History Podcasts

Service Wives register for Army Pay at Swansea, summer 1914

Service Wives register for Army Pay at Swansea, summer 1914

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Service Wives register for Army Pay at Swansea, summer 1914

Here we see a queue of wives and mothers of servicemen queuing to register for army pay in Swansea in the summer of 1914, soon after their husbands and sons have moved to France with the BEF.

Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), the 28th U.S. president, served in office from 1913 to 1921 and led America through World War I (1914-1918). Remembered as an advocate for democracy, progressivism and world peace, Wilson left a complex legacy that included re-segregating many branches of the federal workforce. Wilson was a college professor, university president and Democratic governor of New Jersey before winning the White House in 1912. Once in office, he pursued an ambitious agenda of progressive reform that included the establishment of the Federal Reserve and Federal Trade Commission. Wilson tried to keep the United States neutral during World War I, but ultimately called on Congress to declare war on Germany in 1917. After the war, he helped negotiate a peace treaty that included a plan for the League of Nations. Although the Senate rejected U.S. membership in the League, Wilson received the Nobel Prize for his peacemaking efforts.

Service Wives register for Army Pay at Swansea, summer 1914 - History

By Dorothy Schwieder, professor of history, Iowa State University

Marquette and Joliet Find Iowa Lush and Green

In the summer of 1673, French explorers Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette traveled down the Mississippi River past the land that was to become the state of Iowa. The two explorers, along with their five crewmen, stepped ashore near where the Iowa river flowed into the Mississippi. It is believed that the 1673 voyage marked the first time that white people visited the region of Iowa. After surveying the surrounding area, the Frenchmen recorded in their journals that Iowa appeared lush, green, and fertile. For the next 300 years, thousands of white settlers would agree with these early visitors: Iowa was indeed lush and green moreover, its soil was highly productive. In fact, much of the history of the Hawkeye State is inseparably intertwined with its agricultural productivity. Iowa stands today as one of the leading agricultural states in the nation, a fact foreshadowed by the observation of the early French explorers.

Before 1673, however, the region had long been home to many Native Americans. Approximately 17 different Indian tribes had resided here at various times including the Ioway, Sauk, Mesquaki, Sioux, Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri. The Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri Indians had sold their land to the federal government by 1830 while the Sauk and Mesquaki remained in the Iowa region until 1845. The Santee Band of the Sioux was the last to negotiate a treaty with the federal government in 1851.

The Sauk and Mesquaki constituted the largest and most powerful tribes in the Upper Mississippi Valley. They had earlier moved from the Michigan region into Wisconsin and by the 1730s, they had relocated in western Illinois. There they established their villages along the Rock and Mississippi Rivers. They lived in their main villages only for a few months each year. At other times, they traveled throughout western Illinois and eastern Iowa hunting, fishing, and gathering food and materials with which to make domestic articles. Every spring, the two tribes traveled northward into Minnesota where they tapped maple trees and made syrup.

In 1829, the federal government informed the two tribes that they must leave their villages in western Illinois and move across the Mississippi River into the Iowa region. The federal government claimed ownership of the Illinois land as a result of the Treaty of 1804. The move was made but not without violence. Chief Black hawk, a highly-respected Sauk leader, protested the move and in 1832 returned to reclaim the Illinois village of Saukenauk. For the next three months, the Illinois militia pursued Black Hawk and his band of approximately 400 Indians northward along the eastern side of the Mississippi River. The Indians surrendered at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin, their numbers having dwindled to about 200. This encounter is known as the Black Hawk War. As punishment for their resistance, the federal government required the Sauk and Mesquaki to relinquish some of their land in eastern Iowa. This land, known as the Black Hawk Purchase, constituted a strip 50 miles wide lying along the Mississippi River, stretching from the Missouri border to approximately Fayette and Clayton Counties in Northeastern Iowa.

Today, Iowa is still home to one Indian group, the Mesquaki, who reside on the Mesquaki Settlement in Tama County. After most Sauk and Mesquaki members had been removed from the state, some Mesquaki tribal members, along with a few Sauk, returned to hunt and fish in eastern Iowa. The Indians then approached Governor James Grimes with the request that they be allowed to purchase back some of their original land. They collected $735 for their first land purchase and eventually they bought back approximately 3,200 acres.

Iowa's First White Settlers

The first official white settlement in Iowa began in June 1833, in the Black Hawk Purchase. Most of Iowa's first white settlers came from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, and Virginia. The great majority of newcomers came in family units. Most families had resided in at least one additional state between the time they left their state of birth and the time they arrived in Iowa. Sometimes families had relocated three or four times before they reached Iowa. At the same time, not all settlers remained here many soon moved on to the Dakotas or other areas in the Great Plains.

Iowa's earliest white settlers soon discovered an environment different from that which they had known back East. Most northeastern and southeastern states were heavily timbered settlers there had material for building homes, outbuildings, and fences. Moreover, wood also provided ample fuel. Once past the extreme eastern portion of Iowa, settlers quickly discovered that the state was primarily a prairie or tall grass region. Trees grew abundantly in the extreme eastern and southeastern portions, and along rivers and streams, but elsewhere timber was limited.

In most portions of eastern and central Iowa, settlers could find sufficient timber for construction of log cabins, but substitute materials had to be found for fuel and fencing. For fuel, they turned to dried prairie hay, corn cobs, and dried animal droppings. In southern Iowa, early settlers found coal outcroppings along rivers and streams. People moving into northwest Iowa, an area also devoid of trees, constructed sod houses. Some of the early sod house residents wrote in glowing terms about their new quarters, insisting that "soddies" were not only cheap to build but were warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Settlers experimented endlessly with substitute fencing materials. Some residents built stone fences some constructed dirt ridges others dug ditches. The most successful fencing material was the osage orange hedge until the 1870s when the invention of barbed wire provided farmers with satisfactory fencing material.

Early settlers recognized other disadvantages of prairie living. Many people complained that the prairie looked bleak and desolate. One woman, newly arrived from New York State, told her husband that she thought she would die without any trees. Emigrants from Europe, particularly the Scandinavian countries, reacted in similar fashion. These newcomers also discovered that the prairies held another disadvantage - one that could be deadly. Prairie fires were common in the tall grass country, often occurring yearly. Diaries of pioneer families provide dramatic accounts of the reactions of early Iowans to prairie fires, often a mixture of fear and awe. When a prairie fire approached, all family members were called out to help keep the flames away. One nineteenth century Iowan wrote that in the fall, people slept "with one eye open" until the first snow fell, indicating that the threat of fire had passed.

Pioneer families faced additional hardships in their early years in Iowa. Constructing a farmstead was hard work in itself. Families not only had to build their homes, but often they had to construct the furniture used. Newcomers were often lonely for friends and relatives. Pioneers frequently contracted communicable diseases such as scarlet fever. Fever and ague, which consisted of alternating fevers and chills, was a constant complaint. Later generations would learn that fever and ague was a form of malaria, but pioneers thought that it was caused by gas emitted from the newly turned sod. Moreover, pioneers had few ways to relieve even common colds or toothaches.

Early life on the Iowa prairie was sometimes made more difficult by the death of family members. Some pioneer women wrote of the heartache caused by the death of a child. One women, Kitturah Belknap, had lost one baby to lung fever. When a second child died, she confided in her diary:

"I have had to pass thru another season of sorrow. Death has again entered our home. This time it claimed our dear little John for its victim. It was hard for me to give him up but dropsy on the brain ended its work in four short days. We are left again with one baby and I feel that my health is giving way."

But for the pioneers who remained on the land 1, and most did, the rewards were substantial. These early settlers soon discovered that prairie land, although requiring some adjustments, was some of the richest land to be found anywhere in the world. Moreover, by the late 1860s, most of the state had been settled and the isolation and loneliness associated with pioneer living had quickly vanished.

Transportation: Railroad Fever

As thousands of settlers poured into Iowa in the mid-1800s, all shared a common concern for the development of adequate transportation. The earliest settlers shipped their agricultural goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, but by the 1850s, Iowans had caught the nation's railroad fever. The nation's first railroad had been built near Baltimore in 1831, and by 1860, Chicago was served by almost a dozen lines. Iowans, like other Midwesterners, were anxious to start railroad building in their state.

In the early 1850s, city officials in the river communities of Dubuque, Clinton, Davenport, and Burlington began to organize local railroad companies. City officials knew that railroads building west from Chicago would soon reach the Mississippi River opposite the four Iowa cities. With the 1850s, railroad planning took place which eventually resulted in the development of the Illinois Central, the Chicago and North Western, reaching Council Bluffs in 1867. Council Bluffs had been designated as the eastern terminus for the Union Pacific, the railroad that would eventually extend across the western half of the nation and along with the Central Pacific, provide the nation's first transcontinental railroad. A short time later a fifth railroad, the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific, also completed its line across the state.

The completion of five railroads across Iowa brought major economic changes. Of primary importance, Iowans could travel every month of the year. During the latter ninetieth and early twentieth centuries, even small Iowa towns had six passenger trains a day. Steamboats and stagecoaches had previously provided transportation, but both were highly dependent on the weather, and steam boats could not travel at all once the rivers had frozen over. Railroads also provided year-round transportation for Iowa's farmers. With Chicago's pre-eminence as a railroad center, the corn, wheat, beef, and pork raised by Iowa's farmers could be shipped through Chicago, across the nation to eastern seaports, and from there, anywhere in the world.

Railroads also brought major changes in Iowa's industrial sector. Before 1870, Iowa contained some manufacturing firms in the eastern portion of the state, particularly all made possible by year-around railroad transportation. Many of the new industries were related to agriculture. In Cedar Rapid, John and Robert Stuart, along with their cousin, George Douglas, started an oats processing plant. In time, this firm took the name Quaker Oats. Meat packing plants also appeared in the 1870s in different parts of the state: Sinclair Meat Packing opened in Cedar Rapids and John Morrell and Company set up operations in Ottumwa.

As Iowa's population and economy continued to grow, education and religious institutions also began to take shape. Americans had long considered education important and Iowans did not deviate from that belief. Early in any neighborhood, residents began to organize schools. The first step was to set up township elementary schools, aided financially by the sale or lease of section 16 in each of the state's many townships. The first high school was established in the 1850s, but in general, high schools did not become widespread until after 1900. Private and public colleges also soon appeared. By 1900, the Congregationalists had established Grinnell College. The Catholics and Methodists were most visible in private higher education, however. As of 1900, they had each created five colleges: Iowa Wesleyan, Simpson, Cornell, Morningside, and Upper Iowa University by the Methodists and Marycrest, St. Ambrose, Briar Cliff, Loras, and Clarke by the Catholics. Other church colleges present in Iowa by 1900 were Coe and Dubuque (Presbyterian) Wartburg and Luther (Lutheran) Central (Baptist) and Drake (Disciples of Christ).

The establishment of private colleges coincided with the establishment of state educational institutions. In the mid-1800s, state officials organized three state institutions of higher learning, each with a different mission. The University of Iowa, established in 1855, was to provide classical and professional education for Iowa's young people Iowa State College of Science and Technology (now Iowa State University), established in 1858 was to offer agricultural and technical training. Iowa State Teachers' College (now University of Northern Iowa), founded in 1876 was to train teachers for the state's public schools.

Iowans were also quick to organize churches. Beginning in the 1840s, the Methodist Church sent out circuit riders to travel throughout the settled portion of the state. Each circuit rider typically had a two-week circuit in which he visited individual families and conducted sermons for local Methodist congregations. Because the circuit riders' sermons tended to be emotional and simply stated, Iowa's frontiers-people could readily identify with them. The Methodists profited greatly from their "floating ministry," attracting hundreds of converts in Iowa's early years. As more settled communities appeared, the Methodist Church assigned ministers to these stationary charges.

Catholics also moved into Iowa soon after white settlement began. Dubuque served as the center for Iowa Catholicism as Catholics established their first diocese in that city. The leading Catholic figure was Bishop Mathias Loras, a Frenchman, who came to Dubuque in the late 1830s. Bishop Loras helped establish Catholic churches in the area and worked hard to attract priests and nuns from foreign countries. Before the Civil War, most of Iowa's Catholic clergy were from France, Ireland, and Germany. After the Civil War, more and more of that group tended to be native-born. Bishop Loras also helped establish two Catholic educational institutions in Dubuque, Clarke College and Loras College.

