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January 5, 2015 Day 350 of the Sixth Year - History

January 5, 2015 Day 350 of the Sixth Year - History


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President Barack Obama talks on the phone with President Beji Caid Essebsi of Tunisia during a foreign leader call in the Oval Office, Jan. 5, 2015.

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

12:30PM THE PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT meet for lunch
Private Dining Room

2:30PM THE PRESIDENT meets with senior advisors
The Roosevelt Room


January 2015 North American blizzard

The January 2015 North American blizzard was a powerful and severe blizzard that dumped up to 3 feet (910 mm) of snowfall in parts of New England. Originating from a disturbance just off the coast of the Northwestern United States on January 23, it initially produced a light swath of snow as it traveled southeastwards into the Midwest as an Alberta clipper on January 24–25. It gradually weakened as it moved eastwards towards the Atlantic Ocean, however, a new dominant low formed off the East Coast of the United States late on January 26, and rapidly deepened as it moved northeastwards towards southeastern New England, producing pronounced blizzard conditions. The nor’easter then gradually weakened as it moved away into Canada. The storm was also given unofficial names, such as Blizzard of 2015, and Winter Storm Juno.

The nor'easter disrupted transportation, with snow emergencies declared in six states and travel bans enacted in four of these states – Connecticut, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island – as well as in New York City. Most passenger rail service was suspended, and thousands of flights were cancelled. [2] [3] Schools and activities saw weather-related cancellations for one or more days.

Before the blizzard struck, meteorologists had been anticipating that the impending storm would be "historic" and "record-breaking", with predictions of snowfall accumulations in major metropolitan areas such as New York City of up to 2–3 feet (24–36 in). However, the predictions fell significantly short of what was anticipated, mainly due to a shift of the storm's track, which cut down on the amount of snowfall. In the aftermath of the storm, citizens criticized the local government for shutting down the subway system in New York City for the storm.


Contents

The word Epiphany is from Koine Greek ἐπιφάνεια, epipháneia, meaning manifestation or appearance. It is derived from the verb φαίνειν, phainein, meaning "to appear." [20] In classical Greek it was used for the appearance of dawn, of an enemy in war, but especially of a manifestation of a deity to a worshiper (a theophany). In the Septuagint the word is used of a manifestation of the God of Israel (2 Maccabees 15:27). [21] In the New Testament the word is used in 2 Timothy 1:10 to refer either to the birth of Christ or to his appearance after his resurrection, and five times to refer to his Second Coming. [21]

Alternative names for the feast in Greek include τα Θεοφάνια, ta Theopháneia "Theophany" (a neuter plural rather than feminine singular), η Ημέρα των Φώτων, i Iméra ton Fóton (modern Greek pronunciation), hē Hēméra tōn Phṓtōn (restored classical pronunciation), "The Day of the Lights", and τα Φώτα, ta Fóta, "The Lights". [22]

Epiphany may have originated in the Greek-speaking eastern half of the Roman Empire as a feast to honor the baptism of Jesus. Around 200, Clement of Alexandria wrote that, "But the followers of [the early Christian Gnostic religious teacher] Basilides celebrate the day of His Baptism too, spending the previous night in readings. And they say that it was the 15th of the month Tybi of the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar. And some say that it was observed the 11th of the same month." The Egyptian dates given correspond to January 6 and 10. [23] The Basilides were a Gnostic sect.

The reference to "readings" suggests that the Basilides were reading the Gospels. In ancient gospel manuscripts, the text is arranged to indicate passages for liturgical readings. If a congregation began reading Mark at the beginning of the year, it might arrive at the story of the Baptism on January 6, thus explaining the date of the feast. [24] [25] If Christians read Mark in the same format the Basilides did, the two groups could have arrived at the January 6 date independently. [26]

The earliest reference to Epiphany as a Christian feast was in A.D. 361, by Ammianus Marcellinus. [27] The holiday is listed twice, which suggests a double feast of baptism and birth. [23] The baptism of Jesus was originally assigned to the same date as the birth because Luke 3:23 was misread to mean that Jesus was exactly 30 when he was baptized.

Epiphanius of Salamis says that January 6 is Christ's "Birthday that is, His Epiphany" (hemera genethlion toutestin epiphanion). [28] He also asserts that the Miracle at Cana occurred on the same calendar day. [29] Epiphanius assigns the Baptism to November 6. [23]

The scope to Epiphany expanded to include the commemoration of his birth the visit of the magi, all of Jesus' childhood events, up to and including the Baptism by John the Baptist and even the miracle at the wedding at Cana in Galilee. [30]

In the Latin-speaking West, the holiday emphasized the visit of the magi. The magi represented the non-Jewish peoples of the world, so this was considered a "revelation to the gentiles." [31] In this event, Christian writers also inferred a revelation to the Children of Israel. John Chrysostom identified the significance of the meeting between the magi and Herod's court: "The star had been hidden from them so that, on finding themselves without their guide, they would have no alternative but to consult the Jews. In this way the birth of Jesus would be made known to all." [32]

In 385, the pilgrim Egeria (also known as Silvia) described a celebration in Jerusalem and Bethlehem, which she called "Epiphany" that commemorated the Nativity. [33] Even at this early date, there was an octave associated with the feast.

In a sermon delivered on December 25, 380, St. Gregory of Nazianzus referred to the day as "the Theophany" (ta theophania, formerly the name of a pagan festival at Delphi), [34] saying expressly that it is a day commemorating "the holy nativity of Christ" and told his listeners that they would soon be celebrating the baptism of Christ. [35] Then, on January 6 and 7, he preached two more sermons, [36] in which he declared that the celebration of the birth of Christ and the visitation of the Magi had already taken place, and that they would now commemorate his Baptism. [37] At this time, celebration of the two events was beginning to be observed on separate occasions, at least in Cappadocia.

Saint John Cassian says that even in his time (beginning of the 5th century), Egyptian monasteries celebrated the Nativity and the Baptism together on January 6. [38] The Armenian Apostolic Church continues to celebrate January 6 as the only commemoration of the Nativity.

Classical Edit

Johann Sebastian Bach composed in Leipzig two cantatas for the feast which concluded Christmastide:

Part VI of his Christmas Oratorio, Herr, wenn die stolzen Feinde schnauben, was also designated to be performed during the service for Epiphany. [41]

In Ottorino Respighi's symphonic tone poem Roman Festivals, the final movement is subtitled "Bofana" and takes place during Epiphany.

Carols and hymns Edit

"Nun liebe Seel, nun ist es Zeit" is a German Epiphany hymn by Georg Weissel, first printed in 1642. Two very familiar Christmas carols associated with Epiphany are "As with gladness, men of old", written by William Chatterton Dix in 1860 as a response to the many legends which had grown up surrounding the Magi, [42] [43] and "We Three Kings of Orient Are", written by the Reverend John Henry Hopkins Jr., then an ordained deacon in the Episcopal Church, [44] instrumental in organizing an elaborate holiday pageant (which featured this hymn) for the students of the General Theological Seminary in New York City in 1857 while serving as the seminary's music director. Another popular hymn, less known culturally as a carol, is "Songs of thankfulness and praise", with words written by Christopher Wordsworth and commonly sung to the tune "St. Edmund" by Charles Steggall. A carol used as an anthem for Epiphany is "The Three Kings".

Until 1955, when Pope Pius XII abolished all but three liturgical octaves, the Latin Church celebrated Epiphany as an eight-day feast, known as the Octave of Epiphany, beginning on January 6 and ending on January 13. The Sunday within that octave was since 1893 the feast of the Holy Family, and Christmastide was reckoned as the twelve days ending on January 5, followed by the January 6–13 octave. The 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar made the date to some extent variable, stating: "The Epiphany of the Lord is celebrated on 6 January, unless, where it is not observed as a holy day of obligation, it has been assigned to the Sunday occurring between 2 and 8 January." [45] It also made the Feast of the Epiphany part of Christmas Time, which it defined as extending from the First Vespers of Christmas (the evening of December 24) up to and including the Sunday after Epiphany (the Sunday after January 6). [46]

Prior to 1976, Anglican churches also observed an eight-day feast, beginning on January 6. Today, The Epiphany of our Lord, [47] classified as a Principal Feast, is observed in some Anglican provinces on January 6 exclusively (e.g., the Anglican Church of Canada) [47] but in the Church of England the celebration is "on 6 January or transferred to the Sunday falling between 2 and 8 January". [48]

Lutheran, United Methodist and United Church of Christ congregations, along with those of other denominations, may celebrate Epiphany on January 6, on the following Sunday within the Epiphany week (octave), or at another time (Epiphany Eve January 5, the nearest Sunday, etc.) as local custom dictates. [49] [50]

Eastern churches celebrate Epiphany (Theophany) on January 6. Some, as in Greece, employ the modern Revised Julian calendar, which until the year 2800 coincides with the Gregorian calendar, the one in use for civil purposes in most countries. Other Eastern churches, as in Russia, hold to the older Julian calendar for reckoning church dates. In these old-calendar churches Epiphany falls at present on Gregorian January 19 – which is January 6 in the Julian calendar.

