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Battle Index: P

Battle Index: P

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Paardeberg, battle of, 18-27 February 1900
Pagasea or the Crocus Field, battle of, 353 BC
Palermo, battle of, 27-30 May 1860
Palestrina, 9 May 1849
Palestro, battle of, 30-31 May 1859
Pallantia, siege of, 74 BC
Paltzig, battle of, 23 July 1759
Pamplona, French capture of, 16 February 1808
Panipat, first battle of, 21 April 1526
Panormus, siege of, 254 B.C.
Panormus, battle of, 412 BC
Panormus, battle of, 251 B.C.
Pantelleria, Invasion of (Operation Corkscrew), 11 June 1943
Paoli Massacre, 20-21 September 1777
Papa, combat of, 12 June 1809
Paphos, siege of, c.497
Paris or Montmartre, battle of, 30 March 1814
Paris, siege of, 30 July- c.5/6 August 1589
Paris, siege of, November 1589
Paris, siege of, 7 May-30 August 1590
Paros, siege of, 489 BC
Parry, battle of, 22 February 1944
Passchendaele, First battle of, 12 October 1917
Passchendaele, Second battle of, 26 October-10 November 1917
Patay, 18 June 1429
Pavia, battle of, 24 February 1525
Pavia, siege of, 27 October 1524-24 February 1525
Peachtree Creek, battle of, 20 July 1864
Pea Ridge or Elkhorn Tavern, Battle of, 7-8 March 1862
Pearl Harbor: The Day of Infamy, 7 December 1941
Pedasus or Pedasa, battle of, 497 or 496 BC
Pedum, battle of, 338 B.C.
Peleliu, battle for (Operation Stalemate II) - The Pacific War's Forgotten Battle, September-November 1944
Pelusium, battle of, early 525
Pelusium, siege of, early 47 BC
Penang Raid, 28 October 1914
Pengcheng, battle of, 205 BC
Perch, Operation, 9-14 June 1944
Perinthus, siege of, 340-339 BC
Perpetual, Operation, 11-12 November 1942
Petersburg, battle of, 15-18 June 1864
Perpenna’s Defeat, 72 BC
Perpignan, battle of, 17 July 1793
Perryville, battle of, 8 October 1862
Perryville, battle of, 8 October 1862, armies at
Perusia, battle of, 310/309 BC
Peso de Regoa, combat of, 10 May 1809
Peterswalde, combat, 16 September (Bohemia)
Peyrestortes, combat of, 17 September 1793
Pfaffenhoffen, combat, 19 April 1809
Pfrimm, combat on the, 10 November 1795
Phaedriades, battle of, 355 BC
Pharsalus, battle of, 9 August 48 BC
Pharwala, battle of, 15 March 1519
Philiphaugh, battle of, 13 September 1645 (Scotland)
Philippi, battle of, 4 June 1861
Philippine Sea, battle of , 19-20 June 1944
Phlius, siege of, 381-380/379 BC
Phung-Tao or Asan, battle of, 25 July 1894
Phyle, battle of, 403 BC
Piave, battle of the, 8 May 1809
Piave, battle of the, 15-23 June 1918
Picardy, first battle of, 22-26 September 1914
Piedmont, battle of, 5 June 1864
Pignerol, combat of, 15 September 1799
Pine Bluff, battle of, 25 October 1863
Piraeus, battle of, 403 BC
Piraeus, siege of, autumn 87- spring 86 B.C.
Pirmasens, battle of, 14 September 1793
Pirna, battle of, 26 August 1813
Pittsburg Landing, battle of, 6-7 April 1862
Placentia, battle of, 82 BC
Plagwitz, combat of, 29 August 1813
Plains of Abraham, battle of, 13 September 1759 (Canada)
Plane Tree Pass, battle of the, 218 BC
Plassey, battle of, 23 June 1757 (India)
Plataea, battle of, August 479 BC
Plataea, siege, 429-427 BC
Platrand, battle of the, 6 January 1900
Platzberg and Trippstadt, Combat of, 13-14 July 1794
Pleasant Hill, Battle of, 9 April 1864
Plistica, siege of, 316-315 and 315 BC
Plymouth, action off, 16 August 1652
Podol, Action of, 26-27 June 1866
Poelcappelle, battle of, 9 October 1917
Poitiers, battle of, 19 September 1356
Poitiers, siege of, 27 July-7 September 1569
Polonka, battle of, 27 June 1660
Poltava, battle of, 28 June 1709
Polygon Wood, battle of, 26-27 September 1917
Pombal, combat of, 11 March 1811
Pompeii, siege, ends after 11 June 89 BC
Pondicherry, siege, August-October 1748
Ponte Nova, Soult's passage of the, 15/16 May 1809
Poplar Grove, battle of, 7 March 1900
Pondicherry, siege of, 6 December 1760-15 January 1761 (India)
Port Gibson, battle of, 1 May 1863
Portland, battle of, 18-20 February 1653
Port Republic, battle of, 9 June 1862
Port Royal, Battle of, 7 November 1861
Portugal, Wellesley’s Campaign in, 22 April-19 May 1809
Portugalete, combat of, 11 July 1812
Poserna, action of, 1 May 1813
Postern, Operation - The Markham Valley/ Huon Peninsula Campaign of 4 September 1943-24 April 1944
Potidaea, siege of, 480-479 BC
Potidaia, siege, 432-430/29
Potidaea, siege of, 356 BC
Poza de la Sal, combat of, 10-11 February 1813
Pozières Ridge, battle of, 23 July-3 September 1916
Prague, battle of, 6 May 1757 (Bohemia, now Czech Republic)
Praeneste, siege of, 82 BC
Prairie Grove, 7 December 1862
Primolano, battle of, 7 September 1796
Princeton, Battle of, 3 January 1777
Protopachium, battle of, 89 B.C.
Providence, Operation
Pydna 22 June 168 BC
Przemysl, siege of, 24 September-11 October and 6 November 1914-22 March 1915
Pskov, siege of, August 1581-January 1582
Puente Larga, combat of, 30 October 1812
Pul-i-Sanghin, battle of, 1511
Pultusk, battle of, 26 December 1806
Punitz, battle of, 28 October (Swedish Style)/ 7 November NS 1704
Puruata Island, invasion of, 1-2 November 1943
Pylos, battle of, 425 BC
Pyramids, battle of the, 21st July 1798 (Egypt)
Pyrenees, battles of the, 25 July-2 August 1813

This article lists battles and campaigns in which the number of US soldiers killed was higher than 1,000. The battles and campaigns that reached that number of deaths in the field are so far limited to the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, Korean War, and one campaign during the Vietnam War (the Tet Offensive from January 30 to September 23, 1968). The campaign that resulted in the most US military deaths was the Battle of Normandy (June 6 to August 25, 1944) in which 29,204 soldiers were killed fighting against the German Reich.

The bloodiest single day in the history of the of the United States Military was June 6, 1944, with 2,500 soldiers killed during the Invasion of Normandy on D-Day. The second-highest single-day toll was the Battle of Antietam with 2,108 dead.