Congregationalists were the third group to play an important role in Iowa before the Civil War. The first group of Congregationalist ministers here were known as the Iowa Band. This was a group of 11 ministers, all trained at Andover Theological Seminary, who agreed to carry the gospel into a frontier region. The group arrived in 1843, and each minister selected a different town in which to establish a congregation. The Iowa Band's motto was "each a church all a college." After a number of years when each minister worked independently, the ministers collectively helped to establish Iowa College in Davenport. Later church officials move the college to Grinnell and changed its name to Grinnell College. The letters and journal of William Salter, a member of the Iowa Band, depict the commitment and philosophy of this small group. At one point, Salter wrote the following to his fiancee back East:
"I shall aim to show that the West will be just what others make it, and that they which work the hardest and do the most for it shall have it. Prayer and pain will save the West and the Country is worth it. " 2

Throughout the nineteenth century, many other denominations also established churches within the state. Quakers established meeting houses in the communities of West Branch, Springdale, and Salem. Presbyterians were also well represented in Iowa communities. Baptists often followed the practice of hiring local farmers to preach on Sunday mornings. And as early as the 1840s, Mennonite Churches began to appear in eastern Iowa. The work of the different denominations meant that during the first three decades of settlement, Iowans had quickly established their basic religious institutions.

By 1860, Iowa had achieved statehood (December 28, 1846), and the state continued to attract many settlers, both native and foreign-born. Only the extreme northwestern part of the state remained a frontier area. But after almost 30 years of peaceful development, Iowans found their lives greatly altered with the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. While Iowans had no battles fought on their soil, the state paid dearly through the contributions of its fighting men. Iowa males responded enthusiastically to the call for Union volunteers and more than 75,000 Iowa men served with distinction in campaigns fought in the East and in the South. Of that number, 13,001 died in the war, many of disease rather than from battle wounds. Some men died in the Confederate prison camps, particularly Andersonville, Georgia. A total of 8,500 Iowa men were wounded.

Many Iowans served with distinction in the Union Army. Probably the best known was Grenville Dodge, who became a general during the war. Dodge fulfilled two important functions: he supervised the rebuilding of many southern railroad lines to enable Union troops to move more quickly through the South and he directed the counter intelligence operation for the union Army, locating Northern sympathizers in the South who, in turn, would relay information on Southern troop movements and military plans to military men in the North.

Another Iowan, Cyrus Carpenter, was 31 years old when he entered the army in 1861. Living in Ft. Dodge, Carpenter requested a commission from the army rather than enlisting. He was given the rank of captain and was installed as quartermaster. Carpenter had never served in that capacity before, but with the aid of an army clerk, he proceeded to carry out his duties. Most of the time, Carpenter was responsible for feeding 40,000 men. Not only was it difficult to have sufficient food for the men, but Carpenter constantly had to keep his supplies and staff on the move. Carpenter found it an immensely frustrating task, but most of the time, he managed to have the food and other necessities at the right place at the right time.

Iowa women also served their nation during the war. Hundreds of women knitted sweaters, sewed uniforms, rolled bandages, and collected money for military supplies. Women formed soldiers' relief societies throughout the state. Annie Wittenmyer particularly distinguished herself through volunteer work. She spent much time during the war raising money and needed supplies for Iowa soldiers. At one point, Mrs. Wittenmyer visited her brother in a Union army hospital. She objected to the food served to the patients, contending that no one could get well on greasy bacon and cold coffee. She suggested to hospital authorities that they establish diet kitchens so that the patients would receive proper nutrition. Eventually, some diet kitchens were established in military hospitals. Mrs. Wittenmyer also was responsible for the establishment of several homes for soldiers' orphans.

The Civil War era brought considerable change to Iowa and perhaps one of the most visible changes came in the political arena. During the 1840's, most Iowans voted Democratic although the state also contained some Whigs. Iowa's first two United States Senators were Democrats as were most state officials. During the 1850s, however, the state's Democratic Party developed serious internal problems as well as being unsuccessful in getting the national Democratic Party to respond to their needs. Iowans soon turned to the newly emerging Republican Party the political career of James Grimes illustrates this change. In 1854, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Whig ticket. Two years later, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Republican ticket. Grimes would later serve as a Republican United States Senator from Iowa. Republicans took over state politics in the 1850s and quickly instigated several changes. They moved the state capital from Iowa City to Des Moines, they established the University of Iowa and they wrote a new state constitution. From the late 1850s until well into the twentieth century, Iowans remained strongly Republican. Iowans sent many highly capable Republicans to Washington, particularly William Boyd Allison of Dubuque, Jonathan P. Dolliver of Ft. Dodge, and Albert Baird Cummins of Des Moines. These men served their state and their nation with distinction.

Another political issue facing Iowans in the 1860s was the issue of women's suffrage. From the 1860s on, Iowa contained a large number of women, and some men, who strongly supported the measure and who worked endlessly for its adoption. In keeping with the general reform mood of the latter 1860s and 1870s, the issue first received serious consideration when both houses of the General Assembly passed a women's suffrage amendment in 1870. Two years later, however, when the legislature had to consider the amendment again before it could be submitted to the general electorate, interest had waned, opposition had developed, and the amendment was defeated.

For the next 47 years, Iowa women worked continually to secure passage of a women's suffrage amendment to Iowa's state constitution. During that time, the issue was considered in almost every session of the state legislature, but an amendment was offered (having passed both houses of the state legislature in two consecutive sessions) to the general electorate only once, in 1916. In that election, voters defeated the amendment by about 10,000 votes.

The arguments against women's suffrage ranged from the charge that women were not interested in the vote to the charge that women's suffrage would bring the downfall of the family and would cause delinquency in children. Regarding the defeat of the 1916 state referendum on the female vote, Iowa-born Carrie Chapman Catt, a leader for the women's suffrage cause, argued that the liquor interests in the state should accept responsibility as they had worked hard to defeat the measure. During the long campaign to secure the vote, however, the women themselves were not always in agreement as to the best approach to secure a victory. Catt herself led the final victorious assault in 1918 and 1919 in Washington with her "winning plan." This called for women to work for both state (state constitutions) and national (national constitution) amendments. Finally, in 1920, after both houses of the United States Congress passed the measure and it had been approved by the proper number of states, woman's suffrage became a reality for American women everywhere.

Iowa: Home for Immigrants
While Iowans were debating the issues of women's suffrage in the post Civil War period, the state itself was attracting many more people. Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from 674,913 people in 1860 to 1,194,020 in 1870. Moreover, the ethnic composition of Iowa's population also changed substantially. Before the Civil War, Iowa had attracted some foreign-born settlers, but the number remained small. After the Civil War, the number of immigrants increased. In 1869, the state encouraged immigration by printing a 96-page booklet entitled Iowa : The Home of Immigrants . The publication gave physical, social, educational, and political descriptions of Iowa. The legislature instructed that the booklet be published in English, German, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish.

Iowans were not alone in their efforts to attract more northern and western Europeans. Throughout the nation, Americans regarded these new comers as "good stock" and welcomed them enthusiastically. Most immigrants from these countries came in family units. Germans constituted the largest group, settling in every county within the state. The great majority became farmers, but many also became craftsmen and shopkeepers. Moreover, many German-Americans edited newspapers, taught school, and headed banking establishments. In Iowa, Germans exhibited the greatest diversity in occupations, religion, and geographical settlement.

The Marx Goettsch family of Davenport serves well as an example of German immigrants. At the time of his emigration in 1871, Goettsch was 24 years old, married and the father of a young son. During a two-year term in the German Army, Goettsch had learned the trade of shoemaking. Goettsch and his family chose to settle in Davenport, among Germans from the Schleswig-Holstein area. By working hard as a shoemaker, Goettsch managed not only to purchase a building for his home and shop, but also to purchased five additional town lots. Later, Goettsch had homes built on the lots which he rented out. He had then become both a small business man and a landlord.

During the next 25 years, Goettsch and his wife, Anna, raised six children and enjoyed considerable prosperity. For Marx and Anna, life in America, surrounded by fellow German-Americans, did not differ greatly from life in the old country. For their children, however, life was quite different. The lives of the Goettsch children - or the second generation - best illustrate the social and economic opportunities available to immigrants in the United States. If the family had remained in Germany, probably all five sons would have followed their father's occupation of shoemaker. In the United States, all five pursued higher education. Two sons received Ph.D.s, two sons received M.D.s, and one son became a professional engineer. With the third generation, education was also a crucial factor. Of seven grandchildren, all became professionals. Moreover, five of the seven were female. As the Goettsch experience indicates, opportunities abounded for immigrants settling in Iowa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The newcomers and their children could take up land, go into business, or pursue higher education. For most immigrants, these areas offered a better, more prosperous life than their parents had known in the old country.

Iowa also attracted many other people from Europe, including Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Hollanders, and many emigrants from the British Isles as shown by the following table. After 1900, people also emigrated from southern and eastern Europe. In many instances, immigrant groups were identified with particular occupations. The Scandinavians, including Norwegians, who settled in Winneshiek and Story Counties Swedes, who settled in Boone County and Danes, who settled in southwestern Iowa were largely associated with farming. Many Swedes also became coal miners. The Hollanders made two major settlements in Iowa, the first in Marion County, and the second in northwest Iowa.

Proportionately far more southern and eastern immigrants, particularly Italians and Croatians, went into coal mining than did western and northern Europeans. Arriving in Iowa with little money and few skills, these groups gravitated toward work that required little or no training and provided them with immediate employment. In Iowa around the turn of the century, that work happened to be coal mining.

Historical Timeline

Other sites are welcome to link to this page, but not to reproduce or repurpose our copyrighted content. Please see our reprinting policy for details on how to request permission to reprint ProCon.org content.

2400 BC - 499

2400 BC - Sumerian Records

"The Sumerian word for female prostitute, kar.kid, occurs in the earliest lists of professions dating back to ca. 2400 B.C. Since it appears right after nam.lukur. one can assume its connection with temple service. It is of interest that the term kur-garru, a male prostitute or transvestite entertainer, appears on the same list but together with entertainers. This linkage results from a practice connected with the cult of Ishtar, in which transvestites performed acts using knives. On the same list we find the following female occupations: lady doctor, scribe, barber, cook. Obviously, prostitution, while it is a very old profession, is not the oldest."

Gerda Lerner, PhD "The Origin of Prostitution in Ancient Mesopotamia," Signs, Winter 1986

1780 BC - Hammurabi's Code

The Code of Hammurabi preserved on a stone "stele."
Source: wikipedia.org (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

1075 BC - The Code of Assura

Assyrian law distinguished prostitutes from other women by dress in the Code of Assura. "If the wives of a man, or the daughters of a man go out into the street, their heads are to be veiled. The prostitute is not to be veiled. Maidservants are not to veil themselves. Veiled harlots and maidservants shall have their garments seized and 50 blows inflicted on them and bitumen [asphalt or tar like substance] poured on their heads."

600s BC - Legal Brothels in China

"According to Chinese tradition, commercial brothels were started in the seventh century B.C. by the stateman-philosopher Kuang Chung [b.710-d.645] as a means for increasing the state's income. Though there is some doubt as to whether Kuang Chung actually established the principle of licensing prostitutes, prostitution very early was set apart in special areas of the town."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

594 BC - Legal Brothels in Ancient Greece

Sculpture of Solon.
Source: University of Massachusetts at Boston website

Paul Vallely "A Brief History of Brothels," London Independent, Jan. 21, 2006

400s BC - Hetairai in Ancient Greece

A reclining heitara depicted on a Greek terracotta cup, circa 500 BC.
Source: getty.edu (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

"[He]taira. a 'female companion'. was the term normally used for courtesans in Classical Athens. They were generally more cultivated than citizen women they were trained (usually by older hetairai) to be entertaining and interesting rather than to be thrifty managers of households. Some hetairai functioned as entrenched mistresses or even common-law wives, but others less fortunate were essentially prostitutes."

"Apasia, was a hetaira, one of the highly educated women from eastern Greece who entertained and accompanied men in many of their festivals, often including sex. As the mistress of Perikles, a principal ruler of Athens in the mid-fifth century B.C.E., Aspasia's influence on the Athenian leader was reputedly enormous at various times his policies and speeches were ascribed to her."

Bella Vivante, PhD Women's Roles in Ancient Civilizations: A Reference Guide, 1999

180 BC - Roman Regulations

Roman brothel token, circa First Century AD.
Source: museumoflondon.org.uk, Jan. 5, 2012

"Rent from a brothel was a legitimate source of income. Procuration also, had to be notified before the aedile [government regulators], whose special business it was to see that no Roman matron became a prostitute. [I]n the year 180 B C. Caligula inaugurated a tax upon prostitutes (vectigal ex capturis).

When an applicant registered with the aedile, she gave her correct name, her age, place of birth, and the pseudonym under which she intended practicing her calling. (Plautus, Poen.)

