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Stevens II DD- 479 - History

Stevens II DD- 479 - History


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Steven II

(DD-479: dp. 2,050, 1. 376'5; b. 39'7", dr. 17'9", s. 35.2 k. (tl.); cpl. 276; a. 4 5", 10 40mm., 10 21' tt., cl. Fletcher)

The second Stevens (DD-479) was laid down on 30 December 1941 at Charleston, S.C., by the Charleston Navy Yard, launched on 24 June 1942 co-sponsored by Mrs. Roland Curtin and Mrs. Frederick Stevens Hicks; and commissioned on 1 February 1943 at Charleston, Comdr. Frank H. Ball in command.

Stevens completed shakedown in the Atlantic during the spring of 1943, then escorted coastal convoys before heading for the Panama Canal in July. On the 26th, she transited the canal and moored at Balboa the following day. She departed on the 28th, headed west to Hawaii, and entered Pearl Harbor on 9 August. By that time, American industrial prowess was beginning to produce and put into action the powerful naval force which, within two years, brought the Japanese Empire to its knees. Stevens, one of a new class of fast, well-armed destroyers, joined three new Essexclass aircraft carriers and fast battleships Alabama and South Dakota in augmenting the Pacific Fleet. In late August, she accompanied the Task Force (TF) 15 carriers to warm-up raids on the Gilbert Islands. Their planes hit Marcus Island on the 31st and Tarawa on 18 September, but Stevens parted company with them and sailed for the west coast before their 5 and 6 October raids on Wake. By the time of her departure from the west coast on the 6th, Makin and Tarawa had been assaulted, and the atolls were all but secure.

Though she had missed out on the first hop of the leapfrog across the Central Pacific, Stevens rejoined the 5th Fleet in time to be part of the second jump. Attached to Task Group (TG) 52.8, the fire support group, the destroyer participated in Operation "Flintlock," the Kwajalein phase of the conquest of the Marshall Islands, in late January and early February of 1944. She bombarded the islands before the landings and afterward delivered interdiction fire until it was no longer necessary.

However Stevens' tour of duty with the 5th Fleet in the Central Pacific soon ended, for she cleared Kwajalein on 4 February for the southern Pacific area. She stopped at Funafuti, in the Ellice Islands from 8 to 13 February; then joined Lang (DD-399), Hogan (DD-178), Hamilton (DD-141), and Stansbury (D1) 180) to screen Transport Divisions 24 and 26. The convoy divided on the 15th, and the Guadalcanal detachment-Stevens and Lang screening DuPage (APA-41), Aquarius (AKA-16), and Almaack (AK27) )—arrived off Koli Point three days later. On the 19th, Stevens departed Guadalcanal to accompany Almaack to New Caledonia. They reached Noumea on 22 February. After four days at the French port, the destroyer got underway in company with SS Japara back to the Solomons. On 4 March, she screened the merchantman into Tulagi harbor; fueled at Port Purvis then took station ahead of SS Mormacwren for a voyage to Efate. The warship put into Havannah Harbor on 5 March after parting company with the merchantman which continued on independently to Auckland, New Zealand.

Following 10 days in the Efate area, Stevens sortied with TF 37 to bombard the Kavieng area of northwestern New Ireland. Until mid-March, an assault upon this area had been deemed necessary to complete the circle around the enemy base at Rabaul and to provide a base for operations north to the Philippines. However, the decision to move on the Admiralty Islands obviated Kavieng as a base; and the planners felt that the air campaign against Rabaul was proceeding so well that it was neutralizing that great enemy base without the occupation of Kavieng. Consequently, the naval bombardment, during which Stevens concentrated on the islands of Nusa and Nusalik, was the only phase of the operation carried out but it was nevertheless highly effective. Samuel Eliot Morison quotes Japanese sources which attest to the "demoralizing" effect of the bombardment, in which Stevens two escort carriers, and 14 other destroyers joined battleships New Mexico (DD-40), Mississippi (BB-41), Tennessee (BB-43),and ldaho (BB-42).

