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Majiayao Culture Linear Design Pottery

Majiayao Culture Linear Design Pottery


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Who Attended Their Funerals? A Petrographic Comparison of Pottery from the Majiayao Culture of Neolithic China

This is an abstract from the "Cross-Cultural Petrographic Studies of Ceramic Traditions" session, at the 84th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology.

In northwestern China’s Gansu Province, painted pottery from the late Neolithic Majiayao Culture has long been admired for its skillful construction and beautiful painted motifs. Since the majority of whole vessels have been recovered from graves, it has generally been assumed that these items were produced primarily for mortuary purposes, including for displaying wealth or projecting the political or religious power of the deceased. This paper reassesses these claims in light of a petrographic analysis of sherds from nearby mortuary and habitation contexts. By examining the production processes embedded in these items, including producer choices in paste recipes and raw material selection, as well as surface treatment, I suggest that vessels from mortuary contexts are not simply displaying wealth or power. Instead, they likely reflect diverse communities of producers and consumers who were directly participating in funerary events. These results highlight the importance of examining production choices alongside vessel style and context when interpreting the role of pottery in mortuary settings.


Majiayao Culture Linear Design Pottery - History

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    We see life as a holistic circle where life and death belongs to each other. Architecture / like anything else, the landscape, the our own bodies is eroding over time.

    A masterplan that intertwines landscape and architecture by interpreting the traditional Chinese COURTYARD TYPOLOGY is pro- posed. This way an alternation of build and open spaces is formed.

    HUMANIZING SPACES - Throughout our evolutionary history human beings have been in close contact with the earth.There are scientific researches, that proof the posi- tive influence of direct contact with earth on our body.

    PROPOSAL I and PROPOSAL II

    The masterplan foresees different courtyards, all with their own identity and atmosphere.

    Majiayao Ceramics Museum- Masterplan proposal

    Located in China, in the province of Gansu, the city of Lintao is surrounded by a contrasting landscape formed by the Liu Jia mountains and the Tao river plains. From 3100 to 2700 before Christ the area around Lintao was inhabited by the Majiayao Culture, representing agricultural communities in the Yellow River region. This culture is mainly known for their painted pottery, which are widely excavated and currently exhibited in the immediate surroundings.

    A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE - Globally seen we have two main challenge: food security for a growing world population and to supply safe and adequate habitat for everyone. In general these two needs are in severe conflict with each other. Building with earth offers one possible solution.We see life as a holistic circle where life and death belongs to each other. Architecture / like anything else, the landscape, the our own bodies is eroding over time.There is nothing material that stays forever.We believe that only if we build in a way that respects and adapts erosion rather than fight it, we are in true harmony with our nature.

    HOLISTIC ARCHITECTURE - Following this philosophy we propose earth as the main building material for all structures of the masterplan. It is the material that erodes over years from the mountains, grafted by hand into structures that are resilient as concrete, but can be reclaimed by nature over time.


    Understanding the Production of Majiayao Painted Pottery in Gansu: New Data and New Thoughts

    This paper examines the evidence for local production of painted pottery of the Majiayao Culture in Gansu province based on their distinguishing characteristics in mineralogical, compositional and technological aspects, and on correlations of these features with the geographical source. An empirical observation of a contemporary family-scale workshop in Lintao County, where the most splendid pieces of Majiayao painted pottery have been found, suggests that the technological difficulties in the production of painted pottery might have been exaggerated in the existing literature. We examined a database of painted pottery sherds from one Yangshao-period site and two Majiayao-period sites with comprehensive analytical methods, i.e. petrological, grain-size, Raman microscopic analyses combined with XRF, ICP-MS, NAA, EPMA and SEM analyses, to assess factors enable diagnosing Majiayao pottery locally made in Gansu. We also examined the effects of raw materials on changes in compositions and inclusions of ceramics by studying a number of modern pottery vessels fired with local clays separately in Lintao and Linxia counties. The present case study suggests that we should be wary of linking all types of compositional and technological diversities to different provenances however, some certain local technological characteristics of Majiyao painted pottery in Gansu might exist.

