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November 26, 2013 Day 311 of the Fifth Year - History

November 26, 2013 Day 311 of the Fifth Year - History

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9:00AM THE PRESIDENT attends a DNC event
Private Residence, Los Angeles, CA

10:50AM THE PRESIDENT tours DreamWorks Animation
DreamWorks Animation, Glendale, CA

11:10AM THE PRESIDENT meets with film industry representatives
DreamWorks Studios, Glendale, CA

12:15PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks
DreamWorks Studios, Glendale, CA

1:40PM THE PRESIDENT departs Los Angeles en route Washington, D.C.
Los Angeles International Airport


9:05PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews

9:20PM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House
South Lawn

November 26, 2013 Day 311 of the Fifth Year - History

WASHINGTON — The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) will host a special virtual FinCEN Innovation Hours Program on September 9, 2021, focusing on the important role of privacy-preserving principles in developing technical solutions that enhance financial services innovation while countering illicit activity and national security risks that undermine the integrity and opportunity of the U.S. financial system.

WASHINGTON—The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) today announced the renewal of its Geographic Targeting Orders (GTOs) that require U.S. title insurance companies to identify the natural persons behind shell companies used in all-cash purchases of residential real estate. The GTOs are identical to the November 2020 GTOs . The purchase amount threshold remains $300,000 for each covered metropolitan area.

WASHINGTON—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) Director Kenneth A. Blanco today announced several leadership changes impacting the bureau. Director Blanco announced he will depart FinCEN on April 9, after serving as the organization’s director since December 2017. Michael Mosier, former FinCEN Deputy Director and current Counselor to the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, will return to FinCEN as Acting Director. AnnaLou Tirol, former Associate Director of FinCEN’s Strategic Operations Division, is serving as FinCEN Deputy Director.

Access to the Official Journal

The Official Journal of the European Union (OJ) is the main source of EUR-Lex content. It is published daily (from Monday to Friday regularly, on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays only in urgent cases) in the official EU languages​ .

Subseries CA (e.g. C019A), with the same number as the C series published on the same day, contains calls for expressions of interest, vacancy notices, etc. CA editions may appear in one, several or all official languages.

A new subseries, LI and CI , was introduced on 1 January 2016. This allows for greater flexibility in the event of a change in the planned content of the Official Journal. It was used for the first time on 16 January 2016 (L011I, C015I).

Since 1 January 2015, the numbering of EU legal acts has changed. Find out more about the new method of numbering .

This site contains electronic copies of all Official Journals since the first edition.

Effective 1 July 2013, the electronic edition of the OJ (e-OJ) is authentic and produces legal effects. Find out more about the e-OJ .

You still have the possibility to buy a non-authentic printed version of the Official Journal from the EU Publications​ website.

Holidays & Office Closings

The Department of Buildings will be closed on the following dates:

Holiday Date
New Year's Day Friday, January 1, 2021
Martin Luther King's Birthday Monday, January 18, 2021
Washington's Birthday (President's Day) Monday, February 15, 2021
Memorial Day Monday, May 31, 2021
Independence Day (observed) Monday, July 5, 2021
Labor Day Monday, September 6, 2021
Columbus Day Monday, October 11, 2021
Election Day Tuesday, November 2, 2021
Veterans Day Thursday, November 11, 2021
Thanksgiving Day Thursday, November 25, 2021
Christmas Day (observed) Friday, December 24, 2021
New Year's Day 2022 (observed) Friday,December 31, 2021

November 26, 2013 Day 311 of the Fifth Year - History

On Thanksgiving Day, November 23, 1939, Franklin Roosevelt carved the turkey at the annual Thanksgiving Dinner at Warm Springs, Georgia, and wished all Americans across the country a Happy Thanksgiving. Unfortunately, his greeting went unanswered in some states many Americans were not observing Thanksgiving on the same day as the President. Instead, they were waiting to carve their turkeys on the following Thursday because November 30th in many states was the official Thanksgiving Day. Two Thanksgivings? Why were Americans celebrating a national holiday on two different days?

