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Traverse County LST-1160 - History

Traverse County LST-1160 - History

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Traverse County

(LST-1160: dp. 6,777 (f.), 1. 384'; b. 66'6", dr. 17'
s. 14.6 k.; cpl. 600; a. 6 4"; cl. LST-1156)

LST-1160 was laid down on 18 December 1952 at Bath, Maine, by the Bath Iron Works Corp.; launched on 3 October 1963; sponsored by Mrs. Omar R. King; subcommissioned on 19 December 1963, Lt. Comdr. James W. Perkins in command.

Late in January 1964, the tank landing ship moved from Boston-where she had completed outfitting-to the Naval Amphibious Base at Little Creek, Va. On 26 March, after seven weeks of shakedown training in the Virginia capes operating nrea and three weeks of post-shakedown availability, LST-1160 became an active unit of the Atlantic Fleet Amphibious Force. Between the spring of 1964 and the summer of 1966, the ship completed seven training exercises to sharpen her skill as an amphibious warfare ship. Those drills frequently took her south to the West Indies, most often to Vieques Island near Puerto Rico where embarked marines practiced amphibious landings. On 1 July 1966, LST-1160 was named Traveree County. Not long thereafter, she was awarded the Battle Efficiency "E" as the outstanding ship of LST Flotilla 4. Late in 1966, Traverse County entered the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard for a four-month overhaul. The tank landing ship exited the shipyard in April 1966 and, following a month of refresher training, resumed operations out of Little Creek. The remainder of 1966 saw her periodically embarking marines at Morehead City, N.C., and putting them ashore at Little Creek and at nearby Camp Pendleton.

At the beginning of 1967, Traverse County completed preparations for her first deployment with the 6th Fleet. During the next 11 years, Trawrse County performed eight tours of duty in the Mediterranean. Most often, her operations with the 6th Fleet included visits to ports in Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and along the North African coast. She often conducted training exercises with units of friendly foreign navies. However, during her 1968 deployment, a crisis erupted in Lebanon at the far eastern end of the Mediterranean; and, in July, the LST joined other 6th Fleet units and Amphibious Squadron 6 LST's in landing marines at Beirut to help stabilize the situation. The remainder of her Mediterranean assignments proved to be more routine in nature.

When not attached to the 6th Fleet, Traveree County operated out of Little Creek, Va. Her western Atlantic duties frequently took her to the West Indies and the Caribbean where, in addition to the usual amphibious exercises, she performed supply missions to various American bases in the area under the auspices of the

Commander, Service Force, Atlantic Fleet. Such was her assignment in the fall of 1962 when United States surveillance of Cuba uncovered the siting of offensive missiles on that island by the Russians. When the crisis occurred, President John F. Kennedy invoked a successful quarantine of Cuba to secure the removal of those weapons. During that operation, Traverse County provided support as a combat ready unit. However, the Soviet Union withdrew the missiles, and the tension abated enabling the LST to resume her normal routine early in 1963. She returned to supplying Caribbean bases and conducting amphibious exercises at Little Creek, Onslow Beach, N.C., and at Vieques Island near Puerto Rico.

The Cuban Missile Crisis proved to be her last internationally significant operation. After 1962, she resumed her routine, alternating Mediterranean deployments with east coast operations. She completed her eighth and last 6th Fleet assignment in December 1968 During 1969, she conducted another series of amphibious exercises at her old haunts-Little Creek, Onslow Beach, and Vieques. Similar operations carried her into 1970, but on 7 March, she headed for the Panama Canal and a tour of special duty. After transporting the 8th Marine Engineering Battalion from Morehead City, N.C., to Vieques Island, she arrived at Colon, Canal Zone, on the 12th. She transited the canal and embarked scientists and equipment of the Smithsonian Institution for research operations in the vicinity of the Secas Islands of Panama. That duty lasted until 3 April when she returned to Rodman in the Canal Zone. Between the 3d and the 24th, the tank landing ship transported Army Reserve troops and their equipment between Rio Hato and Rodman and carried Operation "Handclasp" supplies to Guayaquil, Ecuador. On 27 April, she reembarked the Smithsonian scientists for another week of research operations. Upon her return to Rodman early in May, the ship entered the Panama Canal Company's Mt. Hope Shipyard for repairs. She exited the shipyard on 11 June, retransited the canal, and joined the Caribbean Amphibious Ready Group for a day before returning to Rodman for further orders. Late in June, she transported more Army reservists between Rio Hato and Rodman

On 7 July, she headed back to the United States for inactivation. Traverse County reached Little Creek on the 16th. Later that fall, Traverse County was placed out of commission. Sometime thereafter, she was moved to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet berthing area at Orange, Tex. There she remained until 7 June 1972, at which time she was transferred to the Military Sealift Command. She served with that organization until 1 November 1973 when her name was struck from the Navy list. The ship was then transferred to the Maritime Administration and berthed with the National Defense Reserve Fleet group at Suisun Bay, Calif.

USS Traverse County (LST-1160)

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

  • USS Traverse County 1 July 1955 (previously USS LST-1160)
  • Became USNS Traverse County 7 June 1972
  • Laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet 1973
  • Leased to Peru 7 August 1984
  • Sold to Peru 26 April 1999
  • 3 × twin 3 in (76 mm) dual-purpose gun mounts
  • 5 × single 20 mmantiaircraft gun mounts

USS Traverse County (LST-1160), previously USS LST-1160, was a United States Navy landing ship tank (LST) in commission from 1953 to 1970, and which then saw non-commissioned Military Sealift Command service as USNS Traverse County (T-LST-1160) from 1972 to 1973.

Late in January 1954, LST-1160 moved, from Boston, Massachusetts, where she had completed outfitting, to Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek at Virginia Beach, Virginia. On 26 March 1954, after seven weeks of shakedown training in the Virginia Capes operating area and three weeks of post-shakedown availability, LST-1160 became an active unit of the United States Atlantic Fleet Amphibious Force. Between the spring of 1954 and the summer of 1955, she completed seven training exercises to sharpen her skill as an amphibious warfare ship. Those drills frequently took her south to the West Indies, most often to Vieques Island near Puerto Rico, where embarked United States Marines practiced amphibious landings.

On 1 July 1955, LST-1160 was named USS Traverse County (LST-1160). Not long thereafter, she was awarded the Battle Efficiency "E" as the outstanding ship of Landing Ship Tank Flotilla 4.

Late in 1955, Traverse County entered the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for a four-month overhaul. She exited the shipyard in April 1956 and, following a month of refresher training, resumed operations out of Little Creek. The remainder of 1956 saw her periodically embarking Marines at Morehead City, North Carolina, and putting them ashore at Little Creek and at nearby Camp Pendleton.

At the beginning of 1957, Traverse County completed preparations for her first deployment with the United States Sixth Fleet. From 1957 through 1968, Traverse County performed eight tours of duty in the Mediterranean. Most often, her operations with the Sixth Fleet included visits to ports in Spain, France, Italy, Greece, and Turkey, and along the North African coast. She often conducted training exercises with units of friendly foreign navies. However, during her 1958 deployment, a crisis erupted in Lebanon at the far eastern end of the Mediterranean, and in July 1958 Traverse County joined other Sixth Fleet units and Amphibious Squadron 6 landing ships tank in landing Marines at Beirut to help stabilize the situation. The remainder of her Mediterranean assignments proved to be more routine in nature.

When not attached to the Sixth Fleet, Traverse County operated out of Little Creek in Virginia. Her western Atlantic duties frequently took her to the West Indies and the Caribbean where, in addition to the usual amphibious exercises, she performed supply missions to various American bases in the area under the auspices of the Commander, Service Force, Atlantic Fleet. Such was her assignment in the fall of 1962 when American surveillance of Cuba uncovered the siting of offensive ballistic missiles on that island by the Soviet Union. When the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred, President John F. Kennedy invoked a successful blockade, or quarantine, of Cuba to secure the removal of the missiles. During that operation, Traverse County provided support as a combat-ready unit. However, the Soviet Union withdrew the missiles and the tension abated, enabling Traverse County to resume her normal routine early in 1963. She returned to supplying Caribbean bases and conducting amphibious exercises at Little Creek, at Onslow Beach, North Carolina, and at Vieques Island near Puerto Rico.

The Cuban Missile Crisis proved to be Traverse County '​s last internationally significant operation. After 1962, she resumed her routine, alternating Mediterranean deployments with United States East Coast operations. She completed her eighth and last Sixth Fleet assignment in December 1968. During 1969, she conducted another series of amphibious exercises at her old haunts, Little Creek, Onslow Beach, and Vieques Island. Similar operations carried her into 1970.

Traverse County LST-1160 - History


an event which demanded enormous materiel and personnel which came very close to the greatest demand ever witnessed in all eternity namely at ULITHI [see my story here either at the start or finish of this story http://www.godfreydykes.info/ULITHI_A_PLACE_WE_SHOULD_ALL_KNOW_ABOUT.html ]

Much happened in 1962, in my case, four of some note, and in the following order:-

1. I started the year by being promoted to the rate of petty officer at the age of 23.
2. My submarine, H.M.S. Auriga [S69], was commissioned in a tidal basin in Devonport Dockyard, in Devon, UK, the home of RG[D] - Refit Group Devonport - after a fifteen month major refit, for its second two-year service-period in Canada, based on Halifax, Nova Scotia - Prior to that I had served in H.M. Submarine Turpin [S54] based on Gosport, Hampshire, UK, which was badly mauled in 1959 in a cold war altercation with a giant Russian nuclear boat up near the ice cap - see para 3 below. The commissioning was followed by a full war work-up in the seaward end of the vast River Clyde [known as the Firth of Clyde] , on the west coast of Scotland, based In the Gareloch, a lonely loch just along the road from the small town/large village of Helensburgh, in lovely Ayrshire. The entry/exist to the loch is via a potentially dangerous waterway called Rhu Narrows.
3. After the long and exhausting work-up, we returned south to our base in Devonport from where, now turned 24, I was married to my wife Beryl in Gosport Methodist Church - now 54 years ago*. After a rushed [nay in time-terms, mean] honeymoon, we sailed for the Western Approaches [just around the corner from Plymouth/Devonport] into the Atlantic to take up station for the on-coming Cuban Missile Crisis, just one of a relatively few Royal Naval sea going Units, but with a rather large air presence [RN Fleet Air Arm and RAF] respectively squadrons from Culdrose in the south with helicopters, and St Mawgan almost due west of Plymouth with fixed wing, both airfields in Cornwall.
As you will see in a moment or so, this file will list the USN, USAF US ARMY AIR CORPS involved, but I can't find a list of the British units involved.
*In those days promotion to petty officer did not mean a change in uniform from a round cap to a peak cap
However, first open this webpage http://www.godfreydykes.info/COLD_WAR_MACHINE_CRYPTOGRAPHY.html and then scroll down to the very last paragraph and read it. In the book "Hunter Killers" Chapter 11 mentions Auriga's involvement with the Cuban Crisis using pages 62, 63, 70, 71, 73, 77, 78 and 79. The Turpin story of being attacked by a Russian submarine, is told Chapter 8, pages 44 - 50. So, we in Auriga were involved with others unnamed of unknown in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
In the January of 1963 we sailed for Halifax to join the 6th Submarine squadron and came back home in late 1965 for another refit, this time at RG[P] - Refit Group Portsmouth. I went off to other boats, Grampus [S04] being one of them, and after the refit had completed rejoined Auriga for another two year spell, this time in the 7th Submarine squadron based on Singapore. We came home to Chatham in 1968.