    SAA 2015 abstracts made available in tDAR courtesy of the Society for American Archaeology and Center for Digital Antiquity Collaborative Program to improve digital data in archaeology. If you are the author of this presentation you may upload your paper, poster, presentation, or associated data (up to 3 files/30MB) for free. Please visit http://www.tdar.org/SAA2015 for instructions and more information.


    Painted pottery, mirror of Chinese Neolithic culture

    Bowl with "human-faced fish" motif, pot with spiral pattern, jar depicting relief carved female figure - These are all painted pottery wares from the Neolithic Age along the upper and central reaches of the Yellow River in China, and mirror the life of Chinese people thousands of years ago.

    Not only is the range of designs quite dazzling, but the wealth of shapes that were part of the painted pottery wares indicates their various functions.

    Neolithic painted pottery is associated with a number of archaeological cultures from China's north-west, specifically those along the upper and central reaches of the Yellow River, including Yangshao culture and Majiayao culture. Yangshao culture (about 5,000–3,000 BC) takes its name from Yangshao village in Minchi county, Henan province, where the site was excavated and identified in 1921 by Johan Gunar Andersson. Majiayao culture (about 3,300-2,050 BC), which came shortly after Yangshao culture, takes its name from Majiayao village in Linzhao county, Gansu province.

    Painted pottery in Yangshao culture

    Yangshao culture is distinctive and recognizable with two types of painted pottery, namely, Banpo and Miaodigou.

    Banpo is an archaeological site located near Xi'an, Shaanxi province and contains the remains of a Neolithic village dating back to 6,000 years ago. The classic Banpo painted pottery is a bowl with the ‘human-faced fish’ motif, and was unearthed in the 1950s. The basin, 16.5 cm in height with a diameter of 38.5 cm, is made of fine-mud red ceramics and has a design of a human face and fish body. It is uniformly red in color and decorated with black pigment.

    Strikingly, the pattern of fish is everywhere at Banpo village. According to archeologists, these patterns may have been used for decorating the utensils but they may also have been used for sacrificial rites in the spring season to pray for a good harvest. If that were true, the Banpo pottery designs might be the earliest religious artwork in art history.


    Majiayao Culture Linear Design Pottery - History

    My new print & ebook
    shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

    For more about this book
    see Megaliths.net and Trafford

    Map of what my have happened as the result
    of the purported Black Sea Flood ca. 5600.

    Gimbutas writes that the Dnieper Donets people were
    large, strong, and broad-faced (brachycephalic)
    descendants of paleolithic Cro-Magnon man.
    Gimbutas writes that the Dnieper Donets pottery
    is related for certain to the Baltic "Memel Culture".

    Burial practices of the Dnieper Donets Culture
    were also similar to those found in the Baltic at Zvejnieki,
    the largest and oldest cemetary in all of northern Europe.

    Zvejnieki is dated to the Mesolithic prehistoric period
    (ca. 7000 BC - 5000 BC)
    - older than the Dnieper-Donets Culture -
    and was excavated by Zagorskis in the 1960's and 1970's
    at Burtnieku Ezers (Lake of the Lett-erers) in north Latvia.

    Bodies were wrapped in hides and preserved by red ochre
    just as in the Dnieper-Donets culture.
    This was probably the origin of mummification.

    Offerings of birds were found together with sculpted
    pendants and necklaces made of animal teeth (originally
    elk, deer and boar and later dog, wolf, fox and marten).
    Pendants of pearls and amber as well as wooden animal
    sculptures of elk and birds were also found as offerings.

    Above, an example of a Latvian SARG-
    which means "to protect" and VAK-
    meaning "lid" or "box", which gave us
    our later word SARCO-PHAG.
    The body, Latvian "KER-MEN-IS"
    is wrapped in hides, preserved with ocher
    and put into a hollowed-out tree trunk.

    We see above the origins of the
    later Pharaonic method of burial below.

    Both are identically made inside according to the same principle,
    showing that the Pharaonic method of sarcophagi construction
    had its ancient roots in putting the body within hollowed-out trees,
    as the Latvian sarcophagi shows.

    There is a connection between the Indo-Europeans of
    North and Central Europe and the cultures of Sumer and Egypt
    through the medium of the Baltic, Dniester Bug, Dnieper Donets,
    Vinca, Karanovo and Boian cultures.
    Around 5500 B.C. - says Gimbutas - the archaeology shows that
    the Dnieper-Donets Culture moved SOUTH (rising water levels?)
    toward the Black Sea, where they remained north of the Crimea
    (in Latvian Grim- (Krim-) means "to sink into water, submerge")
    until about 4000 BC. Then they disappeared. whereto?

    At that same date, ca. 4000 BC,
    the Ubaidians viz. pre-Sumerians migrate into Mesopotamia.

    These are surely the people of the Dnieper-Donets Culture,
    who, as the Boian Culture,
    driven originally by the flood, are thereafter to establish the
    Sumerian and Pharaonic cultures and thus mark the start
    of what is regarded to be modern human civilization.

    By contrast there is no evidence of any foreign migration into Latvia
    until about 2500 B.C. when burial of skeletons in embryo position
    partly supplanted full-length on-the-back burial. Gimbutas suggests
    that these invaders were horse-riding Kurgans (i.e. the Finno-Ugric
    Mongol Hordes viz. the northern Hyksos).
    Note: At this time, 6000-5000 B.C., the expansion may also go
    in part directly East to West from the equally waterlogged Baltic
    region (rising oceans) since the main European tributary
    of the Black Sea, the Danube, does not show the signs of settlement
    which one expects for the spread of the Linearbandkeramik
    at its mouth on the Black Sea.

    The first ceramics worldwide are dated to ca. 6500 BC
    in the Mediterranean. Decoration came some time later, ca. 6300 BC.
    The center of development in Central Europe to start
    is the Dniester Bug area of the Black Sea, spreading in all directions.

    These migrating "People of the Flood" - as will be shown - had
    previously developed a distinctive linear and geometric design
    pattern for ceramics and other artifacts. The pot of the Boian
    Black Sea Culture represents this design
    in an already advanced stage.

    The above picture is from the Boian Culture of the Black Sea
    about 5000 BC. Compare this basic geometric linear design pattern
    of squares viz. rectangles, intervening lines and triangular or
    lozenge-formed shapes to Sumerian pottery, to the pyramid wall
    of Djoser, the first builder of an Egyptian pyramid, to artifacts
    found in the tomb of Tut-ankh-amun or to ceramic wares known
    to belong to Hebrew Culture specifically (e.g. Esau's Edomites).
    It is easy to see that all of these cultures are related as to design.

    The Boian were a Black Sea Culture - and most of the peripheral
    Black Sea Cultures had similar linear ceramic design, with the oldest
    - the Dniester-Bug Culture - dating to ca. 6500 B.C.

    As Gimbutas observes in writing her book, without in 1991
    having known about the Black Sea Flood, at around 5500 BC
    there was a massive spreading of agriculture into Europe
    (but also into Mesopotamia and ultimately into Egypt).

    Concordant with Nostratic language theory, this also spread
    Indo-European language into Western Europe
    and points South and East.

    Around 5500 B.C. - writes Gimbutas - the archaeology shows,
    paradoxically, that the Dnieper-Donets Culture moved SOUTH
    toward the Black Sea (there were also rising water levels
    in the Baltic and the Pripet marshes due to the glacial melt)
    where they met (and mixed?) with the Surska fishing culture.
    Here there are signs of domestication of animals and trade
    with Black Sea cultures to the west.

    Gimbutas writes that the people of the Dnieper Donets Culture
    were large, strong, and broad-faced (brachycephalic) descendants
    of Paleolithic Cro-Magnon man.
    This is important.
    They surely came from the north, encountering the
    Mediterranean inhabitants around the Black Sea.

    The result was that the previous Mediterranean dolichocephalic
    Vinca types were now mixed in the Boian cemeteries with
    brachycephalic [North viz. Central European] types as well as
    alpine skull types.

    The dead were buried flat in shaft-tomb-like graves oriented
    in an East-West direction. In combination with the Hamangia Culture,
    the Boian Culture then evolved into the Karanovo Gumelnita
    Culture, a mixture of finely boned Mediterranean stock and
    graceful proto-Indo-Europeans.

    These then extended into the Varna
    and Cucuteni cultures, typified by large city-like settlements, fine
    human sculptures, many symbols of animals and gold-coated
    objects, the production of which required strong metalworking
    and smelting talents and knowledge. Indeed, this was the age of
    metals, gold, obsidian etc. in Central Europe. Cucuteni ovens
    for production of metals and ceramics have been found,
    as also indication of the invention of the potter's wheel.

    GUDDA may come from the Latvian term JUKTA meaning "mixed"
    (i.e. paler-skinned northerners mixed with the darker-skinned southerners)
    who Herodotus calls the "agrarian Scythians" - and - in my opinion -
    this is the origin of JUDAH, i.e. the origin of the Hebrews,
    who were the People of the Flood in Mesopotamia.

    In Thrace and Macedonia these people from the coasts
    of the Black Sea were in ancient times regarded to be "foreigners"
    because they were an anthropological mixture of strong
    Indo-European elements with some Mediterranean influence.


    Indice

    El yacimiento arqueológico fue descubierto por primera vez en 1924 cerca del pueblo de Majiayao en el condado de Lintao (Gansu), por el arqueólogo sueco Johan Gunnar Andersson, quien lo consideró parte de la cultura de Yangshao. Ώ] Siguiendo el trabajo de Xia Nai, el fundador de la arqueología contemporánea en la República Popular China, ha sido considerada una cultura diferente, bautizada con el nombre de la localización del yacimiento. Esta cultura evolucionó de la fase media de Miaodigou, a través de la fase intermedia Shilingxia. Ώ] Se divide usualmente a la cultura en tres fases: Majiayao (3300–2500 a.C.), Banshan (2500–2300 a.C.) y Machang (2300–2000 a.C.). ΐ] Α]

    Al final del III milenio a. C., la cultura Qijia sucedió a la cultura Majiayao en yacimientos de tres zonas geográficas principales: este de Gansu, centro de Gansu, y oeste de Gansu/este de Qinghai. Β]


    6. Kindergarten, Zimbabwe

    The PORET community in Zimbabwe are believers of holistic sustainability, aimed to be humane towards the forces of natural entities and people. The project pivots around building with sustainable techniques based on the principles of nature which encourage regional craftsmanship and local methods of construction. The design forms a timber structure with suitable depth forming niches, an alcove inspired by a bird’s nest becomes a place for retreat and similar activities. For functions like training and a dormitory, they created a neutral room along with surrounding benches at various places. The structure intricately crafts colorful windows with solid frames for kids to enjoy the structure. The presence of termites and ants on the site strongly prohibited the survival of any structure posing an unavoidable challenge. The building structure could turn to compost and mix with the earth because no damage is a positive aspect.


    Prehistoric Pottery from Northwest China

    Circular basin with everted rim, rounded sides, lower body tapering inward to a flat base, and two crenellated handles positioned bilaterally on the exterior at the juncture where the lower body begins to taper buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with geometric designs painted in dark brown slip before firing painted designs include dots surrounded by concentric rings and sweeping arcs, bound by undulating parallel lines (on the interior), encircled dots separated by patterns of oblique triangles arranged in symmetrical clusters (on the rim), and two dots surrounded by concentric rings on the exterior walls. Majiayao culture, Majiayao type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Compressed ovoid vessel with everted rim, sloping shoulders, lower body tapering inward to a flat base, and two loop handles angled downward, positioned bilaterally at the midsection buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with abstract designs painted in dark brown slip before firing painted designs on upper half of body and rim include cruciform motifs within medallions surrounded by curvilinear triangles, arcs, and lines. Decoration reminiscent of painted pottery from Shilingxia.

    Miniature covered jar with globular body and two loop handles, the lid with tall finial in the form of a stylized human head buff earthenware with applique elements. Probably Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Compressed ovoid vessel with flat, everted rim, sloping shoulders, lower half tapering inward to a flat base, and two loop handles positioned bilaterally at the midsection buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with pictorial designs painted in dark black slip on the upper half and rim before firing painted designs include zoomorphic frog- or turtle-like creatures with human heads on one side and wavy lines reminiscent of flowing water on the other. Majiayao culture, Majiayao type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Small globular jar with flared mouth, long neck, wide body, lower portion tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with two strap handles attached from rim to shoulders buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in black slip on the rim, neck, body, and handles small fragments of turquoise inlaid into dots of black adhesive around the neck and at the ends of the handles. Siba culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region, probably Gansu province.

    Compressed, wide-bodied jar with open mouth, bulbous, off-center neck, flattened shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, two strap lug handles embellished with crimped appliques, and a small triangular tab below the shoulder, opposite the mouth and neck buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with geometric designs painted in black and burgundy slips before firing decoration on the shoulders includes four round cartouches of small checkerboard patterns. Majiayao culture, Machang type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province. This type of jar is said to resemble a squat waterfowl, with the jar’s neck, lug handles, and tab representing a bird’s head, wings, and tail, respectively.

    Small ovoid vessel with everted lip, cylindrical neck, sloping shoulders, lower body tapering inward to a small flat base, and two loop handles just below shoulders buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with abstract designs painted in black slip before firing painted designs on body, neck, and rim include eye-like dotted roundels surrounded by curvilinear triangles swirling and horizontal lines encircling the neck and lower body. and crossed lines encircling the vessel, each surrounded by curvilinear triangles, arcs, and lines. Majiayao culture, Majiayao type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Pouring vessel with angular neck, ovoid body, strap handle attached from rim to shoulder, tubular spout, and opening in the form of a laughing human face buff earthenware. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Covered globular jar with two S-form strap handles, the cover with finial in the form of a cylinder and disk Buff with applique handles. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Jar with flared mouth, sloped shoulders, sides tapering inward to a flat base, and strap handles red earthenware with applique handles and cord-impressed decoration. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Wide-mouthed jar with ovoid body, straight neck, crimped “pie-crust” rim, and two strap handles attached from rim to shoulders reddish buff earthenware with dark fire markings and with cord-impressed decoration. Xindian culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Bowl-shaped vessel with one handle rising vertically from the rim and terminating in a molded form resembling a human face lower portion of vessel tapers inward to a flat base buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with geometric designs painted in dark brown slip before firing painted designs include a large lozenge shape with fishnet pattern, circles, dots, and undulating lines. Majiayao culture, Majiayao type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Bowl-shaped cup with one strap handle attached from rim to midsection coarse buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in black slip. Xindian culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Pouring vessel with ovoid body, short handle attached from rim to shoulder, and top in the form of a face with two eyes and an open mouth, said to resemble the head of an owl buff earthenware with dark fire markings and with incised and applique decoration. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Small jar with bulbous body, lower portion tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with single strap handle light gray earthenware with applique handle and applique and impressed decoration forming vertical ribs on the body. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region southern Ningxia province.

    Small jar with short, tubular spout, rounded shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with small strap handle light gray earthenware with applique handle and applique and impressed decoration forming diagonal lines on the shoulders and horizontal lines on the lower body. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region southern Ningxia province.

    Compressed ovoid, bowl-like vessel with wide mouth, everted rim, and lower body curving inward to a flat base red earthenware textured below the rim with incised parallel horizontal lines encircling the body, created by incising the clay surface with a pointed implement before firing remains of earth from burial on exterior and interior. Early Yangshao culture, Banpo type. From the middle Yellow River valley region, Shaanxi province.

    Shallow hemispherical bowl with rounded sides curving inward to a slightly flattened convex base red earthenware lightly burnished on interior and exterior decorated on the exterior around the lip with a wide band painted in brown slip before firing some whitish encrustations from burial. Early Yangshao culture, Banpo type. From the middle Yellow River valley region, Shaanxi province.

    Hollow sculpture in the form of a four-legged animal with a pointed muzzle and a bird-like tail buff earthenware with traces of pigment. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia. Hollow sculpture in the form of a four-legged animal with a pointed muzzle and a bird-like tail buff earthenware with traces of pigment. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Deep hemispherical bowl with lower portion tapering inward to a slightly flattened convex base red earthenware lightly burnished and decorated on the exterior around the lip with a wide band painted in a light-colored slip before firing whitish encrustations from burial. Early Yangshao culture, Banpo type. From the middle Yellow River valley region, Shaanxi province.

    Small globular jar with constricted neck, wide body, lower portion tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with two strap handles attached from rim to shoulders buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in black slip on the rim, neck, body, and handles small white shell fragments inlaid into dots of black adhesive around the neck and at the ends of the handles. Siba culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region, probably Gansu province.

    Ovoid jar with short, cylindrical neck, broad shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, and two strap lug handles positioned bilaterally just below the shoulder buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with geometric designs painted in black and burgundy slips before firing. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Ovoid jar with flared lip, cylindrical neck, broad shoulders, sides tapering inward to a flat base, and two lug handles beneath shoulders buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in black slip and white pigment. Majiayao culture, Majiayao type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Jar with curved, “saddle-shaped” mouth, broad shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, and two strap handles attached from rim to top of shoulders gray earthenware with irregular markings from firing. Siwa culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu of Shaanxi province.

    Jar with trumpet-shaped, flared mouth, constricted neck, ovoid body, and two loop handles reddish buff earthenware with applique handles and cord-impressed decoration. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Compressed, wide-bodied jar with open mouth, short, cylindrical, off-center neck, rounded shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, two strap lug handles, and a small, wide tab below the shoulder, opposite the mouth and neck buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with geometric designs painted in black slip before firing decoration on the shoulders includes two large round cartouches, one with small squares and crosshatched rhombuses, the other with large dots set within a grid of crosshatched bands. Majiayao culture, Machang type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province. This type of jar is said to resemble a squat waterfowl, with the jar’s neck, lug handles, and tab representing a bird’s head, wings, and tail, respectively.

    Small jar with short, constricted neck, globular body, two booted human feet, and two strap handles gray earthenware with applique handles and feet and cord-impressed decoration. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia. Note: A sample taken from the handle of this vessel was thermoluminescence (TL) tested at Oxford Authentication Ltd. in November 1999 and determined to be consistent with the suggested period of manufacture.

    Ovoid jar with short neck, broad rounded shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, and two strap lug handles positioned bilaterally below the shoulder buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in black and burgundy slips decoration around the shoulders includes four large round cartouches containing rings of dotted circles surrounding a smaller circle of crosshatching. Majiayao culture, Machang type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Pouring vessel with tubular spout, ovoid body, and two short handles attached from rim to shoulder light gray earthenware with incised and cord-impressed decoration. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Globular vessel with flared lip, long cylindrical neck, sloping shoulders, broad midsection, and lower body tapering inward to a flat base buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated on the exterior with abstract designs painted in black slip painted designs on body and neck include three large lozenge shaped medallions enclosing a fishnet pattern on the body, each surrounded by curvilinear triangles, arcs, lines, and dotted circles. From the upper Yellow River valley region, Gansu or Qinghai province. Note: A sample taken from the base of this vessel was thermoluminescence (TL) tested at Oxford Authentication Ltd. in October 2001 and determined to be consistent with the suggested period of manufacture.

    Circular basin with everted rim, slightly rounded sides, and lower body tapering inward to a flat base buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with geometric designs painted in dark brown slip before firing painted designs include concentric circles radiating outward from a single dot at the center with additional dots at regular intervals (on the interior), curved arcs and diagonal lines (on top of the rim), and wavy lines with feather-like flourishes (on the exterior). Majiayao culture, Majiayao type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Small jar with bulbous body, lower portion tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with single strap handle light gray earthenware with applique handle and impressed decoration forming vertical ribs on the body. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region southern Ningxia province.

    Large jar with curved, “saddle-shaped” mouth with oval cross-section, broad shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, and two strap handles attached from rim to top of shoulders red earthenware with dark gray irregular markings from firing. Siwa culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu of Shaanxi province.

    Pouring vessel with angular neck, ovoid body, short, tubular spout, and triangular opening buff earthenware. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Small jar with bulbous body, lower portion tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with small tab handle light gray earthenware with applique handle and impressed decoration forming a chevron pattern on the shoulders. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region southern Ningxia province.