If the girl was young and apparently respectable, the official sought to influence her to change her mind failing in this, he issued her a license (licentia stupri), ascertained the price she intended exacting for her favors, and entered her name in his roll. Once entered there, the name could never be removed, but must remain for all time an insurmountable bar to repentance and respectability. Failure to register was severely punished upon conviction, and this applied not only to the girl but to the pandar [sic] as well. The penalty was scourging, and frequently fine and exile. Notwithstanding this, however, the number of clandestine prostitutes at Rome was probably equal to that of the registered harlots."

W. C. Firebaugh Notes in his translation of The Satyricon, Complete (1922) by Petronius Arbiter

438 AD - Codex Theodosianus

"[T]he Code issues by Christian [Byzantine] Emperor Theodosius [II]. deprived fathers and mothers of their legal right to compel their daughters or slaves to prostitute themselves. The code also took steps to abolish the prostitution tax, thus giving the state less of a financial interest in prostitution."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

500 - 1499

534 - Justinian and Theodora

Justinian the Great.
Source: Utah State University website (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great compiled the existing imperial laws into the Corpus Juris Civilis with 38 entries on prostitution in 534.

Justinian was married to Empress Theodora, an alleged former prostitute, in 525. They created laws that banished procuresses and brothel keepers from the capital, granted freedom to slaves forced into prostitution, and banned sex in public bathhouses.

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

Late 500s - Visigoths Criminalize Prostitution

"A decree of Recared, Catholic king of the Visigoths of Spain (596-601) absolutely prohibited prostitution. Girls and women born of free parents convicted of either practising prostitution, or inducing debauchery, were condemned for the first offence to be flogged (300 strokes) and to be ignominously expelled from the town."

Tamae Mizuta Marie Mulvey-Roberts Perspectives on the History of British Feminism: The Rights of Married Women, 1994

1158 - Holy Roman Army Punishes Prostitution

Portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
Source: blessed-gerard.org (accessed Aug. 29, 2013)

In 1158, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa punished prostitutes traveling with the army. When caught in the act, the prostitute was ordered to have her nose cut off in an attempt to make her less attractive. A soldier caught in the act sometimes had a finger cut off or an eye removed."

Robert M. Hardaway, JD No Price Too High: Victimless Crimes and the Ninth Amendment, 2003

1161 - England Regulates Prostitution

Henry II allowed the regulation of London's Bankside "stew-houses" [brothels] which included rules that prohibited forced prostitution, allowed for weekly searches by constables or bailiffs, and mandated closing on holidays. Prostitutes were not allowed to live at the brothels or be married and were discouraged from taking short shifts.

Hilary Evans Harlots, Whores & Hookers: A History of Prostitution, 1979

1200s - Castile Regulates Prostitution

Alfonso IX['s]. ([Castilian] ruler 1188-1230). regulations about prostitution are among the earliest in Europe. In a section of code. he concentrated on those who profited from prostitutes. Those involved in selling prostitutes were to be exiled from the kingdom lanlords who rented rooms to prostitutes were to have their houses impounded and also pay a fine brothelkeepers had to free the women found in their brothels. and find them husbands or else suffer the possibility of execution husbands who prostituted their wives were to be executed and pimps were to be flogged for a first offense, and if they persisted were to be sent to the galleys as convicts. Women who supported pimps were to be publicly whipped and have the clothes they wore destroyed."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

Dec. 1254 - France Abolishes Prostitution

Portrait of King Louis IX of France.
Source: Wikimedia Commons (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

In Dec. 1254 St. Louis [King Louis IX of France] ordered the expulsion of all 'women of evil life' from his kingdom and the confiscation of their belongings and even their clothing. In 1256 he repeated the order to expel women 'free with their bodies and other common harlots', but he adds that it would be desirable to drive them out of respectable streets, to keep them as far away as possible from religious establishments, and when feasible, to force them to lodge outside the city walls. In 1269, on the eve of his departure for his second crusade, he sent the regents a letter reminding them of the decree of 1254 and urging them to enforce it strictly so that this evil could be extirpated root and branch."

1350 - Municipal Brothels

"It was between 1350 and 1450 that the cities institutionalized prostitution, setting up a prostibulum publicum [municipal brothel] when the city did not already have one. The Castelletto in Venice opened its doors in 1360. Florence took a similar decision in 1403 Siena in 1421."

"When the Great Council of Venice ratified a decree in 1358 that declared prostitution 'absolutely indispensable to the world,' this was a definite sign of the times."

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

1469 - Castile Increases Pimping Punishment

"[I]n 1469 a special ordinance of Henry IV, King of Castila, was launched against the men engaged in it, who acting as procurers, associated themselves with the women and were called ruffians: when any such were found, they were for the first offense to receive 100 lashes for the second they were to be banished for life for the third they were to be hung."

Tamae Mizuta Marie Mulvey-Roberts Perspectives on the History of British Feminism: The Rights of Married Women, 1994

1490s - Syphilis

Beginning in the 1490s the Great Pox (syphilis) ravaged Europe for nearly a century. "The recognition of the veneral nature of infection, and the fear of disease, combined with the moral fervor of the various sixteenth-century Reformers, resulted in a reaction against prostitution."

Vern Bullough, PhD Bonnie Bullough, PhD Prostitution: An Illustrated Social History, 1978

1500 - 1799

1500s - Elite Renaissance Courtesans in Italy

"An aristocratic and courtly environment with limited access to aristocratic and courtly women… engendered a higher caliber of prostitute -- a woman who was not only young and beautiful, but who could grace with wit and charm a dinner or an evening otherwise dominated by male clerics. [T]he courtesan flourished as an elite form of prostitute quickly copied by an increasingly aristocratic upper class throughout Italy.

The ideal was that unlike the common whore, who was available to all, the universal victim at the bottom of the hierarchy of prostitution, the 'honest courtesan' was an exacting mistress. who judged honestly her suitors, accepting only the best."

Guido Ruggiero, PhD Binding Passions: Tales of Magic, Marriage, and Power at the End of the Renaissance, 1993

Apr. 13, 1546 - England Ends Regulation

Portrait of Henry VIII by Hans Holbein.
Source: Lake Superior State University website (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

Henry VIII's royal proclamation ended England's "toleration" for prostitutes who he called "dissolute and miserable persons."

Henry Ansgar Kelly, PhD "Bishop, Prioress, and Bawd in the Stews of Southwark," Speculum, Apr. 2000

1560 - France Abolishes Brothels

"An ordinance of Charles IX., dated 1560, prohibited the opening or keeping of any brothel or house of reception for prostitutes in Paris. In 1588 an ordinance of Henry III. reaffirmed the ordinance of 1560, and alleged that the magistrates of the city had connived at the establishment of brothels. Ordinances of the provost followed in the same strain, and all prostitutes were required to leave Paris within twenty-four hours."

1586 - Punishment Increases in Severity

". [I]n 1586, Pope Sixtus V declared that the death penalty would be imposed on prostitution and 'sins against nature.' Sixtus V intended his command to be followed all over the Catholic world. There were some death sentences, but not many. For their part, the Lutherans continued to shave off both hair and ears the Calvinists branded, and burdened with large stones carried around the city, and employed the stocks in public places."

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

1617 - Japan Creates Red-Light Districts

The entrance to the Yoshiwara pleasure district.
Indiana University website (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

The red-light district Yoshiwara [Good Luck Meadow] was "established in 1617 on the edge of the city [Edo now known as Tokyo] to gather all legal brothels in an out-of-the-way spot, the Yoshiwara was relocated in 1656 following Edo's rapid expansion.

It burned down a year later in the Meireki Fire and was rebuilt in 1659, this time out past Asakusa. Officially renamed Shin (New) Yoshiwara, it was now permitted to carry on night time operations, which were prohibited in the old quarter."

Gerald Figal, PhD "A Night at the Yoshiwara," figal-sensei.org (accessed May 25, 2007)

1699 - Regulation of Prostitution in Colonial America

"Prostitution was not an offense in either English or American common law, and, prior to World War I, although being a prostitute was not an offense, prostitution was generally regulated as a specific sort of vagrancy. When prostitutes were punished as sexual deviants, it was under laws against adultery or fornication or for being 'common nightwalkers'--women who strolled the streets at night for immoral purposes.

From very early times, for example, nightwalking was an offense in Massachusetts. The law against nightwalking in that state, which testifies to the presence of prostitutes, was enacted in the colonial assembly of 1699 and reenacted by the state legislature in 1787. It was not until 1917 in Massachusetts, however, that a prostitute could be punished for prostitution."

Eleanor M. Miller, PhD Kim Romenesko, MA and Lisa Wondolkowski "The United States," Prostitution: An International Handbook on Trends, Problems, and Policies, 1993

1751 - Chastity Commission in Vienna

"Portrait of Queen Maria Theresa" by Martin van Meytens, 1750s.
Source: brooklynmuseum.org (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

1760s - 1780s - Prostitution Flourishes in Colonial New York

"Colonial New York was preeminently a seaport, and prostitution flourished in the streets and taverns close to the docks. New York, remarked John Watt in the 1760s, was 'the worst School for Youth of any of his Majesty's Dominions, Ignorance, Vanity, Dress, and Dissipation, being the reigning Characteristics of their insipid Lives.' For much of the eighteenth century, 'courtesans' promenaded along the Battery after nightfall. On the eve of the Revolution, over 500 'ladies of pleasure [kept] lodgings contiguous within the consecrated liberties of St. Paul's [Chapel].' A few blocks north, at the entrance to King's College (later Columbia University), Robert M'Robert claimed that dozens of prostitutes provided 'a temptation to the youth that have occasion to pass so often that way.'"

Timothy J. Gilfoyle, PhD "The Urban Geography of Commercial Sex: Prostitution in New York City, 1790-1860," The Other Americans: Sexual Variance in the National Past, 1996

Nov. 6, 1778 - France's Lenoir Ordinance

Prostitutes did not legally exist in France after 1560 but were unofficially licensed by police. For example the Lenoir ordinance "purported to renew the 1560 Act. " stated "[p]rostitutes - femmes de débauche - were forbidden to exist. If, however, they insisted on existing, they were forbidden to walk in public places or display themselves at windows in such a way as to attract custom and, if they insisted on doing these forbidden things, they must do them only in certain parts of the city."

Hilary Evans Harlots, Whores & Hookers: A History of Prostitution, 1979

1800 - 1913

1802 - Bureau des Moeurs of Paris

"Au Salon de la rue des Moulins" by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1894.
Source: wikipaintings.org (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

Kristin Luker, PhD "Sex, Social Hygiene, and the State: The Double-Edged Sword of Social Reform," Theory and Society, Oct. 1998

1810 - Netherlands Begins Regulation

Napoleon introduced a system of regulation to the Netherlands in 1810. It ended in 1813 when the French withdrew. Slowly the system came back and the Local Government Act of 1851 again institituted regulation to prevent the spread of disease.

Johannes C. J. Boutellier "Prostitution, Criminal Law and Morality in the Netherlands," Crime, Law and Social Change, May 1991

July 29, 1864 - Britain's Contagious Diseases Act

"The 1864 [Contagious Diseases] Act was followed in 1866 by a second Act which made the system permanent, and a third Act in 1869 which extended the system although still confining it to towns of military and navy use."

This legislation allowed the police to arrest prostitutes in ports and army towns and bring them in to have compulsory checks for venereal disease. If the women tested positive they were hospitalized until cured. It was claimed many of the women arrested were not prostitutes resulting in forced medical examinations and hospitalizations. The law was repealed Mar. 26, 1886.

Trevor Fisher, MA, MEd Prostitution and the Victorians, 1997

July 5, 1870 - St. Louis Regulates

The city of St. Louis, Missouri passed the Social Evil Ordinance empowering the Board of Health to regulate prostitution. The Board of Health required registration and medical examination of all known prostitutes as well as the licensing of brothels. The medical examiners were paid by fees collected from the 'social evilists' (prostitutes) and madams. The ordinance was nullified by the Missouri state legislature in 1874.

Duane Sneddeker "Regulating Vice: Prostitution and the St. Louis Social Evil Ordinance, 1870–1874,” Gateway Heritage, Fall 1990

Mar. 3, 1875 - US Forbids Prostitution Immigration

US Congress passed the Page Act of 1875 that outlawed the importation of women into the United States for the purposes of prostitution.

Aug. 14, 1885 - Britain Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885

William T. Stead.
Source: chicagonow.com

Trevor Fisher, MA, MEd Prostitution and the Victorians, 1997

1897 - New Orleans' Storyville

Photo of a Storyville prostitute by E. J. Bellocq, 1912.