The Cuban Crisis is not well known or even understood this side of the Pond, but in the USA it was a major event played out for real between Kennedy and Khrushchev - at that time, by spelling Castro with a 'K', jokingly called the KKK = Ku Klux Klan. It involved no fewer than a Task Force of US Forces over FIVE times [with the vast air combat assets] the size of the British presence/Fleet at Jutland, and not one shot fired in anger, ergo not one death except by accidents!

But first, what was the Cuban Missile Crisis, how did it affect the world and separately Cuba, the USA and the UK? It is a simple story with a simple outcome but it could have resulted in Armageddon, and the world at large witnessed the potential start of World War Three - an out and out nuclear weapon war. There were three players, all protagonists [no spear carriers] namely the presidents of Russia, Cuba and the USA, respectively Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy. Cuba, geographically, can be considered as near to the back garden of the USA, but with modern weapons sited on its territory, within striking distance of Washington DC and many of its defence bases, east and west, Atlantic and Pacific.

Khrushchev had sailed a small convoy of merchant vessels carrying large [and many] missiles, all thought to be ICBM capable, west-about through international waters, destination CUBA in the vicinity of Varadero and Guantanamo, the main naval base. Internationally, this was well published and Kennedy's first task was, with NATO backing and UNO monitoring, to stop the convoy achieving its task. In times gone by, this would have been simple, because he would have ordered a 'shot across the bows'[or even to sink the convoy vessels] to get the convoy to stop and then turn about heading east-bound, but since it was in international waters, chiefly the Atlantic Ocean, such an act would have been one of piracy, this despite the provocative actions of Russia: UNO would have frowned on such an act! So, realising that that was not an option as the convoy made ground westwards, his only hope of stopping it was international political pressure, over and above the implicit pressure brought by the UNO Security Council. Meanwhile, Kennedy had to make plans just in case the convoy made land-fall and off-loaded its deadly cargo ashore on Cuban terra firma. To accommodate this eventuality, he had to raise an invasion fleet with a large amphibious contingent and lots of support vessels to protect it. This he would use to invade Cuba on the pretext of "not in my back garden", using it as a means of self defence, and this would have been supported by the Security Council. Repeated over-flies by the intelligence-gathering spy 'plane U2 had revealed exisiting silo's already established, so the task was not just to stop the missile-carrying convoy bringing in new missiles, but to rid Cuba of existing missiles. This fleet, which was quickly formed, was the catalyst for Khrushchev to see that he was backing a loser, not to mention that he could not match the fire-power of the U.S. Polaris fleet, and whilst still hundreds of miles from the Caribbean, without undue pressure from the rest of the waiting world, he ordered a cancellation, and the convoy headed back from whence it came lead by motor vessel [MV] Poltava. It is true and relevant, so please note it, that Kennedy and Khrushchev were not outright winners or losers and each made diplomatic promises to one another so avoiding the placing of one's tail between one's legs. Khrushchev lost Cuba and Kennedy lost its missiles in Turkey's NATO bases which were pointing to Russia, and the issues were settled on a quid pro quo basis, tit for tat in modern parlance, fortunately!

During the transit of the convoy, Britain scrambled its 'Strategic Air Force', which at that time carried our nuclear deterrent [now carried by our Trident submarine fleet] and at the same time primed and targetted all 6o of our THOR missiles sited in East Anglia to Soviet/Warsaw Pact targets. Simultaneously, UK warships and submarines were deployed in various positions throughout the Channel areas and from the Western Approaches until mid-Atlantic, with a fleet of maritime patrol aircraft of Shackleton aircraft watching over areas deep into the eastern Atlantic.

The USN were used to operating in Battle Groups and in many different Fleets, and in WW2 that included, in the Pacific Islands, specialist amphibious attack groups which routed the entrenched Japanese forces. In the Korean War [1950-1953] the USN made amphibious landings, but the war was essentially a war for soldiers and air men [including navy air men]. 1962 and the Cuban Missile Crisis demanded a new and powerful fleet which was almost classic in formation. It included units up front [minesweepers] - units at the rear defending the whole group [ASW aircraft carriers [three in number] carrying both helicopters and fix wing aircraft designed to find and destroy enemy submarines - see the ### article towards the end of the story], with one, just one lone USN submarine 'U.S.S. Sea Poacher' and two heavy cruisers seaward of them designed to pick-off any threatening warship - on the flanks two massive strike/attack aircraft carriers [one nuclear] ladened with every type of attack aircraft imaginable - scores of destroyers and frigates escorting various heavy landing ships both LPD [Landing Platform Docks] from which to launch landing craft and LST [Landing Ship Tanks] prior to which the destroyers would rough-up the shore line with NGS [Naval Gunfire Support/bombards] - all supported by a phalanx of support vessels, everything from ocean tugs, oilers, gasoline carriers, tenders, attacking cargo ships, other types of stores vessels, salvage vessels etc.

I have copied this list from 'The Navy Department Library' which is a head count. Below I have associated a nomenclature to define which type of ship each was, so that the composition was clear. In all, there were 213 afloat units and nearly 150 air assets, fixed wing and rotary. Unlike the modern day [1999] USS Winston S Churchill named after our great man [whose mother was an American], the USS English in the list below has nothing to do with our country. The USS Joseph P Kennedy Jr was named after JFK's eldest brother. USS Plymouth Rock named after the site where the British pilgrims landed in 1620.

Traverse County LST-1160 - History

Grand Traverse County, Michigan

Source: "The Traverse Region, Historical and Descriptive . . .," Chicago: H. R. Page & Co., 1884 Genealogy Trails Transcription Team


Physical Features - Advent of Protestant Missionaries - Movements at Old Mission - Arrival of Settlers - Removal of the Mission to Leelanau County - The First Bride - Mr. Dougherty as a Physician - Reminiscence - An Early Wedding

Before following out the history of any particular county or section it is well to become acquainted with some of the distinguishing features of the territory under consideration, such as location, topography, etc.

A glance at the map will show the location of Grand Traverse County to be at the head of the bay of the same name, and extending about ten miles on either side, eighteen miles to the south, and embracing the "Peninsula." A narrow strip of land dividing the bay into the east and west arms. It is bounded on the north by Leelanau County and Traverse Bay, on the east by Kalkaska, on the south by Wexford, and on the west by Benzie. It has an area of 612 square miles, and had a population in 1880 of 8,422.

There were about 1,000 acres of government, 1,160 acres of state swamp, 1,445 acres of primary school, 520 acres of agricultural college, and 36,440 acres of Grand Rapids and Indiana railroad land subject to entry May 1, 1883.

A state road runs from Traverse City to Elk Rapids, thence northward to Charlevoix and Petoskey. Another runs southeasterly to Houghton Lake. The roads may be said to be in a fair condition for so new a country.

The soil varies according to locality from light sand to heavy clay. Near the Bay Shore, sand predominates, although in some places on the peninsula and in East Bay Township good soil extends to the water's edge. Pine plains are quite extensive along the Boardman River, and cedar swamps (generally reclaimable) traversed by streams of running water, are found in nearly every township.

There are, however, some tracts of clay and clay loam. The soil of the table land and its declivities is boulder drift of great thickness, in some places being fifty feet in depth, having the same mineral characteristics as that of the surface, except as it is modified by the influence of vegetation and the elements. The timber is mainly sugar maple, beech, basswood, elm, hemlock, pine and cedar. Wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, clover, timothy, and all varieties of roots do well in this county. Corn in particular does much better than would be expected in so high a latitude.

Grand Traverse is a great fruit county. Apples and grapes are raised on all but the swamp lands, but the more tender varieties of apples need the protection of the bay or of the more elevated situations. Pears, peaches, plums, and cherries are very successful when proper attention is paid to the selection of the site. Thousands of bushels of huckleberries grow on the pine plains, while all other varieties of berries are perfectly at home, either in the field or garden. The general description of this region given on preceding will apply with especial force to this county.

There is an abundance of water and that of the purest quality. Boardman River and its tributaries water the eastern half of the county, while there are many smaller streams and lakes in every township. The larger lakes are: Long Lake, Green Lake, Duck Lake, Cedar Hedge Lake, Silver Lake, Fife Lake and Boardman Lake, varying from one to six miles in length, Long Lake being the largest. There is also in the northeast of Township 26 north, of Range 10 west, a chain of lakes, of irregular form, from half a mile to a mile in width and extending to several miles in length. The water is of the most perfect purity, all streams and lakes being fed by living springs. Further information may be found in the general chapter of soil, climate, etc.

Early History
The history of Grand Traverse County begins in the year 1839 with the advent of Protestant missionaries and the United States surveyors. These were the first intimations the Indians in this locality received of rival ownership.

In May, 1839, Rev. John Fleming and Rev. Peter Dougherty arrived at the little cove, known as Mission Harbor, and landed near where the wharf has since been built. They had come by boat from Mackinac where they had spent the previous winter and had now come to the Grand Traverse Bay region for the purpose of establishing a mission, having been sent to this country by the Presbyterian Board of Missions. From Dr. Leach's sketch in the Grand Traverse Herald we now quote as follows:

Of the presence of man there were no signs visible, save a few bark wigwams, in a narrow break in the fringe of forest, from one of which a thin column of blue smoke curled lazily upward.

They found only one Indian at the village. He informed them that the band were encamped at the mouth of the river, on the opposite side of the bay. The Indian made a signal with a column of smoke which had the effect of bringing over a canoe, full of young men, who came to inquire who the strangers were and what was wanted.

The next day, a chief, with a number of men, came over. Messrs. Fleming and Dougherty informed him that they had come, by direction of their agent at Mackinac, and by permission of their great father, the president, to establish a school among them for the instruction of their children, and to teach them a knowledge of the Savior. The reply was that the head chief, with his men, would come in a few days, and then they would give an answer.

On the arrival of the head chief, Aish-qua-gwon-a-ba, a council was held, for the purpose of considering the proposal of the missionaries. At its close, Messrs. Fleming and Dougherty were informed that the Indians had decided to unite the bands living in the vicinity, and locate near the river, on the east side of the bay. If the missionaries would go with them, they would show them the intended location of their new villages and gardens, so that they could select a good central site for their dwelling and school.

About the 20th of the month, the white men in their boat accompanied by a fleet of Indian canoes, crossed the bay, landing at the mouth of the river, where the village of Elk Rapids is now situated. The Indians proposed to divide their settlement into two villages. After looking over the ground, the missionaries chose a location, something more than a quarter of a mile from the river, on the south side.

The day after the missionaries landed at Elk River, the Indians came to their tent in great excitement, saying there were white men in the country. They had seen a horse's track which contained the impression of a shoe. Their ponies were not shod. Shortly after, a white man came into the camp. He proved to be a packman belonging to a company of United States surveyors, who were at work on the east side of Elk and Torch Lakes. He had lost his way and wanted a guide to pilot him back to his company.

An Indian went with him several miles, returning in the afternoon with the man's hatchet in his possession, having taken it on the refusal of the latter to pay him for his services. The next day the whole company of surveyors came in and encamped for a short time at the river.