In some Churches, the feast of the Epiphany initiates the Epiphany season, also known as Epiphanytide.

In Advent 2000, the Church of England, Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, introduced into its liturgy an optional Epiphany season by approving the Common Worship series of services as an alternative to those in the Book of Common Prayer, which remains the Church's normative liturgy and in which no such liturgical season appears. An official publication of the Church of England states: "The Christmas season is often celebrated for twelve days, ending with the Epiphany. Contemporary use has sought to express an alternative tradition, in which Christmas lasts for a full forty days, ending with the Feast of the Presentation on 2 February." [51] It presents the latter part of this period as the Epiphany season, comprising the Sundays of Epiphany and ending "only with the Feast of the Presentation (Candlemas)". [52]

Another interpretation of "Epiphany season" applies the term to the period from Epiphany to the day before Ash Wednesday. Some Methodists in the United States and Singapore follow these liturgies. [5] [53] Lutherans celebrate the last Sunday before Ash Wednesday as the Transfiguration of our Lord, and it has been said that they call the whole period from Epiphany to then as Epiphany season. [54] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America used the terms "Time after Epiphany" to refer to this period. [55] The expression with "after" has been interpreted as making the period in question correspond to that of Ordinary Time. [56] [57]

The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) does not celebrate Epiphany or Pentecost as seasons for this Church, expressions such as "Fifth Sunday after Epiphany" indicate the passing of time, rather than a liturgical season. It instead uses the term "Ordinary Time". [58]

In the Catholic Church, "Christmas Time runs from First Vespers (Evening Prayer I) of the Nativity of the Lord up to and including the Sunday after Epiphany or after 6 January" [46] and "Ordinary Time begins on the Monday which follows the Sunday occurring after 6 January". [59] Before the 1969 revision of its liturgy, the Sundays following the Octave of Epiphany or, when this was abolished, following the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord, which was instituted to take the place of the Octave Day of Epiphany were named as the "Second (etc., up to Sixth) Sunday after Epiphany", as the at least 24 Sundays following Pentecost Sunday and Trinity Sunday were known as the "Second (etc.) Sunday after Pentecost". (If a year had more than 24 Sundays after Pentecost, up to four unused post-Epiphany Sundays were inserted between the 23rd and the 24th Sunday after Pentecost.) The Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices, which has received the imprimatur of John Michael D'Arcy, with reference to Epiphanytide, thus states that "The Epiphany season extends from January 6 to Septuagesima Sunday, and has from one to six Sundays, according to the date of Easter. White is the color for the octave green is the liturgical color for the season." [60]

Epiphany is celebrated by both the Eastern and Western Churches, but a major difference between them is precisely which events the feast commemorates. For Western Christians, the feast primarily commemorates the coming of the Magi, with only a minor reference to the baptism of Jesus and the miracle at the Wedding at Cana. Eastern churches celebrate the Baptism of Christ in the Jordan. In both traditions, the essence of the feast is the same: the manifestation of Christ to the world (whether as an infant or in the Jordan), and the Mystery of the Incarnation. The miracle at the Wedding at Cana is also celebrated during Epiphany as a first manifestation of Christ's public life. [61]

Western Christian churches Edit

Even before the year 354, [62] the Western Church had separated the celebration of the Nativity of Christ as the feast of Christmas and set its date as December 25 it reserved January 6 as a commemoration of the manifestation of Christ, especially to the Magi, but also at his baptism and at the wedding feast of Cana. [63] In 1955 a separate feast of the Baptism of the Lord was instituted, thus weakening further the connection in the West between the feast of the Epiphany and the commemoration of the baptism of Christ. However, Hungarians, in an apparent reference to baptism, refer to the January 6 celebration as Vízkereszt, a term that recalls the words "víz" (water) and "kereszt, kereszt-ség" (baptism).

Liturgical practice in Western churches Edit

Many in the West, such as adherents of the Anglican Communion, Lutheran Churches and Methodist Churches, observe a twelve-day festival, starting on December 25, and ending on January 5, known as Christmastide or the Twelve Days of Christmas. However, for the Catholic Church today, "Christmas Time runs from First Vespers (Evening Prayer I) of the Nativity of the Lord up to and including the Sunday after Epiphany or after January 6", [46] a period not limited to twelve days. Some Christian cultures, especially those of Latin America and some in Europe, extend the season to as many as forty days, ending on Candlemas (February 2).

On the Feast of the Epiphany in some parts of central Europe the priest, wearing white vestments, blesses Epiphany water, frankincense, gold, and chalk. The chalk is used to write the initials of the three magi (traditionally, Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar), over the doors of churches and homes. The initials may also be interpreted as the Latin phrase, Christus mansionem benedicat (may Christ bless the house).

According to ancient custom, the priest announced the date of Easter on the feast of Epiphany. This tradition dated from a time when calendars were not readily available, and the church needed to publicize the date of Easter, since many celebrations of the liturgical year depend on it. [64] The proclamation may be sung or proclaimed at the ambo by a deacon, cantor, or reader either after the reading of the Gospel or after the postcommunion prayer. [64]

The Roman Missal thus provides a formula with appropriate chant (in the tone of the Exsultet) for proclaiming on Epiphany, wherever it is customary to do so, the dates in the calendar for the celebration of Ash Wednesday, Easter Sunday, Ascension of Jesus Christ, Pentecost, the Body and Blood of Christ, and the First Sunday of Advent that will mark the following liturgical year. [65]

Some western rite churches, such as the Anglican and Lutheran churches, will follow practises similar to the Catholic Church. Church cantatas for the Feast of Epiphany were written by Protestant composers such as Georg Philipp Telemann, Christoph Graupner, Johann Sebastian Bach and Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel. [66] [67] [68] [69] Many other Protestant groups [ which? ] do not celebrate or recognise Epiphany in any way. [ citation needed ]

Eastern Orthodox Christian churches Edit

The name of the feast as celebrated in the Orthodox churches may be rendered in English as the Theophany, as closer in form to the Greek Θεοφάνεια ("God shining forth" or "divine manifestation"). Here it is one of the Great Feasts of the liturgical year, being third in rank, behind only Paskha (Easter) and Pentecost in importance. It is celebrated on January 6 of the calendar that a particular Church uses. On the Julian calendar, which some of the Orthodox churches follow, that date corresponds, during the present century, to January 19 on the Gregorian or Revised Julian calendar. The earliest reference to the feast in the Eastern Church is a remark by St. Clement of Alexandria in Stromateis, I, xxi, 45:

And there are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord's birth, but also the day… And the followers of Basilides hold the day of his baptism as a festival, spending the night before in readings. And they say that it was the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, the fifteenth day of the month of Tubi and some that it was the eleventh of the same month.

(11 and 15 of Tubi are January 6 and 10 respectively.)

If this is a reference to a celebration of Christ's birth, as well as of his baptism, on January 6, it corresponds to what continues to be the custom of the Armenian Apostolic Church, which celebrates the birth of Jesus on January 6 of the calendar used, calling the feast that of the Nativity and Theophany of Our Lord. [70] [71]

Origen's list of festivals (in Contra Celsum, VIII, xxii) omits any reference to Epiphany. The first reference to an ecclesiastical feast of the Epiphany, in Ammianus Marcellinus (XXI:ii), is in 361.

In parts of the Eastern Church, January 6 continued for some time as a composite feast that included the Nativity of Jesus: though Constantinople adopted December 25 to commemorate Jesus' birth in the fourth century, in other parts the Nativity of Jesus continued to be celebrated on January 6, a date later devoted exclusively to commemorating his Baptism. [62]

Today in Eastern Orthodox churches, the emphasis at this feast is on the shining forth and revelation of Jesus Christ as the Messiah and Second Person of the Trinity at the time of his baptism. It is also celebrated because, according to tradition, the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River by St. John the Baptist marked one of only two occasions when all three Persons of the Trinity manifested themselves simultaneously to humanity: God the Father by speaking through the clouds, God the Son being baptized in the river, and God the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove descending from heaven (the other occasion was the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor). Thus the holy day is considered to be a Trinitarian feast.

The Orthodox consider Jesus' Baptism to be the first step towards the Crucifixion, and there are some parallels in the hymnography used on this day and the hymns chanted on Good Friday.

Liturgical practice in Eastern churches Edit

Forefeast: The liturgical Forefeast of Theophany begins on January 1, and concludes with the Paramony on January 5.

