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Relief II AH - History

Relief II AH - History


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Relief II

(AH: dp. 3,300; 1. 314'; b. 46'; dr. 15']0" (mean); s. 15 k.;
cpl. 74; a. none)

The second Relief was built as the steel passenger liner John Englis during 1895 and 1896 by the Delaware River Ship Building Co., Chester, Pa.; acquired during 1898 by the U.S. Army for Spanish-American War service as a hospital ship; and transferred to the U.S. Navy 13 November 1902 Relief remained inactive into 1908 at Mare Island Navy Yard while factions within the Navy debated whether she should be commanded by a line officer or a medical officer. President Theodore Roosevelt's desire that a hospital ship accompany the Great White Fleet on its round-the-world voyage led to his endorsement of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery viewpoint. Accordingly, Relief was commissioned at Mare Island Navy Yard 6 February 1908, Surg. Charles F. Stokes, USN, in command.

Departing San Francisco Bay 22 March 1908, Relief met the fleet in Magdalena Bay, Mexico, embarking patients for return to San Francisco. Relief rejoined the fleet at San Diego and remained with it while crossing the Pacific on its important mission representing U.S. interests and testing the Navy's capabilities. Relief's staff provided expert medical eare, treatment, and consultations for the more than 14,00C officers and men of the Great White Fleet until detached in November 1908 at Olongapo, Philippine Islands.

Ordered to return to the U.S. west coast, Relief departed Cavite 14 November 1908 but suffered serious damage in a typhoon on the night of 18 and 19 November. Returning to Cavite, the hospital ship was subsequently found to be unseaworthy by an official survey and became a stationary, floating hospital and dispensary. Relief continued in service as a floating hospital at Olongapo, Philippine Islands, through World War I, although decommissioned 10 June 1910. Her name was changed 11 April 1918 to Repose to allow that of Relief to be assigned to a new hospital ship under eonstruetion at the Philadelphia Navy Yard.

Repose was sold 15 May 1919 at Olongapo and entered mercantile service under the same name after repairs. She subsequently served under foreign flags as Hai Ning and Mindanao until transferred to Philippine registry during 1937 and named Lanao. Her fate during World War II is unknown.


Hospital ship

A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital. Most are operated by the military forces (mostly navies) of various countries, as they are intended to be used in or near war zones. [1] In the 19th century, redundant warships were used as moored hospitals for seamen.

The Second Geneva Convention prohibits military attacks on hospital ships, though belligerent forces do have rights of inspection and may take injured enemy patients as prisoners of war. [2] [3]


Relief II AH - History


General Parthenon Info:
  • Iktinos and Kallikrates are credited with the architectural design of the Parthenon
    • artists begin to sign their names to their work for the first time in Ancient Greece
      • move from artisans to artists
      • civic purpose rather than religious, ritual purpose
      • written inventory discovered
        • kept record of valuables
        • symbol of ritual power and political power
        • columns carved exactly the same
          • entasis: slight bulge in the taper of the columns
          • allusion of perfection
          • only in the modern era that it became a ruin

          Basic Information:
          Phidias (?), "Plaque of the Ergastines," 445 - 438 B.C.E., Pentelic marble (Attica), 0.96 x 2.07 m, fragment from the frieze on the east side of the Parthenon (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

          Sources Consulted:
          "Western sculpture". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
          Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 18 Oct. 2016
          < https://www.britannica.com/art/Western-sculpture/Ancient-Greek >.

          (Detail)


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          Op-ed: COVID relief bigger than World War II budget? Sounds right.

          President Joe Biden signed a $1.9 trillion COVID-19 relief bill on Thursday that brings total federal spending to combat the pandemic over the last year to about $6 trillion. He also plans to tee up a huge infrastructure outlay of about $4 trillion over the next 10 years on roads, bridges, tunnels, energy grids, strategic industries and other needs.

          That’s a lot of money. And it’s raised the hackles of Biden’s critics. They’re concerned that those trillions amount to dangerous overreach, will saddle the government with gargantuan, unmanageable debt and will eventually produce rampant inflation. Just look, they say: It’s more than the U.S. government spent fighting World War II!

          Indeed it is. In inflation-adjusted dollars, the U.S. spent about $4.1 trillion waging World War II. It also spent more than $300 billion each on World War I and the Korean War, and $738 billion on the Vietnam War. The bill for the wars the U.S. has waged in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere since the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, is $2.3 trillion and counting. All told, the U.S. has spent about $7.9 trillion on warfare since World War I.

          Well, we’re at war again, as Biden’s predecessor and others have routinely noted of the yearlong battle against COVID-19. So the comparison with World War II is apt. Going to war requires being on a war footing, including a willingness from the federal government to flex its ample fiscal muscles in response to the pandemic’s economic and social devastation.

          It’s also worth remembering that it was government spending on World War II that ultimately lifted the U.S. out of the Great Depression, not the well-meaning, necessary but often experimental and scattered New Deal initiatives that preceded it. Federal spending on defense represented about 40% of gross domestic product by 1945. By comparison, the $6 trillion Congress has committed to fighting COVID-19 represents less than 30% of current GDP.

          In addition to winning the war, that spending helped bring new people into the labor force and fostered public-private partnerships that spawned manufacturing and technological innovations. Despite fears among some analysts that World War II outlays might set back the economy after the war, they ushered in one of the largest economic expansions in history and helped provide the foundations for unprecedented middle-class growth and prosperity.