Immediately after deciding upon the location, Messrs. Fleming and Dougherty commenced cutting logs for the construction of a dwelling and school-house. Hard work and the discomforts of a wilderness, the latter of which were doubly annoying to the inexperienced missionaries, filled up the next few days. Among other evils from which they could not escape, the sand flies were a terrible torment. Finally, the body of the house was raised, the doors and windows brought from Mackinac were put in their places, and the gables and roofs were covered with sheets of cedar bark purchased of the Indians.

Then an unexpected blow fell upon the devoted missionaries, crushing the hopes and changing the life prospects of one, and plunging both into deep sorrow. A messenger came from Mackinac, with intelligence that Mr. Fleming's wife had suddenly died at that place. The bereaved husband, with the four men who had come with him, immediately embarked in their boat for Mackinac. He never returned to the mission. Mr. Dougherty was left alone. With the exception of the surveyors at work somewhere in the interior, he was the only white person in the country.

After the departure of his comrade, Mr. Dougherty, with the assistance of Peter Greensky, the interpreter, busied himself with the work of finishing the house, and clearing away the brush in the vicinity. Once or twice the cedar bark of the roof took fire from the stove pipe, but fortunately the accident was discovered before any serious damage was done. The old chief Aish-qua-gwon-a-ba and his wife, perhaps to show their friendliness and make it less lonely for the missionary, came and staid with him several days in his new house.

About the 20th of June, Henry R. Schoolcraft, Indian agent at Mackinac, arrived in small vessel, accompanied by his interpreter, Robert Graverat, and Isaac George as Indian blacksmith. From information received at Mackinac, Mr. Schoolcraft had come impressed with the notion that the harbor near the little island near the peninsula (Bower's Harbor) would be a suitable point at which to locate the blacksmith, carpenter, and farmer, that, by the terms of the recent treaty, the government was obliged to furnish for the benefit of the Indians. Looking over the ground, and consulting the wishes of the Indians, he finally came to the conclusion that Mission Harbor was a more suitable place. Accordingly Mr. George was left to commence operations, and Mr. Schoolcraft returned to Mackinac.

Soon after the departure of Mr. Schoolcraft, Ah-go-ea, the chief at Mission Harbor, accompanied by the principal men of his band, visited Mr. Dougherty, saying that most of the Indians at that place were unwilling to move over to the east side of the bay, and offering to transport him and his goods across to Mission Harbor, and furnish him a house to live in, if he would take up his residence with them. Convinced that, all things considered, the harbor was a more eligible site for the mission, Mr. Dougherty at once accepted the proposal. Leaving what things were not needed for immediate use, and loading the balance in Indian canoes, he was ferried across the bay to the scene of his future labors - the place where he had first landed, not many weeks before, and which, under the name of Old Mission, has since become famous as a center of development in the agricultural interests of northwestern Michigan.

The next day arrangements were made for opening a school, with interpreter Greensky as teacher, in the little bark wigwam that the Indians had vacated for Mr. Dougherty's use. Then followed a hard summer's work. Mr. Dougherty and Mr. George commenced the construction of a house for themselves. The logs for the building were cut close along the border of the harbor, floated to a point near where they were to be used, and then dragged to the site of the building by hand. Of course, the work could never have been accomplished without the aid of the Indians. The house was covered with shingles, such as the two inexperienced men were able to make, and a few boards brought from Mackinac with their fall supplies. The building was so nearly completed that the men found themselves comfortably housed before, winter fairly set in.

Desiring not to be left alone, while the Indians were absent on their annual winter hunt, Mr. Dougherty induced the chief Ah-go-sa and two others, with their families, to remain till sugar-making time in the spring, by offering to help them put up comfortable houses for winter. Before they were finished, the weather had become so cold that boiling water had to be used to thaw the clay for plastering the chinks in the walls. Mr. Dougherty's house stood on the bank of the harbor, east of the site afterward occupied by the more commodious and comfortable mission house. The chief's shanty was built on the south side of the little lake lying a short distance northwest of the harbor. The cabins for the other two Indian families were located a little south of where the mission church was afterward built.

In the fall Mr. John Johnston arrived at the mission, having come by appointment of Mr. Schoolcraft to reside there as Indian farmer. During the winter, the mission family consisted of four men - Dougherty, George, Greensky, and Johnston. Mr. Johnston brought with him a yoke of oxen, for use in Indian farming. There was no fodder in the country, unless he may have brought a little with him. Be that as it may he found it necessary to browse his cattle all winter.

In the spring of 1840 the log house which had been built at Elk Rapids the previous year was taken down, and the materials were transported across the bay and used in the construction of a school-house and wood-shed. Until the mission church was built, a year or two after, the school-house was used for holding religious services as well as for school.

In the fall of 18-11 besides Indian wigwams there were five buildings at the mission - the school-house and four dwellings. All were built of logs, and all except Mr. Dougherty's house, were covered with cedar bark. The dwellings were occupied by Mr. Dougherty, missionary, Henry Bradley, mission teacher, John Johnston, Indian farmer, and David McGulpin, assistant farmer. Mr. George was still there, and there had been another addition to the community in the person of George Johnston, who had come in the capacity of Indian carpenter. As regards race, the little community, the only representative of Christian civilization in the heart of a savage wilderness, was somewhat mixed. John Johnston was a half Indian, with a white wife McGulpin was a white man, with an Indian wife. All the others, except Greensky, the interpreter, were whites.

New Arrivals
In the fall of 1841 Deacon Joseph Dame and Lewis Miller arrived. Mrs. Dougherty had previously come to the mission. The names of Joseph Dame and Lewis Miller became intimately connected with the history of this region.

Deacon Dame had received the appointment of Indian farmer, as successor to John Johnston, and came to enter upon the duties of his office. With him were Mrs. Dame, their eldest, son, Eusebius F., and two daughters, Almira and Mary. Another daughter, Olive M., came the following year.

Lewis Miller was an orphan, left alone to make his way in the world. His birthplace was Waterloo, Canada West the date of his birth, September 11, 1824. The year 1839 found him in Chicago. From that city, in 1840, he made his way to Mackinac. Here he became acquainted with the Dames. A strong friendship grew up between him and Mr. and Mrs. Dame. When, in 1841, Deacon Dame received his appointment as Indian farmer, and commenced preparations for removal to his new field of labor, Miller, then seventeen years of age, resolved to accompany him, more for the novelty of the thing than from any definite purpose with reference to the future. Except the children who came with their parents, he was the first white settler in the Grand Traverse country who did not come in consequence of an appointment from the Presbyterian Board or the Mackinac Indian Agency.

Eusebius and Almira Dame were in their teens Mary was younger. During some portion of the time for the next year or two, the three, with young Miller, were pupils in the mission school. Except the Catholic mission school at Little Traverse, it was the first in the Traverse country.

About 1842, the construction of a more commodious dwelling and a mission church was commenced by Mr. Dougherty. The dwelling, since known as the Mission House, was the first frame building erected in the Grand Traverse country. The church had solid walls, of hewn cedar timbers laid one upon another and kept in place by the ends being fitted into grooves in upright posts. The timbers were brought from the east side of the bay, in a huge log canoe, or dug-out, called the Pe-to-be-go, which was thirty feet long, and, it is said, was capable of carrying twenty barrels of flour. At the present writing, forty years after the completion of these structures, the mission house, enlarged and improved, is occupied as a dwelling by Mr. D. Rushmore. The church is owned by the Methodist Episcopal Society of Old Mission, and is still used as a house of worship. The little school-house, in which Mr. Bradley taught Miller and the young Dames, in connection with his classes of Indian boys and girls, was accidentally burned several years ago.

During the next ten years, some changes occurred at the mission. Mr. Bradley, as teacher, was succeeded by a gentleman by the name of Whiteside. Not liking the position, Mr. White side soon resigned, and was followed by Mr. Andrew Porter.

Changes were also made, from time to time, among the employes of the Indian agency. Some of them remained in the country after their connection with the agency had terminated and turned their attention to farming and other pursuits. Among such appear the names of John Campbell, Robert Campbell, William R. Stone, and J. M. Pratt. Among the earlier settlers not connected with the mission or the agency, were H. K. Coles, John Swaney, and Martin S. Wait. O. P. Ladd and his brother-in-law, Orlin Hughson, settled on the peninsula as early as 1850, but remained only two or three years. E. P. Ladd, having come on a visit to his sister, Mrs. Hughson in May, 1852, was so well pleased with the country that he at once determined to make his home here. G. A. Craker arrived in April of the same year, and immediately hired out to Mr. Dougherty.

The little group of wigwams and log cabins at the harbor had grown to a village of considerable size. The Indians had generally abandoned their early style of wigwams, and were living in houses built of hewn logs and whitewashed on the outside. Seen from a distance, the village presented a pretty and inviting appearance a close inspection did not always confirm first impressions. According to their original custom, the Indians lived in the village, and cultivated gardens some distance away.

The gardens, or patches of cultivated ground, were of all sizes, from one acre to six. The Indians had no legal title to the soil. By the terms of treaty, the peninsula had been reserved for their exclusive occupation for a period of five years, and after that they were to be permitted to remain during the pleasure of the government. The period of five years had long since expired. Their landed property was held by sufferance, and was liable at any moment to be taken away. The project of removing them beyond the Mississippi was at one time seriously entertained by the government, or at least it was so understood. The prospect was not pleasing to the Indians. A deputation sent to examine their proposed new home in the West reported unfavorably. They determined not to be removed, preferring to take refuge in Canada, as a large part of the Indian population of Emmet County had done several years before.

At this juncture, the adoption of the revised state constitution of 1850 made citizens of all civilized persons of Indian descent, not members of any tribe. Here was a way out of the difficulty. They could purchase land of the government, settle down upon it, and claim the protection of the state and the general government as citizens. The land on the peninsula was not yet in market that on the west shore of the bay was. By the advice of Mr. Dougherty, several families agreed to set apart a certain amount, out of their next annual payment, for the purchase of land. A list of names was made, and the chief was authorized to receive the money from the agent at Mackinac, which he brought to Mr. Dougherty for safe keeping. Having made their selections, on the west side of the bay, some of their most trusty men were sent to the land office, at Ionia, the following spring, to make the purchase.

If the general government ever seriously entertained the project of removing the Indians of the Traverse country beyond the Mississippi, it was abandoned, and several townships, in what are now the counties of Leelanau, Charlevoix, and Emmet, were withdrawn from market and set apart as reservations for their benefit. Within the limits of these reservations, each head of a family and each single person of mature age was permitted to select a parcel of land, to be held for his own use, and eventually to become his property in fee simple.

As already indicated, the lands on the peninsula were not yet in market. The Indians held possession of considerable portions, but could give no legal title to the soil. They could, however, sell their possessory rights, and white men, recognizing the eligibility of the location for agricultural pursuits, were not backward in becoming purchasers, taking the chances of obtaining a title from the government at a future time.

The combined effect of the several circumstances narrated above, was to cause a gradual scattering of the Indians of the mission settlement. Those who had purchased land on the west side of the bay, removed to their new homes. Others removed to the lands they had selected in the reserved townships. Seeing that the Indian community at the mission would finally be broken up, Mr. Dougherty wisely concluded to change the location of the mission itself. Accordingly, purchase was made of an eligible tract of land suitable for a farm and manual labor school, on Mission Point, near the place now called Omena, in Leelanau County, to which he removed early in the spring of 1852.