The destroyer returned to Efate on the 25th and remained there almost two weeks. On 5 April, she got underway with Destroyer Squadron 25 to sail up the eastern coast of New Guinea. After stopovers at Milne Bay and Cape Sudest' the destroyers rendezvoused with TG 77.4 off Cape Cretin on 19 April and steamed on to the Hollandia invasion area. TG 77.4, the second echelon of the Hollandia invasion force, divided on the 22d, and Stevens screened the western reinforcement group while its troops landed at Tanamerah Bay. She departed Hollandia on 30 April and retraced her steps down the east coast of New Guinea-then headed east to the Solomons, entering Purvis Bay on the 10th.

For almost a month, she remained in the Solomons, escorting convoys, conducting combat training, and spending time in port. Then, on 4 June, she shaped a course for the Marshall Islands, reached Kwajalein on the 8th, patrolled there until the 12th, and sailed for Eniwetok. She entered the lagoon on 28 June and stayed until 17 July when she departed in the screen of TG 53.3, transporting troops to the Guam assault. The task group arrived off Guam early on the morning of the day of the landings, 21 July 1944, and Stevens fired on enemy positions as the troops disembarked from the transports and landed on the island. The destroyer continued her fire support role-delivering harassing, interdiction, and call fire in support of the Americans ashore-until her departure on 26 July.

She returned to Eniwetok on the 30th and sailed for Guadalcanal the following day. Stevens reached Guadalcanal on 5 August, but continued on to Espiritu Santo, which she reached the next day. She departed Espiritu Santo on 14 August and moored in Purvis Bay two days later. On the 17th, the destroyer headed for New Guinea. Stevens arrived in Humboldt Bay on the 21st and made a trip to Maffin Bay and back; then, on 7 September, she stood out of Humboldt Bay for Aitape. She joined TF 77 at Aitape and, on 10 September, sortied with that task force for Morotai. Five days later, the assault troops stormed ashore at Morotai. Stevens patrolled while the transports unloaded men and equipment. Late that afternoon, she sailed back toward Humboldt Bay escorting HMAS Manoora and HMAS Kanimiola. The little convoy reached its destination on 18 September, and, the following day, Stevens joined McKee (DD-575) in the screen of another echelon bound for Morotai. Upon her arrival back at Morotai, Stevens began patrolling as radar and antisubmarine picket off Kaoe Bay and serving on night patrol south of Morotai.

Stevens remained in the vicinity of Morotai from 23 September until 3 October. During that time, she continued her various patrols; fought off air attacks; and, after 25 September served as headquarters for the landing craft control officer. On 3 October, she cleared Morotai in company with Lang (DD-399). The two warships put into Humboldt Bay two days later. On the 16th, Stevens got underway in the screen of TG 78.6, Leyte Reinforcement Group One. After a six-day voyage, the convoy arrived in Leyte Gulf; and Stevens fueled before escorting TG 78.10 back to New Guinea. Between 28 October and 9 December, the destroyer accompanied three more convoys from the New Guinea area to Leyte Gulf.

From 9 December 1944 until 7 June 1945, Stevens operated primarily in the Philippines, the only break being a voyage from Lingayen to Manus; she then proceeded via Hollandia to Leyte, where she remained from 13 February to 4 March. From 20 to 23 December, she escorted Ruticulus (AK-113) to Guiuan on Samar and back to Leyte. Between 27 December and 1 January, while screening a resupply echelon (TU 78.3.15) to Mindoro and back, the destroyer splashed three enemy planes during frequent air attacks. On 9 January, she got underway to escort a supply echelon to Lingayen Gulf. On the day before the convoy's arrival, it was attacked by six Japanese planes-four were downed by the screen's antiaircraft fire, and the other two fled.