The deadliest single day battle in American history, if all engaged armies are considered, is the Battle of Antietam with 5,389 killed, including both United States and enemy soldiers (total casualties for both sided was 22,717 dead, wounded, or missing American and enemy soldiers September 17, 1862). [1] [A 1] [2]

The origins of the US military can be traced to the Americans' fight for independence from their former colonial power, Great Britain, in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). The three bloodiest conflicts have been American Civil War (1861–1865), World War I (1917–1918), and World War II (1941–45). Other significant conflicts involving the United States ordered by casualties include the Korean War (1950–1953), the Vietnam War (1964–1973), the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and various conflicts in the Middle East. For most of its existence, America has been involved in one or another military conflict. [3]

The definition of "battle" as a concept in military science has been a dynamic one through the course of military history, changing with the changes in the organization, employment and technology of military forces. From the beginning of history until the 20th century, "battle" has usually meant a military clash over a relatively small area, lasting only a few days at most (and often just one day) for instance, the Battle of Waterloo, begun, fought, and ended on 18 June 1815 on a field a few kilometers across.

Another use of the term "battle," which is seen particularly in the 20th century, is as equivalent to military campaign (military operations on a larger scale and longer duration, on the operational or even strategic level) for instance the Battle of the Atlantic, fought over several years (1939 to 1945) in an area constituting about twenty percent of the Earth's surface.

Since both types of "battles" are not usefully comparable in many ways, including casualty comparisons, this article is divided into two sections, one for battle in the older more restricted sense and one for campaigns, many of which are also called battles.

There are actions at the margins that could be reasonably assigned to either list. For instance, the Battle of Spotsylvania lasted 14 days, but the main part was fought on a small field (less than three kilometers on a side), and in this way being more in the nature of a siege (a military action typically of long duration but in covering a relatively small area). Like the similar Battle of Cold Harbor, also part of the Overland Campaign, it is included in this article on the Battles list. The Battle of Saint-Mihiel, lasting only about four days, but on a larger field (roughly 12 kilometers by 25 kilometers), is also included on the Battles list.

The term casualty in warfare can often be confusing. It often does not refer to those who are killed on the battlefield rather, it refers to those who can no longer fight. That can include disabled by injuries, disabled by psychological trauma, captured, deserted, or missing. A casualty is only a soldier who is no longer available for the immediate battle or campaign, the major consideration in combat, and the number of casualties is simply the number of members of a unit who are not available for duty. For example, during the Seven Days Battles during the American Civil War (June 25 to July 1, 1862) there were 5,228 killed, 23,824 wounded and 7,007 missing or taken prisoner for a total of 36,059 casualties. [4] [A 2] The word casualty has been used in a military context since at least 1513. [5] In this article the numbers killed refer to those killed in action, killed by disease or someone who died from their wounds.

The myths of the battle of Gallipoli

A century after the disastrous campaign in the Dardanelles, Gary Sheffield challenges some commonly held assumptions about this failed attempt to change the course of the First World War.

This competition is now closed

Published: April 25, 2018 at 8:30 am

In a decidedly unglamorous war, Gallipoli provides a splash of colour. It was a dramatic strategic stroke, originating in the imagination of Winston Churchill, which sent soldiers and sailors far from the drab trenches of Flanders to a romantic country – familiar, from the pages of Homer, to the classically educated officers who served there.

Conceived at a time when Britain’s leaders grappled with the unpalatable reality of deadlock on the western front, the Dardanelles campaign utilised Britain’s major asset, seapower. A British-French fleet would force its way through the Dardanelles, the narrow straits that separate the Gallipoli peninsula in Europe from Asia, and reach Constantinople, capital of Germany’s ally Ottoman Turkey. With Turkey out of the war, this would aid Russia and allow a large army provided by Balkan states such as Romania and Greece to be unleashed in the Balkans. This would tilt the odds decisively in the favour of the Allies.

The reality was to be very different. Throwing away strategic surprise by bombarding Turkish coastal defences in February 1915, the fleet suffered heavy losses from mines and shore batteries when on 18 March it attempted to force the straits. The campaign moved into a new phase on 25 April when the British 29th Division landed on the tip of the Gallipoli peninsula, at Cape Helles the untried Australian and New Zealand Corps (ANZAC) landed at what became known as Anzac Cove and a French force landed, as a diversion, on the Asiatic shore.

While the French re-embarked, according to plan, the men of 29th Division were pinned down at the water’s edge on the two main landing beaches. By the end of the day, the 29th had established a precarious toehold, but at the cost of terrible casualties. At Anzac Cove, the Australasians pushed inland only to be counterattacked by the Turks and pushed back almost to the beach – again, losses were heavy.

Just like on the western front, trench warfare ensued. Conditions were even more primitive, and fighting took place under a burning sun. Over the next few months the Allies and the Turks launched attacks to try to break the deadlock, but all met with bloody failure.

On 6 August the British made fresh landings at Suvla Bay and a major effort was made to break out of the Anzac Cove beachhead. Like the earlier pushes, the August offensive was a failure. Deciding not to throw good money after bad, the Allies evacuated Gallipoli in two stages, in December 1915 and the following January.

The Dardanelles campaign, which had promised so much, ended in disaster. Yet, for all that, it has earned near iconic status. An avalanche of books, films and newspaper articles have given it a colourful afterlife – one in which facts have had to share space with myth and legend. Here, I will attempt to distinguish the former from the latter.

Myth 1: The campaign was a good idea let down by poor execution

Was it really a strategic masterpiece – or just wishful thinking?

In 1930 General Sir George MacMunn wrote of Gallipoli that: “Mr Winston Churchill’s conception was magnificent.” However, he went on to say it was also “the most damnable folly that ever amateurs were enticed into”.

Today, it is still believed by many that Churchill had produced a strategic masterstroke that was only let down by the poor execution of naval and military commanders. However the weight of recent historical scholarship has come to a very different conclusion: that the concept (for which Churchill was not wholly to blame) was vastly overambitious, that planning and intelligence were defective, that the resilience and fighting ability of the Turks was grossly underestimated, and that the operation was poorly resourced. In short, far from being a brilliant, potentially war-winning strategy, it was a piece of folly that was always likely to fail.

Initially, the plan was based on British and French warships forcing their way through the Dardanelles, and eventually arriving off the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. This ‘ships alone’ plan failed. Even if a military force had been sent initially to support the fleet, it would have needed to be significantly larger than the one that was actually deployed, as it would have had to operate on both shores of the straits, to clear the coastal defences. Such a force was simply not available in March 1915.

Even if the mines in the straits had been cleared and the battleships had got through (and it was not a given that the fleet would arrive at Constantinople unscathed) the question remains: what would happen next? The foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, admitted it was hoped that the presence of a hostile fleet would bring about a coup d’état that would lead to Turkey dropping out of the war. There is no credible evidence that such a coup would have been triggered. If that didn’t happen, and lacking soldiers to fight a ground campaign, the fleet would have had little choice but to turn tail and retrace its steps, humiliated. The whole concept was founded, to a remarkable degree, on wishful thinking.