Considering the scattered condition and migratory habits of the Indians, it was thought that the most effective work for their Christianization and civilization could be done by gathering the youth into one family, where they would be constantly, and for a term of years, under the direct supervision and influence of teachers. And then, a well-managed industrial school, it was thought, could not fail to exert, in some degree, a beneficial influence on the parents and youth of the vicinity, who did not attend, by a practical exhibition of the advantages of education and industry. In this respect, the new location of the mission was well chosen, being in the vicinity of those families who had purchased land of the government, and who, it might reasonably be expected, would profit by its example.

Mission Point had been occupied by a band of Indians, called, from the name of their chief, Shawb-wuh-sun's hand, some of whose gardens were included in the tract purchased by Mr. Dougherty. There were apple trees growing there, at the time of the purchase, as large as a man's body. Tradition says that the band had inhabited the western shore of the bay for a long time, and had once been numerous and powerful.

The manual labor school was opened in the fall following the removal. The number of pupils were limited to fifty - twenty-five of each sex. Young children were not received, except in one instance, the rule was suspended in favor of two homeless orphans.

When received into the school, the pupils were first washed and clothed. The common clothing of both sexes consisted of coarse but decent and serviceable material. The boys were employed on the farm the girls in housework and sewing. At five o'clock in the morning, the bell rang for all to rise. At six, it called all together for worship. Soon after worship, breakfast was served, the boys sitting at one table, the girls at another. After breakfast, all repaired to their daily labor, and worked till half past eight, when the school bell gave warning to assemble at the school room. The boys worked under the supervision of Mr. Craker. Every boy had suitable tools assigned him, which he was required to care for and keep in their proper places. Mr. Craker kept the tools in order, so that they were always ready for use, and each boy could go to his work promptly. A considerable portion of the mission farm was cleared, and afterward cultivated, by the labor of the boys. The girls were divided into classes, or companies, to each of which was assigned some particular department of domestic labor, changes being made weekly, so that all could be instructed in every department.

In the school-room were two teachers - one for the boys and another for the girls. Miss Isabella Morrison, of New Haven, Conn., was for many years the girls' teacher. After her resignation, the place was filled by Miss Catherine Gibson, till the mission was discontinued. Miss Gibson was from Pennsylvania. In the boys' department, the teachers were successively Miss Harriet Cowles, Miss Beach, Mr. John Porter, and Miss Henrietta Dougherty. Miss Cowles came from near Batavia, N. Y., Miss Beach from White Lake, N. Y., and Mr. Porter from Pennsylvania.

Concerning the mission, it only remains to mention that the financial embarrassment of the Board, growing out of the war of the rebellion, necessitated the discontinuance of the work. The school was finally broken up, and the mission farm passed into other hands.

It has already been stated that Lewis Miller came to Old Mission in company with the Dame family, more for the novelty of the thing than because of any definite plan for the future. At that time, the fur trade, having its center at Mackinac, was still profitable. When young Miller had been at the mission about a year, he entered into an arrangement with Mr. Merrick, a merchant of Mackinac, to open trade with the Indians on the bay. Mr. Merrick was to furnish the goods Miller to conduct the business. A wigwam, rented of an Indian, served for a storehouse at the mission.

To carry on trade with the Indians successfully and profitably, involved a great deal of hard labor. Frequent journeys had to be made to Mackinac, and to various points along the shore, at all seasons of the year. When the lake was open, Indian canoes or Mackinac boats were used when it was closed, there was no way but to travel on snow-shoes, on the ice or along the beach.

The winter journeys were always attended with hardship sometimes with danger. Mr. Miller was usually accompanied by a man in his employ, and not unfrequently by two - half-breeds or Indians. When overtaken by night, a camping place was selected on the shore, where there was plenty of fuel at hand, and where some thicket would, in a measure, break the fury of the wintry wind. With their snow-shoes for shovels, the travelers cleared away the snow down to the surface of the ground - not an easy task when, as was sometimes the case, it was three feet or more in depth. Then evergreen boughs were set up around the cleared space, as a further protection from the wind, and a thick carpet of twigs was spread on the ground. A fire was built, the kettle hung above it, and tea made. After supper the tired wanderers, each wrapped in two or three Mackinac blankets, lay down to rest. On one of his journeys to Mackinac, in the depth of winter, Mr. Miller and his companions waded Pine River, where Charlevoix is now situated, both going and returning.

Stopping over at Little Traverse, when on a boat journey in December, Mr. Miller was informed by the Indians that a vessel had gone ashore, near the "Big Stone," on the south side of Little Traverse Bay. It was already dark, but, procuring a boat and two Indians to row, he lost no time in crossing the bay to the scene of the disaster. He found the vessel without difficulty. There was no one remaining on board, but a light could be seen among the trees, some distance back from the beach. Making his way to it, he found gathered round a camp fire the crew of the vessel, which proved to be the Champion, and eighteen passengers. Had he dropped from the clouds into their midst, the company would have been scarcely more surprised. He was immediately overwhelmed with questions as to who he was, where he came from, and especially where they were. Neither captain, crew, nor passengers had any definite notion of the locality they were in. Learning their exact position, they set about making arrangements to get out of the wilderness. The captain willingly sold to Mr. Miller, at a low price, such supplies as the latter wished to purchase. Some of them bought boats of the Indians, and made their way to Mackinac. A party, led by the captain, crossed Grand Traverse Bay, landing in the vicinity of Omena, and proceeded south, on foot, along the shore of Lake Michigan. As far as known, crew and passengers all eventually reached their homes, but not without undergoing considerable hardship. Fortunately there were no women or children on board the Champion.

The First Bride
The first bride who came to the Grand Traverse country on her wedding tour, was Mrs. Lewis Miller, whose maiden name was Catherine Kiley. She was a native of London, Eng., and, like her husband, had been left an orphan. Somehow she had found her way to America, and then to the outpost of civilization at Mackinac. During Mr. Miller's frequent visits to that place, an attachment had grown up between them, which finally resulted in marriage. The wedding took place in September, 1845.

Immediately after the marriage, they set sail in the little sloop Lady of the Lake, for their home in the wilderness. Mr. Miller had chartered the vessel for the occasion, and had loaded her with goods for the Indian trade, furniture, and supplies for housekeeping. The Lady was but a bit of a craft, but she was a perfect duck on the water, and fleet before anything like a favorable wind. The fates, however, if the fates have anything to do with regulating wedding trips, decreed a long and tempestuous voyage. It was the season when the god of the winds, on the northern lakes, delights to ornament their surface with foam-capped waves, and tantalize the impatient mariner with variable breezes and the most disappointing kinds of weather.

The first day, they made the island of St. Helena, where they were compelled to seek the shelter of the harbor. There were a dozen sail or more there, waiting for a favorable change. Several times the Lady ventured out, but was as often compelled to put back. Finally, seizing the most favorable opportunity, she was able to reach Little Traverse. Here she was compelled to remain four days. The newly married couple went on shore, and found comfortable quarters in an Indian house. The woman of the house had been brought up in a white family at Mackinac, and being able to understand the wants of her guests, was in a degree successful in her kind endeavors to make their stay pleasant.

Leaving Little Traverse, the vessel reached the mouth of Grand Traverse Bay, when she was again driven back. At the second attempt, she was obliged to heave to, in the mouth of the bay, the captain remaining all night at the helm. As Miller came on deck in the morning, dull, leaden clouds obscured the sky, and the air was filled with snowflakes. He proposed to take the captain's place at the helm while the latter should turn in for a little rest. The captain gladly consented. Once installed in authority, Miller made sail, and let the captain sleep till the Lady was safely moored in the harbor at Old Mission.

A young bride, coming for the first time to the home of her husband, naturally looks with a great deal of interest at the surroundings. Sometimes there is disappointment. There was probably no serious disappointment in this case, but it is a part of the traditional family history, that as Mrs. Miller came on deck, that gloomy September morning, and looked anxiously out upon the scene, beautiful in its gloominess, and saw only the forest skirted shore and the smoke curling upward from the log houses of the whites and a few Indian wigwams, the first question she asked her husband was, "Where is the town?"

Mr. Miller's oldest son, Henry L., was the first white child born in the Grand Traverse country.

Mr. Dougherty as a Physician
During the period of Mr. Dougherty's residence at Old Mission, there being no physician in the country he was often applied to for medicine and advice for the sick. On one occasion, after Mr. Boardman had established himself at the head of the bay, at the place where Traverse City now stands, he was called to prescribe for Mrs. Duncan, who was keeping the boarding-house at that place. He found Mrs. Duncan very sick. Two or three days after, not having heard from his patient in the interval, he became anxious for her safety, and resolved to get some information in regard to her condition, and to send a further supply of medicine, or repeat his visit.

There were some men from Boardman's establishment getting out timber at the harbor on the west side of the peninsula (Bowers' Harbor) which they were conveying home in a boat. Hoping to get the desired information from them, and to send the necessary medicine by their hand, he walked across the peninsula to their place of labor. The men had gone home with a cargo. Thinking he might get to Boardman's in time to return with them on their next trip, he started for the head of the bay on foot, making his way as rapidly as possible along the beach. There was no bridge over Boardman River near the boarding-house, and, on his arrival, the skiff used for crossing was on the other side. There was no time to lose. Not to be delayed, he quickly entered the stream, and waded across, the cold water coming up to his chin. Fortunately, he found his patient much improved unfortunately, the boat in which he had hoped to return was already nearly out of sight, on its way back to the peninsula.

Mr. Dougherty would have been hospitably entertained, could he have been persuaded to remain, but he felt that he must return home. Not stopping to put on a dry suit that was offered him, he partook of a hasty lunch and set out on his return. Some one set him across the river in the skiff. As soon as he was out of sight in the woods, he resolved to dry his clothes, without hindering himself in the journey. Taking off his shirt, he hung it on a stick carried in the hand, spreading it to the sun and air, as he walked rapidly along. The day was warm, and the sun shone brightly. When the shirt was partly dry, he exchanged it for his flannel, putting on the shirt, and hanging the flannel on the stick. It was near sundown when he reached home, thoroughly fatigued, but happy in the thought that his patient was getting well. The next day he was so sore and stiff as to be scarcely able to move.

Some years later, after the removal of the mission to the west side of the bay, Mr. Dougherty had an adventure that may serve to illustrate the wild character of the country and the shifts to which the settlers were sometimes reduced.

While seeking supplies for his school, one spring, he heard that a vessel, carrying a cargo of provisions, had been wrecked on the shore of Lake Michigan, somewhere south of Sleeping Bear Point, and that consequently there was flour for sale there at a reasonable price. In those days, the wrecking on the shore of a vessel with such a cargo, while it was, as now, a misfortune to the owners and underwriters, was not unfrequently a blessing of no small magnitude to the inhabitants. The captain of the unfortunate craft was usually willing and even anxious to sell, at a moderate price, such provisions as could be saved from the wreck, and the people were only too glad to buy.

Starting early one morning, Mr. Dougherty walked across the country, to the Indian village of Che-ma-go-bing, near the site of the present village of Leland. From Che-ma-go-bing he followed the shore round the bay since marked on the maps as Good Harbor, past the place afterward called North Unity, and around the point separating Good Harbor from what was then known as Sleeping Bear Bay, but since called Glen Arbor Bay, his point of destination being the residence of John Lerue, who he knew lived on the shore somewhere in that region.