Alecia P. Long, PhD The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920, 2004

1900 - Japan Centralizes Regulation

"Regulation of the prostitutes themselves became the province of the central government in 1900, when the Home Ministry issued the Rules Regulating Licensed Prostitutes. That same year, the Administrative Enforcement Law (Gyosei shikkoho) gave police extensive powers to arrest unlicensed prostitutes and order them to undergo medical examinations."

Sheldon Garon, PhD "The World's Oldest Debate? Prostitution and the State in Imperial Japan, 1900-1945," The American Historical Review, Apr. 1993

1902 - New York's Committee of 15

In the fall of 1900 the Committee of 15 was formed to examine how New York City should treat prostitution. Its 1902 report The Social Evil opposed regulation and included recommendations such as improvements to housing, health care, and increasing women's wages.

Feb. 12, 1905 - American Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis Forms

The American Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis was formed by Dr. Price A. Morrow to combat veneral diseases and prostitution. The organization thought "[m]unicipalities can better devote their energies to teaching and warning against her than in regulating her in business. Education is cheaper and more effective."

George P. Dale, MD "Moral Prophylaxis: Prostitutes and Prostitution," The American Journal of Nursing, Oct. 1911

Apr. 5, 1909 - Keller v. United States

The US Supreme Court in Keller v. United States ruled that deporting a resident alien who become a prostitute after entering the US violates the Tenth Amendment.

June 25, 1910 - Mann Act

James Robert Mann.
Source: pbs.org

The Mann Act or White-Slave Traffic Act became law on June 25, 1910. Named after Rep. James Robert Mann (R-IL) it created federal law against "prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose." It dealt with forced prostitution, harboring immigrant prostitutes, and the transportation across state lines. "As of April 1912 the white slave investigations overshadowed the entire balance of the Bureau's [the future Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)] work."

The Mann Act came at a time when the prostitution debate and the white-slave trade were high-profile issues. "In the twenty years between 1890 and 1909, thirty-six entries [in Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature] appear under the heading 'prostitution.' Forty-one entries appear in the ten years, between 1915 and 1924. But for the mere five years between 1910 and 1914, 'prostitution' carries no less than 156 entries."

1911 - Netherlands Bans Brothels

"In 1911 a new public morality act was enacted in the Netherlands. Article 250bis of the penal code states that it is forbidden to give opportunity for prostitution [brothel keeping]."

Johannes C. J. Boutellier "Prostitution, Criminal Law and Morality in the Netherlands," Crime, Law and Social Change, May 1991

1911 - Chicago Vice Report

"[I]t must be remembered that the most serious evils of this traffic in virtue are not physical but moral, and that the most effective means of counteracting them must ever be in the elevation of the moral sentiment of the community to a sense of individual responsibility for upright conduct in behalf of decency and virtue."

Feb. 24, 1911 - Hoke v. United States

The US Supreme Court in Hoke v. United States held that regulating prostitution was strictly the province of the states but that Congress could regulate interstate travel for purposes of prostitution or immoral purposes.

1913 - Bureau of Social Hygiene Forms

Bureau of Social Hygiene poster.
Source: zazzle.com/vintageartprinters (accessed Aug. 30, 2013)

The Bureau of Social Hygiene was incorporated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in 1913 as a result of his service on a special grand jury to investigate white slavery in New York City in 1910. The purpose of the Bureau was "the study, amelioration, and prevention of those social conditions, crimes, and diseases which adversely affect the well-being of society, with special reference to prostitution and the evils associated therewith."

"Within a few years, the Bureau of Social Hygiene commissioned and supported two important investigations: George Jackson Kneeland's Commercialized Prostitution in New York City (1913) and Abraham Flexner's researches into European methods of dealing with prostitution, Prostitution in Europe (1914). . [T]he bureau sponsored research on aspects of prostitution such as police systems, the need for women police, legal statutes, and court reform and produced a series of psychological studies of delinquent women."

Mark Thomas Connelly The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, 1980

1913 - American Social Hygiene Association Forms

"[I]n 1913. the American Vigilance Association, (which had by then incorporated the American Purity Alliance as well as all of its scattered affiliates) joined with the Federation [American Federation for Sex Hygiene formerly American Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis] to form the American Social Hygiene Association as the formal unification of the purity strand and the physicians' strand was accomplished."

Kristin Luker, PhD "Sex, Social Hygiene, and the State: The Double-Edged Sword of Social Reform," Theory and Society, Oct. 1998

1914 - 1945

Apr. 17, 1917 - Commission on Training Camp Activities

"The Commission on Training Camp Activities (CTCA) was created by the federal government to deal with the sexual and moral aspects of the training camps. Investigators from the Legal Education Division of the CTCA surveyed prostitution in cities near the cantonments and were able (as the earlier vice commissions were not) to bring federal pressure to bear in eliminating the most visible aspects of prostitution: red-light districts and street solicitation."

Mark Thomas Connelly The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, 1980

July 9, 1918 - US Chamberlain-Kahn Act

Federal Art Project poster circa 1936-1941.
Source: Library of Congress website (accessed Sep. 3, 2013)

Mark Thomas Connelly The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, 1980

1919 - Russia Re-educates Prostitutes

"In 1919 a Committee for the Suppression of Prostitution was inaugurated at the Public Health Office in Moscow. Its operations were conducted not against the girls - seen as unwilling victims of the czarist regime - but against the capitalist-created institution itself since the causes could be diagnosed as purely economic, the remedy lay in economic solutions. So the girls were sent away to labour colonies to be trained as nurses or re-educated in other trades."

Hilary Evans Harlots, Whores & Hookers: A History of Prostitution, 1979

1927 - Germany Decriminalizes Prostitution

Before 1927 prostitution was generally illegal but cities were allowed to regulate things such as STD testing, where prostitutes could live, and where prostitutes could travel. "The. [Law for Combating Venereal Diseases] decriminalized prostitution in general, abolished the morals police, and outlawed regulated brothels. These were major achievements from the perspective of prostitutes' rights. However, to secure passage of the reform, Social Democrats and liberals were forced to make important concessions to the moral Right, who opposed a consistent decriminalization of prostitution. Clause 16/4 of the anti-VD law. made street soliciting illegal in areas adjacent to churches and schools as well as in towns with a population smaller than 15,000."

Julia Roos, PhD "Backlash against Prostitutes' Rights: Origins and Dynamics of Nazi Prostitution Policies," Journal of the History of Sexuality, Jan.-Apr. 2002

1932 - Japan's "Comfort Women"

Former "comfort women" from Korea, Kim Sun-ok and Lee Su-dan, on the site of the former "comfort station" in Shimenzi, China in which they worked.
Source: nytimes.com, Mar. 27, 2013

Tessa Morris-Suzuki, PhD "Japan’s ‘Comfort Women’," Japan Focus, Mar. 8, 2007

May 1933 - Nazis Recriminalize Prostitution

Flag of Nazi Germany.
Source: Wikimedia Commons (accessed Sep. 4, 2013)

Julia Roos, PhD "Backlash against Prostitutes' Rights: Origins and Dynamics of Nazi Prostitution Policies," Journal of the History of Sexuality, Jan.-Apr. 2002

1939 - Nazis Regulate Prostitution

The Nazis began regulating brothels in the fall of 1934. "By 1939 at the latest, Nazi prostitution policies diverged in important ways from previous systems of regulationism. Conventionally, state-regulated prostitution aimed to protect 'respectable' society against moral 'pollution' by prostitutes. The Nazis also strove to eradicate street soliciting and to confine prostitutes to tightly supervised brothels. For the first time, a German government made the establishment of supervised brothels compulsory for all cities and issued standardized regulations for the operation of 'public houses.' What was new about the Nazi system. was the attempt to use the state. to create a certain form of human sexuality. Nazi brothels aimed to maintain the physical fitness and morale of 'Aryan' men. At the same time, the persecution of prostitutes intensified greatly. Previously, prostitutes who violated police orders were punished with fines or short prison and workhouse sentences. In the Third Reich, such violations frequently led to streetwalkers' internment in a concentration camp."

Julia Roos, PhD "Backlash against Prostitutes' Rights: Origins and Dynamics of Nazi Prostitution Policies," Journal of the History of Sexuality, Jan.-Apr. 2002

1941-1944 - "Entertainers" in Honolulu, HI

"Between 1941 and 1944, about 250 prostitutes were registered as ‘entertainers’ with the Honolulu Police Department. Each paid $1 a year for her license and was expected to report her earnings and pay taxes on them. Approximately fifteen houses of prostitution operated in Honolulu. Prostitution was illegal in Hawaii as it was on the mainland. In Hawaii, the May Act [signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1941 to prohibit prostitution aimed at servicement] had been assiduously avoided, although enforcement provisions specifically applied to American territories as well as states. The military and many people in Hawaii approved of them [brothels] because, in the face of what they saw as unstoppable urges and acts, the houses seemed to keep venereal rates relatively low. The brothel district, in one form or another, had existed for decades to serve the huge deployment of marines, sailors, and soldiers. and also to service the disproportionately male population of plantation workers who made Hawaii’s prewar economy go. On September 21, 1944, Governor Stainback. ordered the regulated brothels shut down."

Beth L. Bailey, PhD David Farber, PhD The First Strange Place: The Alchemy of Race and Sex in World War II Hawaii, 1994

May 14, 1944 - Mortensen v. United States

The US Supreme Court in Mortensen v. United States ruled that prostitutes could travel across state lines without violating the Mann Act if the "sole purpose of the journey from beginning to end was to provide innocent recreation" without prostituting.

1946 - 1999

Feb. 1946 - Japan Ends Indentured Servitude

General Douglas MacArthur.
Source: biography.com (accessed Sep. 4, 2013)

TIME Magazine "Yoshiwara Democratized," Feb. 4, 1946

Apr. 13, 1946 - France Bans Brothels

France closed its brothels and prohibited solicitation, but the act of prostitution stayed legal.

Alain Corbin Women for Hire: Prostitution and Sexuality in France After 1850, 1990

May 24, 1956 - Japan Passes Anti-Prostitution Law

Japan’s Law No. 118, the 1956 Anti-Prostitution Law was enacted May 24, 1956 and put in force Apr. 1, 1958. "With that law, the 300-year history of Tokyo's Yoshiwara brothel quarters came to an end -- as did approximately 500 areas utilized for similar purposes around the country."

Mainichi Daily News "The Day Japan's Red Lights Flickered Out," Feb. 25, 2006

1959 - Britain Legalizes Prostitution

Based on the recommendation of the Wolfenden Report, Britain decriminalized prostitution but banned solicitation and other related activities with the Street Offense Act of 1959.

TIME Magazine "Off the Streets," Aug. 31, 1959

1971 - Nevada Regulates Prostitution

A Nevada brothel.
Source: nbcnews.com, Nov. 19, 2012

Richard Symanski, PhD "Prostitution in Nevada," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Sept. 1974

1973 - COYOTE Forms

COYOTE (Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics), the first prostitute's rights group in the United States, is formed in San Francisco by Margo St. James in 1973. Similar groups form across the country form such as FLOP (Friends and Lovers of Prostitutes), HIRE (Hooking Is Real Employment), and PUMA (Prostitute Union of Massachusetts Association).

Valerie Jenness, PhD "From Sex as Sin to Sex as Work: COYOTE and the Reorganization of Prostitution as a Social Problem," Social Problems, Aug. 1990

June 5, 1981 - First Mention of AIDS

On June 5, 1981 the the first mention of what would later be named AIDS appears in medical literature in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

1985 - World Whore Congress

[T]he International Committee for Prositutes' Rights held its first congress in Amsterdam in 1985." This was the first international meeting of prostitute's rights groups.

Nils Johan Ringdal Love For Sale: A World History of Prostitution, 2004

Jan. 1, 1999 - The Swedish Approach

Swedish government anti-prostitution poster.
Source: womensmediacenter.com, Aug. 28, 2012

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "How Sweden Tackles Prostitution," Feb. 8, 2007

Mar. 17, 1999 - Denmark Decriminalizes Prostitution

"Prostitution in Denmark was decriminalised in 1999 [on Mar. 17], but certain related activities remain illegal. Both buying and selling sexual services are legal, but activities such as operating brothels and pimping are illegal, as is prostitution by non-residents. Sex workers are not entitled to the protection of employment laws or unemployment benefits, but they are still required to register for and pay tax, although they do not have to declare prostitution as being their occupation. Part of the rationale behind decriminalisation was that making it legal to sell sex would also make it easier to police."