Myth 2: The fighting at Gallipoli was mainly an Anzac affair

It may be the Australian casualties that are remembered in popular history, but the conflict was a multinational campaign…

Largely because of the importance of the campaign in the shaping of Australian and New Zealand identity, the participation of troops of other nationalities has been marginalised in popular memory. An even more extreme view is that it was an Australian campaign: it is worth remembering that the ‘NZ’ in Anzac stands for ‘New Zealand’.

In reality, Gallipoli was a multinational operation, involving troops from the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and undivided Ireland), Newfoundland, British India (including Gurkhas from Nepal), France, the French empire (including north Africans and Senegalese), Russian Jews (who wanted to fight the Ottomans as a first step to establishing a homeland in Palestine), as well as Australians and New Zealanders, the latter including Maori. Anzacs formed a relatively modest proportion of the total. The initial landing force on 25 April 1915 consisted of 18,100 men in the ANZAC Corps, 16,800 French, and 27,500 British.

The total number of British soldiers that served at Gallipoli far outnumbered Australians. Indeed more French troops fought on the peninsula than did Australians. However, the Australians had the second highest casualties. The figures for Allied killed and wounded make sobering reading. The British suffered 70,700 casualties (of which 26,000 were killed) Australians, 25,700 (7,800 killed) French, 23,000 (8,000 killed) New Zealanders, 7,100 (2,445 killed) and Indians, 5,500 (including 1,682 killed).

Aside from the fighting at Anzac Cove, some actions involved sizeable numbers of troops from particular countries. The landing at V Beach at Cape Helles on 25 April involved two Irish battalions, 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers and 1st Royal Munster Fusiliers. However, two English County regiments, 2nd Hampshires and 4th Worcestershires, fought there too. England, the largest and most populous part of the UK, not surprisingly provided the backbone of the Allied force on the peninsula.

The defending forces were commonly referred to as ‘Turks’ but this was not entirely accurate. Formally, they belonged to the army of the Ottoman empire. Like its British and French counterparts, this was a polyglot entity which encompassed many different peoples. Greeks, Turks, Jews, Arabs and Armenian troops, and German officers, served with the Ottoman army. Nonetheless, British empire troops called their adversary ‘Johnny Turk’.

Myth 3: The fiasco turned Australia from a British colony into a nation

Did one event really forge Australia’s identity?

Australia emerged as a nation on 25 April 1915. On this first Anzac Day, nationhood was baptised with the blood of young Australians sacrificed by incompetent British commanders – or so a crude version of the origins of Australian nationalism argues. The reality was more complex. April 1915 was an important moment in the emergence of an Australian identity, in particular in Australians defining themselves in opposition to the English. However, most Australians throughout the First World War, and long after, regarded themselves as in some sense ‘British’.

A critical figure in the emergence of Australian identity was Charles Bean. He served as official Australian war correspondent at Gallipoli and on the western front, and after the war wrote influential volumes of official history. Bean celebrated the ordinary ‘digger’ (slang for soldier), highlighting the values of ‘mateship’, courage, ‘larrikinism’ (spirited irreverence) and disrespect for authority, and the fact that Australians were natural soldiers. He drew a clear comparison with English troops, and, in Jenny Macleod’s words (in her book Gallipoli: Making History), helped “codify what it was to be an Australian”. Gallipoli thus became a key point in the transformation from British colony to nation. Historians have critiqued this ‘Anzac Legend’: the supposedly egalitarian nature of the Australian Imperial Force has been exaggerated, while larrikinism shaded into racism and criminality.

As for the idea of natural soldiers, Anzac forces were poorly trained and badly disciplined, which told against them when faced with determined Turks on 25 April. Australian troops in time became highly effective, but this was largely the product of experience, training, and tactical and technological improvements common to British empire armies. Nonetheless, a crude version of the Anzac legend has embedded itself in Australian popular culture – Peter Weir’s 1981 film Gallipoli is an example – and in the late 20th and early 21st centuries helped fuel Australian nationalism.

Myth 4: The August Offensive nearly succeeded in breaking the deadlock on the peninsula

In fact the so-called ‘lost victory’ never stood a chance…

On the night of 6/7 August 1915 British IX Corps was landed at Suvla Bay as part of a major effort to break the deadlock on the Gallipoli peninsula. Legend has it that it failed by a narrow margin, and that a wonderful opportunity to win the campaign was missed.

British troops, despite facing minimal opposition, failed to push on boldly off the beaches. As a result the Ottomans were able to move troops to seal off the potential breakthrough. Worse, while the British were, according to one version, brewing tea on the beaches, Australian soldiers were fighting and dying in a diversion at Lone Pine and a major attack on Sari Bair ridge. The failure at Suvla ensured the Anzac assault would also fail.

Thus was lost the chance of the Allies finally breaking through the Turkish trenches, reaching the west bank of the Dardanelles and commencing the clearance of the coastal defences prior to the fleet finally forcing its way through the straits and heading for Constantinople.

This ‘lost victory’ view is a fantasy. The main attack was launched from Anzac Cove, not Suvla. Britain’s IX Corps was put ashore not to carry out some great Napoleonic masterstroke, aiming deep at the Ottoman rear, but to secure the bay as a logistic base for the operations against Sari Bair and beyond. Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Stopford was clearly not the most dynamic of commanders, but he cannot be blamed for failing to convert an operation intended to do one thing into something entirely different. What happened at Suvla had no bearing on the bitter struggle for Sari Bair.

The attack failed there because the plan was deeply flawed and immediately went awry. Even if Sari Bair had been taken and held, as Australian historian Rhys Crawley has shown in meticulous detail, the obstacles that remained were formidable: punishing terrain to be crossed, insufficient numbers of troops and guns, woefully inadequate logistic support, and a determined and tenacious enemy.

These factors meant that, far from the August Offensive failing narrowly, the plan was horribly overambitious and effectively doomed from the beginning.

Myth 5: It was a heroic-romantic campaign

Early historians glamorised Gallipoli, but fighting there differed little from the western front…

The experience of the ordinary British soldier at Gallipoli did not differ in essentials from his counterpart on the western front. However, in contrast to the Somme and Passchendaele, the British have constructed what historian Jenny Macleod has called a “heroic-romantic myth” around the fighting at the Dardanelles.

It joins a select band of aspects of the First World War that have received this treatment – the exploits of air aces over the trenches and TE Lawrence’s role in the Arab Revolt are two others. The bloody attritional battles on the western front simply did not lend themselves to being romanticised, although heroic acts by individuals were plentiful.

Why Gallipoli was treated this way is a complex question. Some, at least ex-public school officers, were thrilled to be fighting almost within sight of the ruins of Troy, an area which had a glamour absent from, say, the slag heaps and mining cottages of the Loos area of northern France.

Perhaps looking back on glorious defeat in an enterprise that apparently came close to shortening the war offered some psychological compensation for veterans of the campaign and for the bereaved. Certainly some of the key figures in romanticising Gallipoli through their writings, men such as General Sir Ian Hamilton, who commanded the Allied forces, and Winston Churchill, had good reason to rewrite history to defend their reputations.