The walk was long and fatiguing. When the shades of evening fell upon the landscape, he had not reached Mr. Lerue's cabin. At ten o'clock he came to a small shed on the beach, where some cooper had been making barrels for the fishermen on the coast. It was now too dark to travel, and he resolved to pass the night there. The air was chilly, but everything was very dry, and he feared to make a fire lest the shed should be burned. One less conscientious than Mr. Dougherty, and less careful of the rights of others, would not have hesitated for such a reason, but he preferred a night of discomfort to the risk of injuring a fellow being. A backwoods man of more experience would, no doubt, have found a method to make everything safe, while enjoying the luxury of a camp fire.

Looking about for the best means of protection from the cold, he found two empty barrels, each with a head out. It occurred to him that these might be converted into a sleeping apartment. It required some little ingenuity to get into both at once, but after considerable effort he succeeded. Bringing the second barrel so near that he could reach the open end, he worked his head and shoulders into the first, and placing his feet and legs in the second, drew it up as close to the first as possible. In telling the story years afterward, Mr. Dougherty declared that he slept, and could not recollect his dreams, but, as his business was urgent, the luxury of his bed did not keep him long the next morning. He was out early, and soon found Mr. Lerue's house, which was not far off.

He now learned what would have saved him a toilsome journey, had he known it a day earlier, that the flour had been removed to Northport, which was only a few miles from the mission. After breakfast, Mr. Lerue guided him across the point that separates the bays, and he set out for Northport. Arriving there after dark, he was disappointed with the information that the flour had all been sold. After a night's rest, not in barrels on the beach, he had no alternative but to return home empty-handed.

Mr. Dougherty was a graduate of Princeton theological seminary. He was a person of strong convictions, energetic and persevering in labor, in manner gentle and pleasing. His life work was well done. Blest with a companion of superior natural and educational endowments, and the sincerity, sweet disposition and polished manners of the ideal Christian lady, the social atmosphere of his home produced a healthful moral effect on all who came within the sphere of its influence. Mr. and Mrs. Dougherty were fortunate in their children, of whom there were nine - one son and eight daughters. Two of the daughters died in childhood. The other children grew up to be an honor to their parents and a blessing to the communities in which their lots were cast. At the proper age, most of them were sent East, for a few years, for the sake of the educational advantages that could not be had at home. The society of the early days of the Grand Traverse country was largely indebted to the Dougherty's for the refinement that distinguished it from the coarseness too often found in border settlements.

Mrs. Dougherty died May 24, 1876. Mr. Dougherty is living at the present time, 1888, in Somers, Wis.

Those early days had their romance, as well as their stern realities of hardship and endurance. The first wedding in the Grand Traverse country would, no doubt, form a pleasing episode in the history we are tracing, were all the incidents of the affair placed at the disposal of someone capable of weaving them into shape with an artistic hand.

An Early Wedding.
It has been already mentioned that Deacon Dame's oldest daughter, Olive M., came to Old Mission the next summer following the arrival of the family. She had passed the winter in Wisconsin, where she had been betrothed to Mr. Ansel Salisbury. In the fall after her arrival, Mr. Salisbury came to Old Mission to claim his bride.

Mr. Dougherty was anxious that the Indians of his flock should profit by acquaintance with the institutions of Christian civilization. The opportunity to show them a form of marriage recognized by the white man's law and the church, was too important to let slip consequently, by the consent of all parties, it was arranged that the ceremony should take place in public.

At a convenient hour in the morning, the little school-house was filled with a mixed company of whites and Indians. There was no newspaper reporter present, to describe the trousseau of the bride, or the costumes of distinguished guests. We must draw upon our imagination for a picture of the same. We see the bride in simple attire, as became the occasion and the surroundings. There are the Indian women, in their bright shawls and elaborately beaded moccasins, and the Indian men, some of them clothed in a style only a degree or two removed from the most primitive undress, all looking gravely on, apparently unmoved, yet keenly observant of all that passes. The whites are dressed in their Sunday best, which, to tell the truth, is in most cases somewhat rusty, their hilarity scarcely veiled by the gravity inspired by the solemn occasion. The hymeneal rite is simple and impressive - the more impressive from the simple earnestness of its administration. Then we see the groups of friends on the shore, waving adieus amid smiles and tears as the newly married couple float away in their canoe, on the bridal tour.

Mrs. Dame accompanied her daughter as far as Mackinac. The craft in which the company embarked, was a large birch bark canoe, navigated by four Indians. They proceeded directly across the bay to the east shore. There the Indians got out a long line manufactured from basswood bark, and running along the beach, towed the canoe rapidly after them. At night they had reached the mouth of Pine River, where they made their camp. The next morning, the Indians hoisted a large, square sail, and, running before a fair wind, they reached Mackinac at night. Mrs. Dame returned in the canoe, with the Indians, to Old Mission. Mr. and Mrs. Salisbury remained a few days at Mackinac, and then embarked on a steamboat for their home in Wisconsin.

First Wheat Raised - Old Mission in 1849 - First Clearing - An Early School - Early Settlements in the County - The Monroe Settlement - Some of the Early Settlers - Early Movements at East Bay and Whitewater - Beginning of General Settlement - Population of Different Periods - Early Religious Activities - The County in 1862

In 1842 the Indians on the peninsula, at the suggestion of Deacon Dame, sent to Green Bay and bought a barrel of wheat. That season the first wheat was sown, and a good crop was harvested. They had no means of grinding it but boiled it as they did their corn. From that time wheat was raised every year, and when enough had accumulated to warrant a trip, they took it to be ground to the mills at Green Bay.

In 1847 operations were begun upon the present site of Traverse City by Horace Boardman, and in 1851 a permanent industry was established by the firm of Hannah, Lay & Co., which is traced out in the history of Traverse City.

In 1849 there were three stores at Old Mission, viz., Lewis Miller, A. Paul and Cowles & Campbell. Business was conducted at a great disadvantage. During that winter the mail arrived only twice. In the fall a man was sent on foot for it, to Mackinac, but on his arrival at the straits he was compelled to wait till they froze over before he could get across to the postoffice on the island. Even at that early day the New York Tribune and Observer were taken by every family who could read.

The first clearing in the county, aside from those at Old Mission, was made in 1849, about a mile west from Traverse City, on what used to be known as the company's garden.

Summer School
In November, 1851, five young men arrived at Old Mission, in the schooner Madeline, with the intention of wintering in the vicinity. Three of them were brothers, named Fitzgerald. A fourth was called William Bryce. The name of the fifth, who was employed by the others as cook, has been forgotten. The five were all good sailors, and three of them had been masters of vessels during the past season, but all were deficient in education. None of them were even tolerable readers, and one of the number was unable to write his name. An eager desire to learn was the occasion of their coming. Here in the wilderness they would be removed from the allurements that might distract the attention in a populous port. It is probable, also, that diffidence arising from a consciousness of their own deficiencies made them unwilling to enter a public school where their limited attainments would be displayed in painful contrast with those of younger pupils.

At Old Mission, the man who had been engaged as teacher failing to meet the contract, Mr. S. E. Wait, then only nineteen years of age, was employed, at $20 per month and board. Bryce and the Fitzgerald's were to pay the bills, the cook receiving his tuition in compensation for his services. The Madeline was brought round to Bowers' Harbor, and securely anchored for the winter. The after-hold was converted into a kitchen and dining-room, and the cabin used for a school room. Regular hours of study were observed, and the men voluntarily submitted to strict school discipline. Out of school hours, they had a plenty of exercise in cutting wood and bringing it on board, to say nothing of the recreation of snow balling, in which they sometimes engaged with the delight of genuine school-boys. The bay that year did not freeze over till March. Previous to the freezing, the wood was brought on board in the yawl afterward it was conveyed over the ice. Except by way of Old Mission, to which occasional visits were made, the party was entirely out off from communication with the outside world.

The progress of Mr. Wait's pupils in their studies was a credit to themselves and their youthful teacher. Their after history is not known, except that four of them were captains of vessels the following season.

Early Settlements
David R. Curtis, a cousin of Gen. Curtis, settled near the present site of Yuba postoffice in what is now the town of East Bay, in 1852.

In 1853 Messrs. Voice & Nelson built a saw-mill at the head of East Bay, and the following year sold the property to Green & Holden who added steam to the water power.

Captain F. Mullerty settled near the present site of Acme postoffice in 1853, and was followed the next year by Isaac Love, W. H. Fife, Gilbert Ainslie, Orrin B. Paige and A. T. Allen. Among those who came soon after were the Pulcipher's, Joseph Sours, Enos Peck, George Brown and H. S. Beach, who settled in what are now East Bay and Whitewater Townships.

Among the first farmers who came to this country was Elisha P. Ladd, of Peninsula. He arrived at Old Mission, May 19, 1853, and located between two and three miles southwest of the harbor. At that time the little grain raised there was ground at a mill owned by Andrew Porter, on Little Traverse Bay, near where Petoskey now stands. Going to mill a distance of fifty miles in an open boat, exposed to sudden storms and tossed about by the fury of the waves, was no small undertaking. At one time Mr. Ladd embarked on the 3d of December with a grist and, with difficulty, succeeded in reaching his destination, but he was detained at the mill by severe weather and violent storms until the 1st of January, when the bay froze over and he was compelled to return home on foot over the trail leaving his grist behind. It was customary in those days for the colonists to stand on the verge of the bluff, overlooking the bay, near the extremity of the peninsula, on what is now the fruit farm of O. H. Ellis, gazing eagerly across the watery waste, in hope to descry a distant sail that would bring them tidings from friends in the outer world or supplies of food and clothing. This bluff was called Lookout Point.

On the 4th of October, 1858, the schooner Robert B. Campbell, which was built by Cowles & Campbell, merchants, at Old Mission, was completed and launched at that place. She was built entirely of timber obtained at the head of the bay and sailed between Chicago and Old Mission. This was the first attempt at shipbuilding in Grand Traverse. The business, which on account of the abundance of timber adapted to that purpose, ought to have been extensively engaged in, does not seem to have prospered since. About this time the Pishaba Indians, then inhabiting the foot of the peninsula, about eight miles north of Traverse City, built a fore-and-aft schooner sixty feet in length, with deck, cabin, etc., called the Meguzee, which sailed about the bay a few years but as might have been expected, she was poorly built and soon became worthless. The schooner Arrow also, in the winter of 1850-1851, was brought from Mackinaw to Boardman River and moored in the bend where the small creek, on which Greilick & Co.'s planing-mill is situated, empties into that stream, where she was cut in two and lengthened out from forty-eight to sixty feet. She afterward ran regularly between Mackinaw and Old Mission for three years.

