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Blue DD- 387 - History

Blue DD- 387 - History


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Blue

Victor Blue was born in Richmond County, N. C., 6 December 1865 and graduated from the Academy in 1887. Lieutenant Blue was advanced five numbers for Intelligence missions in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. He served as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation (1913-16 and 1919) and commanded Texas (BB-35) during her service with the 6th Battle Squadron. Rear Admiral Blue retired in 1919 and died 22 January 1928.

Born in New York City 29 August 1902, John Stuart Blue graduated from the Academy in 1925. During 193.3 he commanded the Presidential yacht Sequoia and served as Aide to President Roosevelt. Between August 1940 and January 1942 he commanded Palmer (DD- 161) and then reported to the light cruiser Juneau (CL-52) as navigator. Lieutenant Commander Blue was killed in action 13 November 1942 when Juneau sank during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal.
Blue I
(DD-387: dp. 1500; 1. 341'4"; b. 35'6"; dr. 17'1" - s.
36.5 k.; cpl. 172; a. 4 5", 16 21" TT.; cl. Gridley)

The first Blue (DD-387) was launched 27 May 1937 by Norfolk Navy Yard; sponsored by Miss Kate Lilly Blue, sister of Admiral Blue; and commissioned 14 August 1937, Lieutenant Commander J. Wright in command.

After spending her first year in shakedown and training cruises along the east coast and in the Caribbean, Blue sailed for the Pacific in August 1938 to become flagship of Destroyer Division 7, Battle Force. She exercised with the Battle Fleet in west coast waters until April 1940 when she accompanied her division to Pearl Harbor. Except for an overhaul at Puget Sound Navy Yard (February-March 1941) and exercises out of San Diego during April, she remained based at Pearl Harbor until war broke out.

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 caught Blue in port but she safely made her way to sea with only four officers on board (all Ensigns). She served with the offshore patrol in the approaches to Pearl Harbor during December 1941-January 1942 and then joined Enterprise (CV-6) for the attacks on Wotje, Maloelap, Kwajalein Atolls, Marshall Islands (1 February 1942) and the Wake Island attack (24 February). During March-June 1942 Blue escorted convoys between Pearl Harbor and San Francisco and then proceeded to Wellington, New Zealand, where she arrived 18 July. She joined TG 62.2 for the invasion of Guadalcanal (7 August), providing fire-support and screening. Although present, she took no active part in the Battle of Savo Island (9 August). After patrolling off Noumea, New Caledonia, (13-17 August), Blue returned to Guadalcanal, arriving 21 August. At 0359, 22 August, while Patrolling In Ironbottom Sound she was torpedoed by the Japanese destroyer Kawakaze. The explosion wrecked Blue's main engines, shafts. and steering gear, as well as killing nine men and wounding 21. Throughout the 22nd and 23rd unsuccessful attempts were made to tow Blue to Tulagi. She was scuttled at 2221 on 23 August 1942 after valiant attempts to save her failed.

Blue (DD-387) received five battle stars for her nine months service In World War II.


Lieutenant Blue was advanced five numbers for intelligence missions in Cuba during the Spanish–American War. He served on the Suwanee, and attracted general attention in June, 1898, by penetrating 72 miles (116 km) within the Spanish lines in the vicinity of Santiago, Cuba, and definitely determining for the first time the presence of the Spanish fleet in Santiago harbor. He commanded the Alvarado, a gunboat captured from the Spanish, in the attack upon Manzanillo, became Flag lieutenant in the Pacific Squadron, and served in the Philippines in 1900–01.

From the ranks of inspector of ordnance, held in 1905–07, he was promoted until he became commander in 1909 and in 1910 chief of staff in the Pacific Fleet. Soon thereafter he was transferred to duty on the General Board of the Navy Department. He served as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation (1913–16 and 1919). Under Admiral Beatty he commanded Texas (BB-35) in the North Sea during her service with the 6th Battle Squadron. He was made rear-admiral on April 1, 1919. Rear Admiral Blue was retired in June, 1919, because of disability received in line of duty. He died 22 January 1928.


