ivan Shishman (r. 1371-1395), joining along the way.

On November 9, 1444, the Ottoman army, which is estimated to have been about 60,000-strong, approached Varna from the west catching the Christian forces between the Black Sea, the Varna Lake, and the Frangen Plateau.

In the ensuing Battle of Varna, on November 10, 1444, the European Christian army led by King Vladislav Varnenchik, the Transylvanian voivode John Hunyadi, and Mircea II of Wallachia was outnumbered roughly three to one by the forces of Ottoman Sultan Murad II.

Władyslaw III of Poland leading the cavalry charge in the Battle of Varna, a fragment from a painting by Jan Matejko. Photo: Wikipedia

The two armies faced one another on a front of about 3.5 km. In the rear of the Christian army, the Czech Hussites formed a wagon fort (Wagenburg) armed with bombards.

Even though at first the Christian forces seemed to have gained the upper hand, the brave Polish and Hungarian King perished in the midst of the battle when he led a charge of his personal guard of 500 knights against the 10,000 Janissaries in an attempt to capture Ottoman Sultan Murad II.

Breaching the last lines of the Janissaries, King Vladislav’s horse tripped or was killed, he fell on the ground, and was beheaded on the spot by a Janissary. This immediately disorganized the Christian army, leading it to retreat.

Neither the King’s head, nor his body could be saved during the remainder of the battle. Transylvanian voivode John Hunyadi organized the retreat of the surviving Christian forces, with many Crusaders taken captive and sold as slaves. While the Ottomans were ultimately victorious in the Battle of Varna, their losses were so substantial that they did not realize they had won until three days after the battle.

A map of the Battle of Varna in 1444. Map: Kandi, Wikipedia

The bravery and tragic end of Polish and Hungarian King Vladislav (Wladyslaw) Varnenchik made him a hero in the folklore of many European nations.

For Bulgaria, the Christian Europeans’ defeat in the Battle of Varna sealed its fate for several centuries, a historical period known as the Ottoman Yoke (1396/1422 – 1878/1912). The battle also foreboded the end of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire with the Ottoman capture of Constantinople in 1453.

Bulgaria has dedicated a memorial complex to the Battle of Varna in 1444 AD, and the heroism of the Polish King, known as the Vladislav Varnenchik Museum Park.

The Museum was first opened on the site of the Battle of Varna as a mausoleum in 1935, and then turned into a park museum with an area of 30 decares (app. 7.5 acres) in 1964, on the occasion of the 520 th Year since the Battle of Varna.

Varna has moved to erect a monument of Vladislav Varnenchik in the city at the initiative of the Bulgarian Cultural Institute in Warsaw, Poland, with the statue being a donation by renowned Polish sculptor Prof. Marian Konieczny from Krakow.

The largest recent historical reenactment of the 1444 Battle of Varna was staged back in 2015.


Battle of Varna, 1444

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John Hunyadi versus Murad II: A Crusader army under Hunyadi chooses terrain to secure its flanks against an Ottoman army under Murad. Can Hunyadi maintain control over his multinational force and repel Murad’s grand attack?

While nominally a “crusade,” do not get too engrossed in the rhetoric and historical framing of battles such as this as merely episodes in an ongoing civilizational-religious war. Modern politics has a tendency to consolidate any battles between Christian and Muslim factions into a continuous timeline, one inevitably leading to the next up until the present day. To simplify history into a struggle between two homogeneous factions is to ignore the vital complexities of history and warfare. That being said, the Ottoman victory at Varna precipitated the destruction of Byzantium and within a few decades brought the Ottomans to the gates of Vienna.

Poor command and control doomed Hunyadi’s efforts: first the impetuous charge by the bishops on his right wing, then the Wallachians’ abrupt flight from the battlefield, and finally the suicidal attack by King Vladislav. Hunyadi led from the front and, indeed, his presence correlated with smashing victories wherever he was. But he could simply not be everywhere at once and failed to exercise command and control over his army as a whole. Murad for his part ensured the obedience of his subordinates and the battle plan was typical of most Ottoman engagements: create disorder with skirmishers, and then hit the enemy wings while preserving one’s center.

This battle replaced the highly anticipated Siege of Belgrade 1456 when I failed to find the necessary maps to animate it. Luckily, my long list of possible battles is rich with Ottoman battles between 1300-1600 and was easily replaced by Varna. After unexpectedly animating Strasbourg and Varna, I am vowing to focus on battles that have been long announced and likely long anticipated.

The Crusader strength was fairly easy to estimate as all sources estimated between 15-23,000 and all of the low estimates seemed to not include the 4,000 Wallachians who joined the army fairly late. The Ottoman strength I settled on is much lower than any estimate my sources provided in fact the lowest I found was 30-40,000 (Housley, 1992: 88) with most being around 60,000 while acknowledging uncertainty (Chasin, 1989: 304). Unfortunately, my most valuable source, a biography of Hunyadi by Muresanu, did not even venture to make an estimate (2001: 110-111). Such extraordinary numerical superiority is not consistent with the events of the battle and reeks of grandiose medieval tales of defeating an endless torrent of inferior enemies. Two pieces of information were key to my estimate. First, sources were consistent in their estimates of how large particular units were there were 6,000 skirmishers, 7-8,000 Rumelian cavalry and fewer Anatolian cavalry, let’s say 6,000 for a total of 19-20,000. The only formation missing is the infantry which likely did not comprise a great proportion of the Ottoman army, the Janissaries being quite few in number at this stage of history. Second, Pears writes that 100,000 Ottomans crossed into Europe and that by the time of the battle, 60,000 or 60% opposed the Crusaders (1903: 165). These numbers are too high for such a war, insignificant at least compared to the grand campaign against Constantinople in 1453, but they provide us with a ratio. So if 40,000 Ottomans crossed into Europe, our lowest, most prevalent estimate, then applying our 60% ratio taking part in the battle is consistent with my estimate based on individual formations.

Our most reliable casualty figure is 3-12,000 for each side (Muresanu, 2001: 111). Estimates of Ottoman casualties are astronomically ridiculous and estimates of 10,000 Crusader casualties (Heath, 1984: 97 Haywood, 2002) seem too high considering how only 16,000 were heavily engaged.

Babinger, Franz. Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.

Chasin, Martin. “The Crusade of Varna.” In A History of the Crusades Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, 276-310. Edited by Kenneth M. Setton. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Dupuy, Trevor N. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 BC to the Present, Fourth Edition. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

Haywood, Matthew. “Hungarian Tactics and Significant Battles.” Warfare East. 2002. Accessed 22 April 2011 http://www.warfareeast.co.uk/main/Hungarian_Battles.htm.

Heath, Ian. Armies of the Middle Ages Vol. 2: The Ottoman Empire, Eastern Europe and the Near East, 1300-1500. Sussex: Flexprint, 1984.

Housley, Norman. The Later Crusades, 1274-1580. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Imber, Colin. The Crusade of Varna, 1443-1445: Crusade Texts in Translation. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Inalcik, Halil. “The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451.” In A History of the Crusades Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, 222-275. Edited by Kenneth M. Setton. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Muresanu, Camil. John Hunyadi: Defender of Christendom. Translated by Laura Treptow. Portland: Center for Romanian Studies, 2001.

Pears, Edwin. Destruction of the Greek Empire. New York: Haskell, 1968.

Thuroczy, Janos. Chronicle of the Hungarians. Translated by Frank Mantello. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1991.

Hungarian cavalry: http://www.dbaol.com/armies/army_166_figure_1.htm

John Hunyadi: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hunyadi

Map of Southeastern Europe: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/se_europe_1444.jpg

Map of the world: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_map_projections

Murad II: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murad_II

Ottoman cavalry: http://www.dbaol.com/armies/army_160b_figure_1.htm

Ottoman infantry: http://www.dbaol.com/armies/army_160b_figure_1.htm

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The Battle of Varna

The time was November 1444, and the gods demanded for blood. The ideal place to satisfy their bloodlust would have seemed to be the Balkans - the battleground of the ancient Greeks, Macedonians, Thracians, Sarmatians, Romans, and Bulgars, that was still a chessboard for famous battles. Any chessboard needs 2 high-kings, and this time the gods picked the Polish Vladislaw III and the Ottoman Murad II, 2 great men that lead huge kingdoms, and kept them by force. Given the importance of their showdown, we should take a closer look at their moral portraits and achievements. The Polish king was a very ambitious, powerful character, that managed to maintain under his iron fist 2 great kingdoms - Poland and Hungary, thanks to his ancestry. He came to power when he was only 10, but the rigorous training and his overly-competitive edge made him a formidable opponent at only 21 years of age. The Turk was also a very capable leader, and, similar to his rival, came to power at a very early age. Murad II extended the borders of the Ottoman Empire, by annexing Anatolia and Serbia, and was determined to put Venice, Hungary, the Romanian Voievodates and even Poland under Muslim control. Inspiring power and resilience, this strong character will prove to be a rock to hard to brake by Wladislaw's courage.

Driven by his need for power, Wladislaw rallied an army to help him destroy the Ottoman threat in the Balkans. This army was a coalition of Poles, Hungarians, Rutens, Bulgarians, Walachians, Papal Knights, and others, summing up to 25.000 men. The Turkish response was to summon a very large army, of almost 100.000 warriors, to behead the Polish Dragon. The 2 massive forces moved slowly, like two giant land-beasts across the continent, until they finally came face to face near the fortress of Varna (present-day Bulgaria), where they made the final battle preparations.

Before the battle, the king examined the enemy positions, and realized in horror that the Turks had at least 4 times more soldiers. That's why he called a meeting, in order to make the best decision regarding the battle. In the war room stood John Hunyady, the Cardinal Cesarini, Michael Szilagyi and the Polish King. While the Cardinal asked for a very defensive formation, Hunyady (who was by far the most experienced warrior in the room) replied that "To escape is impossible, to surrender is unthinkable. Let us fight with bravery and honor our arms".

On the morning of November 10th 1444, the 2 armies lined up in front of the fortress of Varna, determined to obliterate the enemy. The mixed European forces were a very imbalanced mix of cavalry and infantry, the mounted troops making over 60% of the total force. On the right wing, the Christians placed the papal knights, Croatian soldiers, and German mercenaries, led by Cesarini and Jan Dominek of Varadin, while the left wing - consisted of Hungarian and German mercenaries, along with Romanians from Transylvania. The center was being held by the King and Hunyady, with their knights.

The Turks had the fanatical janissary corps in the center (some 40.000 men), while azeps, akincis, beslis and Spahis held the left wing. The right wing was comprised of Kapikulu warriors and Spahis of Rumelia.

The dark clouds that metaphorically gathered above Wladislaw's army became very real just before the battle started - in a dark irony, nature smashed against each other huge cloud formations, setting an apocalyptic scenery to a hellish battle.

Lightings pierced the skies, and thunders defeaned the soldiers, while heavy rain started whiping both Poles and Turks. While the storm was getting stronger, the Ottoman forces started advancing - it was the point of no return.

The storm ended as the last Christian knight was fleeing, and as the first tortures were being applied to the prisoners. The cruelty of the battle didn't compare to the sadism exhibited after it. Some knights were impaled, others were roasted or boiled alive. For 3 days, the prisoners suffered the worst tortures the Turks could conceive, rising the death toll of the Polish Alliance to over 13000 men.

Of course, the Turks had also suffered great loses, over 20.000 spaksh, achingii and beslii being killed. But that matters less. What matters the most is that the Ottoman army proved once again that it could stand against the best European forces, and that it is ready to assault the heart of Eastern Europe. The crushing victory of the Ottomans also symbolicaly proved that Islam had once again triumphed against Christianity.

And so ends a story forged from ambition, fought with courage, and ended in hate and bloodlust.


Crusader Victory at Varna

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On November, 10th, 1444, over 70,000 men clashed on the slopes and plains of Varna in the climactic battle of the Crusades of Varna. This was the last organized effort of Christendom to push the Ottoman Empire out of Europe.

The 24,000 strong Crusader Army, composed of forces from Hungary, Poland, Lituania, Croatia, Bohemia, Serbia, Wallachia, Moldavia, Bulgaria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Papal States and Teutonic Knights, hold back numerous assaults by the larger Turkish force. Despite a successful Turkish assault on the right flank, the Bohemian Wagenburgs successfully held against the offensive. Meanwhile, Hunyadi, Commander of the Hungarian Army led the Hungarian Cavalry to decimate the Turkish Cavalry. As the battle slowly seem to move in the Crusader's favor, the Polish-Lithuanian-Hungarian King Władysław grew reckless and charged the Turkish Center with 500 guards, against his ally general Hunyadi's advice.

The Polish assault was successful at first, as it overran many of the Janissary Infantry, and pushed to wards the Turkish Sultan. However, hopes of victory vanished as Władysław's horse fell into a trap and the King was slain in the fighting. With their commander and King dead, the Polish cavalry soon shattered against the Turks. The complete failure of the Polish Cavalry's assault caused chaos in the main army flanks, which was then overrun by Turkish forces. As Hunyadi organized a retreat, only a third of the Crusaders were standing, and the Polish King lay dead on the battlefield.

The Turkish Sultan Murad II, victorious, returned to Anatolia and convinced the Karamanids, who had razed the cities of Ankara and Kutahya to surrender, cementing his rule in Anatolia. 4 years later, Murad won another decisive victory in Kosovo, cementing Ottoman control of the Balkans.

The Crusader defeat in the battle and the overall campaign created political turmoil in Hungary, Poland and Lithuania and also deterred Europeans from organizing a joint-effort against the Ottoman Turks, leading to the Ottoman Threat in South East Europe for more than 400 years.

However, what if Władysław had heeded Hunyadi's advice and stay put until Hunyadi supported him with 2 cavalry companies? What if Władysław had then manage to overrun the Ottoman Center and ensure a Crusader Victory? This TL seeks to explore the world in which Władysław won the battle of Varna.


Battle of Varna - History

End of Europe's Middle Ages

This brief description of the Battle of Varna in 1410 is part of a letter written to the pope. The failure of Hungary's allies to come to her assistance is also bitterly condemned.

Although I did not have the opportunity to report personally to your Holiness, I now confidently do so by letter. And I send you news of the late conflict, in which it was not so much our strength, but our misfortune that was betrayed. Having had wide experience in warfare since my early years, I easily admit that the wheel of military fortune is such that, according to the slightest movement of the Supreme Spectator, it rolls to favourable or calamitous conclusions. God may be the judge of those who were the cause of such distress for the Christian people. Many neighbouring princes, of Wallachia, of Bulgaria, of Albania as well as Constantinople, promised ample military aid, and told us to fly to their aid with feathered feet, because everything had been provided there for us. We answered their call after such great encouragement, marched with our army, crossing into the territory of the Turks. And since all that we needed was the promised help, we confidently penetrated farther each day into enemy territory. Some hostile units surrendered without resistance, some we defeated. But after a time it was clear that we could not rely on past promises of assistance. We had to face a situation that we had not anticipated since the friendship of the above-mentioned princes at its best was worse than insufficient and since the promised alliance actually turned out to be an insidious deception. Thus, while neglecting the defense of our own land, we found ourselves ill-armed in enemy country. However, before our perilous situation became evident, we obtained many spoils, slaughtered many Turks, and inflicted great damage. We were able to avoid open battle, but we were ashamed to give up the campaign that we had started for Christ's sake Therefore, a pious boldness overcame us and we resolved to take a venturesome course. An unequal battle took place which was fiercely fought, and only the sunset stopped the carnage. But the battle became a losing one because of the continuous waves of an endlessly attacking multitude, from which we receded not so much defeated than rather overrun and separated from each other.

Nevertheless, we saw it with our own eyes and know it from many documents, that we did not inflict fewer wounds to the enemy than we received. We left them with the remains of a bloody and funestuous victory. Further it is worthwhile to lament with great sighs the deplorable casualties we suffered. For there perished at Varna the king, our most illustrious prince and leader, and the venerable father, the Lord-Legate, Julian, whose character was virtuous and solid Our defeat was not caused by our weakness, or the superior bravery of the Turks, but it was divine justice which administered the defeat to us for we were ill equipped and almost unarmed the barbarians won the day because of our sins. Therefore, recognising rather the weight of our guilt than that of our wounds, we have a firm hope that the One who administered the defeat as revenge for our sins will give a remedy to those who hope, and will move the mind of Your Holiness to strengthen the unbroken but bent power of the Christian people

Source: Densusianu, Nic, ed. Documente Privitóre La Istoria Romanilor. Bucharest: Socecu and Teclu, 1890. Volume I, Part 2, 715-717. Cited in Alfred J. Bannan and Achilles Edelenyi. Documentary History of Europe Eastern. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1970. 71-74.


Watch the video: The Crusade of Varna - John Hunyadi vs. The Ottoman Turks (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Baldwyn

    I fully share your opinion. There is something in this and I like your idea. I propose to bring it up for general discussion.

  2. Attie

    I have sympathy for you.

  3. Gergo

    Sometimes things happen and worse

  4. Dakus

    What words... super, a magnificent idea



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