Britain Home Office "Prostitution: Third Report of Session 2016-2017," parliament.uk, July 1, 2016


Oct. 1, 2000 - Netherlands Legalizes Brothels

Amsterdam's "red light district," the Netherlands.
Source: cnn.com, July 17, 2013

2002 - Germany Reforms Law

The 2002 German Prostitution Reform Law declared prostitution was no longer immoral, that pimping is legal if enforced with formal contracts, it increased access to state health insurance and pension schemes, and allowed prostitutes to sue their clients for non-payment.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "German Prostitutes Get New Rights," Dec. 12, 2001

June 25, 2003 - New Zealand Decriminalizes

On June 25, 2003, by a vote of 60-59, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Prostitution Reform Act of 2003 that decriminalized prostitution and created a system of regulations for brothels.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "NZ Votes To Legalise Prostitution," June 25, 2003

July 2004 - Britain Considers Policy Change

Britain's Home Office produced the report Paying The Price examining the various legal strategies towards prostitution as the government considers possible policy changes.

Britain Home Office "Paying the Price," July 2004

Nov. 2, 2004 - US Communities Vote For and Against Legal Prostitution

On Nov. 2, 2004, the city of Berkeley, California voted 63.51% against decriminalizing prostitution. The same day Churchill County, Nevada voted 62.78% to keep brothels legal even though no brothels existed in the county at the time.

2007 - Hawaii Considers Decriminalization

"A bill to legalize some prostitution in the islands has the backing of at least 14 state lawmakers and many women's rights advocates. Supporters say they mainly want to start debate of the sensitive topic and explore alternatives to decades of selling sex on Honolulu streets. House Bill 982 (and companion Senate Bill 706) might not pass this year. It appears unlikely the bill will get a hearing this session. The decriminalization bill would permit sexual favors done in private, and it would designate areas where prostitution is allowed." [The bill did not receive a hearing.]

Mark Niesse "Prostitution Bill Gains Support," Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Feb. 13, 2007

Nov. 4, 2008 - San Francisco, CA Votes Against Decriminalizing Prostitution

On Nov. 4, 2008, the city and county of San Francisco, CA voted 57.56% to 42.44% against a ballot measure that would decriminalize prostitution by stopping the enforcement of laws related to prostitution and sex workers.

Jan. 1, 2009 - Norway Bans the Purchase of Sex

"A new law has come into force [on Jan. 1, 2009] in Norway making the purchase of sex illegal. Norwegian citizens caught paying for prostitutes at home or abroad could face a hefty fine or a six-month prison sentence, authorities say. The prison sentence could be extended to three years in cases of child prostitution. The tough new measures go further than similar ones introduced by other Nordic countries such as Sweden [on Jan. 1, 1999] and Finland. Norwegian police have been authorised to use wire-tapping devices to gather evidence. Prostitutes will be offered access to free education and health treatment for those with alcohol or drugs problems."

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) "New Norway Law Bans Buying of Sex," www.news.bbc.co.uk, Jan. 1, 2009

June 24, 2009 - Taiwan Legalizes Prostitution

Niko, a 47 year-old prostitute inside a Taipei brothel.
Source: reuters.com, June 24, 2009

"Taiwan began a process of legalizing prostitution Wednesday [June 24, 2009] making the island the latest place in the world to decriminalize the world's oldest profession.

In six months, authorities will stop punishing Taiwan sex workers after prostitutes successfully campaigned to be given the same protection as their clients, a government spokesman said.

Taiwan outlawed prostitution 11 years ago, but older sections of the capital Taipei still teem with underground sex workers in bars and night clubs on the upper floors of high-rise buildings.

The Collective of Sex Workers and Supporters, a Taipei-based advocacy group, estimates that 600,000 people are involved in sex-related jobs."

Reuters "Pressured by Sex Workers, Taiwan OKs Prostitution," www.reuters.com, June 24, 2009

Dec. 11, 2009 - Male Prostitutes Legalized in Nevada Brothels

"Men may now join the ranks of Nevada’s brothel prostitutes, after a unanimous decision today that added language to health codes so male sex workers could be tested for infectious diseases.

Men were previously barred in Nevada from the oldest profession because codes specified that prostitutes must undergo 'cervical' testing for sexually transmitted diseases, which ruled out men.

Bobbi Davis, owner of the Shady Lady Ranch, a small brothel near Beatty, wanted to add male prostitutes to her stable of sex workers.

And while there have been plans for brothels to hire men in the past, Davis made the first-ever request to have the Nevada State Board of Health add [weekly] urethral exams to the guidelines. That allows male sex workers to be tested for sexually transmitted diseases.

Davis has said the men could start working at her five-bed brothel starting in the New Year. The male prostitutes will decide for themselves whether to accept male or female clients, she said, just as the female prostitutes do now."

Las Vegas Sun "New Era: Health Authorities Open Brothels to Male Prostitutes," lasvegassun.com, Dec. 11, 2009

Sep. 28, 2010 - Canadian Court Declares Ban on Brothels and Soliciting Prostitution Unconstitutional

Dominatrix Terri-Jean Bedford, left, and former prostitute Valerie Scott, two of the women who challenged Canada's prostitution laws in Oct. 2009.
Source: cbc.ca, Sep. 28, 2010

"The Ontario Superior Court struck down key provisions of Canada's prostitution law Tuesday [Sep. 28, 2010], saying it endangers sex trade workers.

The ruling, which is being suspended for 30 days, would effectively decriminalize sex trade in the province and, if upheld on appeal, halt enforcement of anti-prostitution laws across Canada.

The court declared unconstitutional portions of the law banning brothels and soliciting for prostitution.

Three Toronto women launched the legal challenge in October 2009, arguing that prohibiting solicitation endangers prostitutes by forcing them to seek customers on street corners.

They called for the decriminalization of prostitution and for the right to open brothels to provide a safer environment for prostitutes.

Agence France-Presse (AFP) "Court Strikes Down Canada's Prostitution Law," news.google.com, Sep. 28, 2010

Aug. 26, 2013 - Zurich Launches Drive-in "Sex Boxes"

Zurich's drive-in "sex boxes."
Source: bbc.co.uk, Aug. 26, 2013

"Although prostitution is legal in Switzerland, critics say the law actually offers little protection to the women themselves.

Now the city has come up with a solution it believes will protect them: soliciting on the streets will be forbidden, and instead prostitutes and their clients will be expected to use a custom-built compound on an industrial site in the Zurich suburbs.

The facility opens this week inside the gates, which are manned by security guards, there is a 'strip' which men can drive down, and select the woman of their choice.

But since all business must take place inside the compound, there are drive-in 'sex boxes', and here the measures taken to protect the women are very apparent.

On the driver's side, the boxes are very narrow, making it difficult for him to get out of the car. On the passenger side, there is plenty of space, an alarm button and an emergency exit."

"The Zurich sex box experiment follows their largely successful introduction in Germany, where they have been in operation in designated big city areas since 2001. They are reported to have led to a 'considerable drop' in violence against sex workers.

But in Dortmund [Germany], a number of sex boxes installed in 2007, were closed down in 2011 after they fell under the control of eastern European gangs."

Independent (UK) "Switzerland Opens Drive-in ‘Sex Boxes’ in Bid to Reduce Zurich's Street Prostitution," independent.co.uk, Aug. 26, 2013

Dec. 6, 2014 - Canada Bans the Purchase (But Not the Sale) of Sex

"The [Dec. 6, 2014] Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act, or Bill C-36, criminalizes the purchase (but not the sale) of sexual services, and restricts the advertisement of sexual services and communication in public for the purpose of prostitution. The bill replaces legislation, overturned in December 2013 by Canada's Supreme Court, which criminalized acts associated with selling sexual services.

Bill C-36 follows the example of Sweden, Norway and Iceland, where the purchase - but not the sale - of sex was criminalized in legislation passed since the late 1990s."

New York Times "Canada's Flawed Sex Trade," nytimes.com, Jan. 20, 2015

Apr. 6, 2016 - France Bans the Purchase (But Not the Sale) of Sex

"The French parliament has finally approved changes to the country's prostitution laws.

On Wednesday [Apr. 6, 2016] legislators approved a bill against prostitution and sex trafficking that bans buying sex, not selling it. Customers who break the law will face fines and be made to attend awareness classes on the harms of the sex trade.

Supporters of the bill argue that it will help fight trafficking networks. But opponents fear that cracking down will push prostitutes to hide, leaving them even more at the mercy of pimps and violent clients.

[T]he legislation has been inspired by Sweden, which passed a similar measure in 1999."

Sydney Morning Herald "France Overhauls Prostitution Laws, Makes It Illegal to Pay for Services," smh.com.au, Apr. 7, 2016

May 25, 2016 - Amnesty International Releases New Policy on Decriminalization of Prostitution

"On Wednesday night [May 25, 2016], Amnesty International released its long-awaited policy on an incredibly contentious issue, calling on governments around the world to 'decriminalize consensual sex work'.

The recommendation was denounced by groups whose goal is to end prostitution, which they see as a source of sexual inequality and harmful to women. Amnesty drew support from public-health advocates and activists who see decriminalization as the best means of reducing the harms associated with the sex industry, including underage prostitution, trafficking and violence. The debate will surely repeat itself, and it will almost as surely be rife with accusations of betrayal."

Military Resources

Mississippians have a long history of serving in the armed forces. Materials documenting this service occur throughout the archives’ collections. Government records include Confederate records, State Auditor’s Confederate pension files, Military Department/Adjutant General series, Veterans’ Affairs Board records, and U.S. military records. The archives has nearly 400 manuscript collections associated with the different wars in which Mississippians have served. The Mississippiana collection includes military history books as well as indices to service records and pension rolls. The archives also has many photographs with military subjects. All of these materials are searchable in the online catalog.

The archives has microfilm copies of service records for Mississippians in the War of 1812 (1812–15), Mexican War (1846–48), Civil War (1861–65), and the Spanish-American War (1898), and draft registration cards for World War I (1917–18). The archives also holds Mississippi World War I statement of service cards, 1917–19.


Musket Wars, settlement and the New Zealand Wars Edit

War had been an integral part of the life and culture of the Māori people. The Musket Wars dominated the first years of European trade and settlement. The first European settlers in the Bay of Islands formed a volunteer militia from which some New Zealand Army units trace their origins. British forces and Māori fought in various New Zealand Wars starting in 1843, and culminating in the Invasion of the Waikato in the mid-1860s, during which colonial forces were used with great effect. From the 1870s, the numbers of Imperial (British) troops was reduced, leaving settler units to continue the campaign.

The first permanent military force was the Colonial Defence Force, which was active in 1862. This was replaced in 1867 by the Armed Constabulary, which performed both military and policing roles. After being renamed the New Zealand Constabulary Force, it was divided into separate military and police forces in 1886. The military force was called the Permanent Militia and later renamed the Permanent Force.

South Africa 1899–1902 Edit

Major Alfred William Robin led the First Contingent sent from New Zealand to South Africa to participate in the Boer War in October 1899. [5] The New Zealand Army sent ten contingents in total (including the 4th New Zealand Contingent), of which the first six were raised and instructed by Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Henry Banks, who led the 6th Contingent into battle. These were mounted riflemen, and the first contingents had to pay to go, providing their own horses, equipment and weapons.

The Defence Act 1909, which displaced the old volunteer system, remodelled the defences of the dominion on a territorial basis, embodying the principles of universal service between certain ages. It provided for a territorial force, or fighting strength, fully equipped for modern requirements, of thirty thousand men. These troops, with the territorial reserve, formed the first line and the second line comprised rifle clubs and training sections. Under the terms of the Act, every male, unless physically unfit, was required to take his share of the defence of the dominion. The Act provided for the gradual military training of every male from the age of 14 to 25, after which he was required to serve in the reserve up to the age of thirty. From the age of 12 to 14, every boy at school performed a certain amount of military training, and, on leaving, was transferred to the senior cadets, with whom he remained, undergoing training, until 18 years of age, when he joined the territorials. After serving in the territorials until 25 (or less if earlier reliefs were recommended), and in the reserve until 30, a discharge was granted but the man remained liable under the Militia Act to be called up, until he reached the age of 55. As a result of Lord Kitchener's visit to New Zealand in 1910, slight alterations were made—chiefly affecting the general and administrative staffs, and which included the establishment of the New Zealand Staff Corps—and the scheme was set in motion in January, 1911. Major-General Sir Alexander Godley, of the Imperial General Staff, was engaged as commandant.

World War I Edit

In World War I New Zealand sent the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF), of soldiers who fought with Australians as the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps at Gallipoli, subsequently immortalised as "ANZACs". The New Zealand Division was then formed which fought on the Western Front and the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade fought in Palestine. After Major General Godley departed with the NZEF in October 1914, Major General Alfred William Robin commanded New Zealand Military Forces at home throughout the war, as commandant.