    Ovoid jar with short neck, broad rounded shoulders, sides tapering inward to a small, flat base, and two strap lug handles positioned bilaterally below the shoulder buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in black and burgundy slips decoration around the shoulders includes designs of stylized headless anthropomorphic figures alternating with round cartouches of crosshatched patterns. Majiayao culture, Machang type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Inverted tear-drop-shaped vessel with cupped mouth, short neck, broad, rounded shoulders, sides tapering inward to a pointed base, and two loop handles just below shoulders red earthenware, the upper half cord-marked (i.e., textured with impressions created by a cord-wrapped implement tapped against the moist clay before firing. Early Yangshao culture, Banpo type. Vessels of this form—with small mouths, pointed bases, and bilateral loop handles—were used to collect and carry water and were produced in abundance during the middle and late Neolithic period in the middle Yellow River valley region. Note: A sample taken from the base of this vessel was thermoluminescence (TL) tested at Oxford Authentication Ltd. in September 1998 and determined to be consistent with the suggested period of manufacture.

    Tall, elongated vessel with small, bell-shaped mouth, narrow neck, sloping shoulders, slightly rounded midsection, sides tapering inward to a flat, circular base, and two strap handles forming loops just below shoulders reddish buff earthenware textured with abstract linear designs from neck to foot, created by combing and scraping the moist clay surface before firing mottled with dark patches. Yangshao culture, Miaodigou type. From the upper or middle Yellow River valley regions, possibly Shaanxi or eastern Gansu province.

    Small twin jars with short necks, globular bodies, and strap loop handles, the jars joined at the body, with an opening between them on the interior buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in orange-red slip. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Small circular basin with two arching handles rising upward from the rim, each terminating in a molded form resembling a human face lower portion of vessel tapers inward to a flat base buff earthenware lightly burnished and decorated with geometric designs painted in dark brown slip before firing painted designs include dotted concentric circles and undulating lines a faint grid-like pattern of lines painted on the base. Majiayao culture, Majiayao type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Globular jar with indented neck, broad body, lower portion tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with two strap handles attached from rim to shoulders buff earthenware with crosshatched decoration painted in black slip on neck and body. Siba culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region, probably Gansu province.

    Small ovoid jar with two lug handles, zigzag mouth opening, and fitted cover with knob in the form of a human head buff earthenware with geometric decoration painted in black slip. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Ningxia province.

    Small jar with bulbous body, lower portion tapering inward to a flat base, and with single strap handle buff earthenware with applique handle and applique decoration forming diagonal lines of dashes across the body. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region southern Ningxia province.

    Small jar with bulbous body, lower portion tapering inward to a small, flat base, and with small tab handle light gray earthenware with applique handle and applique and impressed decoration forming diagonal lines on the shoulders. Majiayao culture, Banshan type. From the upper Yellow River valley region southern Ningxia province.

    Small hourglass-shaped jar with flared mouth, constricted waist, and flared lower half with three strap handles attached from lip to base thinly potted red earthenware with applique handles and traces of cinnabar. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Small rattle with finial in the form of an animal head with pointed ears and muzzle, a long stem representing the animal’s neck, and a globular hollow body with flat base containing rattle elements with two small circular perforations (one near the base of the neck, the other in the center of the flat base) to prevent the object from exploding when fired buff earthenware with applique elements. Qijia culture. From the upper Yellow River valley region Gansu, Qinghai, or Shaanxi province or Inner Mongolia.

    Deep pear-shaped vessel with lightly flared thickened lip, rounded bottom, and flattened conical projection at base red earthenware lightly burnished on the exterior and decorated with a chevron-pattern painted in black slip before firing interior with encrustations of earth from burial. Early middle Yangshao culture, Shijia type. From the middle Yellow River valley region, Shaanxi province.


    Conclusions

    Drawing on archaeology, geology and anthropology, modern scholars do not see the origins of the Chinese civilization or Chinese history as one story but rather the history of the interactions of many different cultures and many different ethnic groups that influenced each other's development. As the prehistoric Beifudi site is in northern China where the climate is drier than in the south, it is likely that this culture cultivated millet although no direct evidence of cultivation has been found. The finding of stone tools for food processing does not reliably prove that the culture had developed agriculture as such tools were used before the cultivation of crops.

    The importance of the prehistoric Beifudi site lies in its potential to provide archaeological information on the beliefs and ceremonial practices of this ancient culture through the ancient carved artifacts found there, as well as further understanding of the beginnings of Chinese architecture.


    Watch the video: Linear Pottery culture (June 2022).


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