Stevens' convoy reached Lingayen on 13 January, and the destroyer patrolled on radar picket station until the 18th and stood by to deliver fire support if necessary. On the 23d, she returned to Leyte. On 2 February, she rendezvoused with TU 78.12.9 and escorted it into San Pedro Bay on the 5th, then departed again to rendezvous with TU 78.7.2 off Dulag. Stevens guarded that convoy to Lingayen, arriving on the 9th and remaining until the 13th.

After returning to the Philippines from Manus and Hollandia, she put into Manila Bay on 6 March and, on the 9th, headed for Lingayen. En route, she stopped over at Mindoro on the night of 10 and 11 March then made Lingayen on the 12th. From 13 to 15 March, she joined Frazier (DD 607) in a search for downed American flyers. Frazier picked up six men of a B-24 crew, and Stevens was released to overtake and join TG 72.4 on the 16th. She fueled at Mangarin Bay, Mindoro, that day and got underway with Cleveland (CL 55), Conway (DD-507), and Eaton (DD-510) to support the landings at Iloilo on Panay from 18 to 20 March. She cleared Panay on the 20th, arrived at Mindoro on the 21st, and immediately joined the screen of TG 74.2.

For the next month, she operated out of Subic Bay. Then, on 14 April, she got underway with TG 74.2 to participate in the landings in the Parang-MalabangCotabato area of Mindanao. The destroyer arrived off Polloc Harbor on the 17th and patrolled the landing area, screening Denver ( CL-58) and delivering fire support, until the 19th. She returned to Subic Bay on the 21st and remained for a week and a day. On 29 April, Stevens headed back to Mindanao and, after a stop at Polloc Harbor, reached Davao Gulf on 1 May. On the 3d, she supported the minesweeping units in the Santa Cruz area and again screened Denver, while the cruiser delivered fire support. Stevens headed back to Subic Bay that same day and arrived on 6 May. She spent the following month in the Manila Bay-Subic Bay area, engaged in exercises, upkeep, and repairs.

On 7 June, Stevens cleared the Philippines with TG 74.2 to support the invasion of Borneo. From 9 to 11 June, she patrolled off Brunei Bay in the support force for the attack group. On the 11th, she sailed for Tawi Tawi with most of the task force. After stopping at Tawi Tawi over the night of the 12th and 13th, she papan operation until 2 July. From the 15th and supported the Balikpapan operation until 2 July. From 16 to 17 June, she supported the minesweepers. On the 17th, she bombarded the beaches at Klandasan and fought off an air attack that evening during night retirement. She conducted another shore bombardment on 19 June and engaged shore batteries on 21 and 23 June, silencing two of them on the 23d. The troops landed on 1 July, and Stevens helped cover them with counter battery and harassing fire throughout the day and into the night. The following day, she cleared Balikpapan for Leyte Gulf.

The destroyer entered San Pedro Bay on 5 July and remained there for a week. On the 12th, she stood out of the bay and reached Subic Bay three days later. Stevens conducted tactical and antisubmarine warfare exercises in the Manila Bay Subic Bay area for the duration of hostilities.

On 28 August, almost two weeks after the cessation of hostilities, the destroyer departed Subic Bay with TG 71.1 and headed for the Yellow Sea and western Korea. On the 30th, Stevens, Bell (DD-587), and Burns (DD-588) were diverted to Buckner Bay, Okinawa, where they reported to Carrier Division 5 for duty.

She exited the bay two days later in the screen of the carriers of TF 72 and made for Jinsen, Korea. On 10 September, she put into Jinsen for repairs and, from 19 to 20 September, screened New Orleans (CA-32) to Tsingtao, China. There, she assisted in the internment of Japanese ships until the 29th; then shifted to Taku Bar where she supported amphibious landings until 6 October. On 7 October, Stevens arrived at Chefoo Harbor, joined TU 71.1.5, and sailed for Jinsen. Following a five-day stay, she departed Jinsen on the 13th with passengers bound for the United States. The destroyer stopped at Guam on the 19th and spent two days at Pearl Harbor, before reaching San Diego, Calif., on 7 November.