The total number of New Zealand troops and nurses to serve overseas in 1914–1918, excluding those in British and other dominion forces, was 100,000, from a population of just over a million. Forty-two percent of men of military age served in the NZEF. 16,697 New Zealanders were killed and 41,317 were wounded during the war—a 58 percent casualty rate. Approximately a further thousand men died within five years of the war's end, as a result of injuries sustained, and 507 died whilst training in New Zealand between 1914 and 1918. New Zealand had one of the highest casualty—and death—rates per capita of any country involved in the war.

World War II Edit

In World War II the 2nd Division fought in Greece, Crete, the Western Desert campaign and the Italian campaign. Among its units was the famed 28th Māori Battalion. Following Japan's entry into the war, 3rd Division, 2 NZEF IP (in Pacific) saw action in the Pacific, seizing a number of islands from the Japanese. New Zealanders contributed to various Allied special forces units, such as the original Long Range Desert Group in North Africa and Z Force in the Pacific.

As part of the preparations for the possible outbreak of war in the Pacific, the defensive forces stationed in New Zealand were expanded in late 1941. On 1 November, three new brigade headquarters were raised (taking the total in the New Zealand Army to seven), and three divisional headquarters were established to coordinate the units located in the Northern, Central and Southern Military Districts. [6] The division in the Northern Military District was designated the Northern Division, [7] and comprised the 1st and 12th Brigade Groups. [8] Northern Division later became 1st Division. 4th Division was established in the Central Military District (with 2nd and 7th brigades), and 5th in the south (with 3rd, 10th and 11th brigades).

The forces stationed in New Zealand were considerably reduced as the threat of invasion passed. During early 1943, each of the three home defence divisions were cut from 22,358 to 11,530 men. The non-divisional units suffered even greater reductions. [9] The New Zealand government ordered a general stand-down of the defensive forces in the country on 28 June, which led to further reductions in the strength of units and a lower state of readiness. [10] By the end of the year, almost all of the Territorial Force personnel had been demobilised (though they retained their uniforms and equipment), and only 44 soldiers were posted to the three divisional and seven brigade headquarters. [11] The war situation continued to improve, and the 4th Division, along with the other two divisions and almost all the remaining Territorial Force units, was disbanded on 1 April 1944. [11] [12]

The 6th New Zealand Division was also briefly formed as a deception formation by renaming the NZ camp at Maadi in southern Cairo, the New Zealanders' base area in Egypt, in 1942. [13] In addition, the 1st Army Tank Brigade (New Zealand) was also active for a time.

Post-War and NZ Army formation Edit

The New Zealand Army was formally formed from the New Zealand Military Forces following the Second World War. Attention focused on preparing a third Expeditionary Force potentially for service against the Soviets. Compulsory military training was introduced to man the force, which was initially division-sized. The New Zealand Army Act 1950 stipulated that the Army would consist from then on of Army Troops (army headquarters, Army Schools, and base units) District Troops (Northern Military District, Central and Southern Military Districts, the 12 subordinate area HQs, elementary training elements, coastal artillery and composite AA regiments) and the New Zealand Division, the mobile striking force. [14] The division was alternatively known as '3NZEF'.

Korean War 1951–1957 Edit

The Army's first combat after the Second World War was in the Korean War, which began with North Korea's invasion of the South on 25 June 1950. After some debate, on 26 July 1950, the New Zealand government announced it would raise a volunteer military force to serve with the United Nations Command in Korea. The idea was opposed initially by Chief of the General Staff, Major-General Keith Lindsay Stewart, who did not believe the force would be large enough to be self-sufficient. His opposition was overruled and the government raised what was known as Kayforce, a total of 1,044 men selected from among volunteers. 16th Field Regiment, Royal New Zealand Artillery and support elements arrived later during the conflict from New Zealand. The force arrived at Pusan on New Year's Eve, and on 21 January, joined the British 27th Infantry Brigade representing the 1st Commonwealth Division, along with Australian, Canadian, and Indian forces. The New Zealanders immediately saw combat and spent the next two and a half years taking part in the operations which led the United Nations forces back to and over the 38th Parallel, later recapturing Seoul in the process.

The majority of Kayforce had returned to New Zealand by 1955, though it was not until 1957 that the last New Zealand soldiers had left Korea. In all, about 4700 men served with Kayforce. [15]

Malaya 1948–1964, Indonesia-Borneo 1963–1966 Edit

Through the 1950s, New Zealand Army forces were deployed to the Malayan Emergency, and the Confrontation with Indonesia. A Special Air Service squadron was raised for this commitment, but most forces came from the New Zealand infantry battalion in the Malaysia–Singapore area. The battalion was committed to the Far East Strategic Reserve. [16]

The 1957 national government defence review directed the discontinuation of coastal defence training, and the approximately 1000 personnel of the 9th, 10th, and 11th coastal regiments Royal New Zealand Artillery had their compulsory military training obligation removed. A small cadre of regulars remained, but as Henderson, Green, and Cook say, 'the coastal artillery had quietly died.' [17] All the fixed guns were dismantled and sold for scrap by the early 1960s. After 1945, the Valentine tanks in service were eventually replaced by about ten M41 Walker Bulldogs, supplemented by a small number of Centurion tanks. Eventually, both were superseded by FV101 Scorpion armoured reconnaissance vehicles.

Vietnam War 1964–1972 Edit

New Zealand sent troops to the Vietnam War in 1964 because of Cold War concerns and alliance considerations.

Initial contributions were a New Zealand team of non-combat army engineers in 1964 followed by a battery from the Royal New Zealand Artillery in 1965 which served initially with the Americans until the formation of the 1st Australian Task Force in 1966. Thereafter, the battery served with the task force until 1971.

Two Companies of New Zealand infantry, Whisky Company and Victor Company, served with the 1st Australian Task Force from 1967 until 1971. Some also served with the Australian and New Zealand Army Training teams until 1972.

NZ SAS arrived in 1968 and served with the Australian SAS until the Australian and New Zealand troop withdrawal in 1971.

Members from various branches of the NZ Army also served with U.S and Australian air and cavalry detachments as well as in intelligence, medical, and engineering. [18] In all, 3850 military personnel from all military branches of service served in Vietnam. New Zealand infantry accounted for approximately 1600 and the New Zealand artillery battery accounted for approximately 750.

Late 20th century: peacekeeping Edit

The New Zealand Division was disbanded in 1961, as succeeding governments reduced the force, first to two brigades, and then a single one. [19] This one-brigade force became, in the 1980s, the Integrated Expansion Force, to be formed by producing three composite battalions from the six Territorial Force infantry regiments. In 1978, a national museum for the Army, the QEII Army Memorial Museum, was built at Waiouru, the Army's main training base in the central North Island.

After the 1983 Defence Review, the Army's command structure was adjusted to distinguish more clearly the separate roles of operations and base support training. There was an internal reorganisation within the Army General Staff, and New Zealand Land Forces Command in Takapuna was split into a Land Force Command and a Support Command. [20] Land Force Command, which from then on comprised 1st Task Force in the North Island and the 3rd Task Force in the South Island, assumed responsibility for operational forces, Territorial Force manpower management and collective training. Support Command which from then on comprised three elements, the Army Training Group in Waiouru, the Force Maintenance Group (FMG) based in Linton, and Base Area Wellington (BAW) based in Trentham, assumed responsibility for individual training, third line logistics and base support. Headquarters Land Force Command remained at Takapuna, and Headquarters Support Command was moved to Palmerston North.

The Army was prepared to field a Ready Reaction Force which was a battalion group based on 2/1 RNZIR the Integrated Expansion Force (17 units) brigade sized, which would be able to follow up 90 days after mobilization and a Force Maintenance Group of 19 units to provide logistical support to both forces. [21]

The battalion in South East Asia, designated 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment by that time, was brought home in 1989.

In the late 1980s, Exercise Golden Fleece was held in the North Island. It was the largest exercise for a long period. [22]

During the later part of the 20th century, New Zealand personnel served in a large number of UN and other peacekeeping deployments including:

    for over 50 years in the Middle East [23] in Rhodesia [24] (MFO) in the Sinai, Cambodia where members of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals (RNZSigs) were attached to the Australian Force Communications Unit (FCU) of the United Nations Transitional Authority Cambodia (UNTAC) [25]
  • United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) in Somalia[26]
  • United Nations Accelerated Demining Programme (ADP) in Mozambique [27] in Angola [28] in Bosnia [29]
  • The Endeavour Peace Accord, Bougainville[30]

In 1994, the Army was granted a status of iwidom as "Ngāti Tūmatauenga" with the blessings of the Māori Queen Te Atairangikaahu and surrounding tribes of the base in Waiouru: Ngāti Tūwharetoa, Ngāti Kahungunu, Ngāti Maniapoto and Ngāti Tuhoe. [1]

21st century Edit

In the 21st century, New Zealanders have served in East Timor (1999 onwards), [31] Afghanistan, [32] and Iraq. [33]

In 2003, the New Zealand government decided to replace its existing fleet of M113 armoured personnel carriers, purchased in the 1960s, with the Canadian-built NZLAV, [34] and the M113s were decommissioned by the end of 2004. An agreement made to sell the M113s via an Australian weapons dealer in February 2006 had to be cancelled when the US State Department refused permission for New Zealand to sell the M113s under a contract made when the vehicles were initially purchased. [35] The replacement of the M113s with the General Motors LAV III (NZLAV) led to a review in 2001 on the purchase decision-making by New Zealand's auditor-general. The review found shortcomings in the defence acquisition process, but not in the eventual vehicle selection. In 2010, the government said it would look at the possibility of selling 35 LAVs, around a third of the fleet, as being surplus to requirements. [36]

On 4 September 2010, in the aftermath of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake, the New Zealand Defence Force deployed to the worst affected areas of Christchurch to aid in relief efforts and assist NZ police in enforcing a night time curfew at the request of Christchurch Mayor Bob Parker and Prime Minister John Key. [37] [38]

Commemorations Edit

NZ Army Day is celebrated on 25 March, the anniversary of the day in 1845 when the New Zealand Legislative Council passed the first Militia Act on 25 March 1845 constituting the New Zealand Army. [39]

ANZAC Day is the main annual commemorative activity for New Zealand soldiers. On 25 April each year the landings at Gallipoli are remembered, though the day has come to mean remembering the fallen from all wars in which New Zealand has been involved. While a New Zealand public holiday, it is a duty day for New Zealand military personnel, who, even if not involved in official commemorative activities are required to attend an ANZAC Day Dawn Parade in ceremonial uniform in their home location.

Remembrance Day, commemorating the end of World War I on 11 November 1918, is marked by official activities with a military contribution normally with parades and church services on the closest Sunday. However, ANZAC Day has a much greater profile and involves a much higher proportion of military personnel.

New Zealand Wars Day is commemorated on 28 October, this is the national day marking the 19th-century New Zealand Wars. [40]

The various regiments of the New Zealand Army mark their own Corps Days, many of which are derived from those of the corresponding British regiments. Examples are Cambrai Day on 20 November for the Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps, St Barbara's Day on 4 December for the Royal Regiment of New Zealand Artillery.

The New Zealand Army currently has personnel deployed in these locations:

    – Over 100 in a non-combat training mission to build the capacity of the Iraqi security forces working alongside the Australian Army based at Taji since 2015 as part of Operation Okra. [33] – Mentoring at the Afghan National Army Officer Training Academy. [32][41] The NZ Provincial Reconstruction Team (New Zealand) (NZ PRT), ended in April 2013. [32]
  • Middle East – 2 serving in the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization. [41] – At least 1 serving in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan. [41] – At least 1 serving in the United Nations Command Military Armistice Commission. [41]

Up to 1500 soldiers may be stationed for up to 30 days in Germany, a period that can on agreement be extended up to two years. [42]

Like all Commonwealth countries uniforms of the New Zealand Army had historically followed those of the British Army. From World War II until the late 1950s British Battledress was worn, with British-issue "Jungle Greens" being used as field wear with Beret or Khaki Cap and British Boonie hat (usually called a "J hat") during the Malayan Emergency, Borneo and the earlier stages of the Vietnam War.

After initially serving with the U.S Army, New Zealand forces in Vietnam were amalgamated into the 1st Australian Task Force in 1966 and adopted Australian Jungle Greens ("JGs") from 1967. Uniforms were initially supplied from 1ATF stocks but were eventually made in New Zealand. In the early part of the war New Zealanders wore a black cravat embroidered with a small white Kiwi bird, a practice which began in Borneo in 1966. At first this was worn as part of the formal dress (although never official) but as the JGs worn by New Zealanders were almost identical to their Australian counterparts, the cravat was then sometimes worn on operations to distinguish them from Australians. [43] [44] Some local acquisition of U.S uniforms and equipment also occurred. The American uniforms were said to be popular with platoon leaders, mortar crew, and artillery men due to ease of carrying maps and documents. [45] [46]

The Australian JGs underwent some modifications to resemble U.S fatigues in 1968 and these new uniforms, nicknamed "pixie suits" (for the slant of the shirt pockets) were worn by New Zealand and Australian troops until the end of the war.

The New Zealand Special Air Service were issued with standard U.S battle dress uniform fatigues in ERDL camouflage pattern during the Vietnam War period and through the 1970s thereafter. [47] [48]

Jungle Greens continued to be used as field wear by the New Zealand Army throughout the 1970s until the introduction of Military camouflage in 1980 and a return to British-style field uniforms. British DPM was adopted in 1980 as the camouflage pattern for clothing, the colours of which were further modified several times to better suit New Zealand conditions. This evolved pattern is now officially referred to as New Zealand disruptive pattern material (NZDPM.) Reforms in 1997 saw British-influenced modifications to the New Zealand combat uniform.

The high crowned Campaign hat, nicknamed the "lemon squeezer" in New Zealand, was for decades the most visible national distinction. This was adopted by the Wellington Regiment about 1911 and became general issue for all New Zealand units during the latter stages of World War I. The different branches of service were distinguished by coloured puggaree or wide bands around the base of the crown (blue and red for artillery, green for mounted rifles, khaki and red for infantry etc.). The "lemon squeezer" was worn to a certain extent during World War II, although often replaced by more convenient forage caps or berets, or helmets. After being in abeyance since the 1950s, the Campaign hat was reintroduced for ceremonial wear in 1977 for Officer cadets and the New Zealand Army Band. [49]

The M1 steel helmet was the standard combat helmet from 1960 to 2000 although the "boonie hat," was common in overseas theatres, such as in the Vietnam War. New Zealand forces also used the U.S PASGT helmet until 2009 after which the Australian Enhanced Combat Helmet became the standard issue helmet until 2019. The current combat helmet is the Viper P4 Advanced Combat Helmet by Revision Military. [50] [51]

In the 1990s a universal pattern mess uniform replaced various regimental and corps mess dress uniforms previously worn. The mess uniform is worn by officers and senior NCOs for formal evening occasions.

The wide-brimmed khaki slouch hat known as the Mounted Rifles Hat (MRH) with green puggaree replaced the khaki "No 2" British Army peaked cap as service dress headdress for all branches in 1998.

From 2002 under a "one beret" policy, berets of all branches of service are now universally rifle-green, with the exceptions only of the tan beret of the New Zealand Special Air Service and the blue beret of the New Zealand Defence Force Military Police.

In 2003 a desert DPM pattern, also based on the British pattern was in use with New Zealand peacekeeping forces in Iraq, Afghanistan and Africa. NZ SAS soldiers serving in Afghanistan were issued with Australian-sourced uniforms in Crye MultiCam camouflage.

In 2008 the field uniform was updated to the modern ACU style and made in ripstop material. [52]

In 2012 the MRH became the standard Army ceremonial headdress with the "lemon squeezer" being retained only for colour parties and other limited categories. [53]

NZDPM and NZDDPM were replaced in 2013 by a single camouflage pattern and a new uniform called the New Zealand Multi Terrain Camouflage Uniform (MCU.) [54] [55] The shirt remains in an ACU-style however the pants are based on the Crye G3 combat pant with removable knee pads, usually otherwise associated with Special Forces and Police tactical unit assault uniforms. [56] [57] [58] The MCU, with the addition of a beret or sometimes the Mounted Rifles Hat, was the working uniform for all branches and divisions of the NZ Army, and certain units within the RNZN and RNZAF. After several years in service, modifications to the uniform have since followed with a change in material to Teredo [59] (polyester/cotton twill) for both uniform and boonie hat, a return to covered buttons, and the removal of the elbow and knee pad pockets. [60]

In late 2020,due to shortcomings and poor performances of the MCU uniform, the New Zealand Army has begun replacing the MCUs with a new camouflage pattern called NZMTP, based on the British Multi-Terrain Pattern (MTP), using a Multicam colour palette, produced by Crye Precision in the United States. The new uniforms will revert to the 2008 cut and be manufactured locally. [62]

Uniform accessories such as plate carriers, webbing, belts and wet weather clothing will be purchased in MultiCam pattern to source using the current market and reduce costs.

Rank structure and insignia Edit

The New Zealand Army is commanded by the Chief of Army (Chief of the General Staff until 2002), who is a major general or two-star appointment. The current Chief of Army is Major General John Boswell. The Chief of Army has responsibility for raising, training and sustaining those forces necessary to meet agreed government outputs. For operations, the Army's combat units fall under the command of the Land Component Commander, who is on the staff of the COMJFNZ at Headquarters Joint Forces New Zealand at Trentham in Upper Hutt. Forces under the Land Component Commander include the 1st Brigade, Training and Doctrine Command, [64] and the Joint Support Group (including health, military police).

No. 3 Squadron RNZAF provides tactical air transport.

Land Training and Doctrine Group

  • Land Operations Training Centre Waiouru encompasses the main army trade schools:
    • Combat School
    • School of Artillery
    • Logistics Operations School
    • School of Tactics
    • Royal New Zealand School of Signals
    • Trade Training School (Trentham)
    • School of Military Engineering, 2 Engineer Regiment (Linton)

    Regiments and corps of the New Zealand Army Edit

    The following is a list of the Corps of the New Zealand Army, ordered according to the traditional seniority of all the Corps. [66]

    • New Zealand Corps of Officer Cadets
    • Royal New Zealand Chaplains Department
    • New Zealand Army Legal Service
    • Royal New Zealand Army Education Corps
    • New Zealand Army Physical Training Corps

    Army Reserve Edit

    The Territorial Force (TF), the long established reserve component of the New Zealand Army, has as of 2009–2010 been renamed the Army Reserve, in line with other Commonwealth countries, though the term "Territorial Force" remains the official nomenclature in the Defence Act 1990. [67] It provides individual augmentees and formed bodies for operational deployments. There are Reserve units throughout New Zealand, and they have a long history. The modern Army Reserve is divided into three regionally-based battalion groups. Each of these is made up of smaller units of different specialities. The terms 'regiment' and 'battalion group' seem to be interchangeably used, which can cause confusion. However, it can be argued that both are accurate in slightly different senses. In a tactical sense, given that the Reserve units are groupings of all arms, the term 'battalion group' is accurate, though usually used for a much more single-arm heavy grouping, three infantry companies plus one armoured squadron, for example. NZ reserve battalion groups are composed of a large number of small units of different types.

    The term 'regiment' can be accurately applied in the British regimental systems sense, as all the subunits collectively have been given the heritage of the former NZ infantry regiments (1900–1964). TF regiments prepare and provide trained individuals in order to top-up and sustain operational and non-operational units to meet directed outputs. TF regiments perform the function of a training unit, preparing individuals to meet prescribed outputs. The six regiments command all Territorial Force personnel within their region except those posted to formation or command headquarters, Military Police (MP) Company, Force Intelligence Group (FIG) or 1 New Zealand Special Air Services (NZSAS) Regiment. At a minimum, each regiment consists of a headquarters, a recruit induction training (RIT) company, at least one rifle company, and a number of combat support or combat service support companies or platoons.

    3/1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment, previously existed on paper as a cadre. [68] If needed, it would have been raised to full strength through the regimentation of the Territorial Force infantry units. Army plans now envisage a three manoeuvre unit structure of 1 RNZIR, QAMR, and 2/1 RNZIR (light), being brought up to strength by TF individual and subunit reinforcements.

    The New Zealand Cadet Corps also exists as an army-affiliated youth training and development organisation, part of the New Zealand Cadet Forces.

    A rationalisation plan to amalgamate the then existing six Reserve Regiments to three, and to abolish one third of Reserve personnel posts, had been mooted for some years. This was finally agreed by the New Zealand government in August 2011, and was implemented in 2012. [69] [70]

    The New Zealand Scottish, a Territorial Force regiment first established in January 1939, and perpetuating the battle honors of the Divisional Cavalry of the 2nd New Zealand Division, was finally disbanded in April 2016. [71] After a final parade on April 16, 2016, its Regimental Colours were laid up in the Toitu Otago Settlers Museum, Dunedin. [72]

    The Territorial Forces Employer Support Council is an organisation that provides support to Reserve personnel of all three services and their civilian employers. It is a national organisation appointed by the minister of defence to work with employers and assist in making Reserve personnel available for operational deployments. [73]

    World War I Military Service Cards

    In July 1919, the United States Congress passed an act providing that a record of service for each soldier, sailor, and marine who served between April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1919, be created and furnished to the adjutant general of the individual states.

    • name
    • serial/service number
    • race
    • place and date of enlistment or induction
    • place of birth
    • age or date of birth
    • service organization(s) with assignment dates and transfers
    • rank (grade) with date of appointment
    • engagements
    • whether wounded in action, degree and date
    • overseas service dates
    • discharge/separation date and information
    • degree of disability at discharge
    • may include application cards for Victory Medals

    The service records for most World War I Army veterans were destroyed in a 1973 fire at the National Personnel Records Center of the National Archives (St. Louis). These records may be the only sources of information.

    • Army Service Record Cards
    • Statements of service cards
    • World War I service medal applications (because these are often grouped together)

    Might be in the Adjutant General's office, the state archives, or a museum. Some are available as microfilm collections in FamilySearch.org or as searchable databases in Ancestry.

    • Delaware -- Delaware Public Archives
    • Georgia -- Online in Ancestry
    • Texas -- Texas Military Forces Museum

    Alfred H. Carrigan, Jr. World War I Service cards. Texas Military Forces Museum

    Development of service cards:

    The Williams Family

    In 1818, John Gadsby was assessed and taxed for owning thirty-six enslaved individuals in Baltimore—including two young women named “Maria” and “Kezia.” 1 These names also appear twenty-six years later in a property inventory taken after Gadsby’s death. Maria Williams is listed along with her children Martha, Mary Ellen, and James Keziah Williams, with her children Mary and William. 2 But how did these two sisters end up in Washington? What happened to them after John Gadsby’s death and after slavery was abolished in the District? This article explores the history of the Williams family who lived and worked at Decatur House on Lafayette Square.

    This photograph shows Decatur House between 1918 and 1920. The attached service wing behind the house was used as a slave quarters for most of the antebellum period. John Gadsby purchased the home in 1836.

    For nearly forty years, John Gadsby had operated lodging establishments in Alexandria, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. In all of his hospitality businesses, Gadsby relied heavily on enslaved people to cook, clean, and attend to his guests. As a result, he frequently purchased or hired out enslaved individuals. In 1808, he left Alexandria for Baltimore, where he leased the Indian Queen Tavern. According to the 1810 census, there were forty-five enslaved people listed with John Gadsby at the establishment—probably one of the largest enslaved staffs in the city at that time. 3 According to Samuel Breck, a visitor who stayed at the Indian Queen in September 1809, the inn could accommodate “two hundred lodgers, and has two splendid billiard-rooms, large stables, and many other appendages. The numerous bedchambers have all bells, and the servants are more attentive than in any public or private house I ever knew.” Breck noted that there was only one other public house in Baltimore that was “equally well conducted” but admitted it was “of less magnitude” than the Indian Queen. 4

    Breck also remarked that the hotel was kept “in a style exceeding anything that [he had] seen in Europe or America.” Gadsby’s elegant accommodations and gracious hospitality—along with the many improvements he made to the property—eventually caught up with him. By 1817, he was trying to sell his lease and a “very valuable tract of land” just outside the city. The tract was “nearly 900 acres” and about half of it was “in a state of productive cultivation…the remainder [was] covered in fine timber.” 5 Gadsby’s decision to sell the lease and his land suggests he was struggling financially. A year later, tax records indicate that he owned thirty-six enslaved people. By 1820, Gadsby was no longer at the Indian Queen and most likely living on the farm he previously tried to sell, along with his family, fifteen enslaved people, and three free African Americans. 6 While we do not know for certain what happened to the other twenty-one enslaved people, Gadsby likely sold some of them in order to pay his debts. In March 1822, notice was given “to the creditors of John Gadsby, an insolvent debtor” in the city and county of Baltimore. 7

    In the 1810 census, forty-five enslaved people were listed with John Gadsby, who was operating the Indian Queen Tavern in Baltimore.

    National Archives and Records Administration

    Shortly thereafter, John Gadsby left Baltimore for Washington, D.C. in 1823. For three years he ran the Franklin House Hotel before moving on to his most successful venture—the National Hotel. He again required a large workforce—at least thirty-nine enslaved individuals and four free African Americans according to the 1830 census. 8 There were also six enslaved women between the ages of ten and twenty-three in his household.

    In 1836, John Gadsby purchased his retirement home on Lafayette Square for $12,000. The house, located on the northwest corner of the park, was originally built in 1818-1819 for Commodore Stephen Decatur and his wife Susan. After Stephen’s unexpected death in 1820, Susan rented the property to prominent tenants such as Baron Hyde de Neuville, French Minister to the United States, and Baron de Tuyll, the Russian Minister to the United States. A succession of secretaries of state soon followed—Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren, and Edward Livingston. The last occupant before Gadsby was Sir Charles Richard Vaughan, the British Minister to the United States. 9 Click here to learn more about the enslaved households of President Martin Van Buren.

    When Gadsby retired from the National Hotel in 1836, he moved to Decatur House and brought with him a small staff of around ten enslaved people. Four years later, the Gadsby household included at least eleven enslaved people and two free African Americans. There were only two enslaved women between the ages of twenty-four and thirty-five living at Decatur House at that time. 10 Based on the documented evidence, these women were likely Maria and Keziah. They had been born in Maryland and were either purchased by John Gadsby or born to a mother enslaved by him. At some point, they were separated from their family and taken to Washington to work in Gadsby’s businesses.

    This photograph shows a list of enslaved individuals who were counted as part of the property inventories for John Gadsby in 1844. Sisters Maria and Keziah Williams had five children between the two of them. Mary Ann, James, and William were likely born into slavery at Decatur House.

    White House Historical Association/National Archives

    Upon John Gadsby’s death in 1844, he bequeathed seventeen enslaved individuals to his wife Providence—including seven members of the Williams family. Maria and Keziah were sisters, and the mothers of Martha (8), Mary Ellen (5), James (3), Mary (8), and William (6). Martha and Mary would have been born sometime around 1834, just a couple years before Gadsby retired from the hotel. While we don’t know for certain why Maria, Keziah, and their young daughters were taken from the National Hotel, perhaps it was because they were mothers with infant children. The other three Williams children—Mary Ellen, James, and William—were likely born into slavery at Decatur House. There is no indication of a husband or father for either family in Gadsby’s inventory, which suggests that the fathers of these children were either owned by someone else or free men. These children inherited their enslaved status from their mothers, as well as the surname Williams. 11

    According to the 1850 Slave Schedules, twelve enslaved people lived with Providence Gadsby at Decatur House. Based on the estimated ages, it appears that Maria, Keziah, Mary Ellen, and James were still there. Martha Ann, Mary Frances, and William were not present. The girls would have been about fourteen years old at that time William would have been about twelve. While we don’t know what happened to them, it is possible that they were sold, hired out elsewhere, escaped, or a family member bought their freedom. Providence Gadsby’s death eight years later sheds some light on this mystery. Her probate records list the names of sixteen enslaved individuals, including Maria Williams, Jim Williams, and Lewis Williams. There is a Mary Frances Long listed as well, and this person very likely was Mary Frances Williams since the names and ages match up. Martha Ann and William are still absent, and so is Keziah and her niece Mary Ellen. 12 At some point between 1850 and 1858, the Williams sisters—who had spent most of their lives together—were separated from each other.

    This photograph shows a list of enslaved individuals who were counted as part of the property inventories for Providence Gadsby, John Gadsby's wife, in 1858. The names that are bolded appear in both John and Providence's property inventories. Keziah and William Williams are no longer present Mary F. Williams may have married and become Mary Frances Long. At some point between 1850 and 1858, sisters Maria and Keziah were separated from each other.

    White House Historical Association/National Archives

    In 1862, Congress passed legislation to emancipate the enslaved population of Washington, D.C. The law also provided compensation to slave owners for their loss of property so long as they filed a petition with the commissioners. These documents tell us more about the last enslaved members of the Williams family at Decatur House. John Gadsby’s daughter, Augusta McBlair, filed a petition in May 1862 for compensation for six enslaved individuals—one of whom was matriarch Maria Williams. According to the record, Maria was “about 5 feet 6 inches high,” had a “high Brown complexion, scarred face, Black hair & eyes.” She was “a capital cook & laundress, commands $8 per month, and is valued at $800.” 13 Based on her description, Maria would have been working in the large kitchen and laundry on the first floor of the Decatur House service wing and living upstairs in the Slave Quarters. Click here to see a virtual tour of the Decatur House Slave Quarters.

    James Williams also received his freedom through this process when Mary Augusta Gadsby, wife of William Gadsby and daughter-in-law to John and Providence, filed a similar petition. Mary described James as about nineteen-years-old with “black hair & eyes, thick lips, [a] gruff voice, and about five feet eight inches high.” He was “a first class waiter, a superior cook, & a thorough house servant and he has no mental, moral, or physical infirmity.” 14 Three months later, Maria’s youngest son, Lewis, received his certificate of freedom with John McBlair serving as witness. McBlair participated on behalf of his sister-in-law Julia Ten Eyck, who was living in New Jersey at the time but still owned three enslaved individuals. There isn’t much detail about Lewis besides his age, height, and skin complexion—but he did make his mark on the document to receive his certificate of freedom. 15 These petitions tell us that Maria, James, and Lewis were separated upon Providence’s death and divided among the Gadsby children. Fortunately, they remained in Washington, D.C., and therefore were eligible for freedom in 1862.

    This petition was filed by Mary Augusta Gadsby, the wife of William Gadsby, on May 19, 1862. She sought compensation from the government for the loss of James Williams, "a first class waiter, a superior cook, & a thorough house servant."

    National Archives, Record Group 217

    Twenty-one-year-old “James H. Williams” appears in Civil War draft registration records the following summer—he was unmarried, living on I Street NW and working as a servant at that time. 16 Three years later, on October 25, 1866, eighteen-year-old Lewis Williams signed up to join the United States Army. He was assigned to the 40th Infantry 25th Regiment, one of four new regiments created for African-American soldiers after the Civil War. Williams was sent to Ship Island, Mississippi, where he served at the Fort Massachusetts garrison. After he finished his three-year enlistment, Private Williams was discharged from service on October 25, 1869. 17 He headed back to Washington, D.C., but it is difficult to determine if the family was reunited prior to 1870.

    On October 25, 1866, eighteen-year-old Lewis Williams enlisted in the United States Army. He served for three years and was discharged at Ship Island in Mississippi.

    National Archives, Record Group 94

    According to the Washington, D.C. city directories, “Williams” was a popular name in the African-American community. 18 However, there was only one “Maria Williams” listed in the 1867 city directory. She was recorded as a colored laundress, living at 263 20th Street—near today’s Robert Latham Owen Park. Based on her listed skills in her freedom petition, this individual is likely Maria Williams. Three years later, Maria and her sons James and Lewis were living together in Ward 1 of Washington. James (25), Maria (58), and Lewis (19) lived with a 100-year-old woman named Mary Montgomery. James was listed as a laborer Maria as keeping house and Lewis a wagon driver. Maria’s birthplace is recorded as Maryland, further evidence that she was brought to the District as a young woman by John Gadsby. While James was recorded as a citizen of the United States, all three were listed as illiterate, like most formerly enslaved people who were denied education earlier in their lives. 19

    The 1870 census shows Maria Williams reunited and living with her sons, James and Lewis, in Washington, D.C.

    National Archives and Records Administration

    Beyond 1880, it is impossible to pinpoint exactly where the Williams brothers lived or how they were employed. By 1883, there are three “Maria Williams,” three “Lewis Williams,” and twenty-seven “James Williams” listed in the city directory. 20 In the D.C. probate records there is a will signed by “James H. Williams” dated October 28, 1903, in which James bequeaths his goods, chattels, and personal property to his “beloved brother Lewis Williams.” 21 It is also quite possible that this James and Lewis Williams are not the same Williams brothers in question—further revealing the many research challenges that arise when tracing the lineage of enslaved individuals and families.

    Mary Frances Long (formerly Mary Frances Williams and the eldest daughter of Keziah) also remerged after Providence Gadsby’s death in 1858. On August 20, 1859, she received manumission papers at the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. 22 According to the 1860 census, Mary was working as a “washerwoman” and living with four other African-American women. She also had a daughter, Lucinda Long, who was four years old at the time. 23 Mary Long was still working as a laundress ten years later, but her daughter Lucinda was at school. Lucinda had already learned how to read and would learn how to write soon thereafter—but her mother Mary remained illiterate, as there were few educational opportunities for women of color after emancipation. 24

    On August 20, 1859, Mary Frances Long received her freedom papers when a man named Francis Loronades took an oath before a justice of the peace and swore that he knew Mary and that she was a free woman.

    National Archives, Record Group 21

    The story of the Williams family is harrowing and unfortunately far from complete. The purpose of the Slavery in the President’s Neighborhood research initiative is to tell the stories of enslaved and free African Americans who lived and worked in the neighborhood. We seek to restore these individuals to the historical forefront—but this will require collaborative efforts by historians, researchers, archivists, and descendants. We hope that this research will spur public interest and encourage individuals to contact us at [email protected] with any more information on the Williams family.

    Thanks to Liz Williams, Director of Gadsby's Tavern and Museum, and Alexandra Lane of the White House Historical Association for their contributions to this article.

    ISDE 1983: new book by Paul Clipper of US Trail Bike Mag fame

    01 Friday Feb 2019

    This is the promo blurb Paul Clipper put out I’m hoping to try to pin him down to do something special for STT on his experiences of Wales..May even try to get him to release a version at Apple Books

    I want to announce that I have a new Six Days book available at Amazon. ISDE 1983, Builth Wells, Wales is available now as a Kindle book or as a paperback. Wales 󈨗 is the second in a series of maybe 6 or 8 Six Days books I plan to do, digging out all my old photos of the event and putting into print much more than what was in the magazines back in the day. For Wales, I have about 100 photos of our old heroes, all of them much skinnier and sporting more hair–or darker hair–than they do now! It should be a fun read for Six Days fans out there, please check it out on Amazon! BTW, that’s Larry Roeseler on the cover, just in case you’re curious!

    Also, note that ISDE 1982 is available as both a Kindle or a paperback now as are pretty much all of the books, except the Nevada Rally book. I’m trying to make that into a paperback but it’s fighting me every step of the way. Soon, I hope.

    Conscription’s Results

    A broadly popular but divisive measure, conscription polarized provinces, ethnic and linguistic groups, communities, and families, and had lasting political effects on the country as a whole. For many Canadians, it was an important and necessary contribution to a faltering war effort for others, it was an oppressive act passed dishonestly by a government more British than Canadian.

    Farmers sought agricultural exemptions from compulsory service until the end of the war. Borden’s government, anxious for farmers’ votes, agreed to limited exemptions, largely for farmers’ labouring sons, but broke the promise after the election. The bitterness among farmers, many of them in the West, led to the development of new federal and provincial parties.

    French-speaking Canadians continued their protests as well, and young men by the tens of thousands joined others from across Canada in refusing to register for the selection process. Of those that did register, 93 percent applied for an exemption. An effort to arrest suspected draft dodgers was highly unpopular across the province and, at its worst, resulted in several days of rioting and street battles in Quebec City at Easter, 1918. The violence left four civilians dead and dozens injured, and shocked supporters on both sides.

    Conscription had an impact on Canada’s war effort. By the Armistice, 48,000 conscripts had been sent overseas, half of which served at the front, providing crucial soldiers for the Hundred Days campaign. These reinforcements allowed the Canadian Corps to continue fighting in a series of battles, delivering victory after victory, from August to the end of the war on 11 November 1918. More than 50,000 more conscripts remained in Canada. These soldiers would have been required had the war continued into 1919, as many expected it would.

    Keep exploring with these topics:

    Objects & Photos

    Voting up the Line

    Canadian soldiers at the front voting in the 1917 election. Two soldiers with a sack wait to collect the completed ballots. Canadians engaged in military service, regardless of race, age or gender, were eligible to vote. Ninety percent of them voted for Sir Robert Borden's Union government that ran a campaign based on invoking conscription.

    Watch the video: Culture Clash: British and German Military Innovation at War, 1914-18. Dr Jonathan Boff (July 2022).


    1. Meziramar

      I think you are not right. I'm sure.

    2. Lludd

      Bravo, seems remarkable idea to me is

    3. Perkins


    4. Cougar

      UUUUUUUUUUUI ........... this is what the guys are building))))

    5. Augustus

      Weak consolation!

    6. Gardashicage

      Sorry for interfering ... I understand this issue. I invite you to a discussion. Write here or in PM.

    Write a message