Early Settlement South of Traverse City
Lamas Smith, the first settler of the Traverse Region, south of Traverse City, was born in Vermont in 1813. During his early life he was engaged in farming, and somewhat also in lumbering. Came to Michigan in 1836 and settled in Ionia County moved thence to Grand Rapids. Married June 10, 1849, to Louisa F. Smith, a native of Jefferson County, N. Y. Came to Grand Traverse Region in 1853, and bought lands in Section 30, Town 26, Range 11, and Section 25, Town 26, Range 12, where his widow now resides. They settled on Silver Lake, where also he bought land, moving to what is now Green Lake Township about twelve years later. He was for many years frequently employed in looking lands and locating settlers. For nine months after they settled on Silver Lake, Mrs. Smith saw but two white women - neighbors they had none, being the only settlers between Traverse City and Big Prairie, the next comer being William Monroe, who settled at what is now Monroe Centre in 1859. In 1861 they lost a child three years of age, who disappeared, and of whom no trace has ever been found it was supposed to have been stolen by the Indians, who were constantly about, and frequently visiting the house. Mr. Smith brought in many cattle for sale, and in this business was twenty-three times over the trail to Grand Rapids, before the state road was opened through. Their first coming to Silver Lake, from Traverse City, was a two days' journey, as they were obliged to cut a road or trail through a distance, as they were obliged to come, of eight miles. Mr. Smith died October 9th, 1882, leaving a wife and six children, all of whom are now living in Grand Traverse County. The children born to them were as follows: Charles Lyman, now with his mother on the homestead Fidelia C., wife of George Pierce, of Blair Emma, died March 24, 1857, at Grand River Albert, lost and supposed to have been stolen by the Indians Edd, of town of Blair Ella, at home George, at Traverse City Frank, at home.

William Monroe, farmer, town of Green Lake, Grand Traverse County, was born in Steuben County, N. Y., in 1822. Came to Michigan in 1856, to Kent County, where he made his home about two and a half years. Came to Grand Traverse County in the fall of 1858, and located his present farm, buying four hundred acres in Section 31, Town 26, Range 11, and Section 7, Town 25, Range 11. Has since bought other lands in the vicinity. In the spring of 1859 he brought in his family, consisting of a wife and three sons. They came with their household goods in a sail-boat, from Grand Haven to Traverse City, and from there by or team along a trail, cutting out their road, and taking two and a half days for the journey. There was at that time but one settler, Lyman Smith (located on Silver Lake) between Traverse City and Big Prairie, in Newaygo County. The Monroe settlement now presents the appearance of an old settled country, embracing some of the finest farms in northern Michigan. Mr. Monroe was married in 1842 to Nellie LaRue, who died in 1868, leaving three sons, Marquis L., Theodore and James H., all of whom reside in the vicinity of the old homestead. In 1877 he married Linda Smith, by whom he has one daughter.

James Monroe, farmer, of the town of Blair, Grand Traverse County, was born in Steuben County, N. Y., in 1847. Came to Kent County, Mich., with his parents in 1856, and to Grand Traverse County in June, 1859. Remained on the home farm until about 1872, when he removed to his present location. Has one hundred and sixty acres in Sections 29, 30 and 81, of the town of Blair. A portion of this land was bought of the government by his father on first coming here. He has held the office of supervisor of the town four years and was re-elected in 1884. Has also been overseer of the poor, school inspector, and commissioner of highways. Was married in the fall of 1874, to DeEtte Monroe, a native of Steuben County, N. Y. Their only child died in 1888. In November, 1882, Mr. Monroe lost his left arm in a hay press.

In January, 1855, Mr. Hannah, accompanied by two Indian packers, traveled over the trail to Croton on snow shoes, camping at night in the woods. Their progress was much impeded by the light snow which had just fallen, so that they were unable to proceed more than ten or twelve miles each day, and seven and a half days were consumed on the route. They were constantly followed by wolves which at night came prowling within the light of their camp fires. Many of the old residents tell of like excursions during those early days. Mrs. Barnes, wife of Jacob Barnes, then register of the land office, made this trip at a very early day, on the back of an Indian pony, a ride which no white woman in the Grand Traverse Region had ever before undertaken, with the exception of Elizabeth Hawkins, who came through the wilderness on horseback to find a home on the peninsula, at a very early day, bringing her stock of crockery in a basket on her arm.

The following personal sketches are of some of the early settlers of East Bay and Whitewater, in which are also contained facts of early history.

W. H. FIFE, farmer, East Bay Township, was born near Pittsburgh, Penn., in 1828, received his education at Jefferson and Washington College, in the same state. Was principal of the Fifth Ward School, in Pittsburgh, several years. Moved to Ohio in 1849, and lived in that state till 1854, when he came to Traverse, now East Bay Township, and located 160 acres of land on Section 18, Town 28, Range 9, where he now lives. Has good buildings and orchard and vineyard. Was supervisor of Whitewater Township the two first years after it was organized, and has held most of the offices of his township. Was assistant assessor and deputy collector of internal revenue for the territory north of Manistee, and reaching to the straits of Mackinac for several years. Is a breeder of Holstein cattle. When he came to the Traverse Region there was not even an Indian trail in what is now East Bay Township. He helped to organize the township. He was a teacher in the Indian school at Little Traverse three years. Married in 1852 to Mariette Ainslie, a native of Syracuse, New York.

GEORGE BROWN, farmer, of Whitewater, Grand Traverse County. Was born in the town of Randolph, Cattaraugus County, N. Y., in 1838. His employment generally has been farming. Has also been engaged in lumbering. His residence for about nine years was in Pennsylvania. In 1854 he married Mary Langworthy, daughter of William Langworthy, and the next year crime with his father-in-law, Philander Odell, and a young man named Leavitt, to the Grand Traverse Region, and settled on his present farm in Section 34, Town 28, Range 9, pre-empting his land. This year witnessed the first permanent settlement of what is now, the town of Whitewater. There were no roads in the town or vicinity, and supplies were brought by boat from Elk Rapids to the point nearest the settlement, and thence packed in, being in winter, packed the whole distance from Elk Rapids. The principal food was corn, potatoes and fish. Often in winter it was only potatoes and salt. The corn was at first ground in a coffee-mill, until Mr. Brown obtained a more convenient hand-mill, with two cranks, and of larger capacity. There was very little game, but wolves and bears were plenty. The second summer Mr. Brown captured seven of the former and eight of the latter. He has a fine farm of one hundred acres, eighty in Section 84, and twenty in 33. He has eight children.

ISAAC LOVE, farmer, East Bay Township, was born in England in 1829. Came to New York in 1852 remained there a few months engaged as a foreman on the New York & Erie Railroad then went to Ohio, and was a contractor on the construction of a railroad, near Cleveland. From there he went to Canada, where he had a job on the Great Western Railroad. Then went to the Upper Peninsula in Michigan, and had charge of work on the Sault St. Mary Canal thence to Marquette and had a gang of men building docks, and in 1854 bought his farm of 127 acres on Section 8, Town 28, Range 9, in East Bay, that he has since lived on. Has been highway commissioner one term. Married in 1861 to Mrs. McLaughlin, a native of England. They have two daughters and two sons.

EDWIN PULCIPHER, farmer, East Bay Township, was born in Jefferson County, N. Y., in 1806. Moved to Dodge County, Wis., in 1852, and to Traverse, now East Bay Township, in 1855, and settled on Section 24, Township 28, Range 10, where he now lives. Owns 820 acres of land, has good buildings and an orchard of ten acres. Raises on an average 2,000 bushels of apples each year, which are sent to the Cincinnati market. Married in 1882 to Matilda Watts, a native of Jefferson County, N. Y. They have two sons.

HARRISON PULCIPHER, farmer, East Bay Township, was born in Jefferson County, N. Y., in 1840. Went with his parents to Dodge County, Wis., in 1852, and came to Traverse, now East Bay Township in 1855. Since he became of age has managed his father's farm. Married in 1874 to Addie M. Smith, a native of Emmet County, Mich. They have two daughters.

JOHN PULCIPHER, farmer, East Bay Township, was born in Jefferson County, N. Y., in 1838. Went to Dodge County, Wis., with his parents in1852, and came to Traverse, now East Bay Township, in 1855. Remained on his father's farm till 1874, when he bought the farm he now lives on, which is on Section 26, Township 28, Range 10. He owns 240 acres of good land, built a fine house in the fall of 1883, has one hundred acres improved, has a good orchard of one hundred trees, each, of apple, peach and plum. Has been supervisor sixteen years, and treasurer six years. Married in 1870 to Mary Hover, a native of Ohio. They have two sons.

H. S. BEACH, farmer, Whitewater, Grand Traverse County, was born in Genesee County, N. Y., in 1833. Was brought up to farming, which has been his principal occupation. Came to Michigan in 1856 and settled in what is now the town of East Bay. The year following the township of Whitewater was set off from Traverse Township, he being one of the organizers of the new town. In 1869 he moved to his present location in Section 36, Town 28, Range 9, where he has 160 acres. He was highway commissioner of Whitewater several terms, and treasurer of East Bay after that town was set off. He enlisted August 27, 1864, in the Tenth Michigan Cavalry, serving in the Army of the Cumberland. Contracted disease from which he still suffers, and is in receipt of a pension. In 1869 he married Mrs. Harriet Merrill, who was the mother of two children.

JOSEPH SOURS, farmer, Whitewater, Grand Traverse County, was born July 4, 1820, in Rush, Monroe County, N. Y. At the age of twenty-one he learned the cooper's trade, at which he worked for many years. He first came to Michigan in 1848, settling in the south part of the state. Came to the Grand Traverse Region in August, 1855, being one of the first settlers of the town of Whitewater. The only settler in town was Isaac Fundy, on Section 15, Township 28, Range 9. He is dead and his family moved away. Mr. Sours located on Section 4, where he has one of the best farms and finest residences in the county. He was married in 1848 to Mary V. Lowell, a native of Chautauqua County, N. Y. They have five children. Lowell, the eldest, whose farm adjoins his father's, was born in Battle Creek, Mich., in 1852. He was married in the fall of 1880 to Emma Sherman. Residence on Section 4, where he has a farm of 130 acres.

J. M. MERRILL, farmer, Whitewater Township, was born in Stanstead Plains, Lower Canada, in 1888. Moved with his parents to Monroe County, Mich., in 1839. Remained in that county till 1858, when he came to Whitewater and bought a farm, where he lived till 1862, then moved to East Bay. Enlisted in 1864 in the Tenth Michigan Cavalry and served in the Army of the Cumberland till the close of the war. On his return home from the war continued farming till 1869. He then built the only hotel in Acme, which he has kept most of the time since. Sold the hotel in the spring of 1884 and moved to his farm in Whitewater. Married in March, 1862, to Elizabeth P. Beach, who was born in Middlebury, Wyoming County, N. Y., in 1885. They have one son, John F., who is telegraph operator at Mad River Station, Clark County, Ohio.

JOHN BLACK, farmer, East Bay Township, was born in Scotland in 1827 and came to Canada with his parents in 1835, and moved to Wisconsin in 1850. Remained there a few months, then came to Manistee, Mich., and was engaged in lumbering till the spring of 1851, when he came to Traverse City and was in the same business till 1858, when he bought 160 acres of land on Section 30, Township 27, Range 10, where he has carried on farming and has also been lumbering. Married in 1858 to Harriet A. Scofield, a native of New York, who died in 1862. They had three sons and one daughter. Second marriage in 1865 to Helen McFarland, of Canada. They have one child.