On 8 November, after debarking her passengers, she shifted to San Pedro, Calif., and reported for duty to the 19th (Reserve) Fleet for inactivation overhaul. Stevens decommissioned on 2 July 1946 and remained with the Pacific Reserve Fleet until 1 December 1972 when her name was struck from the Navy list. On 27 November 1973, her hull was sold to Zidell Explorations, Inc., of Portland, Oreg.

Stevens was awarded nine battle stars for service in World War II.


U.S.S. Stevens: The Collected Stories (Dover Graphic Novels)

As a kid growing up in the late '60's and early '70's, I devoured comic books with World War Two themes such as Our Army At War and Big G.I. Combat. Sam Glanzman's stories about his shipboard experiences on the U.S.S. Stevens always caught my eye. Both of my dad's older brothers had served in the U.S. Navy during the war (one aboard CVE-91 Makassar Strait and the other aboard AO-2 Maumee). They were just 17 years old when they enlisted in 1943 and 1944. Both came home alive and well, but their wartime histories weren't really accessible to me.

What I couldn't learn from my uncles, I learned from Sam, and those comic books led the way to the public library where I could learn even more. His stories about the Stevens and her crew were the starting point of my fascination with U.S. naval history and paved the way for me to discover a wide range of biographies, accounts, analyses and studies of the greatest conflict our nation has ever endured. Glanzman offered me a life-long hobby and love of reading, for the give-away price of 25 cents per comic book.

Glanzman's artistry and storytelling provided my young wondering self with a highly detailed account of a Navy sailor's life during wartime in the Pacific. On one hand, the Stevens stories are brilliantly illustrated with a keen eye to technical detail with lots of charts, maps and diagrams thrown in. It's like a history lesson about Fletcher-class destroyers during the war. On the other hand, Sam's stories are primarily about people. The ship and the war are the backdrop, but the human interest always takes center stage, as it should.

There was just one problem with his U.S.S. Stevens stories: I could never get enough of them, and I often wondered what I had missed, from comic book issues before I had discovered them and after I grew out of them. Well, here it is, finally, a childhood dream of mine come true -- every U.S.S Stevens story ever published, all in one surprisingly thick and hefty hard-cover volume.

It's all here between these pages. the strips I had read as a kid plus those on which I had missed out a real treasure trove of Golden Age comic book artistry and storytelling. An added bonus is a biography of the author by Jon B. Cooke, who also provides detailed annotations on each story. It's a complete work, and it's difficult not to get sentimental about this particular graphic novel because I grew up on Sam's artwork. It's hard not to feel like this book was compiled especially for me, because it's exactly what I've wanted for a very long time.

Thank you Sam Glanzman for your service to our country and for your richly detailed U.S.S. Stevens wartime diary, from which I have learned so much. And thanks for all of your other equally excellent artwork in other genres over the years. You are as talented as you are prolific. I'm really looking forward to Red Range and whatever else you choose to do.

Top critical review

Collects Sam Glanzman's short stories from DC and Marvel's war comics. Glanzman served on the USS Stevens and these are his tales from his time in the Navy.

Received an advance copy from Dover and NetGalley in exchange for an honest review.

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From the United States

As a kid growing up in the late '60's and early '70's, I devoured comic books with World War Two themes such as Our Army At War and Big G.I. Combat. Sam Glanzman's stories about his shipboard experiences on the U.S.S. Stevens always caught my eye. Both of my dad's older brothers had served in the U.S. Navy during the war (one aboard CVE-91 Makassar Strait and the other aboard AO-2 Maumee). They were just 17 years old when they enlisted in 1943 and 1944. Both came home alive and well, but their wartime histories weren't really accessible to me.