          One of the most common criticisms of Biden’s bill is that it will cause inflation to skyrocket, but that argument is grounded more in theory than data. There isn’t an obvious link between spending and inflation. The Federal Reserve more than tripled the size of its balance sheet after the 2008 financial crisis, spurring constant fearmongering about inflation. And Congress has run huge annual deficits since then — yet inflation has remained stubbornly below the Fed’s 2% target. Japan’s central bank has been trying to stimulate and spend its way to higher inflation for three decades without success. The reality is that no one knows exactly what causes inflation to jump.

          Many inflationistas are haunted by the stagflation of the 1970s, which featured an unusual combination of high inflation and unemployment. Inflation climbed above 13% by 1980, exceeding anything before or since in modern times. Importantly, those were the days before big, bold Fed interventions and federal deficits. While the money supply expanded in the 1970s, that expansion was not meaningfully higher than the one that came after the financial crisis, so the surge of inflation in the 1970s can’t be linked cleanly to spending. The more likely culprits were a pair of energy crises ignited by oil embargoes.

          While the amount of money flying around has swelled more in the last year than in any other during the 1970s or since the financial crisis, there’s no indication that the $9 trillion Congress and the Fed have spent or committed is stoking a worrisome spike in inflation. The core consumer price index rose less than expected last month and 1.3% during the last year. Overall CPI was up just 1.7%. If anything, inflation is running too low. While longer-term inflation expectations have risen over the last year, they remain only slightly above the Fed’s 2% target.

          The Chicago Tribune opinion section publishes op-eds from readers and experts about specific issues of the day. Op-eds reflect the views of the writer and not necessarily the Chicago Tribune.

          As we have argued frequently, there are reasons to criticize the federal relief effort. The government could have spent significantly more to help working Americans and build a better safety net beneath consumers whose spending traditionally generates about 70% of the country’s GDP. More of the funding should have gone directly to workers rather than being channeled through businesses. One of the key shortcomings in COVID-19 spending so far is that only a fifth of the aid went directly to individuals. The money could have also gone a long way toward badly needed investment in infrastructure, education and public health.

          Regardless, we don’t think that inveighing against the Biden plan for its size has merit. Unlike previous installments of COVID-19 spending, it does more to prioritize direct relief for low-income and working-class Americans. Exactly how relief money is targeted matters as much, if not significantly more, than the amount.

          This isn’t Biden’s first battle, either. He was in the trenches during the government’s response to the financial crisis. In the interests of bipartisanship, the Obama administration settled for relief spending of less than $1 trillion. It was crafted to meet the needs of Wall Street and corporations but did little to help ordinary Americans. That tepid fiscal response put a much-needed stimulus effort in the hands of central bankers here and abroad, who ultimately had to use monetary policy to keep economies afloat. That was a useful Band-Aid, but economic growth suffered. Average workers, meanwhile, were cast adrift with social and political consequences we’re living with today.

          To be sure, the realities of all of this recent spending have to be recognized, including the contribution made by a huge tax cut for the wealthy and corporations that Republicans engineered. But theoretical arguments about the optimal size of the federal debt or the impact of spending on inflation shouldn’t trump real and obvious problems Biden’s relief bill will address.

          Biden has learned his lessons from the financial crisis. He’s going big this time, and he’s not letting false gestures from Republicans about bipartisanship get in his way.


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          Selected topics in the history of European and North American architecture, art and design. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated up to 2 time(s) if topics vary. Students may register in more than one section per term. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours of art history at the 200 level or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧊗. The Power of the Image: Roman Sculpture as Propaganda. 3 or 4 hours.

          Historical and thematic examination of the use of Roman sculpture, by emperors and private individuals of all social classes, as an instrument of personal and political propaganda. Course Information: Same as CL 407 and HIST𧊗. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): one of the following courses: AH𧇌, AH𧇍, AH𧅮, CL𧅥, CL𧅧, CL𧇋, CL𧇌, CL𧇍, HIST𧇋, HIST𧇍 or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧊤. History of Architecture I. 4 hours.

          Introduction to architecture, urbanism, and architectural theory worldwide from antiquity to 1450. Course Information: Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing.

          AH𧊥. History of Architecture II. 4 hours.

          Introduction to architecture, urbanism and architectural theory worldwide from 1450 to the present. Course Information: Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing and AH𧊤.

          AH𧊦. Topics in the Literature of Architecture. 3 or 4 hours.

          Discussion of selected readings in the theory and criticism of architecture. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours in the history of architecture or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧊧. Topics in Modern and Contemporary Architecture. 4 hours.

          Selected topics in modern and contemporary architecture. Course Information: May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing, and four hours in the history of architecture or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧊨. Topics in Architecture and Urban Form in Chicago. 2-4 hours.

          Topics on the development of the built environment of the Chicago and metropolitan area, and the effect on its architecture of social, political and economic forces.

          AH𧊮. Contemporary Photography. 3 or 4 hours.

          Developments in the history of photography since 1950. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours in the history of photography or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧊯. Photographic Theory. 3 or 4 hours.

          Developments in photographic theory from its prehistory in the camera obscura and linear perspective through its heyday in the machine age up to its place in our image world today. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Recommended Background: AH 150 or any photography studio course.

          AH𧊰. Topics in Film and Video. 3 or 4 hours.

          Selected studies in genres, schools, individual artists, critics, and theorists of film and video. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing or 3 hours in the history of film or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧊲. Women and Film. 3 or 4 hours.