For the ordinary soldier the campaign was bereft of glory and romance. Instead there were primitive trenches that were so close to the beaches that even in rear areas it was impossible ever to be completely free of danger, vermin, dust that got into food and tea, and the ever-present flies: “They were all around your mouth and on any cuts or sores you’d got, which all turned septic through it,” Private Harold Boughton remembered.

Above all there was the fear of death and wounding, the strain of combat, and of course the awful sights and sounds produced by 20th-century industrialised warfare. Private Ernest Lye wrote of “the cries of the wounded and see[ing corpses] rotting in the glare of the sun”. These were the aspects of Gallipoli that have been airbrushed out of the potent heroic-romantic myth.

Gary Sheffield is professor of war studies at the University of Wolverhampton. His books on the First World War include A Short History of the First World War (Oneworld, 2014). You can follow Prof Sheffield on Twitter @ProfGSheffield.

Battle Index: P - History

The Warriors of Wounded Knee - Givers Of Justice to the King of Thieves

february 22, 2005
mount hunger, vermont

Manifest Destiny and Western Canada: A Critical Re-evaluation of the Geopolitical Objectives of the United States Government's Northern Plains Indian Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, and their Encompassing Historical Contexts.

Education World Award winning site. , . Awesome Library Star Rating

Daniel N. Paul, Journalist, consultant, member of the Mi'kmaq Nation and author of the book, "We Were Not The Savages."

The Squamish Nation Network - The Squamish Nation is comprised of Salish peoples who are descendants of the aboriginal peoples who lived in the present day Greater Vancouver area Gibson's landing and Squamish River watershed. The Squamish Nation have occupied and governed their territory since beyond recorded history.

Ron Honyouti, Hopi Katsina Doll Carver - Ronald Honyouti, the youngest of the four Honyouti brothers, is a world renowned artist who has lived most of his life on the Hopi reservation. His father, Clyde, and older brother Brian, gave him the aspiration to begin carving. Ronald has won numerous awards for his carvings. This site also has a good reference page listing books on Hopi art, culture and history.

The Reservation Boarding School System was a war in disguise. It was a war between the United States government and the children of the First People of this land. Its intention was that of any war, elimination of the enemy.

To the white pioneer and his government, education of Indians was a convenient, and at the time, attractive adjunct to the efforts to "settle" this land. To these white Christian people and the ersatz Indian educators, to "kill the Indian, save the man" was an appealing as well as justified idea.

"When I go home I'm going to talk Indian" A personal story by Carol M. Hodgson.

Hampton Normal & Agricultural Institute: American Indian Students (1878-1923) Personal Accounts written by students and student lists by name and Tribal affiliation.

A student organization at the University of North Dakota, is committed to fighting racism and the systems which make it possible. One such system is the very school name of UND, the "Fighting Sioux."

To state that there is a worthy "tradition" and heritage in the name, and that it should thus be kept, is to enforce the notion of the heritage of racism against Native peoples and the tradition of keeping them only as a mascot.

BRIDGES, therefore, would like to see the removal of the "Fighting Sioux" logo, name, and moniker from the University of North Dakota, and be replaced with symbols and imagery that all UND members can be proud of.

NCIDC is a non-profit organization founded in 1976 to meet the social, educational, and economic development needs of American Indian communities and for the conservation and preservation of cultural, historic, and traditional resources and sites. NCIDC operates a fine Arts Gallery and Gift Boutique featuring the best of American Indian Artist's and their work, with emphasis placed on the work of the Tribes of N.W. California.

Hiding Genocide: The National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI).

"Once upon a time there were two open spaces for museums on the National Mall. African Americans coveted a space as did Hispanic, Jewish and Native Americans. Many interest groups, from Veterans to the D.A.R., also wanted the rare spaces. Congress in its wisdom awarded one site to a very politically powerful (and deserving) Jewish applicant and another to the very politically powerful Smithsonian Institution, their 'keeper of the loot.'

Then the "fool the Indian" process began and it proved to be very easy. Just put an Indian face on it (out of the vast Smithsonian collection) and it magically becomes an "Indian" project. With a shamans wave, shape changes and crypt-worms become our friends, close enough to be Indian-endorsed as keepers of our precious past and tellers of our history."

White privilege

"Here's what white privilege sounds like: I'm sitting in my University of Texas office, talking to a very bright and very conservative white student about affirmative action in college admissions, which he opposes and I support. The student says he wants a level playing field with no unearned advantages for anyone. I ask him whether he thinks that being white has advantages in the United States. Have either of us, I ask, ever benefited from being white in a world run mostly by white people? Yes, he concedes, there is something real and tangible we could call white privilege."

More Thoughts On Why The System Of White Privilege Is Wrong

Killing the White Man's Indian - A review

"I have just finished my first reading of ' The Indians Are Getting Uppity .' I am stunned by its power, clarity, and cumulative intensity. This should not be labelled a 'book review.' It's a piece of critical issue analysis which is written so effectively that it belongs alongside Matthiessen, Churchill, and DeLoria. I wish it had been available when I was teaching what a counterforce to racial stereotyping and shallow racist thinking it is! I'm struck, too, by your calm reasonableness throughout. Your research makes your message irrefutable, your words drop like boulders into a quiet lake. May the ripples spread everywhere forever! I'm very proud to know you, Ilze. This is a great day!"

Stan Gibson

Who cares about this stuff?

As a high school student I was always annoyed by students who would ask: Why do we have to learn this stuff [history] anyway? We learn history so we don't repeat our mistakes. This is the common answer that my teachers, my father, and just about any other adult would give. This answer made perfect sense to me then, and I easily accepted it. In high school, students learn about the Nazi-Holocaust, and rightfully so. Information abounds regarding this topic. However, my teachers never taught me that our country has a Holocaust of its own (actually there are two one killing 40 to 60,000,000 Africans, and one killing 100,000,000 Native Red Peoples).

Hitler himself often expressed his admiration for the expediency in which the American Christians removed the Native Americans and gave them mass graves like the one in Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

Slavery in Early Louisiana - "This is a story of Indian and African resistance to white colonial rule in Louisiana during the earliest days of French occupation."
Tribal Voice. a commentary by Paula Giese
500 Years Of Hate Crimes
Is the Fort Laramie Treaty still active?
A Look At The Indian Health Service Policy Of Sterilization, 1972-1976
Comments on a Lakota Declaration of Sovereignty
Dead IndiansAre The Best Indians.
Dead Indians, Live Indians, etc.
Ethnic Cleansing. Dawes Style
Getting to the Point of the Treaty Relationship
He Who Holds The Pen.
Listening To Native America.
"I thought of him as an enemy."
Scalping analysis.
Ta' Shunke Witko photo.
Travelling The Spiritual Path: Native American Spiritual Freedom
Marias Massacre.
Montana v. Crow (Questions regarding a major First Nations/Wasichu water rights decision)
Mount Rushmore's Sculptor Had A Dream For The Lakota
Mount Rushmore, Wasichu Graffiti
The Lakota Student Alliance's Statement Regarding Mt. Rushmore and the Black Hills . 12.2.97
Show Me The Way Alone Wolf
Washita: Genocide on the Great Plains
We must do. the necessary thinking for them.(Comments on the First Nations/Wasichu relationship)
The Passing of Elders
To Shout Into The Wind (First Nations sovereignty)
Wasichu's Continuing Gall. aka the "United States Buffalo Nickel Act of 1995"
What's Happening Here?
Mean Streets
When Spiritual Teaching Turns Into Cultural Theft

Battle Index: P - History

The incident began in February 1973, and represented the longest civil disorder in the history of the Marshals Service.