What I couldn't learn from my uncles, I learned from Sam, and those comic books led the way to the public library where I could learn even more. His stories about the Stevens and her crew were the starting point of my fascination with U.S. naval history and paved the way for me to discover a wide range of biographies, accounts, analyses and studies of the greatest conflict our nation has ever endured. Glanzman offered me a life-long hobby and love of reading, for the give-away price of 25 cents per comic book.

Glanzman's artistry and storytelling provided my young wondering self with a highly detailed account of a Navy sailor's life during wartime in the Pacific. On one hand, the Stevens stories are brilliantly illustrated with a keen eye to technical detail with lots of charts, maps and diagrams thrown in. It's like a history lesson about Fletcher-class destroyers during the war. On the other hand, Sam's stories are primarily about people. The ship and the war are the backdrop, but the human interest always takes center stage, as it should.

There was just one problem with his U.S.S. Stevens stories: I could never get enough of them, and I often wondered what I had missed, from comic book issues before I had discovered them and after I grew out of them. Well, here it is, finally, a childhood dream of mine come true -- every U.S.S Stevens story ever published, all in one surprisingly thick and hefty hard-cover volume.

It's all here between these pages. the strips I had read as a kid plus those on which I had missed out a real treasure trove of Golden Age comic book artistry and storytelling. An added bonus is a biography of the author by Jon B. Cooke, who also provides detailed annotations on each story. It's a complete work, and it's difficult not to get sentimental about this particular graphic novel because I grew up on Sam's artwork. It's hard not to feel like this book was compiled especially for me, because it's exactly what I've wanted for a very long time.

Thank you Sam Glanzman for your service to our country and for your richly detailed U.S.S. Stevens wartime diary, from which I have learned so much. And thanks for all of your other equally excellent artwork in other genres over the years. You are as talented as you are prolific. I'm really looking forward to Red Range and whatever else you choose to do.

As a kid growing up in the late '60's and early '70's, I devoured comic books with World War Two themes such as Our Army At War and Big G.I. Combat. Sam Glanzman's stories about his shipboard experiences on the U.S.S. Stevens always caught my eye. Both of my dad's older brothers had served in the U.S. Navy during the war (one aboard CVE-91 Makassar Strait and the other aboard AO-2 Maumee). They were just 17 years old when they enlisted in 1943 and 1944. Both came home alive and well, but their wartime histories weren't really accessible to me.

What I couldn't learn from my uncles, I learned from Sam, and those comic books led the way to the public library where I could learn even more. His stories about the Stevens and her crew were the starting point of my fascination with U.S. naval history and paved the way for me to discover a wide range of biographies, accounts, analyses and studies of the greatest conflict our nation has ever endured. Glanzman offered me a life-long hobby and love of reading, for the give-away price of 25 cents per comic book.

Glanzman's artistry and storytelling provided my young wondering self with a highly detailed account of a Navy sailor's life during wartime in the Pacific. On one hand, the Stevens stories are brilliantly illustrated with a keen eye to technical detail with lots of charts, maps and diagrams thrown in. It's like a history lesson about Fletcher-class destroyers during the war. On the other hand, Sam's stories are primarily about people. The ship and the war are the backdrop, but the human interest always takes center stage, as it should.

There was just one problem with his U.S.S. Stevens stories: I could never get enough of them, and I often wondered what I had missed, from comic book issues before I had discovered them and after I grew out of them. Well, here it is, finally, a childhood dream of mine come true -- every U.S.S Stevens story ever published, all in one surprisingly thick and hefty hard-cover volume.

It's all here between these pages. the strips I had read as a kid plus those on which I had missed out a real treasure trove of Golden Age comic book artistry and storytelling. An added bonus is a biography of the author by Jon B. Cooke, who also provides detailed annotations on each story. It's a complete work, and it's difficult not to get sentimental about this particular graphic novel because I grew up on Sam's artwork. It's hard not to feel like this book was compiled especially for me, because it's exactly what I've wanted for a very long time.