ブルー (DD-387)

1941年12月7日に日本軍による真珠湾攻撃が始まり、停泊中のブルーは士官4名(全て少尉)と乗員のみで無事に外洋に逃れた。1941年12月から42年の1月までブルーは真珠湾入り口での偵察任務に従事し、その後空母エンタープライズ (USS Enterprise, CV-6) 基幹の第8任務部隊(ウィリアム・ハルゼー中将)に加わり、2月1日にウォッジェ環礁、マロエラップ環礁およびクェゼリン環礁への攻撃を行う。2月24日にはウェーク島と南鳥島への攻撃を支援し、攻撃から帰投後、3月から6月にかけては真珠湾とサンフランシスコ間の船団護衛任務に従事する。その後ニュージーランドのウェリントンに向かい、7月18日に到着した。

ブルーは第62.2任務群に加わり、8月7日のガダルカナル島上陸では火力支援および援護を担当した。8月9日の第一次ソロモン海戦当日、ブルーはサボ島西岸沖を哨戒して、日本艦隊の監視役となった。ブルーはSCレーダーを搭載しており、このSCレーダーは後年に改良されたものよりかは性能は劣っていたが、それでも先に敵を探知できる確率は高かった [1] 。しかし、8月9日当日のレーダーの調子はいまひとつであったばかりか、接近してくる三川軍一中将率いる第八艦隊の重巡洋艦、軽巡洋艦および駆逐艦を目前にしてUターンした [2] 。三川艦隊でもブルーを発見して砲の照準を合わせていたが何事も無く [2] 、後年に「アイアンボトム・サウンド」と呼ばれるようになった海域に入っていった。ブルーは、海戦では大きな役割を果たすことができず、海戦後に沈没しつつあるオーストラリア重巡洋艦キャンベラ (HMAS Canberra, D33) の生存者を救助した。

8月13日から17日までヌメア沖での哨戒に従事。それから「ブルー」はガダルカナルへ戻ることになった。「ブルー」は駆逐艦「ヘルム」、「ヘンリー」とともに輸送船2隻を護衛してガダルカナルへ向かった [3] 。8月22日1時40分、レンゴ水道に入ったところで4隻の船が発見された [4] 。誰何に応答がなく、攻撃命令が出されそうになったが、そこでそれらは味方の高速輸送艦と判明した [5] 。この後、「ブルー」は「ヘンリー」とともに日本軍邀撃のためサボ水道へ向かった [6] 。3時24分、「ブルー」はレーダーおよび聴音機で艦艇を探知したが、味方だと推定された [6] 。3時55分、「ブルー」のレーダーと聴音機は再び艦艇を探知 [7] 。これは「ヘンリー」のレーダーでも捉えられた [8] 。それは高速で動いており、砲や魚雷発射管がそちらに向けられたが、これも味方であると推定された [9] 。3時59分に少なくとも2つの雷跡が発見され、直後魚雷1本が「ブルー」の艦尾に命中 [9] 。9名が死亡、21名が負傷し、主機および主軸、方向舵を破壊され [10] 「ブルー」は航行不能となった [11] 。この攻撃は日本の駆逐艦「江風」によるものであった [11] 。「江風」は哨戒機が発見した船団を攻撃するために派遣され、発見した駆逐艦に対して砲雷撃(魚雷6本、弾数6発)を行った後避退した [12] 。


Pearl Harbor Attack, USS Blue (DD-387)

From: Commanding Officer.
To: Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Subject: U.S.S. Blue ? Action during December 7 Air Raid, Report of.

Reference: (a) Cincpac despatch 102102 of Dec., 1941.

Forwarded with great pride in the excellent and efficient manner in which all officers and men in the Blue at the time conducted themselves.
Summarizing the basic letter to accord with reference (a) and clarify certain items, the following is submitted.
Offensive measures.
Fired .50 caliber machine gun and 5"/38 AA batteries at enemy planes presented as targets while moored at Berth X-7 from 0805 to 0847, and during sortie via South Channel to entrance buoys from 0847 to 0910.
Dropped 4 and 2 600-pound depth charges in two successive attacks about 0950 on underwater sound contacts approximately 4 miles, bearing 190?, from Diamond Head Light. Dropped 2 600-pound depth charges in attack on third underwater sound contact approximately 6 miles, bearing 200?, from Diamond Head Light about 1020.
Damage to enemy.
4 planes under fire by 5" battery and 1 under fire by .50 caliber were observed to crash in the following places: 2 near Pearl City, 1 on stern of U.S.S. Curtiss in West Channel, 1 in Middle Loch near P.A.A. Landing, 1 in cane field on Waipio Peninsula.
One submarine either sunk or severely damaged by depth charging in approximate location 4 miles, bearing 190? true, from Diamond Head Light.
Own losses and damages ? none.
Three men received minor injuries, two of them a burst eardrum and the third a bruised foot.
The material casualties mentioned under the citations of Millard and Shaw in the basic letter were a gun stoppage due to loading a grommeted projectile, and a torpedo running in its tube after being struck by a second torpedo inadvertently partially ejected from an opposite tube.
Attention is invited to paragraph 3 of the basic letter, to which should be added Ensign N.F. Asher, U.S.N., who, as acting commanding officer from the commencement of the raid until the ship returned to Pearl Harbor the following evening, performed most commendably and efficiently in assuming prompt offensive action, conducting emergency sortie under existing trying conditions, attacking submarine contacts in offshore area, screening heavy ship proceeding to attack a reportedly greatly superior force off Barber's Point, and subsequently standing watch and watch as O.O.D. for a period of 30 hours at sea.
All personnel conducted themselves in an eminently satisfactory manner, and the commanding officer has not heard of a single adverse criticism.
To date there have been found no evidence of any hits of any sort on this vessel, although several shrapnel or bomb case fragments, and two spent .50 caliber projectiles have been picked up about the decks. Enemy planes made several attempts to bomb this or nearby vessels during sortie in an apparent attempt to block the channel the nearest miss from such bombs was about 100 yards.
[signed]
H.N. WILLIAMS