          Roles and representations of women in classical Hollywood, European art and independent feminist cinemas. Course Information: Same as ENGL𧋘, and GWS𧋘. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): ENGL𧈮 or ENGL𧉖 or ENGL𧉩 or ENGL𧉪 or ENGL𧉫 and senior standing or above or consent of instructor.

          AH𧊳. Topics in Modern and Contemporary Design. 3 or 4 hours.

          Topics in modern and contemporary design. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours in the history of design or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧊹. Topics in Medieval Art and Architecture. 3 or 4 hours.

          Selected topics in European art and architecture of the Middle Ages. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours of medieval art and architecture or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋂. Topics in Renaissance Art. 3 or 4 hours.

          Selected topics in Early Renaissance, High Renaissance, or Mannerist Art and Architecture. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours in art history at the 200 level or above, or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋌. Topics in Modern and Contemporary Art. 3 or 4 hours.

          Selected topics in nineteenth- and twentieth-century modern and contemporary art. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours of modern art and architecture or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋏. Topics in North American Art and Architecture. 3 or 4 hours.

          Selected topics in North American art and architecture from colonial times to 1945. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours of North American art and architecture or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋐. Topics on Art in Chicago. 2-4 hours.

          Topics on the survey of art in Chicago, from the nineteenth century to the present, with an emphasis on contemporary Chicago art expressions.

          AH𧋑. Arts of the Black Atlantic. 3 or 4 hours.

          Interdisciplinary and discursive explorations of the visual and artistic expressions of artists of African descent in the New World. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

          AH𧋒. Material Worlds: Topics in Material Culture Studies. 3 or 4 hours.

          Examines current theories of material culture, drawn from art history, archaeology and anthropology to reflect on technologies of production and social life of things. Case studies will be drawn from ancient, medieval and modern historical context. Course Information: Same as ANTH𧋒 and CL𧋒. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours.

          AH𧋖. Topics in Indigenous American Art, Architecture, and Visual Culture. 3 or 4 hours.

          Selected topics in the art, architecture and visual culture of the indigenous Americas. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Students may register for more than one section per term. Recommended Background: 3 hours of Art History (undergraduates) Graduate standing (graduates).

          AH𧋗. Topics in Asian Art and Architecture. 3 or 4 hours.

          Selected topics in the art and architecture of Asia. Course Information: Same as GLAS𧋗. 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours of Asian art and/or architecture or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋠. Collecting Art and Building the Art Museum. 3 or 4 hours.

          The history of art collections and of art museums: public, academic, and private collections of art, and the architectural development of art museums. Formation of the earliest collections of art, and history of American collectors. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): AH𧅮 and AH𧅯 or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋡. Museum Practices. 3 or 4 hours.

          Administration of visual arts organizations, their budgets, staffing, structures, accreditation, and long-range planning. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): AH𧋠 or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋢. Museology Internship. 6 or 8 hours.

          Practical supervised experience in institutions serving the visual arts. Placements in museums, community art centers, college, commercial, or non-traditional galleries, and public agencies. Course Information: Prerequisite(s): AH𧋡 or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋣. Internship. 1-4 hours.

          Introduction to professional practice offering students the opportunity to couple academic learning with professional experience in an off-campus placement. Course Information: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory only. May be repeated. Field work required. Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋥. Introduction to Historic Preservation. 3 or 4 hours.

          Preservation planning, historic building restoration, and the political and economic factors affecting the conservation of historic resources. Course Information: 3 undergraduate hours. 4 graduate hours. May be repeated. Students may register in more than one section per term. Prerequisite(s): 3 hours of art history at the 200 level or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋪. Honors Thesis. 3 hours.

          Individual study on a project selected with the approval of the adviser. Course Information: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. Prerequisite(s): Open only to seniors.

          AH𧋫. Study Abroad in Art History. 0-12 hours.

          Study abroad within an approved foreign exchange program or department-sponsored program. Course Information: May be repeated with approval. Approval to repeat course granted by the department. Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department.

          AH𧋬. Readings in Art and Architecture History. 1-4 hours.

          Individually planned readings on selected topics under the supervision of a faculty member. Course Information: 1 to 3 undergraduate hours. 2 to 4 graduate hours. May be repeated to a maximum of 9 hours for undergraduate students or 12 hours for graduate students. Students may register in more than one section per term. Prerequisite(s): Junior standing and 3 hours of Art History above the 100 level and consent of the instructor. Enrollment priority will be given to majors and graduate students in Art History.

          AH𧋾. Historiography of the Visual Arts, 1750 to 1960. 4 hours.

          Examines some of the intellectual underpinnings of art history, theory and criticism and explores ways of doing research and making arguments in art history. Course Information: Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing in art history or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧋿. Toward New Histories of the Visual Arts, 1960 to the Present. 4 hours.

          Examines the transformation of Art History, theory, and criticism since 1960 with regard to issues of gender, class, ethnicity, popular culture, post-colonialism and contemporary aesthetics. Course Information: Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing in art history or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧌀. Art History Teaching Seminar. 0 hours.

          Theoretical and practical aspects of teaching in undergraduate courses in the history of the visual arts. Course Information: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated up to 1 time(s). Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing in the art history program and appointment as a teaching assistant in the department.

          AH𧌁. PhD Proseminar. 4 hours.

          Historical, theoretical, and critical issues in art history. Course Information: May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite(s): Open only to Ph.D. degree students or consent of the instructor.