At the beginning of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency, Thanksgiving was not a fixed holiday it was up to the President to issue a Thanksgiving Proclamation to announce what date the holiday would fall on. However, Thanksgiving was always the last Thursday in November because that was the day President Abraham Lincoln observed the holiday when he declared Thanksgiving a national holiday in 1863. Franklin Roosevelt continued that tradition, but he soon found that tradition was difficult to keep in extreme circumstances such as the Great Depression. His first Thanksgiving in office, 1933, fell on November 30th, the last day of the month, because November had five Thursdays that year. Since statistics showed that most people did not do their Christmas shopping until after Thanksgiving, business leaders feared they would lose money, especially during the Depression, because there were only 24 shopping days between Thanksgiving and Christmas. They asked Franklin Roosevelt to make Thanksgiving one week earlier. President Roosevelt ignored those concerns in 1933, but when Thanksgiving once again threatened to fall on the last day of November in 1939, FDR reconsidered the request and moved the date of Thanksgiving up one week. Thanksgiving 1939 would be held, President Roosevelt proclaimed, on November 23rd and not November 30th.

Changing the date of Thanksgiving seemed harmless enough, but in actuality proved quite controversial. It was so upsetting that thousands of letters poured into the White House once President Roosevelt announced the date change. Some retailers were pleased because they hoped the extra week of Christmas shopping would increase profits, but smaller businesses complained they would lose business to larger stores. Other companies that depended on Thanksgiving as the last Thursday of November lost money calendar makers were the worst hit because they printed calendars years in advance and FDR made their calendars out of date for the next two years. Schools were also disrupted by Roosevelt's decision most schools had already scheduled vacations and annual Thanksgiving Day football games by the time they learned of Thanksgiving's new date and had to decide whether or not to reschedule everything. Moreover, many Americans were angry that Roosevelt tried to alter such a long-standing tradition and American values just to help businesses make more money.*

As opposition grew, some states took matters into their own hands and defied the Presidential Proclamation. Some governors declared November 30th as Thanksgiving. And so, depending upon where one lived, Thanksgiving was celebrated on the 23rd and the 30th. This was worse than changing the date in the first place because families that lived in states such as New York did not have the same day off as family members in states such as Connecticut! Family and friends were unable to celebrate the holiday together.

Franklin Roosevelt observed Thanksgiving on the second to last Thursday of November for two more years, but the amount of public outrage prompted Congress to pass a law on December 26, 1941, ensuring that all Americans would celebrate a unified Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of November every year.

*Many Americans at the time believed that the Pilgrims chose the last Thursday in November to be Thanksgiving, but that is not the case. Although Americans had celebrated days of thanksgiving before, it was not until 1863 when President Lincoln began the observance of Thanksgiving in November.

The following letters are just a few of the thousands of letters President Roosevelt received regarding his decision to move Thanksgiving up one week:

Letter from Downtown Association of Los Angeles to FDR encouraging the President to move Thanksgiving one week earlier, October 2, 1933.

Telegram from Richman Brothers clothing manufacturers to FDR claiming the change of Thanksgiving will hurt merchants, October 13, 1933.

Letter from Charles Arnold to FDR expressing his concern that the new Thanksgiving date will hurt small store owners, August, 15, 1939.

Letter from Robert Benson to FDR shaming President Roosevelt for stripping America's sense of idealism and tradition, August 17, 1939.

Letter from John Taylor to FDR explaining that the calendar industry will lose money if the date of Thanksgiving is changed, August, 15, 1939.

Letter from New York University to FDR's secretary stating that the change in Thanksgiving will disrupt the university's annual football game, August 22, 1939.

Letter from Eleanor Lucy Blydenburgh to FDR describing that her school in New York will be celebrating Thanksgiving on a different day than her family in Connecticut, October 18, 1939.

Telegram from F.P. Archer, Sr. to FDR stating that everyday is Thanksgiving, August 16, 1939.

Satirical letter from Shelby Bennett to FDR asking President Roosevelt to change other days of the week since he changed Thanksgiving, August 15, 1939.

Telegram from Leota and Helen Care asking Franklin Roosevelt when they should serve their turkey, November 13, 1940.

The Month of November 2020: Holidays, Fun Facts, Folklore

What’s happening in November? Here at the Almanac, we think of November as the month of food, when the best of cooks can shine and the best of eaters will surely get their fill ahead of winter. Here’s what November brings—from weather forecasts to folklore!

And the dead leaves lie huddled and still,
No longer blown hither and thither
The last lone aster is gone
The flowers of the witch-hazel wither …

–Robert Frost (1874-1963)

The Month of November

November, the 11th month of the year, has 30 days and marks the beginning of the winter holiday season for most folks, even if the winter solstice doesn’t occur until late December.

We’ve made this month, named for the ninth (novem) month in the early Roman calendar, into a social time of community suppers, feasts of thanksgiving, and general elections.

November Calendar

  • November 1 at 2 A.M. is the end of Daylight Saving Time. Set your clocks back one hour on Saturday night at bedtime! See more about DST .
  • November 1 is also All Saints’ Day.
  • November 3 is Election Day( U.S. ). Don’t forget to vote in state and federal elections! Every vote counts. Make an Election Day Cake to celebrate.
  • November 3 is also Sadie Hawkins Day.
  • November 4 is Will Rogers Day.
  • November 11 is Veterans Day ( U.S. ) and Remembrance Day (Canada).
  • If you’re fortunate, you may experience an “Indian Summer” in November but according to the traditional definition, it can only occur between November 11 and 20! What is an Indian Summer?
  • November 14 is Diwali, which is an annual festival of lights celebrating the triumph of good over evil.
  • November 19 is Discovery of Puerto Rico Day.
  • November 26 is Thanksgiving Day ( U.S. ). Understand the history and origins of Thanksgiving.
  • November 29 is the First Sunday of Advent.

“Just for Fun” Dates in November

November is Banana Pudding Lovers Month—who knew? Here are some more wacky celebrations to look forward to:

  • Nov. 1: National Cook for Your Pets Day
  • Nov. 3: Zero-Tasking Day
  • Nov. 9: National Scrapple Day
  • Nov. 16: National Button Day
  • Nov. 21: World Hello Day
  • Nov. 23: Fibonacci Day

November Moon & Astronomy

The Full Beaver Moon

November’s full Moon is traditionally called the Beaver Moon. Why this name? In the Colonial Era, this was the month to set one’s beaver traps before the swamps froze and beavers retired to their lodges, to ensure a supply of warm winter furs.

In 2020, November’s full Moon occurs on Monday, November 30, at 4:30 A.M. EST . Read our November Moon page for more information!

Catch a Penumbral Eclipse

On the night of November 29-30, a penumbral eclipse will be visible from North America. Appropriately filtered telescopes or binoculars are necessary for eye-safe viewing. The Moon will enter the penumbra at 2:30 A.M. EST on November 30 (11:30 P.M. PST on November 29) and leave the penumbra at 6:56 A.M. EST (3:56 A.M. PST ) on November 30.

November Weather

According to weather folklore, a heavy November snow will last until April.

November Weather Folklore

  • If there’s ice in November that will bear a duck, There’ll be nothing after but sludge and muck.
  • November take flail let ships no more sail.
  • If trees show buds in November, the winter will last until May.
  • There is no better month in the year to cut wood than November.
  • Ice in November brings mud in December.
  • A heavy November snow will last until April.

Recipes for the Season

It’s time to start thinking about holiday preparations—for Thanksgiving and beyond!

Consult our collection of Thanksgiving recipes—from the big bird to stuffing to deserving side dishes to desserts!

You may also enjoy these make-ahead Thanksgiving recipes they can be prepared ahead of the big feast day to save you some valuable last-minute cooking time.

If you’re serving turkey, here are tips on how to roast the bird.

Learn more about Thanksgiving’s foods with these fun facts pages:

November Gardening

Use small stakes or markers where you’ve planted bulbs or late-starting plants in the perennial garden to avoid disturbing them when you begin spring soil preparation.

Check trees around your house for weak branches that should be removed by you now, rather than by snow and ice later.

If you’re in the midst of raking leaves, see our advice on how to use them in the garden.

See more gardening jobs for the month of November.

Did You Know: Autumn is the best time to prepare your yard properly for a healthy spring growth. It’s much easier to handle these tasks now! See our “10 Fall Cleanup Tips for a Better Spring Garden.”

November Birthstone

November’s traditional birthstone is the topaz, usually a yellow to amber color. The ancient Greeks believed that topaz could make a wearer invisible. A symbol of honor and strength, topaz was also believed to bring longevity and wisdom. Learn more about topaz—and November birthstones.

Credit: Tinai Images Shutterstock

Birth Flowers

November’s birth flower is the chrysanthemum. Generally, chrysanthemums represent cheerfulness. A red one conveys “I love you.” White symbolizes truth or pure love. A yellow one indicates slighted love. Learn more about the birth flower of November.

Everyday Advice

The holiday season is now upon us! Check out our Holiday Cooking and Cleaning Checklist

It’s also the start of cold and flu season. Here are natural cold remedies for your body and mind.

Stay warm with a cozy fire. See our Best Bets for Firewood.

Mercury Retrograde

Good news. Election Day brings an end to Mercury Retrograde (the final retrograde of 2020)! See more about Mercury Retrograde.

After Sandy Hook, we said never again. And then we let 0,000 mass shootings happen.

On December 14, 2012, a gunman walked into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, and killed 20 children, six adults, and himself.

By June 12, 2016, when a shooting at a nightclub in Orlando, Florida, led to 50 deaths, there had been 994 more shootings. Orlando was the deadliest mass shooting in modern US history…

…until October 1, 2017, when a gunman fired into a crowd at a music festival on the Las Vegas strip, killing 59.

Then on February 14, 2018, a gunman opened fire at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, killing 17.

In total, there have been at least mass shootings since Sandy Hook, with at least killed and wounded.

The map shows that almost no state is immune to mass gun violence, even as crime and murder rates have generally declined in the past couple of decades.

America is a big outlier among developed countries when it comes to gun deaths — in large part because it has so many guns, making it easy to carry out an act of violence.

Studies have linked stricter gun laws to fewer gun deaths. But the US has the weakest gun laws in the developed world.

As shocking as mass shootings are, they are responsible for only a small portion of all gun deaths. In 2016, according to the CDC, 39,000 people died of gun-related injuries. Each block here represents 10 gun-related deaths.

Mass shooting deaths represented less than 2 percent of all gun deaths in the US that year — 451 of nearly 39,000 overall gun deaths.

Meanwhile, more than 14,000 of the gun deaths that year were homicides, and almost 23,000 — the great majority — were suicides.

November 26, 2013 Day 311 of the Fifth Year - History

1917 : The Rage of Men

January 19, 1917 - The British intercept a telegram sent by Alfred Zimmermann in the German Foreign Office to the German embassies in Washington, D.C., and Mexico City. Its message outlines plans for an alliance between Germany and Mexico against the United States. According to the scheme, Germany would provide tactical support while Mexico would benefit by expanding into the American Southwest, retrieving territories that had once been part of Mexico. The Zimmermann telegram is passed along by the British to the Americans and is then made public, causing an outcry from interventionists in the U.S., such as former president Teddy Roosevelt, who favor American military involvement in the war.

February 1, 1917 - The Germans resume unrestricted submarine warfare around the British Isles with the goal of knocking Britain out of the war by cutting off all imports to starve the British people into submission.

February 3, 1917 - The United States severs diplomatic ties with Germany after a U-Boat sinks the American grain ship Housatonic. Seven more American ships are sunk in February and March as the Germans sink 500 ships in just sixty days.

February 25, 1917 - In the Middle East, newly reinforced and replenished British troops retake Kut al-Amara in Mesopotamia from outnumbered Turks. The British then continue their advance and capture Baghdad, followed by Ramadi and Tikrit.

Russian Revolution

March 8, 1917 - A mass protest by Russian civilians in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) erupts into a revolution against Czar Nicholas II and the war. Within days, Russian soldiers mutiny and join the revolution.

March 15, 1917 - The 300-year-old Romanov dynasty in Russia ends upon the abdication of Czar Nicholas II. In his place, a new democratically minded Provisional Government is established. Great Britain, France, the United States, and Italy rush to recognize the new government in the hope Russia will stay in the war and maintain its huge presence on the Eastern Front.

March 15, 1917 - Germans along the central portion of the Western Front in France begin a strategic withdrawal to the new Siegfried Line (called the Hindenburg Line by the Allies) which shortens the overall Front by 25 miles by eliminating an unneeded bulge. During the three-week long withdrawal, the Germans conduct a scorched earth policy, destroying everything of value.

April 1917 - British combat pilots on the Western Front suffer a 50 percent casualty rate during Bloody April as the Germans shoot down 150 fighter planes. The average life expectancy of an Allied fighter pilot is now three weeks, resulting from aerial dogfights and accidents.

America Enters

April 2, 1917 - President Woodrow Wilson appears before the U.S. Congress and gives a speech saying "the world must be made safe for democracy" then asks the Congress for a declaration of war against Germany.

April 6, 1917 - The United States of America declares war on Germany.

April 9, 1917 - The British Army has one of its most productive days of the war as 3rd Army, supported by Canadian and Australian troops, makes rapid advances north of the Hindenburg Line at Arras and Vimy on the Western Front. The expansive first-day achievement in snowy weather includes a 3.5 mile territorial gain and the capture of Vimy Ridge by Canadians. However, similar to past offensives, the inability to capitalize on initial successes and maintain momentum gives the Germans an opportunity to regroup and further gains are thwarted. The British suffer 150,000 casualties during the offensive, while the Germans suffer 100,000.

Nivelle Offensive

April 16, 1917 - The French 5th and 6th Armies attack along a 25-mile front south of the Hindenburg Line. The new offensive comes amid promises of a major breakthrough within 24-hours by the new French Commander-in-Chief, Robert Nivelle, who planned the operation. Nivelle once again utilizes his creeping barrage tactic in which his armies advance in stages closely behind successive waves of artillery fire. However, this time it is poorly coordinated and the troops fall far behind. The Germans also benefit from good intelligence and aerial reconnaissance and are mostly aware of the French plan. Nivelle's offensive collapses within days with over 100,000 casualties. French President Poincaré personally intervenes and Nivelle is relieved of his command. He is replaced as Commander-in-Chief by General Henri Petain, who must deal with a French Army that is now showing signs of mutiny.

April 16, 1917 - Political agitator Vladimir Lenin arrives back in Russia, following 12 years of exile in Switzerland. Special train transportation for his return was provided by the Germans in the hope that anti-war Lenin and his radical Bolshevik Party will disrupt Russia's new Provisional Government. Lenin joins other Bolsheviks in Petrograd who have already returned from exile including Joseph Stalin.

May 18, 1917 - The Selective Service Act is passed by the U.S. Congress, authorizing a draft. The small U.S. Army, presently consisting of 145,000 men, will be enlarged to 4,000,000 via the draft.

May 19, 1917 - The Provisional Government of Russia announces it will stay in the war. A large offensive for the Eastern Front is then planned by Alexander Kerensky, the new Minister of War. However, Russian soldiers and peasants are now flocking to Lenin's Bolshevik Party which opposes the war and the Provisional Government.

French Mutiny

May 27-June 1, 1917 - The mutinous atmosphere in the French Army erupts into open insubordination as soldiers refuse orders to advance. More than half of the French divisions on the Western Front experience some degree of disruption by disgruntled soldiers, angry over the unending battles of attrition and appalling living conditions in the muddy, rat and lice-infested trenches. The new Commander-in-Chief, Henri Petain, cracks down on the mutiny by ordering mass arrests, followed by several firing squad executions that serve as a warning. Petain then suspends all French offensives and visits the troops to personally promise an improvement of the whole situation. With the French Army in disarray the main burden on the Western Front falls squarely upon the British.

June 7, 1917 - A tremendous underground explosion collapses the German-held Messines Ridge south of Ypres in Belgium. Upon detonation, 10,000 Germans stationed on the ridge vanish instantly. The British then storm the ridge forcing the surviving Germans to withdraw to a new defensive position further eastward. The 250-foot-high ridge had given the Germans a commanding defensive position. British, Australian and Canadian tunnelers had worked for a year to dig mines and place 600 tons of explosives.

June 13, 1917 - London suffers its highest civilian casualties of the war as German airplanes bomb the city, killing 158 persons and wounding 425. The British react to the new bombing campaign by forming home defense fighter squadrons and later conduct retaliatory bombing raids against Germany by British planes based in France.

June 25, 1917 - The first American troops land in France.

July 1, 1917 - Russian troops begin the Kerensky Offensive attempting to recapture the city of Lemberg (Lvov) on the Eastern Front. The Germans are lying in wait, fully aware of the battle plans which have been leaked to them. The Russians attack along a 40-mile front but suffer from a jumble of tactical problems including a lack of artillery coordination, poor troop placement, and serious disunity within the ranks reflecting the divisive political situation back home. The whole offensive disintegrates within five days. Sensing they might break the Russian Army, the Germans launch a furious counter-offensive and watch as Russian soldiers run away.

July 2, 1917 - Greece declares war on the Central Powers, following the abdication of pro-German King Constantine who is replaced by a pro-Allied administration led by Prime Minister Venizelos. Greek soldiers are now added to the Allied ranks.

Third Battle of Ypres
July 31-November 6, 1917

July 31, 1917 - The British attempt once more to break through the German lines, this time by attacking positions east of Ypres, Belgium. However, by now the Germans have vastly improved their trench defenses including well-positioned artillery. Although the British 5th Army succeeds in securing forward trench positions, further progress is halted by heavy artillery barrages from the German 4th Army and rainy weather.

August 10, 1917 - The British resume their attack at Ypres, focusing on German artillery positions around Gheluvelt. The attack produces few gains as the Germans effectively bombard and then counter-attack. Six days later, the British try again, with similar results. The entire Ypres offensive then grinds to a halt as British Army Commander Douglas Haig ponders his strategy.

September 1, 1917 - On the Eastern Front, the final Russian battle in the war begins as the Germans attack toward Riga. The German 8th Army utilizes new storm troop tactics devised by General Oskar von Hutier. Bypassing any strong points as they move forward, storm troop battalions armed with light machine-guns, grenades and flame throwers focus on quickly infiltrating the rear areas to disrupt communications and take out artillery. The Russian 12th Army, under General Kornilov, is unable to hold itself together amid the storm troop attacks and abandons Riga, then begins a rapid retreat along the Dvina River, pursued by the Germans.

September 20, 1917 - A revised British strategy begins at Ypres designed to wear down the Germans. It features a series of intensive, narrowly focused artillery and troop attacks with limited objectives, to be launched every six days. The first such attack, along the Menin Road toward Gheluvelt, produces a gain of about 1,000 yards with 22,000 British and Australian casualties. Subsequent attacks yield similar results.

October 12, 1917 - The Ypres offensive culminates around the village of Passchendaele as Australian and New Zealand troops die by the thousands while attempting to press forward across a battlefield of liquid mud, advancing just 100 yards. Steady October rains create a slippery quagmire in which wounded soldiers routinely drown in mud-filled shell craters.

Attack at Caporetto

October 24, 1917 - In northern Italy, a rout of the Italian Army begins as 35 German and Austrian divisions cross the Isonzo River into Italy at Caporetto and then rapidly push 41 Italian divisions 60 miles southward. By now, the Italians have been worn down from years of costly but inconclusive battles along the Isonzo and in the Trentino, amid a perceived lack of Allied support. Nearly 300,000 Italians surrender as the Austro-Germans advance, while some 400,000 desert. The Austro-Germans halt at the Piave River north of Venice only due to supply lines which have become stretched to the limit.

October 26, 1917 - At Ypres, a second attempt is made but fails to capture the village of Passchendaele, with Canadian troops participating this time. Four days later, the Allies attack again and edge closer as the Germans slowly begin pulling out.

October 31, 1917 - In the Middle East, the British led by General Edmund Allenby begin an attack against Turkish defensive lines stretching between Gaza and Beersheba in southern Palestine. The initial attack on Beersheba surprises the Turks and they pull troops away from Gaza which the British attack secondly. The Turks then retreat northward toward Jerusalem with the Allies in pursuit. Aiding the Allies, are a group of Arab fighters led by T. E. Lawrence, an Arab speaking English archeologist, later known as Lawrence of Arabia. He is instrumental in encouraging Arab opposition to the Turks and in disrupting their railroad and communication system.

November 6, 1917 - The village of Passchendaele is captured by Canadian troops. The Allied offensive then ceases, bringing the Third Battle of Ypres to an end with no significant gains amid 500,000 casualties experienced by all sides.

October Revolution

November 6-7, 1917 - In Russia, Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky overthrow the Provisional Government in what comes to be known as the October Revolution (Oct. 24-25 according to the Russian calendar). They establish a non-democratic Soviet Government based on Marxism which prohibits private enterprise and private land ownership. Lenin announces that Soviet Russia will immediately end its involvement in the war and renounces all existing treaties with the Allies.

November 11, 1917 - The German High Command, led by Erich Ludendorff, gathers at Mons, Belgium, to map out a strategy for 1918. Ludendorff bluntly states he is willing to accept a million German casualties in a daring plan to achieve victory in early 1918, before the American Army arrives in force. The goal is to drive a wedge between the British and French armies on the Western Front via a series of all-out offensives using Germany's finest divisions and intensive storm troop tactics. Once this succeeds, the plan is to first decimate the British Army to knock Britain out of the war, and then decimate the French Army, and thus secure final victory.

November 15, 1917 - Georges Clemenceau becomes France's new Prime Minister at age 76. Nicknamed "The Tiger," when asked about his agenda, he will simply answer, "I wage war."

British Tank Attack

November 20, 1917 - The first-ever mass attack by tanks occurs as the British 3rd Army rolls 381 tanks accompanied by six infantry divisions in a coordinated tank-infantry-artillery attack of German trenches near Cambrai, France, an important rail center. The attack targets a 6-mile-wide portion of the Front and by the end of the first day appears to be a spectacular success with five miles gained and two Germans divisions wrecked. The news is celebrated by the ringing of church bells in England, for the first time since 1914. However, similar to past offensives, the opportunity to exploit first-day gains is missed, followed by the arrival of heavy German reinforcements and an effective counter-attack in which the Germans take back most of the ground they lost.

December, 7, 1917 - Romania concludes an armistice with the Central Powers due to the demise of Imperial Russia, its former military ally.

December 9, 1917 - Jerusalem is captured by the British. This ends four centuries of its control by the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire.

December 15, 1917 - Soviet Russia signs an armistice with Germany. With Russia's departure from the Eastern Front, forty-four German divisions become available to be redeployed to the Western Front in time for Ludendorff's Spring Offensive.

Russian Czar in Captivity

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26 dead, 20 injured in massacre at rural Texas church in worst mass shooting in state's history

The shooting took place at a church 40 miles southeast of San Antonio.

Mass shooting at church in small Texas town

— -- At least 26 people were killed and 20 others were injured when a gunman stormed a church in rural Texas with a rifle this morning, Wilson County Sheriff Joe Tackitt and the Texas Department of Public Safety said.

Victims' ages range from 5 to 72, authorities said. Texas Gov. Greg Abbott called today's shooting in Sutherland Springs, about 40 miles southeast of San Antonio, the largest mass shooting in Texas history.

The alleged shooter, a 26-year-old man, is also dead after the massacre at First Baptist Church, bringing the total number of fatalities to 27, authorities said.

Here's what we know about the shooting:

Tragedy at church

The attack began at about 11:20 a.m., after a suspect was seen at a Valero gas station in Sutherland Springs, dressed in all black, the Department of Public Safety said. The suspect crossed the street to the church, got out of his vehicle and began firing at the church, authorities said.

The suspect then moved to the right side of the church and continued to fire, before entering the church and shooting more, authorities said.

As the suspect exited the church, a local resident grabbed his rifle and engaged the suspect, after which he dropped his assault-type rifle and fled, authorities said.

A citizen pursued the suspect, authorities said.

The suspect, who fled in a car, crashed and was later found dead in his vehicle in Guadalupe County, according to the sheriff and the Department of Public Safety. It's unclear whether he died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound or whether he was shot by another person, officials said at a news conference this afternoon at Stockdale City Hall, near the church.

Multiple weapons were found in the vehicle, authorities said, adding that the suspect had tactical-type gear and was wearing a ballistic vest.

The threat is believed to be over, Wilson County District Attorney Audrey Gossett said.

Authorities did not discuss a motive at this afternoon's news conference.

14-year-old girl among the victims

Among those killed was a 14-year-old girl named Annabelle Renee Pomeroy, according to her father, Frank Pomeroy, who is a pastor at the church.

Annabelle “was one very beautiful, special child,” Pomeroy told ABC News by phone.

Pomeroy said he was in Oklahoma this morning, a rare weekend that he wasn't at the church.

The other victims are all close friends of his, he said.

Last Sunday, Pomeroy delivered a sermon at the church, encouraging parishioners to "lean on the Lord," even when circumstances don't make sense.