A. K. FAIRBANKS, farmer, of Whitewater, Grand Traverse County, was born in Cayuga County, N. Y., in 1826. Remained there, engaged in farming, until 1861. He was first married to Mary Thompson, who died in 1855, leaving one daughter, now Mrs. William Hogle, of Whitewater. In 1859 he married Emeline Eastman, a native of New York, by whom he has one son, Andrew, who resides near his father. In 1861 Mr. Fairbanks came to his present home and bought of government the northeast quarter of Section 2, Township 27, Range 9, of which he retains eighty acres, owning other lands in the vicinity. As illustrating the lack of mail facilities, and of communication with the outer world, Mr. Fairbanks relates that on the arrival at Elk Rapids, to which place they came by small boat from Northport in May, 1861, they were met by the whole population of Elk Rapids, with eager inquiries of the war, and whether there had been any fighting, no news having been received of the firing on Fort Sumter. Such evidence of isolation from the world was not encouraging to the newcomers. Mr. Fairbanks was engaged in trapping for about two years, and thus acquired a thorough acquaintance with the country. On his arrival there was but one settler. William Copeland, in what is now Kalkaska County. Mr. Fairbank's acquaintance with the country made him authority among new comers who had frequently been attracted to this vicinity by his representations, and he aided in the selection of lands and the locating of a large number of families, doing more, probably, than any other person to secure the settlement of this section.

JOSIAH CURTIS, farmer, Whitewater, Grand Traverse County, was born in Washtenaw County, Mich., Nov. 22, 1844. Came with his parents to Grand Traverse Region, to Old Mission, in 1858. At the age of seventeen he commenced working for Dexter & Noble, continuing in their employ until about 1878, when he moved on his present farm which he purchased about 1869. He was married in 1878 to Josephine O'Brien. They have two sons and one daughter.

In the spring of 1859 the lands lying in townships 28, 29 and 30, heretofore held to be an Indian reserve, were declared to be a part of the public domain, and subject to pre-emption and settlement the same as other government lands. This was brought about by the united action of settlers and others interested, who petitioned the Secretary of the Interior on the subject, and by aid of the exertions of Hon. Perry Hannah, and of Hon. Charles E. Stuart at Washington. It was a very important measure and its consummation was the dawn of brighter times for Grand Traverse County. From this time on the county settled more rapidly, as the statistics of population at different times show.

The population of Grand Traverse County at different periods has been as follows: 1880, 8,422 1874, 5,349 1870, 4,448 1864, 2,026 1860, 1,286 1854, 900.

The population, according to the census of 1880, was distributed among the towns as follows: Blair, 543 East Bay, 654 Fife Lake, 974 Grant, 522 Long Lake, 454 Mayfield, 449 Paradise, 555 Peninsula, 849 Traverse, 2,679 Whitewater, 740.

Early Religious Activities
The first religious services, except those at the mission stations, were conducted by Rev. H. C. Scofield, a young Baptist minister, who was at that time stopping at East Bay. He officiated at funerals a few times in the winter of 1858, and preached a few times during the following summer.

After that, says Dr. Leach, there was no stated religious service at any point in this region till June, 1857, except at the several Indian mission stations.

A letter, written by some person in the vicinity of Old Mission to a friend in northern New York, saying that there was no clergy man in northern Michigan and asking where one could be obtained, attracted the attention of Rev. D. R. Latham, a young local preacher recently licensed by the M. E. Church. Mr. Latham had just determined to go to Kansas. Thinking that now was perhaps the last opportunity he might have of seeing the great lakes, he resolved to go by the lake route, and visit on his way the destitute communities referred to in the letter. Finding encouragement at Old Mission, he resolved to remain there, and accordingly sent for Mrs. Latham, who joined her husband early in October.

Mr. Latham began to preach regularly at Old Mission on the 21st of June, 1857. The services were held in the Mission church, which had been occupied by Mr. Dougherty previous to his removal to the west side of the bay. The first class-meeting was held on the 19th of July, and the first class was organized on the following Sunday. This first church organization for white people on Grand Traverse Bay consisted of the following persons: Roxana Pratt, Eliza. Merrill, Mary A. Wait, Jane Chandler, Myron Chandler, Peter Stewart and Joanna Stewart. The next Sunday two others were added - Charles Avery and Catherine McCluskey. The same day on which the class was formed, a Sunday-school was organized, of which Jerome M. Pratt was superintendent. The teachers were Miss Louisa Colburn (who was afterward Mrs. S. E. Wait) and Mr. Latham.

The congregation sometimes presented the scene of a curious mixture of races and classes of people, and of an assortment of costumes that to one having a keen sense of the ludicrous might have been sufficient to banish all thoughts of devotion. The United States revenue cutter Michigan sometimes anchored in the harbor and remained over Sunday, when some of the sailors and marines would attend service in the church. Old Mission still had a considerable Indian population. One Indian used to attend, wearing a large silver ornament suspended from the cartilage of the nose. Another, Asa-bun, who was credited with having been seen eating a human heart torn from one of the victims who fell in the unfortunate attempt of the Americans to recapture Mackinac, in the war of 1812, was sometimes present. Another, the chief Aish-qua-gwon-a-ba, who was supposed to have a number of white scalps safely hidden away in a certain old trunk, used to come, in warm weather, clad in only a shirt and breech-cloth, and sit through the service as stiff and sober as an old time deacon.

In the course of the summer Rev. W. H. Brockway, on some sort of an expedition, found his way from the southern part of the state up through the woods to Old Mission, and falling in with Mr. Latham persuaded him to join the Michigan conference. As there was no quarterly conference at Old Mission to give the necessary recommendation, Mr. Brockway took his church letter to some Indian mission farther south, probably the one in Isabella County, where he was formally recommended to the annual conference. As he had not been examined, however, he could not be admitted. The next year, 1858, he attended in person, and passing the preliminary examination, was received into the conference on trial.

At the annual conference of 1857 two circuits were formed on Grand Traverse Bay - Old Mission and Elk Rapids, and Northport and Traverse City. Mr. Latham was to supply the former, and Rev. L. J. Griffin was appointed to the latter. On learning the relative situation of Northport and Traverse City - forty miles apart - Mr. Griffin wrote Mr. Latham, asking him to take Traverse City off his hands, which he consented to do. Mr. Griffin labored at Northport and Carp River, forming classes at those places, and Mr. Latham at Old Mission, Traverse City, and Elk Rapids.

The first quarterly meeting of the circuit of which Mr. Latham was now the regularly appointed pastor was held at Old Mission, the presiding elder, Rev. H. Penfield, being present. J. M. Pratt had been appointed class leader, and was the only official member on the circuit the quarterly conference therefore consisted of only three-the presiding elder, the pastor, and the class leader. It is said that in making out the official list Mr. Latham made the nominations, Mr. Pratt did the voting, and the presiding elder declared the result.

On the evening of the 14th of March, 1858, Mr. Latham preached at Traverse City as usual, going home with Mr. Hannah, at the close of the service, for refreshments. After partaking of a lunch, he started for Old Mission. As a considerable distance could be saved by going diagonally across the bay on the ice to Bowers' Harbor, he determined to take that route. Mr. Hannah walked with him to the beach, and at parting cautioned him to keep away from the shore, as the ice near it was becoming rotten and dangerous. When about two miles on his way a dense fog came on, hiding the shore from view. Some Indians were having a dance near the mouth of the river, in Traverse City, and the sound of their drum could be distinctly heard. Taking it for a guide, he went forward, walking in the direction opposite the sound. In due time he reached the island. Finding himself near the shore, he recollected Mr. Hannah's caution and kept away, hoping that by taking, a circuitous route through the harbor he could strike the shore at Mr. Bowers' house. In making the attempt he became completely bewildered, and, to make matters worse, the density of the fog increased till all objects were hidden from view. He knew that there were several dangerous fissures in the ice in that part of the bay, and that farther down, in the vicinity of New Mission, there was open water. It is not a cause of, wonder that his anxiety to get on shore rapidly increased. After traveling a long time he heard what he took to be the barking of a dog, and turned his steps in the direction of the sound. As he came nearer the place whence the sound proceeded, the barking of the dog gradually changed to the hooting of an owl. But even the hooting of an owl had a cheering influence. He knew that the owl must be on land, and, anxious to get on shore anywhere, he took him for a guide, and pressed forward. It now began to rain, but there was this relief - as the rain began to fall, the fog began to clear away. In a little while he could discern the faint outline of the shore. Fatigued with his toilsome walk, he stopped to rest a moment and survey the situation, when, glancing over his shoulder, he discovered it light in the distance, Thanking God he moved with new courage toward the light. But now a new danger presented itself. Suddenly, while still a quarter of a mile from the shore he came into water two feet deep, on the surface of the ice. Shouting loudly for help, he was cheered by answering shouts and the firing of guns from an Indian camp on the shore, some distance from the light, while the faithful owl, as if cognizant of the situation and desirous of rendering assistance, kept up his hooting. With the Indians, the owl, and the light for guides, and with the dim and shadowy outline of the shore in view, he moved slowly and cautiously forward, carefully feeling his way, till he found himself on solid ground, and was received within the hospitable walls of a human habitation.

In 1866 a church was built at Yuba postoffice, in East Bay, through the efforts of Rev. Leroy Warren, a Congregational minister, who was engaged in missionary work in this field. Religious services, however, were held for several years prior to that time.

The construction of this church was mentioned in the Eagle, then published at Elk Rapids, in September, 1866, as follows:

A neat little church is in process of erection in Whitewater Township, near the mouth of the Whitewater Creek and five miles south of Elk Rapids. The building is after designs furnished by S. M. Stone, Architect, of New Haven, Conn. The frame is up and nearly enclosed. Mr. Frank Hopper, of Whitewater, has charge of the carpenter work, glazing, &c., and will push it along to a speedy completion. The church will be the property of the Whitewater Congregational Society, but will, we understand, be freely opened for religious worship to Christians of every denomination. In particular the use of the house is guaranteed to the Methodist and Baptist brethren, who have aided in its construction, for preaching by ministers of their own faith and order.

We understand that the society still needs about a hundred dollars on its subscription list in order that the house may be completed without debt. We cordially commend them to anyone who may be able to help them in their praiseworthy enterprise.

With the exception of one or two churches at Indian Mission, this is the first house of worship erected in the Grand Traverse Region and it is well worth while to lend a helping hand to this pioneer undertaking.

Rev. S. Steele, writing of his early experiences as pastor and presiding elder in this region, says: The district work then, in 1859, extended from Pine River on the north, to White River on the south, through an almost unbroken wilderness. The work was partially organized, but much remained to be done to give it effectiveness and success. Southward we had societies at Manistee, Pentwater, White River and Pentwater Indian Mission. On the bay, at places above indicated, and also at Pine River Indian Mission. The Rev. D. R. Latham was continued at Elk Rapids - the Rev. N. M. Steele was at Northport and the Rev. Isaac Greensky at the Pine River Indian mission. The writer was expected to supply Traverse City and Old Mission in addition to the district work, extending over an area of about 150 miles of lake coast.

The performance of these duties looked defiant in view of the difficulties to be encountered in making these tri-yearly visitations, through miles of uninhabited forest and lake coast.