DD387/
Serial
U.S.S. Blue DD 387
Pearl Harbor, T.H.
December 11, 1941

From: N.F. ASHER, Ensign, U.S. Navy.
To: Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Subject: Air Raid on Pearl Harbor, T.H. December 7, 1941 ? report of action by U.S.S. Blue (DD387)

Summary of actions:
0800 U.S.S. Utah torpedoed.
Ensign N.F. ASHER, U.S.N., Ensign M.I. MOLDAFSKY, U.S.N.R., Ensign J.P. WOLFE, U.S.N.R., and Ensign R.S. SCOTT, U.S.N.R., while seated in the wardroom, received word from the bridge that the U.S.S. Utah had been torpedoed by Japanese airplanes. The general alarm was sounded, and word passed throughout the ship to man battle stations and prepare to get underway immediately. Stations were taken immediately as follows:

Ensign ASHER -- on the bridge -- in command.
Ensign MOLDAFSKY -- forward machine guns -- in charge.
Ensign WOLFE -- control -- in charge.
Ensign SCOTT -- repair party -- in charge.

0805 Opened fire with 50 cal. machine guns on Japanese planes diving on ships in harbor.
0807 Opened fire with 5"/38 cal. guns on Japanese planes. The engine room was ordered immediately to light off No. 2 boiler (No. 1 already steaming), and made all preparations for getting underway. Repair party cleared the ship for action, and made all preparations for slipping quickly from the mooring.
0847 Underway ? upon execution of signal to get underway ? from Berth X-7, Ensign N.F. ASHER, Commanding. Maintained fire on enemy planes with main battery and machine guns while steaming out of harbor. Four planes fired on with main battery were later seen to go down in smoke. It is claimed that two of these planes were definitely shot down by this vessel. one was seen to crash in field on Waipio Pena., and the second crashed into crane on stern of U.S.S. Curtiss. Two planes that dove over the ship were fired on by the 50 cal. machine guns. It is claimed that one of these planes, seen to crash near Pan American Airways Landing at Pearl City, was shot down by this vessel.

When abeam of Weaver Field landing, went to twenty five knots, and maintained this speed while steaming out of the channel.

0910 Passed channel entrance buoys, and set course 120 true. Proceeded to sector three to patrol station. Upon reaching station commenced patrolling at speed 10 knots.
0950 Good sound contact on submarine. Maneuvered to attack and dropped four depth charges. Regained sound contact on same submarine. Dropped two depth charges. investigated spot where the second attack was made, and observed a large oil slick on the water, and air bubbles rising to the surface, over a length of about 200 feet. it was first believed that the submarine was surfacing, due to the appearance of the air bubbles, and all guns were ordered to train out to starboard, so as to be ready to open fire. It is felt that this submarine was definitely sunk. Approximate location: 21?-11'-30" N and 157?-49'-45" W.

Obtained a third sound contack on a submarine that was apparently heading for the U.S.S. St. Louis, which was at the time steaming at high speeds on a course of approximately 150 true. Signal "EMERG. UNIT 210" was hoisted, and attack on submarine made. Two depth charges were dropped. Upon a return to the spot where the attack was made, a large oil slick was noticed on the surface of the water. All contacks were made at about 1400 yards, and the submarine tracked before the charges were dropped.

It is claimed that one submarine, and possibly two were sunk.