The town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota was seized on February 27, 1973, by followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM), who staged a 71-day occupation of the area. In response to the incident, Marshals Service volunteers stepped forward from all ranks of service to assist in a resolution. U.S. Marshals, Chief Deputies, Deputies, and support personnel alike were ready to make the sacrifices required to join the historic operation.

At its conclusion, U.S. Marshal Lloyd Grimm (District of Nebraska) would lie seriously wounded, as would an FBI agent. Two Indians would also unfortunately be killed. Exposure to personal danger, extreme weather conditions, prolonged hours of duty, and absence from home were just a few of the many frustrations people of the Marshals Service faced at Wounded Knee.

Deputy U.S. Marshals at the aftermath of the 71 day occupation by the AIM Movement

On May 8, 1973, the confrontation at Wounded Knee ended after ten weeks of para-military action and negotiations. On this date, the occupiers of Wounded Knee surrendered their arms and the U. S. Marshals Service took control of the town.

When the Wounded Knee operation was initiated it came within the purview of the Special Operations Group (SOG), which had been formed only two years before. SOG is a highly trained, highly motivated group of volunteers who can provide a self-sustained mobile quick reaction force capable of a federal response to a civil disturbance or riot situation where military intervention is inappropriate. Since Wounded Knee, SOG has responded to numerous calls of the Attorney General and the Federal Court.

For two and a half months in early 1973, hundreds of stories were filed by the networks, wire services, and print media bringing the Wounded Knee situation to the American public. For the U.S. Marshals Service there was definitely a sharpening of skills and experience in command, control, administration, logistics and operations, and it is in these areas that the Service gained its greatest benefits. Ingenuity, self sacrifice and heroic actions were commonplace during those days in 1973.

Typical of these were the actions of Inspector Wayne McMurtray, Southern District of Mississippi, who was one of two Deputy Commanders of the Special Operations Group and participated in many SOG operations. However, at the time of this Wounded Knee operation he had only participated in a few previous SOG missions. From the beginning of the Wounded Knee operation, McMurtray was assigned as the Specialty Unit Commander with the responsibility of suppressing any heavy fire on the Marshals roadblocks that surrounded the armed AIM dissidents occupying the unhappy hamlet.

During the first day of this operation at the roadblocks, there were six FBI agents being attacked and pinned down. McMurtray and Deputy Jim Propotnick (later became Chief Deputy U.S. Marshal, District of Hawaii) were ordered to repel the attack with an armored personnel carrier. McMurtray and Propotnick arrived at the roadblock just as a group of the dissidents were about to overrun it. However, with Propotnick driving and McMurtray on top of the armored personnel carrier firing, they were able to successfully repel the attack.

During another instance on a cold, windy afternoon in late February, one of the Marshals Service roadblocks was pinned down by heavy gun fire from within the hamlet. McMurtray moved up into a forward position and attempted to suppress the fire from an exposed hillside position. When the dissidents realized they were receiving accurate fire from McMurtray's position, they shifted their fire and pinned Wayne down. He then radioed the Command Post for more ammunition and fire support and shortly thereafter was surprised to see Associate Director William Hall supporting him on his left with effective fire from an anti-sniper weapon. With the additional assistance of Jesse Grider from the Headquarters staff, who was handling the ammunition, they soon gained fire superiority.

Another time McMurtray headed to a USMS roadblock that was pinned down by sniper fire of undetermined position. Wayne moved to an exposed position to draw fire and determine the sniper's location, which was quickly accomplished. During this exchange of fire, shell fragments were thrown into Wayne's face, causing heavy bleeding. Wayne's heroic actions exposed the sniper's position and after radioing for a helicopter, the snipers were flushed with gas grenade 'launchers and automatic rifle fire.

McMurtray also remembers the cold, long, and dark nights at Wounded Knee when the dissidents used an automobile with dual spotlights (nicknamed by our people as "Spotlight") to harass U. S. Marshals' roadblocks. After receiving permission from the SOG Commander to put a stop to this harassment, McMurtray moved out by night to a forward position near a road which was frequented by "Spotlight". By ingenious action he was able to disable the spotlights, and the automobile was immediately abandoned by the dissidents.

Professor Peter Marshall

I was born and raised in the Orkney Islands, and educated at Kirkwall Grammar School and University College, Oxford. Before being appointed to a lectureship at Warwick in 1994, I taught history for some years at Ampleforth College in Yorkshire. At Warwick, I became Senior Lecturer in 2001, Reader in 2004, and Professor in 2006. Beyond the university, I have been a PhD examiner at the universities of Aberdeen, Bath, Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Durham, De Montfort, Exeter, Kent, Leeds, London, Melbourne, Oxford, Paris, Reading, St Andrews, Sussex and York, and an examiner of taught degrees at the universities of Bristol, Cambridge, Durham, Oxford, Kent, Lancaster and St Andrews. Other roles include past service as an Associate Editor for the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, as a member of the AHRC Peer Review College, on the Committee of the Ecclesiastical History Society, the Council of the Sixteenth Century Studies Society, and the Council and the Editorial Committee of the Dugdale Society. I was also a founding editor of the monograph series Religious Cultures in the Early Modern World, published by Routledge. I am a Fellow of the British Academy, a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society and a member of the Irish Research Council's International Advisory Board. I am a co-editor (articles) of The English Historical Review, and sit on the editorial boards of Sixteenth Century Journal, Reformation and British Catholic History. I am a regular book-reviewer for various periodicals, including the Times Literary Supplement, The Tablet and The Literary Review.

Undergraduate Modules Taught
Postgraduate Modules Taught

My research interests focus on religious belief and practice in early modern Britain and Europe, particularly the cultural and political impact of the English Reformation (on which I published a general overview in 2003, reissued in a revised second edition in 2012: Reformation England 1480-1642). I have also attempted a major narrative account and reinterpretation: The Catholic Priesthood and the English Reformation, 1994), and this fed into a continuing interest in the early evangelical movement, and in conservative resistance to the Henrician Reformation (much of this work is collected in my Religious Identities in Henry VIII's England, 2006). I have also undertaken a series of studies of rituals and beliefs surrounding the dead, with a particular focus on changing perceptions of the afterlife, revenants, forms of commemoration and the enactment of memory (now collected together in Beliefs and the Dead in Reformation England in 2002. Somewhat to my surprise, they also led me to produce a micro-historical study of a seventeenth-century Anglo-Irish ghost case, The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction (2009) and The Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation (2015), as well as a cultural-historical study of Luther and the 95 Theses: 1517. (See also my webpage on Public Engagement.) I am currently writing a book on religion and culture in early modern Orkney.