Paramony: The Eve of the Feast is called Paramony (Greek: παραμονή , Slavonic: navechérie). Paramony is observed as a strict fast day, on which those faithful who are physically able, refrain from food until the first star is observed in the evening, when a meal with wine and oil may be taken. On this day the Royal Hours are celebrated, thus tying together the feasts of Nativity and Good Friday. The Royal Hours are followed by the Divine Liturgy of St. Basil which combines Vespers with the Divine Liturgy. During the Vespers, fifteen Old Testament lections which foreshadow the Baptism of Christ are read, and special antiphons are chanted. If the Feast of the Theophany falls on a Sunday or Monday, the Royal Hours are chanted on the previous Friday, and on the Paramony the Vesperal Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is celebrated and the fasting is lessened to some degree.

Blessing of Waters: The Orthodox Churches perform the Great Blessing of Waters on Theophany. [72] The blessing is normally done twice: once on the Eve of the Feast—usually at a Baptismal font inside the church—and then again on the day of the feast, outdoors at a body of water. Following the Divine Liturgy, the clergy and people go in a Crucession (procession with the cross) to the nearest body of water, be it a beach, harbor, quay, river, lake, swimming pool, water depot, etc. (ideally, it should be a body of "living water"). At the end of the ceremony the priest will bless the waters. In the Greek practice, he does this by casting a cross into the water. If swimming is feasible on the spot, any number of volunteers may try to recover the cross. The person who gets the cross first swims back and returns it to the priest, who then delivers a special blessing to the swimmer and their household. Certain such ceremonies have achieved particular prominence, such as the one held annually at Tarpon Springs, Florida. In Russia, where the winters are severe, a hole will be cut into the ice so that the waters may be blessed. In such conditions, the cross is not cast into the water, but is held securely by the priest and dipped three times into the water.

The water that is blessed on this day is sometimes known as "Theophany Water", though usually just "holy water", and is taken home by the faithful, and used with prayer as a blessing. People will not only bless themselves and their homes by sprinkling with holy water, but will also drink it. The Orthodox Church teaches that holy water differs from ordinary water by virtue of the incorruptibility bestowed upon it by a blessing that transforms its very nature. [73] a miracle attested to as early as St. John Chrysostom. [74]

Theophany is a traditional day for performing Baptisms, and this is reflected in the Divine Liturgy by singing the baptismal hymn, "As many as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. Alleluia," in place of the Trisagion.

House Blessings: On Theophany the priest will begin making the round of the parishioner's homes to bless them. He will perform a short prayer service in each home, and then go through the entire house, gardens and outside-buildings, blessing them with the newly blessed Theophany Water, while all sing the Troparion and Kontakion of the feast. This is normally done on Theophany, or at least during the Afterfeast, but if the parishioners are numerous, and especially if many live far away from the church, it may take some time to bless each house. Traditionally, these blessings should all be finished before the beginning of Great Lent.

Afterfeast: The Feast of Theophany is followed by an eight-day Afterfeast on which the normal fasting laws are suspended. The Saturday and Sunday after Theophany have special readings assigned to them, which relate to the Temptation of Christ and to penance and perseverance in the Christian struggle. There is thus a liturgical continuum between the Feast of Theophany and the beginning of Great Lent.

Oriental Orthodox Edit

In the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the feast is known as Timkat and is celebrated on the day that the Gregorian calendar calls January 19, but on January 20 in years when Enkutatash in the Ethiopian calendar falls on Gregorian September 12 (i.e. when the following February in the Gregorian calendar will have 29 days). The celebration of this feast features blessing of water and solemn processions with the sacred tabot. A priest carries this to a body of water where it stays overnight, with the Metsehafe Qeddassie celebrated in the early morning. Later in the morning, the water is blessed to the accompaniment of the reading of the four Gospel accounts of the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan and the people are sprinkled with or go into the water. The tabot returns in procession to the church.

Among the Syriac Christians the feast is called denho (up-going), a name to be connected with the notion of rising light expressed in Luke 1:78. In the East Syriac rite, the season of Epiphany (Epiphanytide) is known as Denha.

In the Armenian Apostolic Church, January 6 is celebrated as the Nativity (Surb Tsnund) and Theophany of Christ. The feast is preceded by a seven-day fast. On the eve of the feast, the Divine Liturgy is celebrated. This liturgy is referred to as the Chragaluytsi Patarag (the Eucharist of the lighting of the lamps) in honor of the manifestation of Jesus as the Son of God. Both the Armenian Apostolic Church's and Assyrian Church of the East's liturgy is followed by a blessing of water, during which the cross is immersed in the water, symbolizing Jesus' descent into the Jordan, and holy myron (chrism) is poured in, symbolic of the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus. The next morning, after the Liturgy, the cross is removed from the vessel of holy water and all come forward to kiss the cross and partake of the blessed water.

Epiphany is celebrated with a wide array of customs around the world. In some cultures, the greenery and nativity scenes put up at Christmas are taken down at Epiphany. In other cultures these remain up until Candlemas on February 2. In countries historically shaped by Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism, Protestantism) these customs often involve gift giving, "king cakes" and a celebratory close to the Christmas season. In traditionally Orthodox nations, water, baptismal rites and house blessings are typically central to these celebrations.

Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay Edit

In Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, and Mexico City, the day is called "Día de Reyes" (The Day of Kings, a reference to the Biblical Magi), commemorating the arrival of the Magi to confirm Jesus as son of God. The night of January 5 into the morning of January 6 is known as "Noche de Reyes" (The Night of Kings) and children leave their shoes by the door, along with grass and water for the camel, horse and elephant. On the morning of January 6, they get up early and rush to see their shoes, where they are expecting to find gifts left by the "Reyes" who, according to tradition, bypass the houses of children who are awake. On January 6, a "Rosca de Reyes" (a ring-shaped Epiphany cake) is eaten and all Christmas decorations are traditionally put away.

Bulgaria Edit

In Bulgaria, Epiphany is celebrated on January 6 and is known as Bogoyavlenie ("Manifestation of God"), Кръщение Господне (Krashtenie Gospodne or "Baptism of the Lord") or Yordanovden ("Day of Jordan", referring to the river). On this day, a wooden cross is thrown by a priest into the sea, river or lake and young men race to retrieve it. As the date is in early January and the waters are close to freezing, this is considered an honorable act and it is said that good health will be bestowed upon the home of the swimmer who is the first to reach the cross. [75]

In the town of Kalofer, a traditional horo with drums and bagpipes is played in the icy waters of the Tundzha river before the throwing of the cross. [76] [77]

Benelux Edit

The Dutch and Flemish call this day Driekoningen, while German speakers call it Dreikönigstag (Three Kings' Day). In the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and neighboring Germany, children in groups of three (symbolizing the Biblical Magi) proceed in costume from house to house while singing songs typical for the occasion, and receiving a coin or some sweets at each door. They may each carry a paper lantern symbolizing the star. [78] In some places, especially Holland, these troupes gather for competitions and present their skits/songs for an audience. As in Belgium, Koningentaart (Kings' tart), puff pastry with almond filling, is prepared with a black bean hidden inside. Whoever finds the bean in his or her piece is king or queen for the day. A more typically Dutch version is Koningenbrood, or Kings' bread. In the Netherlands, the traditions have died out, except for very few places. [79] Another Low Countries tradition on Epiphany is to open up doors and windows to let good luck in for the coming year.

Brazil Edit

In Brazil, the day is called "Dia dos Reis" (The Day of Kings) and in the rest of Latin America "Día de Reyes" commemorating the arrival of the Magi to confirm Jesus as son of God. The night of January 5 into the morning of January 6 is known as "Night of Kings" (also called the Twelfth Night) and is feasted with music, sweets and regional dishes as the last night of Nativity, when Christmas decorations are traditionally put away. [80]

Chile Edit

This day is sometimes known as the Día de los Tres Reyes Magos (The day of the Three Royal Magi) or La Pascua de los Negros (Holy Day of the Black men) [81] in Chile, although the latter is rarely heard.

Dominican Republic Edit

In the Dominican Republic, the Día de los Tres Reyes Magos (The day of the Three Royal Magi) and in this day children receive gifts on the christmas tree in a similar fashion to Christmas day. On this day public areas are very active with children accompanied by their parents trying out their new toys.