Specialized Women’s Services

The Specialized Women’s Services (SWS) Program is a 60-75 day program expanding residential treatment to meet the needs of pregnant women and women with young children (ages 6 and under). Many mothers, and mothers to be, often have special needs: learning to care for their children dealing with feelings of shame and guilt, and recovering from being victimized by various forms of verbal, physical or sexual abuse. Using alcohol and/or other drugs became a symptom of even bigger problems.

The SWS program provides holistic treatment stressing the need for nurture and recovery of both mother and child, enabling both to grow into a happy, healthy and serene family. Along with individual counseling and group therapy, an extensive amount of time is devoted to addressing the myriad of needs of both mother and child(ren) such as child care, transportation, medical treatment, housing assistance, education/job skills training, parenting skills classes, aftercare, and family education and support.

SWS clients and their children live in Keystone, a home on the Gateway Recovery Center property. Play areas are available both in the home and in the fenced yard outside the home. Bedrooms are clean, comfortable and safe. Gateway Recovery Center’s Specialized Women’s Services program works with local hospitals and clinics to provide access to medical care for residential clients and their children.


Stevens II DD- 479 - History

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  • The Fletcher-class Destroyer USS Stevens (DD-479)

Overview

The USS Stevens (DD-479) was one of the 175 Fletcher-class destroyers, which were considered one of the finest World War II warships of that type. What set her apart from most of the standard Fletcher-class destroyers was her aircraft-carrying capability. In May 1940 six of the Fletcher-class destroyers were selected for conversion into aircraft-carrying ships. The upgrades included installation of Mk VI pneumatic aircraft catapult for embarked OS2U Kingfisher float planes.

REVIEWS

"The real appeal of the series is the 129 color 3D drawings showing the ship and various sections/equipment from a variety of angles. If you want to paint every detail on the ship, here's an excellent reference."

- Historical Miniatures Gaming Society

"While this tome is specific to the USS Stevens, it will certainly support the details for many of the Fletcher Class Destroyers. If you have any of their previous books in [Kagero's] Super Drawings in 3D series, you know how great a value this book is."

- IPMS/USA

The Trotsky Assassination

Leon Trotsky awaited the inevitable as he fed his rabbits on the afternoon of August 20, 1940. Marked for death by Joseph Stalin, the 60-year-old intellectual architect of the Russian Revolution knew that neither the armed guards patrolling the high walls of his Mexico City compound nor even the thousands of miles of land and sea that stretched between him and Moscow could completely protect him from the Soviet dictator’s deadly reach. Any thoughts of finding a sanctuary in exile had been destroyed like his bullet-riddled bedroom door when Stalinist agents stormed his villa less than three months earlier in an unsuccessful assassination attempt.

A 1936 anti-Trotsky Soviet propaganda poster. (Credit: Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)

Trotsky, though, had been used to dangerous enemies since his early days as a student revolutionary in Russia. The czarist government had twice exiled him to Siberia for his Marxist beliefs. In between, the man born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein had escaped to London on a forged British passport, under the name Leon Trotsky, and met fellow revolutionary Vladimir Lenin. During the Russian Revolution of 1917, he plotted a coup of the provisional government with Lenin and formed the Red Army, which defeated the anti-Bolshevik White Army in the ensuing civil war.

Trotsky appeared to be Lenin’s natural successor, but he lost a power struggle to Stalin following the Soviet leader’s death in 1924. Trotsky became increasingly critical of Stalin’s totalitarian tactics, and his belief in a permanent global proletarian revolution ran counter to his rival’s thought that it was possible to have communism survive in the Soviet Union alone. Sensing a threat to his power, the Soviet dictator expelled Trotsky from the Politburo and the Communist Party before exiling him to present-day Kazakhstan and banishing him from the country altogether in 1929. After a four-year stay in Turkey and brief stops in France and Norway, Trotsky received asylum in Mexico in 1936.

Trotsky’s Mexico City home.