1030 Upon completion of the attacks, the Blue screened the St. Louis upon orders from that vessel.
1055 All four boilers on the main steam line.

Ammunition expended during engagement:

5"/38 caliber 507 rounds.
50 cal. (machine guns) 4000 rounds.
Depth charges 8

There were no material or personnel casualties.

Special commendation should be given the following officers and men for their extreme heroism, courage, and fine cooperation, during the conduct of the battle, and until the Blue returned to port, on the night of December 8, 1941:
Ensign J.P. WOLFE, U.S.N.R., ? is responsible for the excellent shooting of the Blue during the conduct of the battle. Ensign WOLFE's duties as control and gunnery officer were performed to perfection. Ensign WOLFE also acted as assistant communication officer.

Ensign R.S. SCOTT, U.S.N.R., ? did an excellent job as damage control officer. Ensign SCOTT was detailed to maintain the spirit of the men on battle stations, and to look after things about the ship while the other officers remained at their battle stations from the time that the Blue got underway, till she returned to port.

HAMMOND, J.P., 233-63-83, CQM, USN, ? provided valuable assistance to me, and loyally remained on the bridge till the Blue returned to port. I give HAMMOND great credit in aiding me considerably in the swift and safe manner in which the Blue proceeded out of Pearl Harbor.

KITZER, H.M., 102-87-19, CMM, USN, ? did an excellent job as acting engineer officer of the Blue, for the two days that we were out to sea. KITZER is greatly responsible for the excellent performance of the engineering department.

KETCHUM, F., 102-39-98, CBM, USN, ? performed in an excellent manner with the repair party, and proved invaluable by assisting in general tasks throughout the ship.


Blue DD- 387 - History

We are the Real Sailormen, the Destroyer Men of the Fleet!

REUNION 2019 is over. I am awaiting photos and reports from Roberta Cox and any other attendees.

The next reunion will be held in San Diego CA hosted by the Humphries.

Tom Murry, another old Fox Division shipmate, attended our last reunion in Colorado Springs. He had made a DVD of movies that he took during 1960-62 on the Picking. One clip would be of particular interest to all Picking, and in fact any destroyer, sailors. It is a record of some really rough seas! Shipmate Ken Kile remarked that he got seasick from watching it. Anyway, I posted Tom's clip on YouTube to share it with the world. Thanks Tom for this real reminder why our motto was "We are the real sailormen, the Destroyermen of the Fleet." You can view it here:

I posted the 10 minute video clip of the Picking refueling from the Oriskany in 1964 on YouTube. You can view the clip at:

This was sent to me by an Oriskany sailor who wanted us to see an airdale's perspective on smaller surface ships!

Our next Reunion will be in

INFORMATION REQUESTED ON JOHN A. BENNINGHOFF MM3. He served on the Picking sometime from 1956 to 1960 (I see him on the ship's roster in 1957 at least through the end of 1958) and he passed away 12 years ago. His daughter Karin is looking for a photo of him in uniform. Hopefully one of you all will remember him and better yet have a photo of him. Please contact Karin at: [email protected]

INFORMATION REQUESTED ON Robert Melvin "Andy" Anderson who was on the Picking 1967 to 1970. He was from Florida. Help was requested by Tom Howell. Please contact Tom at [email protected]

George Brunson is looking for info on his 1967-8 sh ipmates Peter Neurtz, William Kish, and Robert Egge. Please contact George at [email protected]

Tin Can Sailors is a national organization of veterans who served on DDs, DEs, DDEs, DDRs, DLs, DLGs, other destroyer class warships, and even ADs. They sponsor many events around the country and provide monetary support to the DDs that are moored as historical ships around the country. I would recommend that you consider joining. Their website is http://www.tincansailors.com/

Remember the USS Liberty, the electronic intelligence ship that was attacked and almost sunk in 1967? Visit their website.


Mục lục

Blue được đặt lườn tại Xưởng hải quân Norfolk ở Portsmouth, Virginia vào ngày 25 tháng 9 năm 1935. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 27 tháng 5 năm 1937 được đỡ đầu bởi cô Kate Lilly Blue, em gái Chuẩn đô đốc Blue và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 14 tháng 8 năm 1937 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân J. Wright.