Egypt Edit

The feast of the Epiphany is celebrated by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, which falls on 11 Tobe of the Coptic calendar, as the moment when in the baptism of Jesus the skies opened and God himself revealed to all as father of Jesus and all mankind. It is then a moment of revelation of epiphany. This celebration started to include all the processes of incarnation of Jesus, from his birth on Christmas until his baptism in the river Jordan. For the Coptic Orthodox Church it is also a moment in which the path of Jesus to the Cross begins. Therefore, in many celebrations there are certain similarities with the celebrations of Holy Friday during the time of Easter. Since the Epiphany is one of the seven great feasts of the Coptic Orthodox Church, it is a day of strict fasting, and several religious celebrations are held on this day. The day is related to the blessing of waters that are used all throughout the year in the church celebrations, and it is a privileged day to celebrate baptisms. It is also a day in which many houses are blessed with water. It may take several days for the local priest to bless all the houses of the parishioners that ask for it, and so the blessing of the houses may go into the after-feasts of the Epiphany celebrations. However, it must be done before the beginning of Lent. [82]

England Edit

In England, the celebration of the night before Epiphany, Epiphany Eve, is known as Twelfth Night (the first night of Christmas is December 25–26, and Twelfth Night is January 5–6), and was a traditional time for mumming and the wassail. The Yule log was left burning until this day, and the charcoal left was kept until the next Christmas to kindle next year's Yule log, as well as to protect the house from fire and lightning. [83] In the past, Epiphany was also a day for playing practical jokes, similar to April Fool's Day. Today in England, Twelfth Night is still as popular a day for plays as when Shakespeare's Twelfth Night was first performed in 1601, and annual celebrations involving the Holly Man are held in London. [84] A traditional dish for Epiphany was Twelfth Cake, a rich, dense, typically English fruitcake. As in Europe, whoever found the baked-in bean was king for a day, but uniquely to English tradition other items were sometimes included in the cake. Whoever found the clove was the villain, the twig, the fool, and the rag, the tart. [ clarification needed ] Anything spicy or hot, like ginger snaps and spiced ale, was considered proper Twelfth Night fare, recalling the costly spices brought by the Wise Men. Another English Epiphany sweetmeat was the traditional jam tart, made appropriate to the occasion by being fashioned in the form of a six-pointed star symbolising the Star of Bethlehem, and thus called Epiphany tart. The discerning English cook sometimes tried to use thirteen different colored jams on the tart on this day for luck, creating a pastry resembling stained glass. [85]

Eritrea and Ethiopia Edit

In the Eritrean Orthodox Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the feast is known as Timkat and is celebrated on the day that the Gregorian calendar calls January 19, but on January 20 in years when Timket in the Ethiopian calendar falls on Gregorian September 12 (i.e. when the following February in the Gregorian calendar will have 29 days). The celebration of this feast features blessing of water and solemn processions with the sacred Tabot. [86]

Finland Edit

In Finland, Epiphany is called loppiainen, a name which goes back to the 1600s. In the 1500s the Swedish-Finnish Lutheran church called Epiphany "Day of the Holy Three Kings", while before this, the older term Epiphania was used. In the Karelian language Epiphany is called vieristä, meaning cross, from the Orthodox custom of submerging a cross three times to bless water on this day. [87] Today, in the Lutheran church, Epiphany is a day dedicated to a focus on missionary work in addition to the Wise Men narrative. Between the years 1973 and 1991 Epiphany was observed in Finland on a Saturday each year no earlier than January 6, and no later than January 12. After that time however, the traditional date of January 6 was restored and has since been observed once again as a national public holiday.

The Christmas tree is traditionally taken out of the house on Epiphany. While the term loppiainen means "ending [of Christmas time]," in reality, Christmas celebrations in Finland are extended to Nuutti's or St. Canute's Day on January 13, completing the Scandinavian Twenty Days of Christmas.

Francophone Europe Edit

In France people share one of two types of king cake. In the northern half of France and Belgium the cake is called a galette des Rois, and is a round, flat, and golden cake made with flake pastry and often filled with frangipane, fruit, or chocolate. In the south, in Provence, and in the south-west, a crown-shaped cake or brioche filled with fruit called a gâteau des Rois is eaten. In Romandie, both types can be found though the latter is more common. Both types of cake contain a charm, usually a porcelain or plastic figurine, called a fève (broad bean in French). [88]

The cake is cut by the youngest (and therefore most innocent) person at the table to assure that the recipient of the bean is random. The person who gets the piece of cake with the trinket becomes "king" or "queen" and wears a paper crown provided with the cake. In some regions this person has a choice between offering a beverage to everyone around the table (usually a sparkling wine or champagne), or volunteering to host the next king cake at their home. This can extend the festivities through all of January. [89]

German-speaking Europe Edit

January 6 is a public holiday in Austria, three federal states of Germany, and three cantons of Switzerland, as well as in parts of Graubünden. In the German-speaking lands, groups of young people called Sternsinger (star singers) travel from door to door. They are dressed as the Biblical Magi, and their leader carries a star, usually of painted wood attached to a broom handle. Often these groups are four girls, or two boys and two girls in order to sing in four-part harmony. They sing traditional songs and newer ones such as "Stern über Bethlehem". They are not necessarily three wise men. German Lutherans often note in a lighthearted fashion that the Bible never specifies that the Weisen (Magi) were men, or that there were three. The star singers solicit donations for worthy causes, such as efforts to end hunger in Africa, organized jointly by the Catholic and Protestant churches, and they will also be offered treats at the homes they visit. [90] The young people then perform the traditional house blessing, by marking the year over the doorway with chalk. In Roman Catholic communities this may even today be a serious spiritual event with the priest present, but among Protestants it is more a tradition, and a part of the German notion of Gemütlichkeit. Usually on the Sunday following Epiphany, these donations are brought into churches. Here all of the children who have gone out as star singers, once again in their costumes, form a procession of sometimes dozens of wise men and stars. The German Chancellor and Parliament also receive a visit from the star singers at Epiphany. [91]

Some Germans eat a Three Kings cake, which may be a golden pastry ring filled with orange and spice representing gold, frankincense and myrrh. Most often found in Switzerland, these cakes take the form of Buchteln but for Epiphany, studded with citron, and baked as seven large buns in a round rather than square pan, forming a crown. Or they may be made of typical rich Christmas bread dough with cardamom and pearl sugar in the same seven bun crown shape. These varieties are most typically purchased in supermarkets, with the trinket and gold paper crown included. [92] As in other countries, the person who receives the piece or bun containing the trinket or whole almond becomes the king or queen for a day. Epiphany is also an especially joyful occasion for the young and young at heart, as this is the day dedicated to plündern – that is, when Christmas trees are "plundered" of their cookies and sweets by eager children (and adults) and when gingerbread houses, and any other good things left in the house from Christmas, are devoured. [93] Lastly, there is a German rhyme saying, or Bauernregel, that goes Ist's bis Dreikönigs kein Winter, kommt keiner dahinter meaning "If there hasn't been any winter (weather) until Epiphany, none is coming afterward." Another of these Bauernregel, (German farmer's rules) for Epiphany states: Dreikönigsabend hell und klar, verspricht ein gutes Weinjahr or "If the eve of Epiphany is bright and clear, it foretells a good wine year."

Greece, Cyprus Edit

In Greece, Cyprus and the Greek diaspora throughout the world, the feast is called the Theophany, [94] or colloquially Phōta (Greek: Φώτα , "Lights"). [95] It is the "Great Celebration" or Theotromi. In some regions of Macedonia (West) it is the biggest festival of the year. The Baptism of Christ symbolizes the rebirth of man, its importance is such that until the fourth century Christians celebrated New Year on this day. Customs revolve around the Great Blessing of the Waters. [96] It marks the end of the traditional ban on sailing, as the tumultuous winter seas are cleansed of the mischief-prone kalikántzaroi, the goblins that try to torment God-fearing Christians through the festive season. During this ceremony, a cross is thrown into the water, and the men compete to retrieve it for good luck. The Phota form the middle of another festive triduum, together with Epiphany Eve, when children sing the Epiphany carols, and the great feast of St. John the Baptist (January 7 and eve), [97] when the numerous Johns and Joans celebrate their name-day.