Research Supervision

I welcome enquiries from potential PhD students in the field of early modern British religious and cultural history. Past and current topics of my doctoral students are: 'The Political Career of Thomas Wriothesley 1505-1550' 'Commotion Time: the English Risings of 1549' 'The Compendium Compertorum and the Making of the First Suppression Act' 'Shakespeare in Purgatory: A Study of the Catholicising Movement in Shakespeare Biography' 'Aspects of Grief in Early Modern England' 'The Disenchantment of the World? English Ghost Beliefs 1660-1760' 'Worship and the Senses in England, 1480-1580' 'The Career of Arthur Hildersham, Puritan Minister' 'Angels in English Religious Cultures 1500-1700' 'Music and Religious Identity in Elizabethan England' 'The Reformation in Cheshire, 1500-1570' 'Musicians and Social Status in mid- and late-Tudor England' 'Faith and Fraternity: The London Livery Companies and the Reformation c.1530-1600' 'Reimagining the Virgin Mary in Reformation England' 'Clergy Wives in Elizabethan England' 'The Early Reformation in Northamptonshire' 'English Evangelical Theologies of Penance, 1520-1553' 'The Palatinate of Durham and the Tudor State' 'Holy Mind, Holy Body in 16th Century English Female Sanctity' 'Representations of St George in Early Modern England', 'Discourses of Toleration in Elizabethan and Early Stuart England' 'Elizabeth I, Counsel and Memory in Early Modern England'

Selected Publications

The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford, 2009) German trans. Die Reformation in Europa (Stuttgart, 2014) Korean trans. (Paju, 2017) Finnish trans. Reformaatio (Tampere, 2017) Portuguese trans. Reforma Protestante (Porto Alegre, 2018) Polish trans, Reformacja (Lodz, 2019)

‘Martin Luther, the Ninety-Five Theses and the Invention of the Reformation’, in Lukas K. Sosoe (ed.), Luther, l’Europe et la Réforme (Hildesheim, 2021)

‘Nailing the Reformation: Luther and the Wittenberg Door in English Historical Memory’, in A. Walsham, B. Wallace, C. Law and B. Cummings (eds), Memory and the English Reformation (Cambridge, 2020)

‘Reformation on Scotland’s Northern Frontier: The Orkney Islands, 1560&ndashc.1700’, in J. Kelly, H. Laugerud and S. Ryan (eds), Northern European Reformations: Transnational Perspectives (London, 2020)

‘The Ministers, the Merchant and his Mother: Politics and Protest in a 17 th Century Witchcraft Complaint’, New Orkney Antiquarian Journal, 9 (2020)

‘Thomas Becket, William Warham and the Crisis of the Early Tudor Church’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 71 (2020)

‘The Reformation and the Idea of the North’, Nordlit, 43 (2019)

‘Was there a Protestant Death?’, in S. Angel, H. Elstad and E. Andersen Oftestad (eds), Were We Ever Protestants? Essays in Honour of Tarald Rasmussen (Berlin, 2019)

'Identifying Heresy in Sixteenth-Century England', The Saint Anselm Journal, 14 (2019)

‘Tudor Brexit: Catholics and Europe in the British and Irish Reformations’, Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, 106 (2017/18)

'Luther among the Catholics, 1520-2015' in D. Marmion, S. Ryan and G. Thiessen (eds), Remembering the Reformation: Martin Luther and Catholic Theology (Minneapolis, 2017)

'Settlement Patterns: The Church of England, 1553-1603', in A. Milton (ed.), The Oxford History of Anglicanism, Volume I: Reformation and Identity, c. 1520-1662 (Oxford, 2017)

'Changing Identities in the English Reformation', in P. Ingesman (ed.), Religion as an Agent of Change (Leiden, 2016)

(with J. Morgan), 'Clerical Conformity and the Elizabethan Settlement Revisited', Historical Journal, 59 (2016)

‘The Birthpangs of Protestant England’, History, 100 (2015)

‘Catholic Puritanism in Pre-Reformation England’, British Catholic History, 32 (2015)

'After Purgatory: Death and Remembrance in the Reformation World', in T. Rasmussen and J. Øygarden Flaeten (eds), Preparing for Death, Remembering the Dead (Göttingen, 2015)

‘Choosing Sides and Talking Religion in Shakespeare’s England’, in D. Loewenstein and M. Whitmore (eds), Shakespeare and Early Modern Religion (Cambridge, 2015)

‘Britain’s Reformations’, in P. Marshall (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation (Oxford, 2015)

‘Ethics and Identity in the English and German Reformations’, in D. Wendebourg and A. Ryrie (eds), Sister Reformations II: Reformation and Ethics in Germany and in England (Tübingen, 2014)

‘Religious Ideology’, in Paulina Kewes, Ian Archer and Felicity Heal (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Holinshed’s Chronicles (Oxford, 2013)

‘“Rather with Papists than with Turks:” The Battle of Lepanto and the Contours of Elizabethan Christendom’, Reformation, 17 (2012)

‘Confessionalization, Confessionalism and Confusion in the English Reformation’, in Thomas Mayer (ed.), Reforming Reformation (Farnham, 2012), 43-64

‘The Naming of Protestant England’, Past and Present 214 (2012)

‘Confessionalization and Community in the Burial of English Catholics, c. 1570-1700’, in N. Lewycky and A. Morton (eds), Getting Along? Religious Identities and Confessional Relations in Early Modern England (Farnham, 2012)

‘Lollards and Protestants Revisited’, in M. Bose and P. Hornbeck (eds), Wycliffite Controversies (Turnhout, 2011)

‘The Guardian Angel in Protestant England’ , in J. Raymond (ed.), Conversations with Angels: Essays Towards a History of Spiritual Communication, 1100-1700 (Basingstoke, 2011)

'The Last Years', in G. M. Logan (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Thomas More (Cambridge, 2011)

‘Catholic and Protestant Hells in Later Reformation England’, in I. Moreira and M. Toscano (eds), Hell and Its Afterlife: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (Farnham, 2010)

‘Transformations of the Ghost Story in Post-Reformation England’, in H. Conrad-O’Briain and J. A Stevens (eds), The Ghost Story from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century (Dublin, 2010)

'John Calvin and the English Catholics, c. 1565-1640', Historical Journal, 53 (2010)

‘Ann Jeffries and the Fairies: Folk Belief and the War on Scepticism in Later Stuart England’, in A. McShane and G. Walker (eds), The Extraordinary and the Everyday in Early Modern England (Basingstoke, 2010)

Faith and Identity in a Warwickshire Family: the Throckmortons and the Reformation, Dugdale Society Occasional Paper No. 49 (2010)

‘The Reformation of Hell? Protestant and Catholic Infernalisms in England, c. 1560-1640’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 61 (2010)

‘The Reformation, Lollardy, and Catholicism’, in K. Cartwright (ed.), A Companion to Tudor Literature (Chichester, 2010)

‘Henry VIII and the Modern Historians: The Making of a Twentieth-Century Reputation’, in M. Rankin, C. Highley and J. King (eds), Henry VIII and his Afterlives: Literature, Politics, and Art (Cambridge, 2009)

‘Crisis of Allegiance: George Throckmorton and Henry Tudor’, in P. Marshall and G. Scott (eds), Catholic Gentry in English Society: The Throckmortons of Coughton from Reformation to Emancipation (Aldershot, 2009)

‘Protestants and Fairies in Early Modern England’, in S. Dixon, D. Freist and M. Greengrass (eds), Living with Religious Diversity in Early-Modern Europe (Aldershot, 2009)

‘(Re)defining the English Reformation’, Journal of British Studies, 48 (2009)

‘Saints and Cinemas: A Man for All Seasons’, in S. Doran and T. Freeman (eds.), Tudors and Stuarts on Film: Historical Perspectives (Basingstoke, 2009)

‘The Making of the Tudor Judas: Trust and Betrayal in the English Reformation’, Reformation, 13 (2008)

‘Betrayers and Betrayal in the Age of William Tyndale’, The Tyndale Society Journal, 34 (2008)

‘“The Greatest Man in Wales:” James ap Gruffydd ap Hywel and the International Opposition to Henry VIII’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 39 (2008)

‘England’, in D. M. Whitford (ed.), Reformation and Early Modern Europe: A Guide to Research (Kirksville, MO, 2008)

‘Religious Exiles and the Tudor State’, in K. Cooper and J. Gregory (eds.), Discipline and Diversity, Studies in Church History, 43 (2007)

'Leaving the World', in P. Matheson (ed.), Reformation Christianity (Minneapolis, 2007)

'Anticlericalism Revested? Expressions of Discontent in Early Tudor England', in C. Burgess and E. Duffy (eds), The Parish in Late Medieval England (Donnington, 2006)

'Angels Around the Deathbed: Variations on a Theme in the English Art of Dying', in P. Marshall and A. Walsham (eds), Angels in the Early Modern World (Cambridge, 2006).

'Piety and Poisoning in Restoration Plymouth', in K. Cooper and J. Gregory (eds.), Elite and Popular Religion, Studies in Church History, 42 (2006)

'Is the Pope Catholic? Henry VIII and the Semantics of Schism', in E. Shagan (ed.), Catholics and the Protestant Nation: Religious Politics and Identity in Early Modern England (Manchester, 2005)

'Judgement and Repentance in Tudor Manchester: The Celestial Journey of Ellis Hall', in K. Cooper and J. Gregory (eds.), Retribution, Repentance, and Reconciliation, Studies in Church History, 40 (2004)

‘Forgery and Miracles in the Reign of Henry VIII’, Past and Present, 178 (2003)

‘Deceptive Appearances: Ghosts and Reformers in Elizabethan and Jacobean England’, in H. Parish and W. G. Naphy (eds), Religion and Superstition in Reformation Europe (Manchester, 2002)

‘Evangelical Conversion in the Reign of Henry VIII’, in P. Marshall and A. Ryrie (eds.), The Beginnings of English Protestantism (Cambridge, 2002)

‘The Other Black Legend: The Henrician Reformation and the Spanish People’, English Historical Review, 116 (2001)

‘Mumpsimus and Sumpsimus: The Intellectual Origins of a Henrician Bon Mot’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 52 (2001)

‘"The Map of God’s Word": Geographies of the Afterlife in Tudor and Early Stuart England’, in B. Gordon and P. Marshall (eds.), The Place of the Dead: Death and Remembrance in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 2000)

‘The Company of Heaven: Identity and Sociability in the English Protestant Afterlife, c. 1560-1630’, Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques, 26 (2000)

‘Discord and Stability in an Elizabethan Parish: John Otes and Carnaby 1563-1600’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 71 (1999)

‘Papist as Heretic: the Burning of John Forest 1538’, Historical Journal, 41 (1998)

‘Fear, Purgatory and Polemic in Reformation England’, in W.G. Naphy and P. Roberts (eds), Fear in Early Modern Society (Manchester, 1997)

‘The Debate over "Unwritten Verities" in Early Reformation England’, in B. Gordon (ed.), Protestant Identity and History in Sixteenth-Century Europe: Volume I The Medieval Inheritance (Aldershot, 1996)

‘The Dispersal of Monastic Patronage in East Yorkshire, c. 1520-1580’, in B. Kümin (ed.), Reformations Old and New: Essays on the Socio-Economic Impact of Religious Change c.1470-1630 (Aldershot, 1996)

‘The Rood of Boxley, the Blood of Hailes and the Defence of the Henrician Church’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 46 (1995)

The Face of the Pastoral Ministry in the East Riding, 1525-1595, Borthwick Paper No. 88 (York, 1995)

1 Oct. 2020: start of Leverhulme Trust Research Fellowship, 'Culture and Belief in Orkney, 1468-1800'.

22-23 Nov. 2019: Workshop on 'Northern European Reformations: Transnational Perspectives', University of Bergen.

15 Nov. 2019: The Joyce Youings Memorial Lecture, University of Exeter, 'Kirk and Community in Early Modern Orkney'

31 Oct. 2019: talk (on Heretics and Believers) at Southwark Cathedral.

11 June 2019: interview with Faculti, 'A Brief History of the English Reformation': https://faculti.net/a-brief-history-of-the-english-reformation/

13 May 2019: Talk (Impact of the Reformation) to A level students from several Bristol Schools.

14 Feb 2019: Paper to Scottish History Seminar, University of Edinburgh, on 'Clerical Culture in Early Modern Orkney'.

9 Jan 2019: Talk ('Religion in Shakespeare's England') to Hall's Croft Club, Stratford-upon-Avon.

10 December 2018: contributor to Who Do you Think Are? (Josh Duhamel).

20 Nov 2018: Youtube interview with Dr David Coast, at Bath Literary Society.

3 Nov 2018: roundtable panel on Heretics and Believers at Sixteenth Century Studies Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

30 Oct 2018: Talk on the Reformation, Topping's Bookshop, Bath.

22-25 August 2018: participant and commentator at (final) annual team meeting of Early Modern Conversions, McGill University, Montreal.

7 June 2018: Seminar paper ('Writing a History of the English Reformation'), Keble College, Oxford.

31 May-2 June 2018: discussant at Reformation Workshop, Yale University.

23 May 2018: Wolfson History Prize Debate on BBC Radio 3.

5 April 2018: The St Anselm Lecture ('Thomas Becket, William Warham and the Crisis of the Early Tudor Church'), St Anselm's College, Manchester, New Hampshire.

2 April 2018: interview (on writing of Heretics and Believers) with From the Desk website.

5 March 2018: talk (Luther) to sixth form pupils at Winchester College.

25 Feb 2018: Lent Address at St Mary's Collegiate Church, Warwick, on 'The Bible in the Reformation' (text and podcast).

8 Feb 2018: article in The Catholic Herald, 'How Modern Catholicism was Born'.

5 Feb 2018: seminar paper at Merton College, Oxford, on early modern Orkney.

2 Jan 2018: interview for blog of Saginaw Valley State University, 'Meeting a Reformation Scholar'.

1 Jan 2018: interview for What'shername podcast series, on Catholic martyr, Margaret Clitherow.

12 Dec 2017: seminar paper at Institute of Historical Research, London, on 'Long Reformation in the Far North: Kirk and Culture in Early Modern Orkney'.

9-10 Nov 2017: Tanner Series Speaker, Utah State University, including public lecture and interview on public radio.

6 Nov 2017: public lecture, Institute for Advanced Study, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.

2 Nov 2017: keynote speaker, Luther Conference, Andrews University, Michigan.

31 Oct 2017: 'Reformation Day' interviews, BBC Today Programme, World Sevice and Time Magazine.

30 Oct 2017: public lecture, Gustavus Adolphus College, Minnesota.

27 Oct 2017: public lecture at the British Library.

26 Oct 2017: winner (with John Morgan) of the 2017 Harold Grimm Prize for best Reformation article, 'Clerical Conformity and the Elizabethan Settlement Revisited', Historical Journal, 59 (2016).

20 Oct 2017: keynote speaker, Reformation 500 Conference, Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin.

19 Oct 2017: panel discussion, 'From Pillar to Post: Communicatng Religious Change', Scottish Parliament Festival of Politics, Edinburgh.

16 Oct 2017: interview with Five Books Website on 'The Best Books on the Reformation'.

13 Oct 2017: paper at Liverpool Hope University in Reformation Lecture Series.

7 Oct 2017: talk on Martin Luther at Warwick Words History Festival.

13 Sep 2017: article in The Tablet on England in 1517.

20-22 Sep 2017: keynote speaker at conference on 'Northern Reformations', The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.

14-16 Sep 2017: keynote speaker at conference on 'The Politics of Conversion: Martin Luther to Muhammad Ali', Newberry Library, Chicago.

23-26 Aug 2017: speaker at team meeting of 'Early Modern Conversions', McGill University, Montreal.

21 Aug 2017: interview (Martin Luther and 95 Theses) on 'Bookbound', Dublin City FM.

26 July 2017: keynote speaker at annual summer school of the Society of St Gregory.

30 June 2017: Comment feature on Anglicanism and the Elizabethan Settlement in Church Times.

29 June 2017: talk on the Reformation at Chalke Valley History Festival.

19 June 2017: podcast interview on Heretics and Believers for New Books Network. See also recent podcast interviews for The Spectator and BBC History.

30 May 2017: Talk and book-signing at Heffers Bookshop, Cambridge, on publication of my new history of the English Reformation, Heretics and Believers. Details here.

20 May 2017: keynote speaker at conference on The Faith of William Shakespeare, Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Stratford

1 May 2017: lead article in BBC History Magazine:

25 April 2017: Invited plenary speaker at conference on 'L'Europe et la Reforme', University of Luxembourg

4 April 2017: Keynote lecture at Society for Reformation Studies Conference, University of Hull

26-28 Mar 2017: Distinguished Visiting Scholar at Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Victoria University in the University of Toronto, faculty seminar and public lecture

22 Mar 2017: Lecture for Historical Association (Nuneaton)

8 Mar 2017: Public lecture on Martin Luther at Derby Cathedral

14 Feb 2017: Lecture at Miller Center, University of Maryland

8 Feb 2017: speaker at research seminar, 'Early Modern British and Irish History', University of Cambridge

12 Jan 2017: speaker at symposium on Northern European Reformations, Ushaw College, Durham

21 Oct 2016: Speaker at workshop on Remembering the English Reformation, University of York

14 July 2016: Keynote speaker at conference on Communities and Society in Early Modern Britain and Ireland, Nottingham Trent University.

1 June 2016: Lead essay in Literary Review, available to read here


27 May 2016: invited speaker (with Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop of Westminster and others) at Lambeth Palace Symposium on Thomas Becket.

21-22 July, and 24-27 July 2015: keynote speaker at Politics of Conversion Workshop, Warwick, and Annual Team Meeting of Early Modern Conversions Project, Cambridge.

1-3 July 2015: keynote speaker at conference on Early Modern Catholics in the British Isles and Europe, Ushaw College, Durham.

15-17 May 2015: keynote speaker at conference on Martin Luther and Catholic Theology, St Patrick's College, Maynooth.

2 April 2015: lead article in TLS:

24 Mar 2015: in discussion with Prof. Sir Diarmaid MacCulloch at the Oxford Literary Festival.

28 Feb 2015: essay on TV adaptation of Wolf Hall, for OUP blog: http://blog.oup.com/2015/02/wolf-hall-history

9 Feb 2015: live interview for Dublin City FM on Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation.

1 Feb 2015: recorded interview for Newstalk (Ireland) on Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation.

25 Jan 2015: interview on BBC Radio Ulster about TV adaptation of Wolf Hall.

22 Jan 2015: publication of The Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation. Interview watchable here.

Battle Index: P - History

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By July 1940, Britain stood alone in Europe. Hitler&rsquos troops had reached the French coast after storming their way across northern Europe and, following the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk in June, it was assumed that the next battle of the Second World War would be fought on the beaches of southern England. The fear of German forces launching an invasion that summer was very real, and all that stood between Britain and Hitler was the English Channel.

Almost every generation of Sussex men and women had learnt to live with the threat of attack from across the water. This time, though, the threat came not just from the sea but also from the sky and for the first time in history a battle would be fought, and won, almost exclusively in the air &ndash for their invasion to succeed, the Germans needed to achieve air supremacy over both the Channel and the beaches of the south-east.

Throughout July 1940 the Luftwaffe&rsquos attacks intensified, with the 10th now being considered the first day of the Battle of Britain. When Goring&rsquos aircraft launched their assault on the United Kingdom, many parts of the country found themselves quite literally on the front line &ndash and no more so than the county of West Sussex.

Drawing extensively on records held in local and national archives, Eddy Greenfield provides a detailed and comprehensive day-by-day account of activity in and over West Sussex throughout the campaign from 10 July to 31 October 1940. It is not only a story of how the RAF and other defenders battled the Luftwaffe&rsquos relentless onslaught, but also how the residents in the county&rsquos towns and villages played their own part in the national war effort.

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About Eddy Greenfield

EDDY GREENFIELD is a freelance writer and author of A-Z of Horsham and Secret Arundel . With a particular interest for military and aviation history, as well as the local history of Sussex, Surrey and Wiltshire, Eddy has spent more than a decade investigating the wartime heritage of West Sussex. He has previously written more than sixty magazine and newspaper articles, and specialises in sourcing primary documentation in order to get to the heart of the matter, and prides himself in discovering long-forgotten and unusual stories from the past. Eddy has also been involved in local history projects run by local museums and West Sussex Library Service. He has also worked as a freelance academic editor and proofreader, with clients including doctoral students and NGOs. Eddy lives and works out of his home in the Sussex Weald, his home county, and is a keen genealogist. He has traced his Sussex and Surrey routes back fourteen generations.


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