Having comfortably installed my family at Traverse City, in 'Slabtown,' in a 'shanty,' that the kindness of Hon. Perry Hannah had provided, and which Mrs. Hannah was pleased to designate as 'Palace Shanty,' in view of its superior excellence, I began preparations for my first outward journey. It was my purpose to go on foot, but to this the Hon. Jacob Barnes entered his most emphatic protest, and insisted upon my riding his favorite pony, 'Puss.' Provided with rations for myself and pony, we left Traverse City by trail. Nothing occurred to dispute our progress until the beach was reached at 'Herring Creek.' Between this place and Manistee the 'flood-wood' frequently extended so far into the water as to endanger both man and beast in their efforts to pass it. In one of these passages a giant wave completely immersed both horse and rider 'Puss' was equal to the emergency and swam ashore, leaving the rider minus the crown of his hat, which had become entangled in the top of a fallen tree far out in the water. Having accomplished the object of my visit, preached to the people, and encouraged the preachers to hold on, amid it privations and sufferings, and replenished my own purse with two dollars, I set my face homeward to encounter new and more severe difficulties.

It was early in December. The sea upon the beach rendered many places impassable that were easily passed upon my outward journey. The only remedy was to find some point where the high banks could be scaled, and make our way over the fallen timber upon their summit. In one instance, we came to a descent nearly perpendicular. 'Puss' stood upon its brink and looked down its almost fathomless depth below, and with a convulsive twinge looked at me imploringly as if to say: 'I never can go there, but there was no other way. I coaxed, I offered to go ahead, but 'Puss' refused to follow. I reached the top of a small tree that grew upon the hillside, and bringing the long halter strap around the tree, pulled and pushed at 'Puss' until she was fairly over the brink, and once over there was no return then letting go the halter, down she went, rolling and tumbling at a fearful rate to the bottom. It was a terrible necessity which I cannot now recall without a shudder, but performed without injury.

Again upon the beach we soon came to 'Herring Creek.' The pent-up water upon my outward passage had now forced its channel open to the lake. It was rushing madly on, as if in resentment for its long imprisonment. It was some time after dark, and I could but dimly see perhaps it was well that I could not. Riding to the edge I told Puss to go in she did not wait to be pushed, but in she went, and immediately was splashing and floundering in the rapid current.

She made several unsuccessful efforts to land upon the opposite side, but the steepness of the banks and the quicksand nullified her efforts. I slid from her back as gracefully as I could into the foaming stream. The current carried me down into the lake until I thought that I could reach bottom, but an uncertain bottom it was indeed. Every effort to stand submerged me completely in its treacherous depths of quicksand. I reached the shore, but how I can not tell, to find 'Puss' anxiously waiting the result of my efforts to escape from the perfidious stream. Two miles more, and a comfortable fire and a change of clothing kindly furnished by 'mine host,' materially added to the comfort of my situation.

In 1862
We find the following allusion to the county in February 1862: There are three organized towns in the county, viz.: Traverse, Peninsula and Whitewater. Traverse contains a population of 500 Peninsula, 441 Whitewater, 266, making a total of 1,207. The township of Traverse embraces all that part of the county lying south of the bay, being twelve six mile square townships. The county is sparsely settled for twelve or fourteen miles south of Traverse City and for four or five miles east. In the neighborhood of Silver Lake, six miles south of the bay, there is quite a settlement of farmers, and the land in that immediate vicinity is nearly all taken up, but still farther south and on the line of both of the state roads, choice farming lands are open to actual settlers for fifty cents an acre. The timber is principally hard maple and beech, and the soil is a rich sandy loam. In every direction the county is well watered with small clear lakes and running brooks and streams.

The township of Peninsula comprises the entire peninsula, which stretches out like a tongue from the head of the bay, and forms what are called the east and west arms of Grand Traverse Bay. It is sixteen miles long and from one to three miles wide. The country is rolling and the soil and timber similar to those in other parts of the county. These lands were not brought into market until 1859, and, as a consequence its settlement and improvement have been greatly retarded. There is a small village at the old Indian mission, near the outer point of the peninsula, the postoffice name of which is Grand Traverse, but it is more generally known as Old Mission. There is an excellent harbor there. The Mapleton postoffice is on the main traveled road, about half way between Traverse City and the Old Mission.

The town of Whitewater was organized in 1859. It lies east and north of Traverse City on the main shore of East Bay. It is fully equal in soil and timber to any part of the county, and possesses the additional advantages of a bay coast in front and Elk Lake in the rear. These lands, like those of the peninsula, were kept out of market until 1859, and the early settlers have been subject to all the vexations and annoyances incident to such a state of uncertainty. But they struggled nobly and manfully and will soon reap the reward of their energy and perseverance. It is settled almost exclusively by farmers of the right stripe, who are just the men wanted in a new country.

USS TRAVERSE COUNTY (LST-1160) Naval Cover - Fleet Post Office MERMAID

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Latin American operations [ edit | edit source ]

On 7 March 1970 she headed for the Panama Canal and a tour of special duty. After transporting the 8th Marine Engineering Battalion from Morehead City, North Carolina, to Vieques Island, she arrived at Colon, Panama Canal Zone, on 12 March 1970. She transited the Panama Canal and embarked scientists and equipment of the Smithsonian Institution for research operations in the vicinity of the Secas Islands of Panama. That duty lasted until 3 April 1970 when she returned to Rodman Naval Station in the Canal Zone.

Between the 3 April 1970 and 24 April 1970, Traverse County transported United States Army Reserve troops and their equipment between Rio Hato and Rodman Naval Station and carried Operation Handclasp supplies to Guayaquil, Ecuador. On 27 April 1970, she reembarked the Smithsonian scientists for another week of research operations. Upon her return to Rodman Naval Station early in May 1870, she entered the Panama Canal Company's Mount Hope Shipyard for repairs. She exited the shipyard on 11 June 1970, retransited the canal, and joined the Caribbean Amphibious Ready Group for a day before returning to Rodman Naval Station for further orders. Late in June 1970, she transported more Army reservists between Rio Hato and Rodman Naval Station.


This photo of USS Traverse County LST 1160 personalized print is exactly as you see it with the matte printed around it. You will have the choice of two print sizes, either 8″x10″ or 11″x14″. The print will be ready for framing, or you can add an additional matte of your own choosing then you can mount it in a larger frame. Your personalized print will look awesome when you frame it.

We PERSONALIZE your print of the USS Traverse County LST 1160 with your name, rank and years served and there is NO ADDITIONAL CHARGE for this option. After you place your order you can simply email us or indicate in the notes section of your payment what you would like printed. For example:

United States Navy Sailor
Proudly Served: Your Years Here

This would make a nice gift for yourself or that special Navy veteran you may know, therefore, it would be fantastic for decorating the home or office wall.

The watermark “Great Naval Images” will NOT be on your print.

Media Type Used:

The USS Traverse County LST 1160 photo is printed on Archival-Safe Acid-Free canvas using a high-resolution printer and should last many years. The unique natural woven texture canvas offers a special and distinctive look that can only be captured on canvas. Most sailors loved his ship. It was his life. Where he had tremendous responsibility and lived with his closest shipmates. As one gets older, the appreciation for the ship and the Navy experience will get stronger. The personalized print shows ownership, accomplishment and an emotion that never goes away. When you walk by the print you will feel the person or the Navy experience in your heart.

We have been in business since 2005 and our reputation for having great products and customer satisfaction is indeed exceptional. You will, therefore, enjoy this product guaranteed.

TAHS/TADL Internship Available

Traverse Area District Library/Traverse Area Historical Society Job Opening

Petertyl Archival Intern – Temporary – Main Library, Local History Collection
40 hours over 8 weeks during Summer, 2021

With the sponsorship of the Traverse Area Historical Society’s Petertyl Education Fund, the Traverse Area District Library has a temporary position as a Petertyl Archival Intern. The intern will participate in various projects in the Local History Collection at the Main Library and will be trained in a variety of archival methods and collection care. The internship will consist of approximately five (5) hours per week over the eight (8) week term.

Hourly Rate: $11.55
Posting Date: 4/16/21
Deadline for applications: 5/3/21

If you are interested in applying for this position, please submit your resume, a fully completed TADL application form along with a cover letter to: Human Resources, Traverse Area District Library, 610 Woodmere Ave., Traverse City, MI 49686 or by email to [email protected] For questions please call 932-8549 or email [email protected]


In 1850 a new Michigan Constitution declared the Native Americans to be eligible for Michigan State citizenship, which would allow them to purchase lands and make their children eligible for education.

The Omena settlement had its beginnings when a band of Ottawas and Chippewas led by Chief Ahgosa began arriving from the present day Old Mission Peninsula in 1850. They found that Chief Shabwasung and his Ottawa band were already encamped on the point to the north of the bay, on land Chief Ahgosa and his families had purchased. The Ahgosa band then settled a little to the north, and the village became Ahgosatown.

In 1852, the Reverend Peter Dougherty followed the Ahgosa band from Old Mission to the beautiful little bay on the Leelanau Peninsula’s eastern side to establish a New Mission, soon to be called Omena. The importance of the agricultural potential of the Omena area cannot be overstated. The raising of food crops in the area had taken place for centuries. When the missionaries arrived they found mature apple and plum orchards, as well as corn, beans, squash and potatoes. The availability of agricultural land for his Native American followers was an important consideration for Dougherty’s establishment of the school at New Mission, and instruction in up-to-date American agricultural practices was a fundamental of mission life.

Rev. Peter Greensky, a Chippewa teacher and interpreter came with Dougherty from Old Mission, as did young George A. Craker, who taught farming to students in the mission school. Rev. Greensky founded Greensky Hill Indian United Methodist Church at Susan Lake near Charlevoix. Craker and his descendants became active workers in Dougherty’s Grove Hill New Mission Church, now called the Omena Presbyterian Church. The Ahgosa family was very active in the church for generations, and many family and band members are buried in the mission cemetery adjacent to the church. Dedicated in 1858, It is the oldest Protestant Church in Leelanau County and one of the oldest historical landmarks in Northern Michigan.

In 1884 a group of Cincinnati businessmen purchased the mission school, and it was remodeled to become the Leelanau Hotel. Omena blossomed into a tourist haven, with the Omena Inn, the Shabwasung, the Clovers, the Oaks, Freeland Resort, and Sunset Lodge, together with many resort cottages on Omena Point. Omena Bay provided a rare safe deep harbor in the Great Lakes, and over the years had at least four commercial docks and a commercial fishery. The Omena Pavilion, now the Omena Traverse Yacht Club, was built in 1911 as a social center for the community.

For several decades, produce, goods, and the growing number of summertime visitors were served by steamers, including the Illinois, Manistee, Manitou, Missouri, Puritan, Kansas, Crescent, and Columbia. In 1903 The Traverse City, Leelanau & Manistique Railway line from Traverse City to Northport was completed with two stations in Omena, and limited passenger service continued until 1948.

The A. F. Anderson Store benefited from the activity and operated in Omena for 47 years, beginning 1883. Since 1976 this landmark has been the location of Tamarack Craftsmen Gallery. Nearby, Paul Barth’s general store, established 1889, remains as the Omena Bay Country Store. Omena preserves as well the c.1890 building, which housed an ice cream parlor, and which has served solely as the U. S. Post Office since 1959.

John Putnam’s fruit stand in the 1930’s became a Texaco station, and later, the Harbor Bar. It is now the home of Leelanau Cellars and Knot Just a Bar Restaurant.

The early discovery of Leelanau County as a resort haven helped to sustain pioneer families by providing commerce and income, just as it does today.

Watch the video: LST STORY - Landing Ship Tanks 8023a (July 2022).


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