It is a time for sanctification, which in Greece means expiation, purification of the people and protection against the influence of demons. This concept is certainly not strictly Christian, but has roots in ancient worship. In most parts of Greece a ritual called "small sanctification", Protagiasi or "Enlightment" is practiced on the eve of Epiphany. The priest goes door to door with the cross and a branch of basil to "sanctify" or "brighten" the rooms by sprinkling them with holy water. The protagiasi casts away the goblins bonfires are also lit in some places for that purpose. The "Great Blessing" happens in church on the day of the Epiphany. In the Churches in a special rig embellished upon which brought large pot full of water [ clarify ] . Then the "Dive of the Cross" is performed: a cross is throwned by the priest in the sea, a nearby river, a lake or an ancient Roman cistern (as in Athens). According to popular belief, this ritual gives the water the power to cleanse and sanitize. In many places, after the dive of the cross, the locals run to the beaches or the shores of rivers or lakes to wash their agricultural tools and even icons. Indeed, according common folk belief, icons lose their original strength and power with the passage of time, but they can be restored by dipping the icons in the water cleansed by the cross. This may be a survival of ancient beliefs. Athenians held a ceremony called "washing": the statue of Athena was carried in procession to the coast of Faliro where it was washed with salt water to cleanse it and renew its sacred powers. Today, women in many parts repeating this ancient custom of washing the images but combined with other instruments of medieval and ancient magic. As the plate of Mytilene while the divers dive to catch the Cross women at the same time "getting a detaining (= pumpkin) water from 40 waves and then with cotton dipped it clean icons without talking to throughout this process ("dumb water") and then the water is thrown out of the not pressed (in the crucible of the church). [ clarify ] [ citation needed ]

Guadeloupe Islands Edit

Celebrations in Guadeloupe have a different feel from elsewhere in the world. Epiphany here does not mean the last day of Christmas celebrations, but rather the first day of Kannaval (Carnival), which lasts until the evening before Ash Wednesday. Carnival in turn ends with the grand brilé Vaval, the burning of Vaval, the king of the Kannaval, amidst the cries and wails of the crowd. [98]

India Edit

In parts of southern India, Epiphany is called the Three Kings Festival and is celebrated in front of the local church like a fair. This day marks the close of the Advent and Christmas season and people remove the cribs and nativity sets at home. In Goa Epiphany may be locally known by its Portuguese name Festa dos Reis. In the village of Reis Magos, in Goa, there is a fort called Reis Magos (Wise Men) or Três Reis Magos for Biblical Magi. Celebrations include a widely attended procession, with boys arrayed as the Magi, leading to the Franciscan Chapel of the Magi near the Goan capital of Panjim. [99] Other popular Epiphany processions are held in Chandor. Here three young boys in regal robes and splendid crowns descend the nearby hill of Our Lady of Mercy on horseback towards the main church where a three-hour festival Mass is celebrated. The route before them is decorated with streamers, palm leaves and balloons with the smallest children present lining the way, shouting greetings to the Kings. The Kings are traditionally chosen, one each, from Chandor's three hamlets of Kott, Cavorim and Gurdolim, whose residents helped build the Chandor church in 1645.

In the past the kings were chosen only from among high-caste families, but since 1946 the celebration has been open to all. Participation is still expensive as it involves getting a horse, costumes, and providing a lavish buffet to the community afterwards, in all totaling some 100,000 rupees (about US$2,250) per king. This is undertaken gladly since having son serve as a king is considered a great honor and a blessing on the family. [100]

Cansaulim in South Goa is similarly famous for its Three Kings festival, which draws tourists from around the state and India. Three boys are selected from the three neighboring villages of Quelim, Cansaulim and Arrosim to present the gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh in a procession. Only a native of these villages may serve as king outsiders are barred from the role. Throughout the year, excitement runs high in the villages to see who will be chosen. The boys selected are meticulously groomed, and must grow their hair long in time for the festival. The procession involves the three kings wearing jeweled red velvet robes and crowns, riding white horses decked with flowers and fine cloth, and they are shaded by colorful parasols, with a retinue of hundreds. [101] [102]

The procession ends at the local church built in 1581, and in its central window a large white star hangs, and colored banners stream out across the square from those around it. Inside, the church will have been decorated with garlands. After presenting their gifts and reverencing the altar and Nativity scene, the kings take special seats of honor and assist at the High Mass. [103]

The Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala State, Epiphany is known by its Syriac name Denha. Saint Thomas Christians, like other Eastern Christians, celebrate Denha as a great feast to commemorate the Baptism of Jesus in the river Jordan. The liturgical season Denhakalam ("Weeks of Epiphany") commemorates the second revelation at the Baptism and the subsequent public life of Jesus. Denha is celebrated on January 6 by the Syro-Malabar Church in two ways – Pindiperunnal ("Plantain trunk feast") and Rakkuliperunal ("Feast with a night bath"). [104]

Ireland Edit

The Irish call the day the Feast of the Epiphany or traditionally Little Christmas or "Women's Christmas" (Irish: Nollaig na mBan). On Nollaig na mBan, women traditionally rested and celebrated for themselves after the cooking and work of the Christmas holidays. The custom was for women to gather on this day for a special meal, but on the occasion of Epiphany accompanied by wine, to honor the Miracle at the Wedding at Cana. [ citation needed ]

Today, women may dine at a restaurant or gather in a pub in the evening. They may also receive gifts from children, grandchildren or other family members on this day. Other Epiphany customs, which symbolize the end of the Christmas season, are popular in Ireland, such as the burning the sprigs of Christmas holly in the fireplace which have been used as decorations during the past twelve days. [105]

The Epiphany celebration serves as the initial setting for – and anchors the action, theme, and climax of – James Joyce's short story The Dead from his 1914 collection, Dubliners.

Italy Edit

In Italy, Epiphany is a national holiday and is associated with the figure of the Befana (the name being a corruption of the word Epifania), a broomstick-riding old woman who, in the night between January 5 and 6, brings gifts to children or a lump of "coal" (really black candy) for the times they have not been good during the year. The legend told of her is that, having missed her opportunity to bring a gift to the child Jesus together with the Biblical Magi, she now brings gifts to other children on that night. [106] [107] [23]

Jordan Edit

Thousands of Jordanian Christians, tourists and pilgrims flock to Al-Maghtas site on the east bank of the Jordan River in January every year to mark Epiphany, where large masses and celebrations are held. [108] "Al-Maghtas" meaning "baptism" or "immersion" in Arabic, is an archaeological World Heritage site in Jordan, officially known as "Baptism Site "Bethany Beyond the Jordan" (Al-Maghtas)". It is considered to be the original location of the Baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist and has been venerated as such since at least the Byzantine period. [8]

John 1:28 : These things took place in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptising.

The site has then seen several archaeological digs, four papal visits and state visits and attracts tourists and pilgrimage activity. [108] Approximately 81,000 people visited the site in 2016, mostly European, American and Arab tourists. [109]

Latvia Edit

Epiphany is known in Latvia as Trijkungu diena (Three Kings Day) by Catholics or Zvaigznes diena (Star Day) by Lutherans after the custom of star singing, and the Star of Bethlehem which led the Magi to the Christ Child. [110] In the past bright stars of fabric were sewn onto the background of dark colored quilts, representing the night sky. Epiphany was a day of enjoyment, spent in horse-drawn open sleighs, and these quilts would then be taken along to cover the laps of the merry riders. [111] If Epiphany Day was bright and mild and the sun "warmed the horses’ backs" it was said that the coming year would bring only peace. If the night before Epiphany saw clear starry skies, it meant Latvia could expect a fine harvest in the coming Summer. Weaving and wood-cutting were "bad luck", giving both men and women a proper holiday, and if a dog was heard barking on Epiphany one ought to look for his or her future spouse in that same direction. Special three-corner apple cakes are eaten on this day, and as in other countries, star singing, visiting and house blessings have long been popular. [112]

Lebanon Edit

Epiphany, celebrated on January 6, is the feast for the Roman Church that commemorates the visit of the Wise Men, the magi. However, in the Maronite Church, in accordance with the ancient tradition, it represents the public announcement of Jesus’ mission when he was baptized in the Jordan by John the Forerunner, also known as "John the Baptist". On the occasion, Lebanese Christians pray for their deceased. [113]

It is celebrated by attending church most often to the midnight mass by the maronites. The reason why it is at midnight is because the Christ will be passing to bless homes, also Lebanese Christians who gathered for the mass congratulate each other on that day by saying: "El Deyim Deyim" (Arabic: دايم دايم ‎) which translates as "The permanent is permanent". They also mix dough made out of water and flour only and it rises outdoors with no yeast by being blessed. [113]

North Macedonia Edit

Epiphany in North Macedonia is known as Vodici (Водици). [114] On this day the priest throws a wooden cross into the water, to symbolize the baptism of Christ. [ citation needed ] Men jump into the cold water to retrieve the cross, and whoever retrieves it is believed to be blessed during the whole year. [ citation needed ] These are very festive gatherings with many spectacles attending the sites. Special food jelly from pork and beef meat and bones called "pacha" (пача) or "pivtii" (пивтии) is prepared the day before, but served on the day after Epiphany, together with warm local brandy, rakija (ракија). [115] Epiphany is a non-working day for the Orthodox believers in North Macedonia. [116]

Malta Edit

In Malta, Epiphany is commonly known as It-Tre Re (The Three Kings). Until the 1980s, January 6 was a public holiday, but today the Maltese celebrate Epiphany on the first Sunday of the year. Children and students still take January 6 as a school holiday and Christmas decorations are lit up through this day on most public streets. The Maltese also have a long-standing custom of presenting concerts in honor of Epiphany, including the prestigious annual Epiphany Concert organized by the Malta Council for Culture and Arts, performed by the National Orchestra. In 2010, the Epiphany Concert which used to be held before a select audience, was opened to the general public following a decision by the President. The Ministry of Education and Culture therefore moved from the venue from the Palace to the historic Sacra Infermeria, also known as the Mediterranean Conference Centre. [117] Qagħaq tal-Għasel or tal-Qastanija (Maltese honey rings) are typically served at Epiphany in Malta.