The exiled dissident settled in Mexico City’s leafy Coyoacan neighborhood and held court with American and Mexican supporters𠅊s well as carried on an affair with painter Frida Kahlo—while organizing the Fourth International to fight against both capitalism and Stalinism. Trotsky may have been out of Stalin’s sight, but he was never out of his mind. As the outspoken exile continued to castigate his foe, Trotsky was found guilty of treason by a show court and condemned to death.

On the early morning hours of May 24, 1940, a group of 20 gunmen stormed Trotsky’s walled compound to carry out the sentence. They sprayed the house with bullets but missed their target before they were forced to retreat. The political pariah’s bodyguards, mostly young American Trotskyites, expected the next attack would come from a bomb, so they heightened the compound’s exterior walls, bricked over windows and added watchtowers with money provided by wealthy American benefactors. “Thanks to the efforts of the North American friends, our peaceful suburban house is now being transformed, week by week, into a fortress𠅊nd at the same time into a prison,” Trotsky wrote to one of his backers.

Now, nearly three months later as the hunted man scattered food for his pet bunnies on an August afternoon, his guards continued work connecting a powerful siren on the roof when they noticed a familiar face at the compound’s gates. Frank Jacson had been a frequent caller in recent weeks. The boyfriend of a Trotsky confidante from Brooklyn named Sylvia Ageloff, Jacson was thought of as one of the family by the guards.

Trotsky on his deathbed. (Credit: Enrique Diaz/Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty Images)

Along with a raincoat folded over his left arm𠅊 strange choice of clothing on such a sunny afternoon—Jacson also carried an article that he had written and asked the revolutionary leader to review. Trotsky led the visitor to his study. Suddenly, Jacson pulled out a pickaxe with a shortened handle from inside his raincoat and buried its sharp steel tip in Trotsky’s skull. Although bleeding profusely, the expatriate managed to grapple with his attacker as guards rushed into the study. They found a dagger hidden in a secret pocket of Jacson’s blood-splattered raincoat and an automatic pistol in his hand. The bodyguards disarmed the attacker and began to beat him with the butt of his pistol until Trotsky implored them to stop, 𠇍on’t kill him! He must talk!”

For all the preparations to prevent an attack from the outside, it ultimately came from the inside. After being rushed to the hospital along with his assailant, a conscious Trotsky at first appeared to be doing well after emergency surgery. The following day, however, he suddenly slipped into a coma and died on the evening of August 21, 1940.

Just two doors down on the hospital floor, another drama was unfolding. The battered Jacson had been carrying a confession letter, presumably to be read in case of his death, in which he claimed to be a disillusioned Belgian Trotskyite named Jacques Mornard who attacked his former hero because Trotsky had refused to bless his intended marriage to Ageloff and tried to force him to launch an assassination plot against Stalin.

NKVD agent Ramon Mercader in a Mexico City hospital following the attack on Trotsky. (Credit: Enrique Diaz/Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty Images)

Distraught at the assassination, Ageloff confirmed Jacson’s real name was Mornard, but unbeknownst to her, that wasn’t his true identity either. Their relationship had been a complete ruse, part of a Stalinist plan to kill Trotsky that had been years in the making. The assassin’s real name was Ramon Mercader, a Spanish communist recruited by the brutal Soviet intelligence agency NKVD during the Spanish Civil War. Posing as the Belgian playboy Mornard, the handsome Mercader began to seduce Ageloff after meeting her in Paris during the Fourth International meeting in 1938. The Stalinist agent followed her to the United States the following year using the passport of Frank Jacson, a Canadian who had been killed in the Spanish Civil War. When he convinced Ageloff to move to Mexico City, the spy used her ties to Trotsky to gain access to the compound and earn his trust.

Mexican authorities sentenced Mercader to 20 years in prison. Although the Soviet government denied responsibility, Stalin secretly bestowed the Order of Lenin upon the assassin. A year after his 1960 release, Mercader traveled to Moscow and received the Hero of the Soviet Union award. The assassin split time between Cuba and the Soviet Union before his death in 1978. Trotsky, who became one of the millions of Stalin’s victims, had his ashes interred under a large monolith engraved with a hammer and sickle in the garden of his Mexico City home.

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Henry V and the resumption of the Hundred Years’ War

The Hundred Years’ War was a discontinuous conflict between England and France that spanned two centuries. At issue was the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown as well as the ownership of several French territories. The struggle began in 1337 when King Edward III of England claimed the title “King of France” over Philip VI and invaded Flanders. It continued as a series of battles, sieges, and disputes throughout the 14th century, with both the French and the English variously taking advantage. When Henry V acceded to the English throne in 1413, there had been a long hiatus in the fighting. A truce had been formally declared in 1396 that was meant to last 28 years, sealed by the marriage of the French king Charles VI’s daughter to King Richard II of England. However, a need to reassert his authority at home (as well as his own ambition and a sense of justice) led Henry V to renew English claims in France. England had been fraught with political discord since Henry IV of the house of Lancaster (father of Henry V) had usurped the throne from Richard II in 1399. Since then there had been tension between the nobility and the royal house, widespread lawlessness throughout the kingdom, and several attempts on Henry V’s life. The situation in England, coupled with the fact that France was weakened by its own political crisis—the insanity of Charles VI had resulted in a fight for power among the nobility—made it an ideal moment for Henry to press his claims.

When the French rejected Henry’s substantial territorial demands, he arrived in Normandy in August 1415 with a force of about 12,000 men and laid siege to the city of Harfleur. The city capitulated within six weeks, but the siege was costly. It lasted longer than Henry had anticipated, and his numbers were significantly diminished as a result of casualties, desertions, and disease. Departing from Harfleur on October 8, Henry marched northward toward the English-held port of Calais, where he would disembark for England, with a force of 1,000 knights and men-at-arms and 5,000 archers. Unable to cross the Somme River because of French defenses, he was forced to take a detour inland and cross farther upstream. The delay allowed a large French force, led by the constable Charles d’Albret and the marshal Jean II le Meingre (called Boucicaut), to intercept him near the village of Agincourt on October 24. The English were not in an ideal condition to fight a battle. They had been weakened by the siege at Harfleur and had marched over 200 miles (more than 320 km), and many among them were suffering from dysentery.

By most contemporary accounts, the French army was also significantly larger than the English, though the exact degree of their numerical superiority is disputed. Common estimates place the English army at about 6,000, while the French army probably consisted of 20,000 to 30,000 men. This suggests that the French could have outnumbered the English 5 to 1. At least one scholar puts the French army at no more than 12,000, indicating that the English were outnumbered 2 to 1. It seems clear, however, that the English were at a decided numerical disadvantage.


Stevens II DD- 479 - History

Adil, Janeen R. Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2009. Print.

Balkwill, Richard. Clothes and Crafts in Ancient Egypt. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2000. Print.

Berger, Melvin, and Gilda Berger. Mummies of the Pharaohs: Exploring the Valley of the Kings. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2001. Print.

Betro, Maria C. Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt. Abbeville, 1996. Print.

Casson, Lionel. Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2001. Print.

Doering, Amanda F. King Tut's Tomb. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2009. Print.

Edwards, Roberta, and True Kelley. Who Was King Tut? New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 2006. Print.

Fine, Jil. Writing in Ancient Egypt. New York: PowerKids, 2003. Print.

Galford, Ellen. Hatshepsut: The Princess Who Became King. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2005. Print.

Gibbons, Gail. Mummies, Pyramids, and Pharaohs: A Book about Ancient Egypt. New York: Little, Brown, 2004. Print.

Giblin, James, and Bagram Ibatoulline. Secrets of the Sphinx. Scholastic, 2004. Print.

Hart, George. Ancient Egypt. New York: DK Children Revised Ed. Edition, 2008. Print. Eyewitness Books.

Hawass, Zahi A., and Kenneth Garrett. Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2005. Print.

Hodge, Susie. