History Podcasts

6 February 1943

6 February 1943

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

6 February 1943



Eastern Front

Soviet troops reach the Sea of Azov, isolating the German Army Group A

6 February 1943 - History


The World at War is a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II and the events leading up to and immediately following it. It was produced by Jeremy Isaacs, narrated by Laurence Olivier and its score composed by Carl Davis. A book, The World at War, was written by Mark Arnold-Forster to accompany it.

The series was commissioned by Thames Television in 1969. Such was the depth of its research, it took four years to produce at a cost of £900,000 (2006 equivalent: £10.9 million[1]). At the time, this was a record for a British television series. It was first shown in 1973, on ITV.

The series interviewed leading members of the Allied and Axis campaigns, including eyewitness accounts by civilians, enlisted men, officers and politicians, amongst them Albert Speer, Karl Dönitz, Walter Warlimont, Jimmy Stewart, Bill Mauldin, Curtis LeMay, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, Alger Hiss, Toshikazu Kase, Mitsuo Fuchida, Minoru Genda, J.B. Priestley, Brian Horrocks, John J. McCloy, Lawrence Durrell, Arthur Harris, Charles Sweeney, Paul Tibbets, Anthony Eden, Traudl Junge and historian Stephen Ambrose.

In the programme The Making of "The World at War", included in the DVD set, Jeremy Issacs explains that priority was given to interviews with surviving aides and assistants rather than recognised figures. The most difficult person to locate and persuade to be interviewed was Heinrich Himmler's adjutant, Karl Wolff. During the interview, he admitted to witnessing a large-scale execution in Himmler's presence.

It is often considered to be the definitive television history of the Second World War. Some consider it the finest example of the documentary form. It also presented rare colour film footage of some of the war's events.

In a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes drawn up by the British Film Institute in 2000, voted for by industry professionals, The World at War ranked 19th.


Episode 1: A New Germany: 1933-1939
Original Air Date&mdash31 October 1973. The rise of the Nazis in Germany and German territorial gains prior to the outbreak of war. Interviewees include Werner Pusch and Christabel Bielenberg.
Episode 2: Distant War: September 1939-May 1940
Original Air Date&mdash7 November 1973. The German and Soviet invasions of Poland, the Winter War, the sinking of the Graf Spee and Britain's apathy during the "phony war" until Britain's defeat in its first military engagement with German land forces in Norway, which led to the rise of Winston Churchill. Interviewees include Lord Boothby, Lord Butler, Admiral Charles Woodhouse, Sir Martin Lindsay and Sir John "Jock" Colville.
Episode 3: France Falls: May-June 1940
Original Air Date&mdash14 November 1973. France in ferment, the Maginot Line, Blitzkrieg warfare, and the Nazi invasion of France and the Low Countries. Interviewees include General Hasso von Manteuffel and General André Beaufre.
Episode 4: Alone: May 1940-May 1941
Original Air Date&mdash21 November 1973. The Battle of Britain, retreats in Greece, Crete and Tobruck, and life in Britain between the evacuation at Dunkirk and Operation Barbarossa. Interviewees include Anthony Eden, J.B. Priestley, Sir Max Aitken, Lieutenant General Adolf Galland and Sir John "Jock" Colville.
Episode 5: Barbarossa: June-December 1941
Original Air Date&mdash28 November 1973 . After dominating southeastern Europe through force or intrigue, Germany embarks on the massive invasion of Soviet Union. Despite a string of lightning victories, the invasion ultimately stalls after a failed assault on Moscow in Russia's harsh winter. Interviewees include General Walter Warlimont, Albert Speer, Paul Schmidt and W. Averell Harriman.
Episode 6: Banzai! Japan: 1931-1942
Original Air Date&mdash5 December 1973. The rise of the Japanese Empire, the Sino-Japanese war, Pearl Harbor and the early Japanese successes, and the fall of Malaya and of Singapore.
Episode 7: On Our Way: U.S.A. - 1939-1942
Original Air Date&mdash12 December 1973. The opposition by various factions to the United States of America entry into the war, U-boat attacks on Atlantic convoys and America's gradiated responses, the mobilization of America after Pearl Harbor, the fall of the Philippines, the Doolittle Raid, Midway and Guadalcanal. Interviewees include John Kenneth Galbraith, John J. McCloy, Paul Samuelson, Isamu Noguchi, Richard Tregaskis and Vannevar Bush.
Episode 8: The Desert: North Africa - 1940-1943
Original Air Date&mdash19 December 1973. The desert war, starting with Italy's unsuccessful invasion of Egypt and the successive attacks and counter-attacks between Germany and Commonwealth forces, and the Afrika Korps's eventual defeat at El Alamein. Interviewees include General Richard O'Connor, Major General Francis de Guingand and Lawrence Durrell.
Episode 9: Stalingrad: June 1942-February 1943
Original Air Date&mdash2 January 1974. The mid-war German situation in Southern Russia leading to the Battle of Stalingrad &ndash and its ultimate German catastrophe.
Episode 10: Wolf Pack: U-Boats in the Atlantic - 1939-1944
Original Air Date&mdash9 January 1974. The submarine war focusing mainly on the North Atlantic. Tracks the development of both the convoy system and German submarine strategy. Interviewees include Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz and Otto Kretschmer.
Episode 11: Red Star: The Soviet Union - 1941-1943
Original Air Date&mdash16 January 1974. The rise of the Red Army, mobilization of Soviet production, the siege of Leningrad, the Soviet partisans and the Battle of Kursk.
Episode 12: Whirlwind: Bombing Germany - September 1939-April 1944
Original Air Date&mdash23 January 1974. The development of British and American strategic bombing in both success and setback. Interviewees include Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, Albert Speer, James Stewart, William Reid, General Curtis LeMay, Werner Schröer, Lieutenant General Adolf Galland and General Ira C. Eaker.
Episode 13: Tough Old Gut: Italy - November 1942-June 1944
Original Air Date&mdash30 January 1974. Focuses on the difficult Italian Campaign beginning with Operation Torch in North Africa, the invasion of Sicily Salerno, Anzio, Cassino and the capture of Rome. Interviewees include General Mark Wayne Clark, Field Marshal Lord Harding, Bill Mauldin, and Wynford Vaughan Thomas.
Episode 14: It's a Lovely Day Tomorrow: Burma - 1942-1944
Original Air Date&mdash6 February 1974. The jungle war in Burma and India - what it "lacked in scale was made up in savagery". Interviewees include Mike Calvert, Sir John Smyth and Vera Lynn (the episode title is the name of one of her songs), and Lord Mountbatten of Burma.
Episode 15: Home Fires: Britain - 1940-1944
Original Air Date&mdash13 February 1974. Life and politics in Britain from post-Battle of Britain to the first V-1 attacks. Interviewees include Lord Butler, Lord Shinwell, Lord Chandos, Tom Driberg, Michael Foot, Cecil Harmsworth King, and J.B. Priestley.
Episode 16: Inside the Reich: Germany - 1940-1944
Original Air Date&mdash20 February 1974. German society and how it changes as its fortunes in war are reversed. Censorship and popular entertainment, the transformation of German industry, the recruitment of female and foreign labour, allied bombing, German dissent - including the 20 July plot, and the mobilisation of the Volkssturm towards the war's end. Interviewees include Albert Speer, Otto John, Traudl Junge, Richard Schulze-Kossens, and Otto Ernst Remer (English translation spoken by Lawrence Olivier).
Episode 17: Morning: June-August 1944
Original Air Date&mdash27 February 1974. The development and execution of Operation Overlord followed by the allied breakout and battles at Bocage, and Falaise. Interviewees include Lord Mountbatten of Burma, Kay Summersby, James Martin Stagg and Major General J. Lawton Collins.
Episode 18: Occupation: Holland - 1940-1944
Original Air Date&mdash13 March 1974. Focuses on life in the Netherlands under German occupation, when citizens chose to resist, collaborate or keep their heads down. Interviewees include Louis de Jong (who also served as adviser for this episode) and Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands.
Episode 19: Pincers: August 1944-March 1945
Original Air Date&mdash20 March 1974. The allied breakout in France and the setback at Arnhem, the Warsaw Uprising, the Battle of the Bulge, and the crossing of the Rhine. Interviewees include Lieutenant General Brian Horrocks, Wynford Vaughan Thomas, General Hasso von Manteuffel, Major General Francis de Guingand, W. Averell Harriman and Major General J. Lawton Collins.
Episode 20: Genocide: 1941-1945
Original Air Date&mdash27 March 1974. Begins with the founding of the S.S. and follows the development of German racial theory. It ends with the implementation of the Final Solution.
Episode 21: Nemesis: Germany - February-May 1945
Original Air Date&mdash3 April 1974. The final invasion of Germany by both the Western and Eastern allies, the denouement at Dresden, and the events in the Führerbunker. Interviewees include Albert Speer, Traudl Junge and Heinz Linge.
Episode 22: Japan: 1941-1945
Original Air Date&mdash10 April 1974. Japan's society and culture during wartime, and how life is transformed as the country gradually becomes aware of increasingly catastrophic setbacks including the Doolittle raid, defeat at Midway, the death of Isoroku Yamamoto, the Battle of Saipan and the relentless bombing of Japanese cities.
Episode 23: Pacific: February 1942-July 1945
Original Air Date&mdash17 April 1974. The successive and increasingly bloody land battles on tiny islands in the expansive Pacific, aimed towards the Japanese heartland. Following the bombing of Darwin, the over-extended Japanese are progressively turned back at Kokoda, Tarawa, Peleilu, the Philippines, Iwo Jima and finally Okinawa.
Episode 24: The Bomb: February-September 1945
Original Air Date&mdash24 April 1974. The development of the atomic bomb, the ascendency of President Harry Truman, emerging splits in the Allies with Joseph Stalin, and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ultimately leading to the surrender of Japan. Interviewees include Toshikazu Kase, Yoshio Kodama, Marquis Koichi Kido, Major General Charles Sweeney, Brigadier General Paul Tibbets, Alger Hiss, W. Averell Harriman, Lord Avon, McGeorge Bundy, John J. McCloy, General Curtis LeMay and Hisatsune Sakomizu. Following the events from the death of US President Roosevelt through to the dropping of the two bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki that prompted Japan's surrender.
Episode 25: Reckoning: 1945. and After
Original Air Date&mdash1 May 1974. The situation in post-war Europe including the allied occupation of Germany, demobilisation, the Nurenburg trials and the genesis of the Cold War. The episode concludes with summations about the ultimate costs and consequences of the war. Interviewees include Charles Bohlen, Stephen Ambrose, Lord Avon, Lord Mountbatten of Burma and Noble Frankland.
Episode 26: Remember
Original Air Date&mdash8 May 1974. How the war - both good and bad experiences - was experienced and remembered by its witnesses.

Product Description , from Amazon.com
This landmark incomparable remembrance of world war ii includes rare interviews with veterans & survivors amazing archive footage & chilling narration by sir Laurence Olivier. Studio: A&e Home Video Release Date: 08/24/2004 Run time: 1199 minutes

Sir Jeremy Isaacs highly deserves the numerous awards for documentaries he has earned: the Royal Television Society's Desmond Davis Award, l'Ordre National du Mérit, an Emmy, and a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II. His epic The World at War remains unsurpassed as the definitive visual history of World War II.

The Second World War was different from other wars in thousands of ways, one of which was the unparalleled scope of visual documents kept by the Axis and Allies of all their activities. As a result, this war is understood as much through written histories as it is through its powerful images. The Nazis were particularly thorough in documenting even the most abhorrent of the atrocities they were committing--in a surprising amount of color footage. The World at War was one of the first television documentaries that exploited these resources so completely, giving viewers an unbelievable visual guide to the greatest event in the 20th century. This is to say nothing of the excellent, comprehensible narrative. Some highlights:

* A New Germany 1933-39: early German and Nazi documentation of Hitler's rise to power through the impending attack on Poland
* Whirlwind: the early British losses in the blitz in the skies over Britain and in North Africa
* Stalingrad: the turning point of the war and Germany's first defeat
* Inside the Reich--Germany 1940-44: one of the most fascinating documentaries that exists on life inside Nazi Germany, from Lebensborn to the Hitler Youth
* Morning: prior to Saving Private Ryan, one of the only unromantic views of the Normandy invasion
* Genocide: this film is one of the most widely shown introductions to the Holocaust
* Japan 1941-45: although The World at War is decidedly focused more on the European theater, this is an important look into wartime Japan and its expansion--early 20th-century history that lead to Japan's role in World War II is superficial
* The bomb: another widely shown documentary of the Manhattan Project, the Enola Gay, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki

The World at War will remain the definitive visual history of World War II, analogous to Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. No serious historian should be missing The World at War in a collection, and no student should leave school without having seen at least some of its salient episodes. Rarely is film so essential. --Erik J. Macki

Source: Amazon.com / Essential Video, Editorial Reviews

REVIEW , from Amazon.com

440 of 446 people found the following review helpful:
5.0 out of 5 stars Without a doubt. the best. January 10, 2002
By Charles W. Adams (Adel, Iowa USA)

Assuming that a filmmaker can't go on indefinately, let's say making a history of World War II in hundred or more hours of videotape, Jeremy Isaacs has done a masterful job of capturing the essense of World War II, including its causes and the Cold War that evolved out of its conclusion.

Please note, "The World At War" was produced between 1971 and 1974, which means the interviews with veterans and other war survivors were filmed close to thirty years after the conclusion of World War II.

I watched much of this series when it was first telecasted in the 1970s, and continued to view reruns of programs over the last 25+ years. I had thought that I had seen every episode two or three times, but after finishing the complete DVD collection, I'm pretty sure I completely missed some programs and saw only bits-and-pieces of others.

What a tremendous production. Beautiful reproduced on DVD, with excellent color and superb graphics (maps).

I especially appreciated the opening special, "The Making of. " with producer Jeremy Isaacs, as well as Isaacs' brief introductions to each of the 26 programs. I only wish he had prepared similar introductions to the supplementary material on Discs 4 and 5, but you can't have everything.

"The World At War" is hundred times better than the typical fare found on A&E, The History Channel, and even PBS. That's not to say that quality productions are not being made today, but Jeremy Isaacs' production is just plain better than most things regularly scheduled documentaries on cable and broadcast television.

Special mention must be made of the music by Carl Davis and the writers, who are too numerous to mention. Everyone familiar with this series knows the contribution of Sir Laurence Olivier, definitely the finest documentary narration I've ever heard.

As an American, I particularly appreciate the British perspective, which offers a different view of the breath, scope and horror of the war. The series really puts the current War on Terrorism in perspective.

The supplementary material begins with an extended interview/commentary by Traudl Junge who served as Hitler's secretary. She's a fascinating person, speaking calmly and thoughtfully about her former employer, especially the events leading up to his suicide.

There is an equally interesting interview with historian Stephen Ambrose, filmed in the early 1970s. While looking 25+ years younger, Ambrose sounds almost the same as he does today during his numerous C-Span and PBS appearances.

The most fascinating of the eight hours of supplementary material are the programs dealing with the Death of Adolf Hitler and the extended two part examination of the Final Solution.

New England digs out after blizzard

A classic “Nor�ster” storm that brought a severe blizzard to New England finally subsides on February 8, 1978, and the region begins to dig out from under several feet of snow. Over the previous 72 hours, some areas of Rhode Island and Massachusetts had received as many as 55 inches of snow.

Three major weather systems all converged near the Atlantic Coast on February 5, and New York City was the first to be hit with a snowstorm. As the storm moved northeast, it stalled over Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts, catching many of the region’s residents by surprise. It is estimated that 3,500 cars were abandoned on Massachusetts streets and highways and several people died in their vehicles on Interstate 93 when they became trapped. A college hockey playoff was played at the Boston Garden despite the weather, and many of the spectators were unable to return home.

On February 6, the blizzard whipped up powerful sustained winds of up to 50 miles per hour with gusts of nearly 100 mph. Fifty-foot waves on the Massachusetts coast wiped out seaside homes, while further north, in Maine, waves destroyed three lighthouses and an amusement pier.

One of the hardest-hit communities in New England was Providence, Rhode Island, where travel became nearly impossible and Governor Joseph Garrahy ordered all businesses except grocery stores closed. Few of these stores had any food in stock, and eventually, supplies had to be airlifted in to Providence College. Similar conditions were found in areas of Boston, and looting broke out in some spots. Governor Michael Dukakis banned all cars from the roads because stuck vehicles were making it impossible for snow plows to clear the streets.

6 February 1943 - History

Historical events by day for the month of February :

February 1, 1920 -Royal Canadian Mounted Police are established.

February 1, 1964 - G. I. Joe toy action figure hits the market. It originally sold for $2.49 by Hasbro.

February 2, 1949 - The first 45 RPM vinyl record is released.

February 6, 1964 - The G.I. Joe toy hits the market.

February 3, 1959 - Rock singers Buddy Holly, Richie Valens and the Big Bopper died in a plane crash.

February 4, 1938 - Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is released.

February 4, 1949 - Ruth Handler invents the Barbie Doll.

February 4, 2004 - Mark Zuckerberg creates Facebook social media platform.

February 5, 1922 - Reader's Digest is first published.

February 6, 1926 - The first doughnut machine is sold.

February 6, 1935 - The board game Monopoly first went on sale.

February 6, 1943 - Frank Sinatra makes his singing debut on radio show "Your Hit Parade".

February 6, 1971 - Astronaut Alan Shepard hits three golf balls on the moon.

February 7, 1964 - The Beatles arrive in the U.S. for the fist time.

February 8, 1910 - The Boy Scouts of America is founded.

February 9, 1964 - The Beatles appear on the Ed Sullivan show.

February 9, 1861 - An act of Congress is passed authorizing the US Weather Bureau .

February 10, 1942 - Glenn Miller receives the first ever gold record for selling a million copies of a song. And the song. "The Chattanooga Choo Choo"

February 10, 1763 - France cedes Canada to England, ending the French and Indian War.

February 11, 1809 - Robert Fulton patents the steamboat.

February11, 1929 - The Vatican becomes a sovereign nation.

February 11, 1945 - The Yalta agreement is signed by Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin.

February 12, 1870 - Women in the Utah Territory win the right to vote.

February 13, 1826 - The American Temperance Society is formed in Boston, MA.

February 13, 1866 - Jesse James robs his first(of many) banks.

February 13, 1917 - Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari is arrested on suspicion she is a German spy.

February 13, 2000 - The last original "Peanuts" comic strip appears in newspapers one day after the death of Charles M. Schulz, it's creator.

February 14, 1826 - U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is void.

February 13, 1849 - President John Knox Polk becomes the first sitting president to have his photograph taken.

February 14, 1929 - The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre occurred. Mobsters, dressed as policemen, gunned down seven members of a rival gang.

February 14, 1931 - The original film "Dracula" starring Bela Lugosi is released.

February 14, 1946 - J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly demonstrates the first computer, called the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) computer at the University of Pennsylvania.

February 14, 1951 - Sugar Ray Robinson becomes the world middleweight champion by defeating Jake LaMotta.

February 14, 1971 - President Richard M. Nixon installs a secret taping system in the White House.

February 15, 399 B.C. - Philosopher Socrates is sentenced to death in Athens for corrupting the minds of the youth in the city.

February 15, 1842 - The Post Office uses adhesive postage stamps for the first time.

February 15, 1936 - Adolph Hitler announces the construction of the Volkswagen Beetle.

February 15, 2013 - Asteroid "2012 DA14" at 150 feet across, is the closest approach to earth of any object its size in history, passing less than 18,000 miles from earth, within the orbit of geostationary satellites.

February 16, 600 - Pope Gregory the Great declares "God Bless You" is the proper response to a sneeze.

February 16, 1868 - Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks is formed.

February 16, 1883 - "Ladies Home Journal" is first published.

February 16, 1937 - Nylon is patented. But it won't become popular for a few more decades.

February 16, 1948 - NBC TV begins it's first nightly newscast.

February 17, 1621 - Myles Standish is elected the fist commander of Plymouth Colony.

February 17, 1815 - President James Madison signs the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812.

February 18, 1861 - Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as President of the Confederate States of America.

February 18, 1885 - Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published.

February 18, 1930 - A ninth planet is discovered in the solar system and is named Pluto. The discover is Clyde Tombaugh. Note: To the dismay of many, in 2006,scientists reclassified Pluto as a ""dwarf planet".

February 18, 1913 - A prize is inserted into a Crackerjacks box for the first time

February 18, 1979 - Snow falls in the Sahara desert.

February 19, 1878 - Thomas Edison is granted a patent for his Gramophone (Phonograph).

February 19, 1913 - Prizes begin to be inserted into Cracker Jack boxes.

February 19, 1968 - Mister Rogers Neighborhood debuts on television.

February 20, 1869 - Congress bans dueling in the District of Columbia.

February 20, 1927 - Golfers in South Carolina arrested for violating the Sabbath.

February 20, 1944 - Batman and Robin comic strip premieres in newspapers.

February 20, 1962 - John Glenn become the first U.S. astronaut to orbit the earth.

February 21, 1842 - John Greenough receives a U.S. patent for the sewing machine.

February 21, 1931 - Alka Seltzer is first sold.

February 21, 1972 - Richard Nixon becomes the first U.S. President to visit China.

February 22, 1879 - Frank Woolworth opens the first "Five Cent Store in Utica, N.Y.

February 22, 1888 - John Reid, the "Father of American Golf", demonstrates golf in a cow pasture in Yonkers, NY.

February 22, 1959 - Inaugural Daytona 500 race is run.

February 23, 1836 - The Battle of the Alamo begins. It lasts 13 days.

February 23, 1874 - Walter Wingfield of Pimlico, England, patented the game of lawn tennis.

February 23, 1893 - Rudolf Diesel receives a patent in Germany for the oil burning diesel engine.

February 23, 1896 - The Tootsie Roll rolls into stores in America. Created by Leo Hirshfield.

February 23, 1940 - Walt Disney releases Pinocchio to movie theaters.

February 23, 1945 - U.S marines raise the American flag over the Pacific island of Iwo Jima.

February 23, 1945 - U.S. marines raise the America flag in Iwo Jima.

February 24, 1839 - William Otis of Philadelphia, PA patents the steam shovel.

February 24, 1868 - The first parade with floats is held for Mardi Gras in Mobile, AL.

February 24, 1909 - The Hudson Motor Company is founded.

February 24, 1981 - Britain's Prince Charles announces his engagement to Lady Diana.

February 24, 1998 - Elton John is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

February 24, 2011 - Final launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery.

February 25, 1791 - The 1st Bank of the United States is chartered.

February 25, 1836 - Samuel Colt patents the revolver.

February 25, 1837 - Thomas Davenport patents the first electric printing press.

February 25, 1908 - The first tunnel under the Hudson river opens.

February 25, 1925 - Glacier Bay National Monument in Alaska is established.

February 25, 1964 - Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) wins his first World Heavyweight Title, defeating Sonny Liston.

February 26, 1919 - Congress creates the Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona.

February 26, 1993 - A bomb explodes at the World Trade Center killing 6 people.

February 26, 1983 - Michael Jackson's "Thriller" album is #1 on the charts and stays there for 37 weeks.

February 27, 1814 - Ludwig van Beethoven's 8th Symphony in F premieres.

February 27, 1827 - Mardi Gras is celebrated in New Orleans for the first time.

February 27, 1960 - The U.S. Men's Olympic hockey team defeats the U.S.S.R. to win Olympic Gold.

February 27, 1981 - Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder record "Ebony and Ivory".

February 28, 202 B.C. - The Han dynasty begins a four hundred year rule with the coronation of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han.

February 28, 1692 - The Salem Witch Hunts begin.

February 28, 1784 - Evangelist John Wesley charters the Methodist church.

February 28, 1849 - The California Gold Rush begins as the first boatload of prospectors arrive in San Francisco.

February 28, 1983 - The final episode of M.A.S.H. is aired.

February 29, 1872 - Yellowstone becomes the first National Park

Holiday Insights , where every day is a holiday, a bizarre or wacky day, an observance, or a special event. Join us in the daily calendar fun each and every day of the year.

Did You Know? There are literally thousands of daily holidays, special events and observances, more than one for every day of the year. Many of these holidays are new. More holidays are being created on a regular basis. At Holiday Insights, we take great efforts to thoroughly research and document the details of each one, as completely and accurately as possible.

Note: If you are using the dates or historical information on our site for calendar or other publishing purposes, we recommend you double check with other sources.

This Day in WWII History: Feb 6, 1943: Mussolini fires his son-in-law, Count Galeazzo Ciano

Wary of his growing antiwar attitude, Benito Mussolini removes Count Galeazzo Ciano, his son-in-law, as head of Italy's foreign ministry and takes over the duty himself.

Ciano had been loyal to the fascist cause since its inception, having taking part in the march on Rome in 1922, which marked the Black Shirts' rise to power in Italy.

He graduated from the University of Rome with a degree in law, and then went to work as a journalist. Soon thereafter he began a career in Italy's diplomatic corps, working as consul general in China. He married Mussolini's daughter, Edda, in 1930 from there it was a swift climb up the political ladder: from chief of the press bureau to member of the Fascist Grand Council, Mussolini's inner circle of advisers.

Ciano flew a bombing raid against Ethiopia in 1935-36 and was made foreign minister upon his return to Rome. Both because of his experience in foreign affairs and personal relationship to the Duce, Ciano became Mussolini's right-hand man and likely successor. It was Ciano who promoted an Italian alliance with Germany, despite Mussolini's virtual contempt for Hitler. Ciano began to suspect the Fuhrer's loyalty to the "Pact of Steel"--a term Mussolini used to describe the alliance between Germany and Italy--when Germany invaded Poland without consulting its Axis partner, despite an agreement to the contrary Ciano made with his German counterpart, Joachim von Ribbentrop. Despite his concern about Germany's loyalty, he felt that Italy stood to profit nicely from an alliance with the "winning side," so when France fell to the Germans, Ciano advocated Italian participation in the war against the Allies.

After humiliating defeats in Greece and North Africa, Ciano began arguing for a peace agreement with the Allies. Mussolini considered this defeatist--and dismissed him as foreign minister, taking control of that office himself. Ciano became ambassador to the Vatican until he and other members of the Grand Council finally pushed Mussolini out of power in July 1943. Mussolini never forgave his son-in-law for what he later considered a betrayal. Ciano soon fled Rome for the north when the new provisional government began preparing charges of embezzlement against him. Ciano unwittingly fled into the arms of pro-fascist forces in northern Italy and was charged with treason. He was executed on January 11, 1944 on his father-in-law's orders--Mussolini was installed in a puppet government that had been set up by the Germans. Ciano's diaries, which contained brutally frank and sardonic commentaries on the personalities of the war era, are considered an invaluable part of the historical record.

British Line of Succession on 6 May 1943

Age 47 (born 14 December 1895, will die on 6 February 1952)
Sovereign since 11 December 1936 (6 years, 4 months)

Previous change: 27 April 1943 | Next change: 26 August 1944
Previous day: 5 May 1943 | Next day: 7 May 1943

    (Queen Elizabeth II)
    Age 17 (born 21 April 1926),
    Daughter of the sovereign (The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon)
    Age 12 (born 21 August 1930, will die on 9 February 2002),
    Daughter of the sovereign
    Age 43 (born 31 March 1900, will die on 10 June 1974),
    Brother of the sovereign
    Age 1 (born 18 December 1941, will die on 28 August 1972),
    Nephew of the sovereign
    Age 7 (born 9 October 1935),
    Nephew of the sovereign
    Age 10 months (born 4 July 1942),
    Nephew of the sovereign (Princess Alexandra, Lady Ogilvy)
    Age 6 (born 25 December 1936),
    Niece of the sovereign
    Age 46 (born 25 April 1897, will die on 25 March 1965),
    Sister of the sovereign (George Lascelles, The 7th Earl of Harewood)
    Age 20 (born 23 February 1923, will die on 11 July 2011),
    Nephew of the sovereign
    Age 18 (born 21 August 1924, will die on 27 February 1998),
    Nephew of the sovereign
    Age 51 (born 17 May 1891, will die on 26 February 1959),
    First cousin of the sovereign
    Age 50 (born 3 April 1893, will die on 14 December 1945),
    First cousin of the sovereign
    Age 13 (born 23 September 1929, will die on 22 June 2015),
    First cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 39 (born 2 July 1903, will die on 17 January 1991),
    First cousin of the sovereign
    Age 6 (born 21 February 1937),
    First cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 12 (born 9 June 1930, will die on 16 September 2012),
    First cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 11 (born 12 February 1932),
    First cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 49 (born 15 October 1893, will die on 4 April 1953),
    Second cousin of the sovereign
    Age 22 (born 8 August 1920, will die on 27 January 2006),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 21 (born 25 October 1921, will die on 5 December 2017),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 39 (born 5 August 1903, will die on 9 June 1978),
    Second cousin of the sovereign
    Age 48 (born 12 October 1894, will die on 14 November 1956),
    Second cousin of the sovereign
    Age 43 (born 6 January 1900, will die on 22 June 1961),
    Second cousin of the sovereign
    Age 19 (born 6 September 1923, will die on 3 November 1970),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 15 (born 19 January 1928, will die on 12 July 2000),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 13 (born 28 June 1929, will die on 7 May 1990),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 34 (born 5 January 1909, will die on 21 January 1991),
    Second cousin of the sovereign
    Age 10 (born 5 August 1932, will die on 12 November 1998),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 5 (born 4 July 1937),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign
    Age 9 (born 18 December 1933, will die on 11 January 1959),
    Second cousin once removed of the sovereign

Choose a date from the date-picker above or from the "interesting dates" menu to see the line of succession to the British throne on that date.


Early life and education Edit

Hilbert, the first of two children and only son of Otto and Maria Therese (Erdtmann) Hilbert, was born in the Province of Prussia, Kingdom of Prussia, either in Königsberg (according to Hilbert's own statement) or in Wehlau (known since 1946 as Znamensk) near Königsberg where his father worked at the time of his birth. [8]

In late 1872, Hilbert entered the Friedrichskolleg Gymnasium (Collegium fridericianum, the same school that Immanuel Kant had attended 140 years before) but, after an unhappy period, he transferred to (late 1879) and graduated from (early 1880) the more science-oriented Wilhelm Gymnasium. [9] Upon graduation, in autumn 1880, Hilbert enrolled at the University of Königsberg, the "Albertina". In early 1882, Hermann Minkowski (two years younger than Hilbert and also a native of Königsberg but had gone to Berlin for three semesters), [10] returned to Königsberg and entered the university. Hilbert developed a lifelong friendship with the shy, gifted Minkowski. [11] [12]

Career Edit

In 1884, Adolf Hurwitz arrived from Göttingen as an Extraordinarius (i.e., an associate professor). An intense and fruitful scientific exchange among the three began, and Minkowski and Hilbert especially would exercise a reciprocal influence over each other at various times in their scientific careers. Hilbert obtained his doctorate in 1885, with a dissertation, written under Ferdinand von Lindemann, [2] titled Über invariante Eigenschaften spezieller binärer Formen, insbesondere der Kugelfunktionen ("On the invariant properties of special binary forms, in particular the spherical harmonic functions").

Hilbert remained at the University of Königsberg as a Privatdozent (senior lecturer) from 1886 to 1895. In 1895, as a result of intervention on his behalf by Felix Klein, he obtained the position of Professor of Mathematics at the University of Göttingen. During the Klein and Hilbert years, Göttingen became the preeminent institution in the mathematical world. [13] He remained there for the rest of his life.

Göttingen school Edit

Among Hilbert's students were Hermann Weyl, chess champion Emanuel Lasker, Ernst Zermelo, and Carl Gustav Hempel. John von Neumann was his assistant. At the University of Göttingen, Hilbert was surrounded by a social circle of some of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century, such as Emmy Noether and Alonzo Church.

Among his 69 Ph.D. students in Göttingen were many who later became famous mathematicians, including (with date of thesis): Otto Blumenthal (1898), Felix Bernstein (1901), Hermann Weyl (1908), Richard Courant (1910), Erich Hecke (1910), Hugo Steinhaus (1911), and Wilhelm Ackermann (1925). [14] Between 1902 and 1939 Hilbert was editor of the Mathematische Annalen, the leading mathematical journal of the time.

"Good, he did not have enough imagination to become a mathematician".

Personal life Edit

In 1892, Hilbert married Käthe Jerosch (1864–1945), who was the daughter of a Königsberg merchant, an outspoken young lady with an independence of mind that matched [Hilbert's]." [16] While at Königsberg they had their one child, Franz Hilbert (1893–1969). Franz suffered throughout his life from an undiagnosed mental illness. His inferior intellect was a terrible disappointment to his father and this misfortune was a matter of distress to the mathematicians and students at Göttingen. [17]

Hilbert considered the mathematician Hermann Minkowski to be his "best and truest friend". [18]

Hilbert was baptized and raised a Calvinist in the Prussian Evangelical Church. [a] He later left the Church and became an agnostic. [b] He also argued that mathematical truth was independent of the existence of God or other a priori assumptions. [c] [d] When Galileo Galilei was criticized for failing to stand up for his convictions on the Heliocentric theory, Hilbert objected: "But [Galileo] was not an idiot. Only an idiot could believe that scientific truth needs martyrdom that may be necessary in religion, but scientific results prove themselves in due time." [e]

Later years Edit

Like Albert Einstein, Hilbert had closest contacts with the Berlin Group whose leading founders had studied under Hilbert in Göttingen (Kurt Grelling, Hans Reichenbach and Walter Dubislav). [19]

Around 1925, Hilbert developed pernicious anemia, a then-untreatable vitamin deficiency whose primary symptom is exhaustion his assistant Eugene Wigner described him as subject to "enormous fatigue" and how he "seemed quite old", and that even after eventually being diagnosed and treated, he "was hardly a scientist after 1925, and certainly not a Hilbert." [20]

Hilbert lived to see the Nazis purge many of the prominent faculty members at University of Göttingen in 1933. [21] Those forced out included Hermann Weyl (who had taken Hilbert's chair when he retired in 1930), Emmy Noether and Edmund Landau. One who had to leave Germany, Paul Bernays, had collaborated with Hilbert in mathematical logic, and co-authored with him the important book Grundlagen der Mathematik (which eventually appeared in two volumes, in 1934 and 1939). This was a sequel to the Hilbert–Ackermann book Principles of Mathematical Logic from 1928. Hermann Weyl's successor was Helmut Hasse.

About a year later, Hilbert attended a banquet and was seated next to the new Minister of Education, Bernhard Rust. Rust asked whether "the Mathematical Institute really suffered so much because of the departure of the Jews". Hilbert replied, "Suffered? It doesn't exist any longer, does it!" [22] [23]

Death Edit

By the time Hilbert died in 1943, the Nazis had nearly completely restaffed the university, as many of the former faculty had either been Jewish or married to Jews. Hilbert's funeral was attended by fewer than a dozen people, only two of whom were fellow academics, among them Arnold Sommerfeld, a theoretical physicist and also a native of Königsberg. [24] News of his death only became known to the wider world six months after he died. [ citation needed ]

The epitaph on his tombstone in Göttingen consists of the famous lines he spoke at the conclusion of his retirement address to the Society of German Scientists and Physicians on 8 September 1930. The words were given in response to the Latin maxim: "Ignoramus et ignorabimus" or "We do not know, we shall not know": [25]

Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen.

We must know. We will know.

The day before Hilbert pronounced these phrases at the 1930 annual meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians, Kurt Gödel—in a round table discussion during the Conference on Epistemology held jointly with the Society meetings—tentatively announced the first expression of his incompleteness theorem. [f] Gödel's incompleteness theorems show that even elementary axiomatic systems such as Peano arithmetic are either self-contradicting or contain logical propositions that are impossible to prove or disprove.

Hilbert solves Gordan's Problem Edit

Hilbert's first work on invariant functions led him to the demonstration in 1888 of his famous finiteness theorem. Twenty years earlier, Paul Gordan had demonstrated the theorem of the finiteness of generators for binary forms using a complex computational approach. Attempts to generalize his method to functions with more than two variables failed because of the enormous difficulty of the calculations involved. To solve what had become known in some circles as Gordan's Problem, Hilbert realized that it was necessary to take a completely different path. As a result, he demonstrated Hilbert's basis theorem, showing the existence of a finite set of generators, for the invariants of quantics in any number of variables, but in an abstract form. That is, while demonstrating the existence of such a set, it was not a constructive proof — it did not display "an object" — but rather, it was an existence proof [26] and relied on use of the law of excluded middle in an infinite extension.

Hilbert sent his results to the Mathematische Annalen. Gordan, the house expert on the theory of invariants for the Mathematische Annalen, could not appreciate the revolutionary nature of Hilbert's theorem and rejected the article, criticizing the exposition because it was insufficiently comprehensive. His comment was:

Das ist nicht Mathematik. Das ist Theologie. (This is not Mathematics. This is Theology.) [27]

Klein, on the other hand, recognized the importance of the work, and guaranteed that it would be published without any alterations. Encouraged by Klein, Hilbert extended his method in a second article, providing estimations on the maximum degree of the minimum set of generators, and he sent it once more to the Annalen. After having read the manuscript, Klein wrote to him, saying:

Without doubt this is the most important work on general algebra that the Annalen has ever published. [28]

Later, after the usefulness of Hilbert's method was universally recognized, Gordan himself would say:

I have convinced myself that even theology has its merits. [29]

For all his successes, the nature of his proof created more trouble than Hilbert could have imagined. Although Kronecker had conceded, Hilbert would later respond to others' similar criticisms that "many different constructions are subsumed under one fundamental idea" — in other words (to quote Reid): "Through a proof of existence, Hilbert had been able to obtain a construction" "the proof" (i.e. the symbols on the page) was "the object". [29] Not all were convinced. While Kronecker would die soon afterwards, his constructivist philosophy would continue with the young Brouwer and his developing intuitionist "school", much to Hilbert's torment in his later years. [30] Indeed, Hilbert would lose his "gifted pupil" Weyl to intuitionism — "Hilbert was disturbed by his former student's fascination with the ideas of Brouwer, which aroused in Hilbert the memory of Kronecker". [31] Brouwer the intuitionist in particular opposed the use of the Law of Excluded Middle over infinite sets (as Hilbert had used it). Hilbert responded:

Taking the Principle of the Excluded Middle from the mathematician . is the same as . prohibiting the boxer the use of his fists. [32]

Axiomatization of geometry Edit

The text Grundlagen der Geometrie (tr.: Foundations of Geometry) published by Hilbert in 1899 proposes a formal set, called Hilbert's axioms, substituting for the traditional axioms of Euclid. They avoid weaknesses identified in those of Euclid, whose works at the time were still used textbook-fashion. It is difficult to specify the axioms used by Hilbert without referring to the publication history of the Grundlagen since Hilbert changed and modified them several times. The original monograph was quickly followed by a French translation, in which Hilbert added V.2, the Completeness Axiom. An English translation, authorized by Hilbert, was made by E.J. Townsend and copyrighted in 1902. [33] [34] This translation incorporated the changes made in the French translation and so is considered to be a translation of the 2nd edition. Hilbert continued to make changes in the text and several editions appeared in German. The 7th edition was the last to appear in Hilbert's lifetime. New editions followed the 7th, but the main text was essentially not revised. [g]

Hilbert's approach signaled the shift to the modern axiomatic method. In this, Hilbert was anticipated by Moritz Pasch's work from 1882. Axioms are not taken as self-evident truths. Geometry may treat things, about which we have powerful intuitions, but it is not necessary to assign any explicit meaning to the undefined concepts. The elements, such as point, line, plane, and others, could be substituted, as Hilbert is reported to have said to Schoenflies and Kötter, by tables, chairs, glasses of beer and other such objects. [35] It is their defined relationships that are discussed.

Hilbert first enumerates the undefined concepts: point, line, plane, lying on (a relation between points and lines, points and planes, and lines and planes), betweenness, congruence of pairs of points (line segments), and congruence of angles. The axioms unify both the plane geometry and solid geometry of Euclid in a single system.

The 23 problems Edit

Hilbert put forth a most influential list of 23 unsolved problems at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900. This is generally reckoned as the most successful and deeply considered compilation of open problems ever to be produced by an individual mathematician. [ by whom? ]

After re-working the foundations of classical geometry, Hilbert could have extrapolated to the rest of mathematics. His approach differed, however, from the later 'foundationalist' Russell–Whitehead or 'encyclopedist' Nicolas Bourbaki, and from his contemporary Giuseppe Peano. The mathematical community as a whole could enlist in problems, which he had identified as crucial aspects of the areas of mathematics he took to be key.

The problem set was launched as a talk "The Problems of Mathematics" presented during the course of the Second International Congress of Mathematicians held in Paris. The introduction of the speech that Hilbert gave said:

Who among us would not be happy to lift the veil behind which is hidden the future to gaze at the coming developments of our science and at the secrets of its development in the centuries to come? What will be the ends toward which the spirit of future generations of mathematicians will tend? What methods, what new facts will the new century reveal in the vast and rich field of mathematical thought? [36]

He presented fewer than half the problems at the Congress, which were published in the acts of the Congress. In a subsequent publication, he extended the panorama, and arrived at the formulation of the now-canonical 23 Problems of Hilbert. See also Hilbert's twenty-fourth problem. The full text is important, since the exegesis of the questions still can be a matter of inevitable debate, whenever it is asked how many have been solved.

Some of these were solved within a short time. Others have been discussed throughout the 20th century, with a few now taken to be unsuitably open-ended to come to closure. Some even continue to this day to remain a challenge for mathematicians.

Formalism Edit

In an account that had become standard by the mid-century, Hilbert's problem set was also a kind of manifesto, that opened the way for the development of the formalist school, one of three major schools of mathematics of the 20th century. According to the formalist, mathematics is manipulation of symbols according to agreed upon formal rules. It is therefore an autonomous activity of thought. There is, however, room to doubt whether Hilbert's own views were simplistically formalist in this sense.

Hilbert's program Edit

In 1920 he proposed explicitly a research project (in metamathematics, as it was then termed) that became known as Hilbert's program. He wanted mathematics to be formulated on a solid and complete logical foundation. He believed that in principle this could be done, by showing that:

  1. all of mathematics follows from a correctly chosen finite system of axioms and
  2. that some such axiom system is provably consistent through some means such as the epsilon calculus.

He seems to have had both technical and philosophical reasons for formulating this proposal. It affirmed his dislike of what had become known as the ignorabimus, still an active issue in his time in German thought, and traced back in that formulation to Emil du Bois-Reymond.

This program is still recognizable in the most popular philosophy of mathematics, where it is usually called formalism. For example, the Bourbaki group adopted a watered-down and selective version of it as adequate to the requirements of their twin projects of (a) writing encyclopedic foundational works, and (b) supporting the axiomatic method as a research tool. This approach has been successful and influential in relation with Hilbert's work in algebra and functional analysis, but has failed to engage in the same way with his interests in physics and logic.

We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. [37]

Hilbert published his views on the foundations of mathematics in the 2-volume work Grundlagen der Mathematik.

Gödel's work Edit

Hilbert and the mathematicians who worked with him in his enterprise were committed to the project. His attempt to support axiomatized mathematics with definitive principles, which could banish theoretical uncertainties, ended in failure.

Gödel demonstrated that any non-contradictory formal system, which was comprehensive enough to include at least arithmetic, cannot demonstrate its completeness by way of its own axioms. In 1931 his incompleteness theorem showed that Hilbert's grand plan was impossible as stated. The second point cannot in any reasonable way be combined with the first point, as long as the axiom system is genuinely finitary.

Nevertheless, the subsequent achievements of proof theory at the very least clarified consistency as it relates to theories of central concern to mathematicians. Hilbert's work had started logic on this course of clarification the need to understand Gödel's work then led to the development of recursion theory and then mathematical logic as an autonomous discipline in the 1930s. The basis for later theoretical computer science, in the work of Alonzo Church and Alan Turing, also grew directly out of this 'debate'.

Functional analysis Edit

Around 1909, Hilbert dedicated himself to the study of differential and integral equations his work had direct consequences for important parts of modern functional analysis. In order to carry out these studies, Hilbert introduced the concept of an infinite dimensional Euclidean space, later called Hilbert space. His work in this part of analysis provided the basis for important contributions to the mathematics of physics in the next two decades, though from an unanticipated direction. Later on, Stefan Banach amplified the concept, defining Banach spaces. Hilbert spaces are an important class of objects in the area of functional analysis, particularly of the spectral theory of self-adjoint linear operators, that grew up around it during the 20th century.

Physics Edit

Until 1912, Hilbert was almost exclusively a "pure" mathematician. When planning a visit from Bonn, where he was immersed in studying physics, his fellow mathematician and friend Hermann Minkowski joked he had to spend 10 days in quarantine before being able to visit Hilbert. In fact, Minkowski seems responsible for most of Hilbert's physics investigations prior to 1912, including their joint seminar on the subject in 1905.

In 1912, three years after his friend's death, Hilbert turned his focus to the subject almost exclusively. He arranged to have a "physics tutor" for himself. [38] He started studying kinetic gas theory and moved on to elementary radiation theory and the molecular theory of matter. Even after the war started in 1914, he continued seminars and classes where the works of Albert Einstein and others were followed closely.

By 1907, Einstein had framed the fundamentals of the theory of gravity, but then struggled for nearly 8 years with a confounding problem of putting the theory into final form. [39] By early summer 1915, Hilbert's interest in physics had focused on general relativity, and he invited Einstein to Göttingen to deliver a week of lectures on the subject. [40] Einstein received an enthusiastic reception at Göttingen. [41] Over the summer, Einstein learned that Hilbert was also working on the field equations and redoubled his own efforts. During November 1915, Einstein published several papers culminating in The Field Equations of Gravitation (see Einstein field equations). [h] Nearly simultaneously, David Hilbert published "The Foundations of Physics", an axiomatic derivation of the field equations (see Einstein–Hilbert action). Hilbert fully credited Einstein as the originator of the theory, and no public priority dispute concerning the field equations ever arose between the two men during their lives. [i] See more at priority.

Additionally, Hilbert's work anticipated and assisted several advances in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. His work was a key aspect of Hermann Weyl and John von Neumann's work on the mathematical equivalence of Werner Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and Erwin Schrödinger's wave equation, and his namesake Hilbert space plays an important part in quantum theory. In 1926, von Neumann showed that, if quantum states were understood as vectors in Hilbert space, they would correspond with both Schrödinger's wave function theory and Heisenberg's matrices. [j]

Throughout this immersion in physics, Hilbert worked on putting rigor into the mathematics of physics. While highly dependent on higher mathematics, physicists tended to be "sloppy" with it. To a "pure" mathematician like Hilbert, this was both ugly, and difficult to understand. As he began to understand physics and how physicists were using mathematics, he developed a coherent mathematical theory for what he found – most importantly in the area of integral equations. When his colleague Richard Courant wrote the now classic Methoden der mathematischen Physik [Methods of Mathematical Physics] including some of Hilbert's ideas, he added Hilbert's name as author even though Hilbert had not directly contributed to the writing. Hilbert said "Physics is too hard for physicists", implying that the necessary mathematics was generally beyond them the Courant-Hilbert book made it easier for them.

Number theory Edit

Hilbert unified the field of algebraic number theory with his 1897 treatise Zahlbericht (literally "report on numbers"). He also resolved a significant number-theory problem formulated by Waring in 1770. As with the finiteness theorem, he used an existence proof that shows there must be solutions for the problem rather than providing a mechanism to produce the answers. [42] He then had little more to publish on the subject but the emergence of Hilbert modular forms in the dissertation of a student means his name is further attached to a major area.

He made a series of conjectures on class field theory. The concepts were highly influential, and his own contribution lives on in the names of the Hilbert class field and of the Hilbert symbol of local class field theory. Results were mostly proved by 1930, after work by Teiji Takagi. [k]

Hilbert did not work in the central areas of analytic number theory, but his name has become known for the Hilbert–Pólya conjecture, for reasons that are anecdotal.

His collected works (Gesammelte Abhandlungen) have been published several times. The original versions of his papers contained "many technical errors of varying degree" [43] when the collection was first published, the errors were corrected and it was found that this could be done without major changes in the statements of the theorems, with one exception—a claimed proof of the continuum hypothesis. [44] [45] The errors were nonetheless so numerous and significant that it took Olga Taussky-Todd three years to make the corrections. [45]

February 25th, 1985 is a Monday. It is the 56th day of the year, and in the 9th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 28 days in this month. 1985 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 2/25/1985, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 25/2/1985.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

September 19th, 1965 is a Sunday. It is the 262nd day of the year, and in the 37th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 3rd quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 1965 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 9/19/1965, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 19/9/1965.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

Valuable 1943 and 1944 Pennies

There are a few very valuable error coins produced in 1943. Since the mint produces billions of coins in an average year, they use huge totes to move them around the mint facility. As the totes moved from machine to machine, sometimes a blank from the last batch would get stuck in a crevice. Most numismatists believe that a few copper planchets from 1942 got caught in a crevice in the tote. The coining press struck the copper planchets with the 1943 date. Philadelphia, Denver, and San Francisco all produced these ultra rare 1943 copper pennies.

In 1944 the mint switched back to using copper to produce the pennies. Once again, the totes contained a few zinc-coated steel planchets stuck in the crevices. The coining presses then produced 1944 pennies on zinc-coated steel planchets instead of bronze planchets.

Both of these errors are extremely rare, but if you think you might have a 1943 copper penny or a 1944 steel penny, here's how to find out if your 1943 copper penny is genuine. In fact, it may be one of the most valuable pennies ever!

Watch the video: 1943. Серия 6 2013 @ Русские сериалы (June 2022).


  1. Elrick

    the Useful question

  2. Enrico

    I consider, that you commit an error. I suggest it to discuss. Write to me in PM, we will talk.

  3. Garwood

    I consider, that you commit an error. Let's discuss it. Write to me in PM.

  4. Newlin

    I think you are wrong. I'm sure. Email me at PM, we will discuss.

  5. Bannruod

    You are not right. I'm sure. Let's discuss. Email me at PM.

Write a message