Mexico Edit

The evening of January 5 marks the Twelfth Night of Christmas and is when the figurines of the three Biblical Magi are added to the nativity scene. Traditionally in Mexico, as with many other Latin American countries, Santa Claus doesn't hold the cachet that he does in the United States. Rather, it is the Magi who are the bearers of gifts, who leave presents in or near the shoes of small children. [118] Mexican families also commemorate the date by eating Rosca de reyes. In modern Mexico however, and particularly in the larger cities and in the North, local traditions are now being observed and intertwined with the greater North American Santa Claus tradition, as well as with other holidays such as Halloween, due to Americanization via film and television, creating an economy of gifting tradition that spans from Christmas Day until January 6.

Peru Edit

Peru shares Epiphany customs with Spain and the rest of Latin America. Peruvian national lore holds that Francisco Pizarro was the first to call Lima "Ciudad de los Reyes" (City of the Kings) because the date of the Epiphany coincided with the day he and his two companions searched for, and found, an ideal location for a new capital. Even more popular in Peru than gift giving is the custom of the Bajada de Reyes when parties are held in honor of the taking down of family and public nativity scenes, and carefully putting them away until the next Christmas. [119]

Philippines Edit

In the Philippines, this day is known as Araw ng mga Tatlóng Harì ("Three Kings' Day" Spanish: Día de los Tres Reyes) or Pasko ng Matatanda ("Christmas of the Elderly"), and marks the official close of the country's long Christmas season. Filipino children customarily leave their shoes out, so that the Kings will leave behind gifts like candy or money inside. Most others on this day simply give the common greeting of "Happy Three Kings!" In some localities, there is the practice of having three men or three boys, dressed as the Tatlóng Harì, ride around on horseback, distributing trinkets and candy to the children of the area. The collective name for the group is immortalized as the Filipino surname Tatlóngharì. [ citation needed ]

The Spanish name for the holiday has survived to the present in the Philippines as the masculine given name Epifanio (e.g. Epifanio de los Santos). Due to American influence, the position of the Biblical Magi as gift-givers has been supplanted by Santa Claus. [ citation needed ]

Poland Edit

In Poland, Epiphany, or "Trzech Króli" (Three Kings) is celebrated in grand fashion, with huge parades held welcoming the Wise Men, often riding on camels or other animals from the zoo, in Warsaw, Poznań [120] and over 2,000 other cities. The Wise Men pass out sweets, children process in renaissance wear, carols are sung, and living nativity scenes are enacted, all similar to celebrations in Italy or Spain, pointing to the country's Catholic heritage. Children may also dress in colors signifying Europe, Asia, and Africa (the supposed homes of the Wise Men) and at the end of the parade route, church leaders often preach on the spiritual significance of the Epiphany. In 2011, by an act of Parliament, Epiphany was restored as an official non-working national public holiday in Poland for the first time since it was canceled under communism fifty years earlier. [121]

Poles though take small boxes containing chalk, a gold ring, incense and a piece of amber, in memory of the gifts of the Magi, to church to be blessed. Once at home, they inscribe "K+M+B+" and the year with the blessed chalk above every door in the house, according to tradition, to provide protection against illness and misfortune for those within. The letters, with a cross after each one, are said to stand either for the traditionally applied names of the Three Kings in Polish – Kacper, Melchior and Baltazar – or for a Latin inscription meaning "Christ bless this house." They remain above the doors all year until they are inadvertently dusted off or replaced by new markings the next year. [122] On January 6, as in much of Europe, a Polish style Three Kings cake is served with a coin or almond baked inside. The one who gets it is king or queen for the day, signified by wearing the paper crown that decorates the cake. According to Polish tradition this person will be lucky in the coming year. Recipes vary by region. Some serve a French-type puff pastry cake with almond paste filling, others favor a sponge cake with almond cream filling, and yet others enjoy a light fruitcake. [123]

Epiphany in Poland also signals the beginning of zapusty or carnival time, when pączki (doughnuts) and chrust (Angel wings) are served. [124]

Portugal Edit

In Portugal, Epiphany, January 6, is called dia dos Reis (Day of the Kings), during which the traditional Bolo Rei (King cake) is baked and eaten. Plays and pageants are popular on this day, and parents often hold parties for their children. Epiphany is also a time when the traditional Portuguese dances known as Mouriscadas and Paulitos are performed. The latter is an elaborate stick dance. The dancers, who are usually men but may be dressed as women, manipulate sticks or staves (in imitation swords) in two opposing lines. [125] It is a tradition too in Portugal for people to gather in small groups and to go from house to house to sing the Reis (meaning "Kings") which are traditional songs about the life of Jesus. The singers also bring greetings to the owners of the house. After singing for a while outside, they are invited in, and the owners of the house offer them sweets, liqueurs, and other Epiphany delicacies. These Reis usually begin on Epiphany eve and last until January 20. [126]

Portuguese village of Vale de Salgueiro encourages children, some as young as five, to smoke in a tradition that does not have clear roots. [127] [128]

Puerto Rico Edit

In Puerto Rico, Epiphany is an important festive holiday, and is commonly referred as Dia de Los Tres Reyes Magos, or Three Kings' Day. It is traditional for children to fill a box with fresh grass or hay and put it underneath their bed, for the Wise Men's camels. The three kings will then take the grass to feed the camels and will leave gifts under the bed as a reward. These traditions are analogous to the customs of children leaving mince pies and sherry out for Father Christmas in Western Europe or leaving milk and cookies for Santa Claus in the United States. On the day before the feast (January 5), the "Rosario de Reyes" or "Promesa de Reyes" is celebrated with songs (aguinaldos) promised to be sung to the Kings, usually before a little table with figures of the Nativity and the Kings or with the Kings alone and their camels. This celebration is accompanied with a chicken soup, snacks, and drinks.

Romania and Moldova Edit

In Romania and Moldova, Epiphany is called Boboteaza. In south-eastern Romania, following religious services, men participate in winter horse races. Before the race, the men line up with their horses before the priest, who will bless them by sprinkling them with green branches that have been dipped into Epiphany holy water. Sometimes people desire to have this blessing for themselves as well. Winning the Epiphany race is a great honor for both horse and rider, while the post-race celebrations, win or not, are highly festive. As in other Orthodox heritage countries, water rites play a special role on this day. [129] A unique piece of Romanian folk wisdom holds that if a girl slips on ice–or better yet falls into water-on Epiphany, she will surely marry before the year is out. [130]

In Transylvania (Erdély/Siebenbürgen), Lutheran and Reformed Christians of Hungarian and Saxon descent celebrate Epiphany with star singing and house blessing, as in Central Europe. The star singing custom had long ago spread throughout Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Here the star, called Steaua, today resembles a stained-glass lantern and features an Orthodox icon at its center, a tradition pointing to the blending of both East and West which characterizes the two nations on the river Prut. [131]

Russia Edit

The Epiphany, celebrated in Russia on January 19, marks the baptism of Jesus in the Orthodox Church. As elsewhere in the Orthodox world, the Russian Church conducts the rite of the Great Blessing of the Waters, also known as "the Great Sanctification of the Water" on that day (or the eve before). [132] The priest-led procession could simply proceed to the font, [132] but traditionally the worshipers would go to a nearby lake or river.

Historical records indicate that the blessing of the waters events took place at the courts of Moscow Czars since no later than 1525. According to historians, the blessing of the waters procession was the most magnificent of the annual Czar's court's ceremonies, comparable only to such special events as royal coronations and weddings. After a divine liturgy in the Kremlin's Dormition Cathedral, the procession, led by the Czar and the Patriarch of Moscow would proceed to the frozen Moskva River. An ice-hole would have been made in the ice, called Iordan' (in memory of the Jordan River), over which a small gazebo would have been erected and decorated with holy icons, one of which would depict the Baptism of Christ. The Patriarch would immerse his cross into the river's water and sprinkle the Czar, his boyars, and the banners of Czar's army's regiments with the holy water. A load of holy water would then be brought back to the Kremlin, to be used in blessing the Czar's palace. [133] On a smaller scale, similar events would take place in the parishes throughout the nation.

Believing that on this day water becomes holy and is imbued with special powers, Russians cut holes called Iordan' in the ice of lakes and rivers, often in the shape of the cross, to bathe in the freezing water. [134] This practice is said to be popularized comparatively recently it was fairly uncommon in the czarist days, but has flourished since the 1990s. [135]

Participants in the ritual may dip themselves three times under the water, honoring the Holy Trinity, to symbolically wash away their sins from the past year, and to experience a sense of spiritual rebirth. Orthodox priests are on hand to bless the water, and rescuers are on hand to monitor the safety of the swimmers in the ice-cold water. Others limit their participation in the Epiphany rites to those conducted inside churches, where priests perform the Great Blessing of Waters, both on Epiphany Eve and Epiphany (Theophany) proper. The water is then distributed to attendees who may store it to use in times of illness, to bless themselves, family members, and their homes, or to drink. Some Russians think any water – even from the taps on the kitchen sink – poured or bottled on Epiphany becomes holy water, since all the water in the world is blessed this day. In the more mild climate of the southern city of Sochi meanwhile, where air and water temperatures both hover in the low to mid 10 degree Celsius range (50 degrees Fahrenheit) in January, thousands of people jump into the Black Sea at midnight each year on Epiphany and begin to swim in celebration of the feast. [136]

Slovenia Edit

In Slovenia, especially in the Western part of the country, during the first day of the year and on Epiphany, children go from house to house because villagers will give them almonds, dried figs, nuts, cookies or other good things that they have at home. [137]

Spain Edit

In Spain and some Latin American countries, Epiphany day is called El Día de Reyes [138] i.e., the day when a group of Kings or Magi, as related in the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, arrived to worship and bring three gifts to the baby Jesus after following a star in the heavens. In Spanish tradition on January 6, three of the Kings: Melchior, Gaspar, and Balthazar, representing Arabia, the Orient, and Africa, arrived on horse, camel and elephant, bringing respectively gold, frankincense and myrrh to the baby Jesus. Before going to bed on the eve of January 6, children polish their shoes and leave them ready for the Kings' presents to be put in them. The next morning presents will appear under their shoes, or if the children are deemed to have misbehaved during the year, coal (usually a lump of hard sugar candy dyed black, called Carbón Dulce). [139] Most towns in Spain arrange colorful parades representing the arrival of the Reyes Magos to town so children can see them on their camels or carriages before they go to bed. The oldest of these parades is held in Alcoi, Alacant – Alicante (Valencian Community) which has hosted an annual parade since 1885. [140] Sweet wine, nibbles, fruit and milk are left for the Kings and their camels. In Spain, children typically receive presents on this day, rather than on Christmas, though this tradition has changed lately, and children now receive presents on both days. The Epiphany bread/cake is known as Roscón, [141] Tortell de Reis in Catalan, and in Mexico as Rosca de reyes. [142]

Sweden Edit

Epiphany is a public holiday in Sweden, where it is known as "trettondedag jul" ("Thirteenth Day Yule"), as January 6 is the thirteenth day after Christmas Eve, the main day on which Christmas is celebrated in Sweden. However, the end of the Christmas celebration is on January 13, St. Knut's Day, more commonly known as "Twentieth Day Yule" (or "Twentieth Day Knut").

United States Edit

In Louisiana, Epiphany is the beginning of the Carnival season, during which it is customary to bake King Cakes, similar to the Rosca mentioned above. It is round in shape, filled with cinnamon, glazed white, and coated in traditional carnival color sanding sugar. The person who finds the doll (or bean) must provide the next king cake. The interval between Epiphany and Mardi Gras is sometimes known as "king cake season", and many may be consumed during this period. The Carnival season begins on King's Day (Epiphany), and there are many traditions associated with that day in Louisiana and along the Catholic coasts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. King cakes are first sold then, Carnival krewes begin having their balls on that date, and the first New Orleans krewe parades in street cars that night.

In Colonial Virginia, Epiphany, or 12th Night, was an occasion of great merriment, and was considered especially appropriate as a date for balls and dancing, as well as for weddings. On 12th Night, Great Cake was prepared, consisting in two giant layers of fruitcake, coated and filled with royal icing. Custom dictated that the youngest child present cut and serve the cake and whoever found the bean or prize in the Twelfth Night cake was crowned "King of the Bean" similar to the European king cake custom. [ citation needed ]

In Erie, Pennsylvania, as part of an Epiphany party a king is hidden in a cake, and whichever child finds the cake is crowned king for the day. [143]

Tarpon Springs, Florida is known for elaborate religious ceremonies related to the Greek Orthodox Church, the most notable being the Epiphany celebration. The Metropolitan of Atlanta usually presides over the blessings, sometimes joined by the Archbishop of America. The blessings conclude with the ceremonial throwing of a wooden cross into the city's Spring Bayou, and boys ages 16 to 18 diving in to retrieve it. Whoever recovers the cross is said to be blessed for a full year. Following the blessings, the celebration moves to the Sponge Docks where food and music are made part of the festivities. [144] Tarpon Springs has given itself the nickname Epiphany City. [145] The celebration attracts Greek Americans from across the country, [144] and the city's population is known to triple in size for that day. [146]

In Manitou Springs, Colorado, Epiphany is marked by the Great Fruitcake Toss. Fruitcakes are thrown, participants dress as kings, fools, etc., and competitions are held for the farthest throw, the most creative projectile device, etc. As with customs in other countries, the fruitcake toss is a sort of festive symbolic leave-taking of the Christmas holidays until next year, but with humorous twist, since fruitcake is considered with a certain degree of derision in most of the United States, and is the source of many jokes. [147] [148]

Wales Edit

On January 6, the Feast of the Epiphany has long been an important celebration in Wales, known there as Ystwyll. In Glamorganshire, a huge loaf or cake was prepared, which was then divided up into three parts to represent Christ, the Virgin Mary and the Biblical Magi. A large company of neighbors was invited to be present at the dividing of the cake in which rings were concealed. Whoever discovered a ring in his piece of cake (or bread) was elected as King or Queen and presided over the day's festivities. January 6 was the old-calendar Christmas Day and many of the festivities connected with it lasted well over a century after the new calendar was introduced in 1752. [ citation needed ]

Wales shares other Twelfth Night customs with its neighbor, England, including the Yule log, and the wassail to wish farmers a good harvest in the coming year, but here the Yule log's ashes were saved then buried along with the seeds planted in the ensuing spring to ensure a good harvest, while the wassail bowl was taken to the house of newlyweds or to a family which had recently come to live in the district and songs sung outside the house door. Those inside the house would recite or sing special verses, to be answered by the revelers outside.

Another Welsh custom associated with Epiphany was the Hunting of the Wren. A group of young men would go out into the countryside to capture a wren (the smallest bird in the British Isles after the goldcrest/firecrest). The bird would then be placed in a small, decorated cage and carried around from house to house and shown in exchange for money or gifts of food and drink. (If a wren could not be found then a sparrow would have to undergo the ritual.) [149]


Eleanor appeared in 1967. The name references Nicolas Cage's 1967 Shelby GT500 clone featured in the movie remake of "Gone in 60 Seconds." In the original movie, a 1973 Ford Mustang Mach 1 played the part. The original Shelby GT500 was the first American car to leave the factory with a roll bar. In addition, it featured a big-block V8 engine. This car is a favorite among collectors.

In 1968, Shelby released what many consider the "ultimate" Shelby Mustang. The original 1968 Shelby GT500-KR (King of the Road) produced 360 hp courtesy of a 428 cubic-inch Cobra-Jet V8 engine. The car was also available as a convertible.


Representative birthstone

The energizing Garnet is the birthstone defined for January 5 and in general for Capricorns.

This is a precious stone that symbolizes dependability and realism. This zodiac birthstone could be used in accessories and bracelets.

It is thought to boost the confidence and self esteem of Capricorn. This gemstone can be found in Sri Lanka, India and Africa. This gemstone comes in red, black and green shades.

Another gemstone considered lucky for Capricorn natives is Sapphire. It is the symbol of sincerity and dependability.


Types and symptoms

Depending on the number and severity of symptoms, a depressive episode can be categorized as mild, moderate or severe.

A key distinction is also made between depression in people who have or do not have a history of manic episodes. Both types of depression can be chronic (i.e. over an extended period) with relapses, especially if they go untreated.

Recurrent depressive disorder: this disorder involves repeated depressive episodes. During these episodes, the person experiences depressed mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, and reduced energy leading to diminished activity for at least two weeks. Many people with depression also suffer from anxiety symptoms, disturbed sleep and appetite, and may have feelings of guilt or low self-worth, poor concentration and even symptoms that cannot be explained by a medical diagnosis.

Depending on the number and severity of symptoms, a depressive episode can be categorized as mild, moderate or severe. An individual with a mild depressive episode will have some difficulty in continuing with ordinary work and social activities but will probably not cease to function completely. During a severe depressive episode, it is unlikely that the sufferer will be able to continue with social, work or domestic activities, except to a limited extent.

Bipolar affective disorder: this type of depression typically consists of both manic and depressive episodes separated by periods of normal mood. Manic episodes involve elevated or irritable mood, over-activity, pressure of speech, inflated self-esteem and a decreased need for sleep.

Contributing factors and prevention

Depression results from a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. People who have gone through adverse life events (unemployment, bereavement, psychological trauma) are more likely to develop depression. Depression can, in turn, lead to more stress and dysfunction and worsen the affected person&rsquos life situation and depression itself.

There are interrelationships between depression and physical health. For example, cardiovascular disease can lead to depression and vice versa.

Prevention programmes have been shown to reduce depression. Effective community approaches to prevent depression include school-based programmes to enhance a pattern of positive thinking in children and adolescents. Interventions for parents of children with behavioural problems may reduce parental depressive symptoms and improve outcomes for their children. Exercise programmes for the elderly can also be effective in depression prevention.


Information about Religious festivals based on the Christian Orthodox religion.

January 1st, the New Year's Day

January 1st is the Feast of Agios Vassilis (the Santa Claus in Greece is Saint Basil), celebrated with church services. That day, all Greek families cut the vasilopita, sweet bread with a coin inside which brings good luck for the year to come to its finder. January 1st is also the day when Christmas gifts are given to the children. Generally, Greece has many interesting Christmas customs that revive very vividly all over the country.

January 6th, the Epiphany

This is the feast of Agia Theofania, or Fota, which celebrates the day when the "kallikantzaroi", or hobgoblins that appeared during the period of Christmas, are re-banished to the netherworld by the church's rites.

During Epiphany, waters are blessed and evil spirits are banished. At Lakeside, seaside or riverside locations, the priests throw a cross into the water and young locals dive to compete for the privilege and blessing to catch it.

February-March, The Carnival

The Carnival is called "Apokries" in Greek and it is expressed by three weeks of feasting and dancing. The Carnival takes place three weeks before Lent Monday. Important Carnival Parades take place in Patra, Xanthi, Corfu island and Rethymno with wonderful parties. The exact dates of the Carnival vary, depending on Easter. The Carnival finishes 7 weeks before Easter.

March 25th, Feast of the Annunciation

On this feast, the Christians celebrate the day that Angel Gabriel announced Mary the incarnation of Christ. This day coincides with a National Holiday in Greece, the day where the Greeks declared the Revolutionary War against the Turks, on March 25th, 1821. This is why military parades take place that day in all Greek towns.

Easter

Easter is the most important festival of the Greek Orthodox Church. It starts 7 weeks before Easter Sunday and comes to its peak the Holy Week. This is when Services are held every evening in the churches. On Good Friday, a special celebration takes place when all the flowered tombs of the Christ (named Epitaphios) are gathered at the squares and make the tour of the towns.
The peak of the Easter is on Good Saturday at midnight when pilgrims go to the church and get the Holy Light. At midnight exactly, the priest appears holding a lighted torch and shares the Holy Flame on the candles of near worshippers. Then, the worshippers share at their turn the Holy Light with their close neighbors until the entire church and the courtyard get it. It is a beautiful spectacle.
Then, fireworks explode in the streets around the Church. Worshippers then bring the burning candles home and make with the black smoke of the candle the sign of a cross above their door. This custom is supposed to bring good fortune upon the house.
After midnight, families and friends eat "magiritsa", a soup made from lamb tripe, rice, dill, and lemon. The rest of the lamb is grilled on Sunday morning for lunch, accompanied by wines and dances.
This festival is of great importance in all the regions of Greece but some places, such as the Greek islands of Corfu island and Chios island, are very famous for their Easter celebrations. In some towns, the Burning of Judas takes place on Easter Sunday in the evening.

April 23rd, The Feast of Saint George (Agios Georgios)

The feast celebrates the Knight who killed the Dragon. Saint George is the patron of the shepherds and celebrations are organized through the country. Great festivities also take place in Arachova, Skiathos island, Skyros island and other Greek towns, where Saint George is considered their patron saint. Celebrations in Arachova last for three days.

May/June, The Day of the Holy Spirit

The feast takes place 40-50 days after Easter. It celebrates the day that the Holy Spirit presented to the Apostles and asked them to teach Christianity to the world. This is a holiday for students.

August 15th, The Day of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary

This feast celebrates Mary's ascent to Heaven. Great pilgrimages take place in all places of Greece, particularly Tinos island, Paros island, and Patmos island. Virgin Mary is the protector of all the country and many chapels dedicated to her will be encountered in Greece.

December 25th, Christmas

The feast is of great importance, as it is celebrating the birth of Christ. In the past, people used to decorate wooden boats for Christmas, honoring the nautical tradition of Greece, but today people follow western traditions and decorate Christmas trees. On December 24th, children traditionally sing Christmas carols (kalanda) from door to door.


January 5, 2015 Day 350 of the Sixth Year - History

Facts about the month of August
Customs and Traditions

Gemstone: Agate
Flower: Gladiolus

August, the eighth month of the year and the sixth month of the Roman calendar. The Romans called the month Sextilis, which means sixth. Eight years before Jesus was born the name of the month was changed to Augustus in honour of the Roman Emperor Augustus Casesar, because many of the important events in his life happened around that time of year.

The Anglo-Saxons called it Weod monath, which means Weed month, because it is the month when weeds and otehr plants grow most repidly.

August is the busiest time for tourism, as it falls in the main school holiday of the year, the summer holidays, which lasts for six weeks for state run schools.

Lammas Day

1st August is Lammas Day, and was Thanksgiving time (Harvest time) in Britain. The name comes from an Anglo-Saxon word Hlafmaesse which means Loaf Mass. The festival of Lammas marks the beginning of the harvest, when people go to church to give thanks for the first corn to be cut. This celebration predates our Christian harvest festival.

On Lammas Day farmers made loaves of bread from the new wheat crop and gave them to their local church. They were then used as the Communion bread during a special mass thanking God for the harvest. The custom ended when Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church, and nowadays we have harvest festivals at the end of the season. Michaelmas Day (September 29) is traditionally the last day of the harvest season.

Lammas Day used to be a time for foretelling marriages and trying out partners. Two young people would agree to a "trial marriage" lasting the period of the fair (usually 11 days) to see whether they were really suited for wedlock. At the end of the fair, if they didn't get on, the couple could part.

Lammas was also the time for farmers to give their farm workers a present of a pair of gloves. In Exeter, a large white glove was put on the end of a long pole which was decorated with flowers and held on high to let people know that the merriment of Lammas Fair was beginning.

Lammas Superstition

To bring good luck, farmers would let the first corn bread go stale and then crumble it over the corners of their barns.

Weather-lore, beliefs and sayings

The hottest days of the year often fall in August.

'Dry August and warm doth harvest no harm'.

'If the first week of August be warm, the winter will be white and long.'

Festivals and Traditions

A number of cultural festivals are held in August

Edinburgh Festival in Scotland

Dating from 1947, the Edinburgh Festival is primarily a celebration of the performing arts, with live concerts, plays, ballets, operas and other shows.

Royal National Eisteddfod in Wales

The Eisteddfod is an older tradition, revived in the 19th century. It originated as a medieval gathering of bards and minstrels, attended by people across Wales, who competed for the prized chair at the noble's table.
Held during the first week of August, it celebrates Welsh arts and culture.

Notting Hill Carnival

The carnival is held on the Summer Bank Holiday, the last Monday in August. It features a colourful procession, elaborate and extravagant costumes, and the music of many steel bands. The carnival originated in the mid 1960s as a way of celebrating and maintaining the cultural traditions of the Caribbean immigrants who live in and around the Notting Hill area.

Anniversaries


  • 1929 - Martin Luther King, Jr., American civil rights leader, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1951 - Charo [Maria Baeza], Spanish-American actress, comedienne and flamenco guitarist (Chico and the Man, Love Boat)
  • 1876 - Eliza Johnson, U.S. First Lady
  • 2016 - Dan Haggerty, American actor (The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams) (b. 1941) 
  • 2019 - Carol Channing, American actress (Hello Dolly, Thoroughly Modern Millie) (b. 1921)

Vintage 1990s Tamagotchi

Vintage 1990s Tamagotchi
Manufacturer: Bandai
Price: $9.99

The original virtual reality pet. Meet the tiny pet from cyberspace who needs your love to survive and grow. Features digital clock and button cell battery.
From Our 1998 Toys Page

Born This Day In History 5th July

Celebrating Birthdays Today

Born: July 5th, 1940, Munroe, Washington

Known For : Chuck studied art at the University of Washington, at Yale and the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. He is known for his photo-realistic portraits and has experimented with figurative work and use of fingerprints. He has produced a number of self-portraits and black-and-white prints. In a wider use of color he has concentrated on specific hues: and his conceptual work has been built using cyan, yellow and magenta. In 1988 he was handicapped by a blood clot, but is still able to work on canvas.

1950s Music

A new generation of pop stars including Elvis Presley were created whose main target audience was teenagers.


Watch the video: Today in History for January 2nd (July 2022).


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