Trước chiến tranh Sửa đổi

Sau khi trải qua năm đầu tiên chạy thử máy và huấn luyện dọc theo vùng bờ Đông và vùng biển Caribe, Blue lên đường đi sang khu vực Thái Bình Dương vào tháng 8 năm 1938 để phục vụ như là soái hạm của Đội khu trục 7 trực thuộc Hạm đội Chiến trận. Nó tập trận cùng với Hạm đội Chiến trận tại vùng bờ Tây Cho đến tháng 4 năm 1940, khi nó cùng đội của nó đi đến Trân Châu Cảng. Ngoại trừ một giai đoạn đại tu tại Xưởng hải quân Puget Sound trong tháng 2 và tháng 3 năm 1941 cùng một đợt thực hành ngoài khơi San Diego, California trong tháng 4, nó tiếp tục đặt căn cứ tại Trân Châu Cảng cho đến khi chiến tranh nổ ra, đảm nhiệm vai trò soái hạm của Đội khu trục 7 thuộc Hải đội Khu trục 4.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Trân Châu Cảng Sửa đổi

Khi Hải quân Nhật bất ngờ tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào sáng ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1941, Blue vẫn đang neo đậu trong cảng, nhưng đã xoay xở lên đường tiến ra khơi chỉ với bốn Thiếu úy Hải quân trên tàu. Nó phục vụ tuần tra ngoài khơi ở những lối tiếp cận Trân Châu Cảng trong tháng 12 năm 1941 và tháng 1 năm 1942.

1942 Sửa đổi

Blue gia nhập cùng tàu sân bay Enterprise cho các cuộc không kích xuống các đảo san hô Wotje, Maloelap, Kwajalein thuộc quần đảo Marshall vào ngày 1 tháng 2 năm 1942, và xuống đảo Wake vào ngày 24 tháng 2. Trong giai đoạn từ tháng 3 đến tháng 6 năm 1942, nó hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải đi lại giữa Trân Châu Cảng và San Francisco, rồi khởi hành đi Wellington, New Zealand, đến nơi vào ngày 18 tháng 7.

Blue gia nhập Đội đặc nhiệm 62.2 để tham gia trận Guadalcanal vào ngày 7 tháng 8, làm nhiệm vụ bắn phá và hỗ trợ hỏa lực. Cho dù đã có mặt tại chỗ, nó đã không tham gia Trận chiến đảo Savo vào ngày 9 tháng 8, nhưng đã giúp cứu vớt những người sống sót của chiếc tàu tuần dương hạng nặng Australia HMAS Canberra vốn bị hư hại nặng trong trận chiến. Sau khi tuần tra ngoài khơi Nouméa, New Caledonia từ ngày 13 đến ngày 17 tháng 8, chiếc tàu khu trục quay trở lại Guadalcanal, đến nơi vào ngày 21 tháng 8. Lúc 03 giờ 59 phút ngày 22 tháng 8, đang khi tuần tra trong eo biển Đáy sắt, nó trúng ngư lôi phóng từ tàu khu trục Nhật Kawakaze. Vụ nổ đã làm hỏng động cơ, trục chân vịt và bánh lái, cũng như làm thiệt mạng chín người và làm bị thương 21 người khác. Trong các ngày 22 và 23 tháng 8, các nỗ lực nhằm kéo nó quay trở về Tulagi đã không thành công và chiếc tàu khu trục bị đánh đắm lúc 22 giờ 21 phút ngày 23 tháng 8 năm 1942, sau khi các nỗ lực cứu nó thất bại.

Blue được tặng thưởng năm Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai.


Democrats Are Forgetting What’s Popular About Their Big Democracy Bill

Democrats’ chances to pass the For The People Act, their sweeping plan to reform the nation’s democracy, are already slipping away.

Their ultra-thin majority in the Senate means they lack the votes to eliminate the filibuster Republicans will rely on to block the legislation. And even if the party had the will to overcome the 60-vote requirement, pivotal Democrat Joe Manchin of West Virginia has said he prefers narrower legislation.

Manchin’s idea of focusing on voting rights has favor with some congressional Democrats, including veteran members of the Congressional Black Caucus. It would also be a massive political mistake, ditching the most popular provisions of the legislation and turning the bill from a winner in key swing states and congressional districts into another iteration of what many voters see as partisan bickering over voting rights.

The For The People Act, also known as HR 1 or S 1 ― low-number designations meant to signal its importance to the Democratic Party ― is a sprawling beast of more than 60 pieces of individual legislation stapled together. Its provisions cover everything from early voting and election administration to blocking foreign interference, encouraging members of Congress to rely on small-dollar donations and making it harder for former politicians to engage in “shadow lobbying.”

The legislation, on the whole, is popular. A recording of conservative activists discussing how to stop the measure, obtained by The New Yorker, found them admitting that turning public opinion against the bill would be “incredibly difficult.” But the most popular parts of the legislation have always been the provisions aimed at limiting the political influence of corporations and the ultra-wealthy.

That issue has been a political winner for Democrats in each of the last two election cycles. Dozens of House candidates swore off corporate PAC money in 2018, helping the party win back control of the chamber. Then, Democrats hammered Georgia GOP Sens. Kelly Loeffler and David Perdue with ads arguing they had used their positions to enrich themselves en route to winning Senate control in 2020.

“Taking on corruption in Washington was an essential message for Democrats in taking back the House in 2018, and again in those Georgia Senate races in 2020,” said Meredith Kelly, a Democratic operative who was communications director at the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee when the party flipped the House three years ago. “It created a trust that Democrats would be able to finally make progress on every other issue ― the rising costs of prescription drugs, climate change.”

But it’s also clear the party isn’t always driving home that message. Much of the day-to-day debate and media coverage about the bill has focused on the voting rights provisions. When President Joe Biden called for the passage of HR 1 in his address to Congress last month, he mentioned the need to “protect the sacred right to vote,” but not the legislation’s anti-corruption components.

It’s obvious why Democrats feel urgency to protect voting rights. Former President Donald Trump took the GOP’s long history of lying about widespread voter fraud to a new level following his loss in the 2020 election, culminating in the Capitol riot on Jan. 6. Since then, Republican state legislators across the country have moved to make it more difficult to vote, often specifically targeting methods used by Black voters, the Democratic Party’s most loyal voting base.

But the voting rights fight is not always a clear political winner for Democrats. While many of the For The People Act’s voting provisions ― mandating early voting periods and same-day voter registration, for instance ― are popular, public surveys indicate most Americans support requiring voters to show ID at the polls, a practice HR 1 would ban.

More broadly, the voting rights provisions stir up strong emotions among partisans on both sides, while doing little to win over swing voters. Amy Walter, the national editor at the Cook Political Report, wrote last month that two focus groups of persuadable voters she recently watched thought “that fights over voter laws were more about political gamesmanship.”

“Where many activists see a threat to the very foundation of our political system, these voters see crass political calculations,” Walter wrote.

Republican advertising campaigns attacking the For the People Act also show how the GOP sees voting rights provisions as the legislation’s political weak point.

One Nation, a political nonprofit controlled by allies of Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, launched a nearly $2 million ad campaign attacking the legislation this week. The ads focus on provisions eliminating voter ID requirements and “giving Washington bureaucrats control of our elections.”

On the other side of the debate, a $12 million television ad campaign from End Citizens United focuses on the idea that Democrats are reining in corporate special interests, only briefly mentioning that the law protects the right to vote.

“Billionaires and special interests ― your day is nearly done,” a narrator says in one of the advertisements.

Maryland Rep. John Sarbanes, the lead sponsor of the House version of the legislation, noted the voting rights provisions were the “most animating on both sides” of the partisan divide. But the anti-corruption measures ― which include strengthening ethics requirements for executive appointees and judges, and forcing the disclosure of anonymous political spending ― test well across party lines.

“Those parts of the bill are broadly supported, even by most Republicans out there in the country,” Sarbanes said. “When you lift those up, it puts McConnell and his allies on their back foot. They know that anti-corruption sentiment is very strong, even among their own constituents.”

Right now, Sarbanes needs to find a path to passage for the legislation. And he’s sure Manchin’s suggestion won’t actually make that any easier. The plan is already the product of extensive intraparty negotiation. And Sarbanes said the possibility of attracting GOP support for voting rights legislation is nonexistent.

“I don’t trust them, to be very honest,” Sarbanes said of Republicans. “I just don’t see any intersection of real reform with getting 10 Republican votes.”

The obstacles to passing the legislation with only Democratic support are clear: Manchin’s opposition to moving the legislation at all, and Arizona Sen. Kyrsten Sinema’s opposition to eliminating the filibuster. But private Democratic polling, paid for by End Citizens United and obtained by HuffPost, shows the anti-corruption provisions of HR 1 are immensely popular in both Democrats’ home states.

“Messaging frames around reducing the influence of special interests and holding politicians accountable particularly resonated with voters,” pollsters from the Democratic firms Global Strategy Group and ALG Research wrote in a memo. “In both West Virginia and Arizona, voters responded strongly to a message about the influence of special interests due to money in politics and about Washington being corrupt due to that special interest money and the solutions the bill presented to combat that corruption.”

Meanwhile, time is running out to pass any legislation in time to shape the 2022 midterm elections.

Rep. Sharice Davids (D-Kansas), who won her seat in 2018 thanks in part to anti-corruption messaging, said passing the legislation would boost her efforts to win reelection in what is likely to be a tough political cycle for Democrats.

“I’m from the home of both the Koch Brothers and Kris Kobach,” Davids told HuffPost, referring to the billionaire conservative megadonors and the state’s arch-conservative former attorney general. “These things have been on the mind of Kansans for a long time.”

Davids was one of 39 House Democrats from across the party’s ideological and identity spectrums to sign a letter this week to Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, urging him to “consider all legislative and procedural means available in order to pass this critical legislation.”


The cause of multiple myeloma is not known, and currently there is no cure. xi

Risk factors for myeloma include increasing age, black race, male sex, and family history. xi Another risk factor is monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a rare condition in which an abnormal protein called monoclonal protein is detected in the blood. In some cases, MGUS may progress over time to multiple myeloma or other forms of blood cancer. xiii

In recent years, with the introduction of several new treatment options, the outlook for multiple myeloma patients has improved markedly. However, without a cure or a treatment that addresses the underlying immunology of the disease, the disease worsens and patients experience periods of remission and relapse.


東所羅門海戰

盟軍的登陸是得到3支美國航空母艦特混艦隊的直接支援: 第11特混艦隊 ( 英语 : Task Force 11 ) (薩拉托加號)、 第16特混艦隊 ( 英语 : Task Force 16 ) (企業號)、和第18特混艦隊(胡蜂號),各自附屬的航空聯隊,及支援水面艦,包括戰艦、巡洋艦和驅逐艦。 [6] 3支航空母艦特混艦隊的總指揮官是法蘭克·傑克·弗萊徹海軍中將,他的旗艦是薩拉托加號。 [7] 從3艘航空母艦起飛的飛機為入侵部隊提供近距離空中支援及阻擊來自拉包爾的日軍空襲。 [8] 登陸成功後,它們仍然留在南太平洋地區負責守衛盟軍在新喀里多尼亞和埃斯皮里圖桑托島主要基地的補給線、支援盟軍地面部隊在瓜達爾卡納爾島和圖拉吉島阻擊任何日軍的反攻,掩護在瓜達爾卡納爾島的供應船隻,並從消滅進入該區範圍內的任何日本軍艦。 [9]

序幕 编辑

一支載有1,411名隸屬一木支队的日軍士兵以及數百名隸屬第5橫須賀海軍特別陸戰隊士兵的艦隊,包括3艘慢速運輸船,在8月16日離開日本在特魯克的主要基地,前往瓜達爾卡納爾島。 [13] 該運輸船隊由 田中賴三 ( 日语 : 田中頼三 ) 海軍少將率領的旗艦輕巡洋艦神通號、8艘驅逐艦和4艘巡邏艇負責護航, [14] 同時由三川軍一海軍中將指揮,包括4艘重巡洋艦的第8艦隊亦由拉包爾出發,以作為一支“密接護航艦隊”支援該運輸船隊。 [15] 這些巡洋艦曾在之前的薩沃島海戰中擊敗盟軍海軍水面艦隊。田中計劃他運輸船隊上的陸戰隊於8月24日在瓜達爾卡納爾島登陸。 [16]

8月21日,其餘參加加號行動的日本海軍部隊離開特魯克,前往所羅門群島南部。這些艦隻分為三組:“主力”包括日本航空母艦翔鶴號和瑞鶴號、輕型航空母艦龍驤號,加上護航部隊的1艘重巡洋艦和8艘驅逐艦,由南雲忠一海軍中將坐鎮在翔鶴號指揮;“前鋒部隊”包括2艘戰艦、3艘重巡洋艦、1艘輕巡洋艦和3艘驅逐艦,由阿部弘毅海軍少將指揮;“進攻部隊”包括5艘重巡洋艦、1艘輕巡洋艦、6艘驅逐艦和1艘水上飛機航空母艦(千歲號),由近藤信竹海軍中將指揮。 [17] 最後,1支駐拉包爾和附近島嶼的大約100架日本海軍陸基轟炸機、戰鬥機及偵察飛機,將支援作戰。 [18] 南雲的主力部隊將航行在前鋒部隊和進攻部隊背後,以便更容易在美軍偵察機下保持隱藏。 [19]

第三艦隊無疑是以航空母艦為主力 [21] ,但根據日本海軍的規定,近藤因爲是南雲的先任而統率全艦隊 [22] 。雖説如此,近藤和南雲的司令部之間並沒有進行情報交換或者是戰術上的合作演練。

8月24日航空母艦的戰鬥 编辑

8月24日凌晨1時45分,南雲下令原忠一海軍少將率領輕型航空母艦龍驤號,隨同重巡洋艦利根號,驅逐艦天津風號和時津風號,先於日軍的主力部隊航行,並派出飛機在黎明時分對亨德森機場展開攻擊。 [28] 龍驤號的任務是應在拉包爾的海軍司令 塚原二四三 ( 日语 : 塚原二四三 ) 的請求,為對壓制亨德森機場的聯合艦隊提供支援。 [29] 南雲的目的是把原忠一的艦隊作為誘餌轉移美軍的注意力,使其餘的日本艦隊可以在未美軍被發現下接近美軍艦隊 [30] 以及為田中的艦隊提供保護和掩護。 [31] 翔鶴號和瑞鶴號的大多數飛機已準備就緒,一旦發現美軍航空母艦所在,將可以在短時間內出動。

中午12時20分,龍驤號出動6架九七式艦上攻擊機和15架零式艦上戰鬥機聯同由拉包爾起飛的24架一式陸上攻擊機和14架零式攻擊亨德森機場。不過,龍驤號出動的飛機並不知道,來自拉包爾的飛機因爲遇到惡劣天氣,已經在11時30分返回自己的基地。龍驤號的飛機在飛向瓜達爾卡納爾島時被薩拉托加號上的雷達截獲,使得美軍進一步確認了即將展開的攻擊的位置。 [34] 龍驤號的飛機在下午2時23分抵達了亨德森機場的上空,在轟炸時與亨德森機場的戰鬥機( 仙人掌航空隊 ( 英语 : Cactus Air Force ) 的成員)纏鬥。共有3架九七式艦上攻擊機、3架零式艦上戰鬥機和3架美軍戰鬥機被擊落,並沒有對亨德森機場造成明顯的損壞。 [35]

下午2時25分,從巡洋艦筑摩號起飛的日本偵察飛機發現美國航空母艦。雖然該機被擊落,但其報告依然及時送達,南雲立即命令從翔鶴號和瑞鶴號出動飛機發起攻擊。第1波飛機的27架九九式艦上俯衝轟炸機和15架零式艦上戰鬥機,在下午2時50分起飛前往攻擊企業號和薩拉托加號。第三艦隊沒有告知第二艦隊以及聯合艦隊司令部攻擊隊已經出發的消息,導致在附近的第二艦隊對敵軍位置一無所知,只有第三艦隊獨自行動 [36] 。南雲在第一波攻擊機隊出發後解除了無綫電靜默,向第十一艦隊及以下的前衛艦隊下令“今晚以夜戰消滅敵軍” [37] 。近藤只收到“繼第一第二次攻擊後發起第三次夜間魚雷攻擊。以前衛夜戰消滅敵軍”的報告,以此來推測美軍位置,下達向南進擊的命令 [38] 。

雖然企業號遭到嚴重破壞及著火,它的損管隊伍在戰後一小時就完成了必要的搶修,在下午5時46分恢復飛行作業。 [50] 下午6時05分,擊沉龍驤號的攻擊機隊返回薩拉托加號,降落時沒有出現重大事故。 [51] 第2波日軍飛機在6時15分接近美國航空母艦,但因為通信問題無法找到美軍艦隊,並在沒有攻擊任何美軍艦艇下返回自己的航空母艦,更因意外事件損失了5架艦載機。 [52] 在第1波日軍飛機攻擊前起飛的美軍艦載機大多數沒有發現任何目標。但是,5架來自薩拉托加號的TBF復仇者式轟炸機發現近藤的進攻艦隊,攻擊了水上飛機航空母艦千歲號,命中近失彈兩枚,對這艘缺乏裝甲的艦艇造成了嚴重破壞。 [53] 黃昏後,美軍艦載機降落在亨德森機場或回到自己的航空母艦上。 [54] 美軍艦艇退向南方,避開日軍戰艦的進攻。事實上,阿部的前衛艦隊和近藤的進攻艦隊正向南前進,試圖用水面戰鬥攻擊美軍航空母艦特混艦隊,但它們未能發現美軍艦艇,在午夜返航。南雲的主力艦隊,由於艦載機損失過多,加上燃料不足,也撤向北面。 [55]


The (Steady) Rise of Blue Chip Stocks

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Watch the video: Pearl Harbor actual bombing - H1266 02. Footage Farm (July 2022).


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