"Trust in the Lord with all your heart and do not rely, or lean, on your own understanding," he said. "You see God's understanding is far greater and there may be things that are taking place that you don't understand but you still need to do what God's calling you to do."

'We heard several shots and we all started running'

A woman who said she works at a gas station across the street from the church told ABC News she heard rapid gunfire around 11:15 a.m.

Congregants fled the church and ran to the station cowering for cover, she said.

“We heard several shots and we all started running inside the store,” said the woman, 49, though but declined to give her name.

“It lasted about 15 seconds," she said. "I yelled, ‘Get down, get inside,' and we all went into hiding.”

Within minutes of the gunfire, emergency personnel arrived at the scene, she said.

A church turns into a crime scene

Police formed a perimeter around the First Baptist Church and flooded its grounds with emergency and police vehicles, according to ABC San Antonio affiliate KSAT-TV. Agents from the FBI and the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives have responded to the scene.

A small group of people were seen clustered together outside the small, white church, holding hands and attempting to pray, a KSAT reporter said.

Paul Buford, a pastor at another church in Sutherland Springs, told KSAT his congregation was in the middle of their service at River Oaks Church when they started getting calls about the shooting.

Members of his church who are first responders rushed out while the rest of the congregation immediately started praying.

A portrait of the shooter emerges

The shooter was identified as Devin Kelley, 26, of New Braunfels, Texas, which is about 35 miles from Sutherland Springs, federal and state law enforcement sources told ABC News.

The investigation into his background is unfolding. The suspect’s Facebook profile appeared to show a picture of an AR-15–style gun. The U.S. Air Force confirmed Kelley served from 2010 until his discharge, which the Department of Defense's service verification website reports was in 2014. Ann Stefanek, an Air Force spokeswoman, said records confirmed Kelley served in the logistics readiness department at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico.

Trump and Texas officials react

President Donald Trump, who is in Japan, began his remarks to business leaders in Tokyo by addressing the shooting as "an act of evil" in a "place of sacred worship."

"Together we join hands we lock arms and through the tears and through the sadness we stand strong," Trump said.

He tweeted earlier, "May God be w/ the people of Sutherland Springs, Texas."

Trump has been briefed “several times” and is continuing to receive regular updates, White House Press Secretary Sarah Sanders said.

"This will be a long, suffering mourning for those in pain," Abbott said at this afternoon’s news conference. “We ask for God's comfort, for God's guidance and for God's healing for all those who are suffering.

"As governor I ask for every mom and dad at home tonight, that you put your arm around your kid and give your kid a big hug and let them know how much you love them knowing that we support each other.”

Abbott said earlier in a statement, "Cecilia and I want to send our sincerest thoughts and prayers to all those who have been affected by this evil act. I want to thank law enforcement for their response and ask that all Texans pray for the Sutherland Springs community during this time of mourning and loss."

Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton said in a statement, "The thoughts and prayers of all Texans are with the people of Sutherland Springs as tragic reports come out of First Baptist Church."

"Please join Angela and me as we pray for those impacted by this horrific shooting,” Paxton said.

3 church shootings in 3 years

The massacre in Texas is at least the third deadly shooting at a U.S. church in the past three years.

In June 2015, white supremacist Dylann Roof shot and killed nine black churchgoers during a Bible study at the Emanuel AME Church in Charleston, South Carolina. Roof was sentenced to death this January.

In September 2017, a gunman allegedly stormed the Burnette Chapel Church of Christ in Antioch, Tennessee, fatally shooting a woman in the parking lot before entering the church sanctuary, shooting and wounding six people.

ABC News' Jack Date, Pierre Thomas, Mike Levine, Aaron Katersky, Meghan Keneally, Michael DelMoro, Katherine Faulders and Joi-Marie McKenzie contributed to this report.

About the author

Dr Edward Vallance is Lecturer in Early Modern British History at the University of Liverpool. He works on seventeenth-century British political and religious history and is the author of Revolutionary England and the National Covenant: State Oaths, Protestantism and the Political Nation, 1553-1682 (Boydell, 2005) and The Glorious Revolution: 1688 and Britain's Fight for Liberty (Little, Brown and Co, 2006). He is currently writing a history of English radicalism from Magna Carta to the present day.

Watch the video: Day 11 of 100 Days until Boot Camp! November 26, 2013 (June 2022).


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