          AH𧌊. Issues in Architecture, Design and Urbanism. 4 hours.

          Theories and contemporary critical issues relating to the history of the environment created and modified by people. Readings and presentations on historic and regional variations.

          AH𧌒. Seminar in The History of Photography. 4 hours.

          Selected topics in the history of photography with emphasis on primary source materials for research purposes. Course Information: May be repeated if topics vary.

          AH𧌓. Seminar in Asian Art. 4 hours.

          This graduate seminar examines topics in the art, architecture, and visual culture of Asia. Course Information:.

          AH𧌜. Topics in Medieval, Byzantine and Islamic Art and Architecture. 4 hours.

          Selected topics in the art, architecture and archaeology of the Medieval west, Byzantium and Islam. Course Information: May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor.

          AH𧌦. Seminar in Renaissance and Baroque Art and Architecture. 4 hours.

          European art and architecture of the Renaissance. Course Information: May be repeated if topics vary.

          AH𧌰. Seminar in Modern Architecture, Art, and Design. 4 hours.

          North American and European art, architecture and design between 1780 and 1945. Course Information: May be repeated if topics vary. Students may register in more than one section per term.

          AH𧌱. Seminar in Contemporary Architecture and Art. 4 hours.

          Selected topics in recent North American or European art, architecture and design. Course Information: Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor.

          AH𧌲. Issues in the Art of the Americas. 4 hours.

          Historical, theoretical and critical issues in the art of the Americas and the Caribbean indigenous, imported, and diasporan cultures and the interaction between them.

          AH𧌳. Seminar in North American Architecture and Art. 4 hours.

          North American art and architecture from the colonial period to 1945. Course Information: May be repeated if topics vary. Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor.

          AH𧌺. Seminar in Non-Western Art and Architecture. 4 hours.

          Selected topics in Pre-Columbian, North American Indian, African, and Oceanic art.

          AH𧍎. MA Paper Research. 0-4 hours.

          Student will work with advisors on two qualifying papers. Course Information: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated to a maximum of 4 hours. Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor.

          AH𧍐. Preliminary Examination Research. 0-16 hours.

          Supervised research and reading in preparation for the preliminary examinations. Course Information: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated to a maximum of 12 hours. Prerequisite(s): Open only to Ph.D. degree students. Only by consent of the Director of Graduate Studies and after all other coursework has been completed.

          AH𧍔. Readings in Art and Architecture. 1-4 hours.

          Individually planned readings on selected topics under the supervision of a faculty member. Course Information: Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor.

          AH𧍖. Master's Thesis Research. 0-8 hours.

          Individual research under faculty direction. Course Information: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated to a maximum of 8 hours. Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor.

          AH𧍗. Ph.D. Dissertation Research. 0-16 hours.

          Supervised research on the part of the student. Course Information: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading only. May be repeated to a maximum of 24 hours. Prerequisite(s): Consent of the instructor and satisfactory completion of the preliminary examination.

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          Morocco

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          Morocco, mountainous country of western North Africa that lies directly across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain.

          The traditional domain of indigenous peoples now collectively known as Berbers (self-name Imazighen singular, Amazigh), Morocco has been subject to extensive migration and has long been the location of urban communities that were originally settled by peoples from outside the region. Controlled by Carthage from an early date, the region was later the westernmost province of the Roman Empire. Following the Arab conquest of the late 7th century ce , the broader area of North Africa came to be known as the Maghrib (Arabic: “the West”), and the majority of its people accepted Islam. Subsequent Moroccan kingdoms enjoyed political influence that extended beyond the coastal regions, and in the 11th century the first native Amazigh dynasty of North Africa, the Almoravids, gained control of an empire stretching from Andalusian (southern) Spain to parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Attempts by Europeans to establish permanent footholds in Morocco beginning in the late 15th century were largely repulsed, but the country later became the subject of Great Power politics in the 19th century. Morocco was made a French protectorate in 1912 but regained independence in 1956. Today it is the only monarchy in North Africa.

          Although the country is rapidly modernizing and enjoys a rising standard of living, it retains much of its ancient architecture and even more of its traditional customs. Morocco’s largest city and major Atlantic Ocean port is Casablanca, an industrial and commercial centre. The capital, Rabat, lies a short distance to the north on the Atlantic coast. Other port cities include Tangier, on the Strait of Gibraltar, Agadir, on the Atlantic, and Al-Hoceïma, on the Mediterranean Sea. The city of Fès is said to have some of the finest souks, or open-air markets, in all of North Africa. Scenic and fertile, Morocco well merits the praise of a native son, the medieval traveler Ibn Baṭṭūṭah, who wrote that “it is the best of countries, for in it fruits are plentiful, and running water and nourishing food are never exhausted.”


          Somalia, 1992–1993

          The United States has long had to face the challenge of determining to what degree it wants to participate in global peacekeeping efforts and whether or not U.S. lives should be put at risk for peacekeeping. Events in Somalia between 1992 and 1994 threw that debate into sharp relief.

          Somalia achieved its independence in 1960 with the union of Somalia, which had been under Italian administration as a United Nations trust territory, and Somaliland, which had been a British protectorate. The United States immediately established diplomatic relations with the new country. In 1969, the Somali Army launched a coup which brought Mohamed Siad Barre to power. Barre adopted socialism and became allied with the Soviet Union. The United States was thus wary of Somalia in the period immediately after the coup.

          Barre’s government became increasingly radical in foreign affairs, and in 1977 launched a war against Ethiopia in hopes of claiming their territory. Ethiopia received help from the Soviet Union during the war, and so Somalia began to accept assistance from the United States, giving a new level of stability to the U.S.-Somalia relationship.

          Barre’s dictatorship favored members of his own clan. In the 1980s, Somalis in less favored clans began to chafe under the government’s rule. Barre’s ruthlessness could not suppress the opposition, which in 1990 began to unify against him. After joining forces, the combined group of rebels drove Barre from Mogadishu in January 1991. No central government reemerged to take the place of the overthrown government, and the United States closed its embassy that same year, although the two countries never broke off diplomatic relations. The country descended into chaos, and a humanitarian crisis of staggering proportions began to unfold.

          The United Nations attempted to address the crisis with United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) to provide humanitarian assistance, created by the United Nations Security Council via Resolution 751 in April 1992. The United States sent food aid via Operation Provide Comfort starting in August 1992. Intense fighting between the warlords impeded the delivery of aid to those who needed it most, and so the United Nations contemplated stronger action. In December 1992, the United States began Operation Restore Hope. President George H.W. Bush authorized the dispatch of U.S. troops to Somalia to assist with famine relief as part of the larger United Nations effort. The United Nations’ United Task Force (UNITAF) operated under the authority of Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter. Chapter VII allowed for the use of force to maintain peace and did not require the consent of the states involved. UNITAF transitioned to UNOSOM II in March 1993. UNOSOM II’s efforts to protect aid deliveries were directly challenged by warlord Muhammad Farah Aideed.

          The most significant of these challenges came on October 3, 1993. Aideed’s forces shot down two Black Hawk helicopters in a battle which lead to the deaths of 18 U.S. soldiers and hundreds of Somalis. The deaths turned the tide of public opinion in the United States. President Bill Clinton pulled U.S. troops out of combat four days later, and all U.S. troops left the country in March 1994. The United Nations withdrew from Somalia in March 1995. Fighting continued in the country.

          At the same time the Somalia crisis was unfolding, President Clinton ordered the national security bureaucracy to consider how and when the United States should become involved in peacekeeping operations. The resulting document was Presidential Decision Directive 25, issued on May 3, 1994. The Directive outlined a series of factors which the national security bureaucracy must consider before involving the United States in peacekeeping: eight factors which must be weighed before deciding in favor of peacekeeping in the United Nations, and nine additional factors before becoming involved in a Chapter VII action.

          Although the United Nations’ involvement in Somalia was unable to provide a solution to the country’s political crisis, the United States remained engaged in responding to the humanitarian needs of the Somali people, and continued to be a significant source of bilateral aid.


          Significant Dates in History

          Since 1881, American Red Cross members and volunteers have been an essential part of our nation’s response to war, natural disaster and other human suffering. We’ve witnessed great tragedy, but we’ve also seen triumph as people work together to help rebuild lives and communities. Through the timeline below, you can explore some of those key events in Red Cross history.

          19th Century

          Clara Barton leads the American Red Cross through its founding and first two decades of service, including the first domestic disaster response, U.S. Senate ratifying the Geneva Convention, and our first international relief efforts.

          December 25, 1821: Clara Barton is born in New Oxford, Mass.

          • May 8, 1828: Henry Dunant, founder of Red Cross Movement, is born in Geneva, Switzerland.
          • June 24, 1859: Battle of Solferino in Northern Italy prompts Henry Dunant to call for an international relief organization to bring aid to the war-injured.
          • April 20, 1861: Clara Barton, dubbed the "Angel of the Battlefield," begins aid to servicemen in Civil War.
          • February 9, 1863: International Committee of the Red Cross is founded in Geneva, Switzerland.
          • April 20, 1865: After the war, Clara Barton was authorized by President Lincoln to open The Office of Correspondence with Friends of the Missing Men of the United States Army to identify the fate of missing soldiers for grieving parents, family and friends. In 1867, when Barton closed the office, 63,183 letters had been answered and 22,000 missing men identified.
          • August 8, 1864: First Geneva Convention issued protecting the war wounded and identifying the red cross on a white field as a neutral protective emblem.

          May 21, 1881: Clara Barton and associates establish the American Red Cross.

          September 4, 1881: Red Cross undertakes its first disaster relief effort aiding victims of Michigan forest fires.

          • March 16, 1882: After years of relentless efforts by Clara Barton, the U.S. Senate ratifies the Geneva Convention of 1864.
          • May 31, 1889: Red Cross responds to Johnstown, Pa., flood that kills over 2,000.
          • August 27, 1893: Clara Barton aids 30,000-mostly African-American-homeless victims of a hurricane on the Sea Islands of South Carolina.

          February 15, 1896: Clara Barton and associates arrive in Constantinople to begin five-month campaign bringing relief to Armenian victims of Turkish oppression.

          June 20, 1898: Clara Barton sails to Havana, Cuba, with supplies for victims of Spanish-American War. First American Red Cross war-related assistance to U.S. military.

          20th Century

          The Red Cross expands beyond military support and disaster relief, working to enhance community resilience and help people prepare for emergencies, including our first Federal Charter, Two World Wars, Korea, Vietnam, our first civilian blood collection program, and the launch of training in first aid, water safety and other skills.

          • September 8, 1900: Clara Barton's last relief operation is on behalf of victims of the devastating hurricane and tidal wave that hit Galveston, Texas.
          • December 10, 1901 Mabel T. Boardman elected to Red Cross governing board, beginning a lifelong career of organizational leadership, particularly among volunteers.
          • January 5, 1905: The Red Cross received our first congressional charter in 1900 and a second in 1905, the year after Barton resigned from the organization. The most recent version of thecharter–which was adopted in May, 2007 restates the traditional purposes of the organization which include giving relief to and serving as a medium of communication between members of the American armed forces and their families and providing national and international disaster relief and mitigation.

          April 18, 1906: Earthquake and fire ravage San Francisco President Theodore Roosevelt calls on the Red Cross to lead a major relief effort.

          • October 9, 1909: Major Charles Lynch appointed director of new Red Cross First Aid Department.
          • January 20, 1910: First meeting held of the National Committee on Red Cross Nursing Service, chaired by the esteemed director Jane Delano.
          • November 5, 1910: Pullman Company donates first railroad car to Red Cross for use around the country as a classroom for first aid instruction.
          • December 15, 1910: Thomas A. Edison Company releases "The Red Cross Seal," the first in a series of public health films about the ravages of tuberculosis and Red Cross efforts to prevent its spread.
          • March 25, 1911: Red Cross helps families of mostly young women who are victims of tragic Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire in New York City.
          • February 6, 1912: Red Cross approves creation of a Rural Nursing Program.

          April 12, 1912: Clara Barton dies at age 90 in her home in Glen Echo, Md., eight years after her resignation from the Red Cross.

          April 14, 1912: Red Cross comes to aid of those who survived the sinking of the Titanic.

          • March 19, 1913: President Woodrow Wilson named first honorary president of American Red Cross, establishing a precedent for all chief executives who have followed.

          February 1, 1914: Commodore Wilbert E. Longfellow, known as the "Amiable Whale," begins Red Cross Water Safety program.

          • September 12, 1914 Red Cross "Mercy Ship" sails to Europe with medical staff and supplies following outbreak of World War I.
          • July 24, 1915: S.S. Eastland, with 2,000 summer holiday-makers aboard, capsizes in the Chicago River, causing over 800 deaths. Red Cross relief is immediate.
          • June 27, 1916: Home Service for the military begins its work with help to U.S. troops along Mexican border of the during a series of raids on civilian towns.

          May 10, 1917: President Woodrow Wilson appoints a War Council to guide operations of the Red Cross during World War I.

          • May 12, 1917: Red Cross dedicates its headquarters building in Washington, D.C., as a memorial to "the heroic women of the Civil War," both North and South.
          • May 25, 1917: Red Cross starts service to blinded war veterans in Baltimore, Md.

          June 2, 1917: Red Cross Commission to Europe sets sail to alleviate wartime suffering.

          • June 17, 1917: Red Cross holds first War Fund drive, surpassing a goal of raising $100 million in one week.
          • August 30, 1917: Red Cross starts its Canteen Service to provide refreshments to the military.

          September 15, 1917: President Woodrow Wilson calls on youth to join the newly formed Junior Red Cross.

          • April 22, 1918: Red Cross introduces medical social work in servicemen's hospitals.
          • June 5, 1918: Red Cross begins Nurses' Aide program to make up for nurse shortages during wartime.
          • July 2, 1918: Frances Reed Elliott is enrolled as the first African-American in the Red Cross Nursing Service.
          • January 27, 1919: Red Cross reports 204 of its nurses have died combating worldwide Spanish influenza pandemic. Red Cross recruited a total of 15,000 women, including regularly enrolled nurses to respond to the deadly outbreak.
          • May 5, 1919: League of Red Cross Societies (now the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) is formed in Paris, France.
          • May 17, 1919: Red Cross National Children's Fund is set up to aid youth in postwar Europe.
          • September 1, 1923: Red Cross aids thousands of earthquake and fire victims in Tokyo and Yokohama, Japan.

          April 21, 1927: After weeks of heavy rainfall, a major levee breaks along the Mississippi River beginning a flood that would cover 27,000 square miles. Red Cross spends months aiding the victims.

          • March 7, 1932: Red Cross begins distribution of government surplus wheat and cotton products to victims of drought in the Dust Bowl, which covered more than five states including Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
          • May 15, 1940: Early blood processing program for relief of English war victims, called Plasma for Britain, begins under direction of Dr. Charles R. Drew

          February 4, 1941: Red Cross begins National Blood Donor Service to collect blood for the U.S. military with Dr. Charles R. Drew, formerly of the Plasma for Britain program, as medical director.

          • June 1, 1941: Red Cross services to military unified as "Services to Armed Forces" (SAF).
          • November 3, 1941: Irving Berlin's "Angels of Mercy" becomes official Red Cross wartime song.

          December 7, 1941: Moments after attack on Pearl Harbor, Red Cross volunteers go into action.

          • July 15, 1942: Red Cross convenes meeting with black leaders to encourage minority participation in organization.
          • October 26, 1942: World War II Clubmobiles begin service in England.
          • November 9, 1942: Red Cross establishes a membership plan for units in U.S. colleges.
          • November 11, 1942: American Red Cross opens famous Rainbow Corner Club in London for servicemen.
          • November 28, 1942: Red Cross responds to fire at Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Boston, Mass., that claims 494 lives.
          • May 1, 1943: Jesse Thomas is the first African-American to join the American Red Cross executive staff.
          • March 20, 1945: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's last radio talk to nation is in support of the Red Cross War Fund.
          • August 18, 1945: Red Cross ends its World War II blood program for the military after collecting more than 13 million pints.
          • August 29, 1945: First Red Cross field director arrives in Japan after World War II to help rebuild Japanese Red Cross.
          • June 8, 1947: In an effort to include more representation from the local chapters, the Board of Governors replaces Central Committee as Red Cross governing body.

          January 12, 1948: Red Cross begins its National Blood Program for civilians by opening its first collection center in Rochester, NY. By the end of 1949, we will open 31 American Red Cross Regional Blood Centers.

          • October 1, 1949: George C. Marshall, World War II hero and creator of the "Marshall Plan" to help Europe recover from war, becomes Red Cross president.

          August 5, 1953: Red Cross aids Operation Big Switch exchange of POWs at end of Korea War hostilities.

          • October 1, 1953: Janet Wilson becomes first National Director of new Office of Volunteers that brings workers together from different services under "one Red Cross."
          • April 4, 1955: The Red Cross liberalizes fundraising policy to allow chapters to participate in federated campaigns, such as the Community Chest, a forerunner of the United Way.
          • July 14, 1955: United States ratifies the Geneva Conventions of 1949 that still apply today.

          December 5, 1962: Red Cross begins collecting medicines and food for Cuba in exchange for release of Bay of Pigs POWs.

          • March 27, 1964: Red Cross aids victims of massive earthquake that hits Anchorage, Alaska.
          • October 8, 1965: Red Cross Movement adopts its Seven Fundamental Principles: Humanity, Impartiality, Neutrality, Independence, Voluntary Service, Unity and Universality.
          • October 30, 1967: Board of Governors receives report that National Headquarters will host a national Rare Blood Donor Registry for blood types occurring less than once in 200 people.

          August 17, 1969: Red Cross aids those affected by Hurricane Camille.

          • February 14, 1972: Red Cross calls for national blood policy, which the federal government sets up in 1974, supporting standardized practices and an end to paid donations.
          • June 14, 1972: Red Cross responds as Hurricane Agnes slams eastern United States.
          • April 29, 1975: Red Cross begins four-month Operation New Life for Vietnam refugees brought to the United States.
          • February 25, 1977: President Jimmy Carter makes his 51st blood donation in bloodmobile at the White House.
          • January 13, 1983: United States blood banking groups issue their first warning about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
          • October 21, 1983: Board of Governors approves expansion of Red Cross bone marrow program that leads to stem cell collection and distribution.
          • March 1, 1985: Immediately after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licenses the first test to detect the antibody to HIV on March 3rd, Red Cross Blood Services regions begin testing all newly donated blood.
          • February 23, 1987: Red Cross opens its Holland Laboratory dedicated to biomedical research.
          • September 10, 1989: Red Cross begins relief efforts for victims of Hurricane Hugo.

          October 17, 1989: Red Cross aids 14,000 families affected by the Loma Prieta earthquake in Northern California.

          August 7, 1990: Five days after the launch of Operation Desert Shield/Storm, American Red Cross workers arrive in the Persian Gulf region. Over the next year, 158 Red Cross staffers will live and work with the troops. Seven will receive the Bronze Star for meritorious service.

          September 24, 1990: Red Cross Holocaust and War Victims Tracing & Information Center opens in Baltimore, Md.

          • February 4, 1991: Elizabeth Dole becomes first woman president of the Red Cross since Clara Barton.

          August 3, 1992: First National Testing Laboratory, applying standardized tests to ensure the safety of Red Cross blood products, opens in Dedham, MA. This includes testing of donor blood for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies (anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2).

          August 1, 1993: Record crest of Mississippi River occurs at St. Louis in worst Midwest flooding to date. More than 14,500 people take refuge at 148 Red Cross shelters in 10 states.

          • April 19, 1995: Red Cross aids victims of the Federal Building bombing in Oklahoma City.
          • October 9, 1996: Spurred by the disaster that befell TWA Flight 800 on July 17, 1996, Congress passes Aviation Disaster Act that leads to creation of Red Cross Aviation Incident Response (AIR) teams to assist victim families.
          • May 6, 1998: Red Cross creates post of Chief Diversity Officer to lead effort to ensure an inclusive work environment and responsiveness to the needs of culturally diverse communities.

          November 16, 1998: Red Cross opens an Armed Forces Emergency Services (AFES) Center with hi-tech emergency communications service for military.

          • March 1, 1999: Red Cross initiates Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT), which provides early detection of HIV and Hepatitis C in blood.

          21st Century

          Approaching its 140th year of service, the Red Cross continues to bring hope to people in their time of need, including domestic disaster responses including the September 11 terrorist attack, ongoing support for America’s military families, and our international campaign to combat measles.

          September 11, 2001: Red Cross responds to terrorist attacks in New York, at the Pentagon and outside the town of Shanksville in rural Pennsylvania.

          • October 3, 2001: Red Cross establishes the Liberty Fund for September 11th terrorism victims and their families. Controversy over the original intent of the fund later leads to the establishment of the Donor Direct fund raising policy, which stands for D(onor) I(ntent) RE(cognition), C(onfirmation) and T(rust).

          December 25, 2001: Red Cross staff members begin serving U.S. troops in Afghanistan. Additional staff will operate from bases in Balad, Baghdad, Tikrit and Kuwait throughout the war in Iraq.

          February 7, 2002: Red Cross joins other groups to launch Measles Initiative, five-year plan to eradicate the disease in sub-Saharan Africa by immunizing children.

          • August 13, 2004: Hurricane Charley slams into Florida's Gulf Coast. It is followed by a succession of hurricanes-Frances, Ivan and Jeanne-that call for a combined response that is the largest in Red Cross history up to that point.
          • December 26, 2004: Magnitude 9.0 earthquake off west coast of Indonesia triggers massive tsunami that brings death and destruction to 12 countries. American Red Cross joins international relief effort.

          August 25 - 29, 2005: Hurricane Katrina becomes one of the most destructive storms in the history of the Gulf Coast, killing nearly 2,000 and leaving millions homeless. Red Cross mobilizes its largest, single disaster relief effort to date. Two subsequent hurricanes of significant strength hit, Rita and Wilma, compounding the devastation and impacting relief operations.

          May 1, 2006: The American Red Cross commemorates 125 years of service both national and international.

          • June 21, 2006: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies officially admit the Magen David Adom (MDA) and the Palestine Red Crescent Society to the Red Cross Movement as a result of American Red Cross advocacy to find a solution to their decades-long exclusion.
          • January 1, 2010: A magnitude 7.0 earthquake hits Haiti, leaving 1.5 million people homeless and prompting one of the largest single-country responses in the history of the global Red Cross and Red Crescent network. The public generously donates in support of the relief efforts, including donating via text messages on mobile phone, leading to a groundbreaking $32 million raised via SMS.

          May 31, 2012: The Red Cross launches our first smartphone app. Designed to help people learn and practice First Aid in emergency situations, the app will be downloaded more than one million times in the next 18 months.

          • July 28, 2012: The Red Cross launches a Hurricane smartphone app to help people prepare for, stay safe during, and recover from hurricanes the app will be downloaded more than one million times in the next 3 years.

          October 29, 2012: Superstorm Sandy makes landfall in New Jersey. 17,000 Red Cross workers participated in the massive emergency response effort across multiple states.

          • February 19, 2013: The Red Cross launches a Tornado smartphone app to help people prepare for, stay safe during, and recover from tornados the app will be downloaded more than one million times in the next 2 years.
          • November 8, 2013: Typhoon Haiyan, the strongest storm ever recorded in the Philippines, claims more than 6,000 lives. With American Red Cross support, more than 3,200 families receive new homes while 6,600 others receive cash, materials, and technical support to rebuild existing houses to better withstand future disasters.
          • January 16, 2014: The Red Cross launches a Pet First Aid smartphone app to enable pet owners to provide basic emergency care.

          May 20, 2014: To mark its 100 years of swimming safety education, the Red Cross launched the Centennial Initiative, a national campaign to reduce the drowning rate by 50 percent in 50 cities over three to five years.

          September 29, 2014: The Red Cross launches a smartphone app for blood donors the app will reach one million downloads in April 2017.

          October 7, 2014: The Red Cross launches its Home Fire Campaign, a national campaign to reduce deaths and injuries from home fires by as much as 25 percent over five years.

          • March 18, 2015: The Red Cross has raised $7.6 million to help people in West African countries affected by the Ebola outbreak.
          • April 16, 2015: The Red Cross launches Emergency smartphone app covering many common natural disasters and emergencies.
          • April 25, 2015: A 7.8 magnitude earthquake shakes Nepal, taking nearly 9,000 lives. The American Red Cross helps fund critical emergency relief efforts and raises $39.9 million to help Nepalese families and individuals rebuild their homes, communities and livelihoods.

          September 13, 2016: The Red Cross launches Hero Care, a smartphone app for military members, veterans and military families.

          • October 17, 2016: The Red Cross announces that the Home Fire Campaign has saved at least 111 lives and installed more than 500,000 smoke alarms during its first two years.
          • August 25, 2017: The Red Cross undertakes massive relief efforts to help victims of Hurricane Harvey
          • September 19, 2017: For several weeks, thousands of Red Cross disaster workers help people impacted by Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, which devastates parts of Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Georgia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The Red Cross also prepares to respond to Hurricane Maria as it approaches Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
          • October 27, 2017: After devastating wildfires begin in northern California, the Red Cross assists communities to recover, making sure people receive the help they need while providing a shoulder to lean on as they cope with the aftermath of these deadly fires.
          • November 16, 2018: The Red Cross helps bring relief and comfort to thousands of people dealing with the devastation left behind by raging wildfires in both the northern and southern parts of California.
          • April 24, 2019: More than 550 lives saved - and counting! Since launching in October 2014, the Home Fire Campaign has helped save 582 lives. Across the country, Red Cross volunteers and community partners have installed more than 1.6 million free smoke alarms, reached more than 1.3 million children through youth preparedness programs, and made more than 684,000 households safer from the threat of home fires. Also see October 17, 2016 and October 7, 2014.

          September 1, 2019: Hurricane Dorian makes landfall in the Bahamas as a Category 5 hurricane, taking lives and displacing tens of thousands. The Red Cross provides $16.6 million in assistance and working with partner organizations supply nearly 575,000 meals to people across the islands.


          Watch the video: Mr Beans CRUISE Adventure! Funny Clips. Mr Bean Cartoon Season 2. Mr Bean Official (July 2022).


Comments:

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  2. Crawford

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  3. Allyn

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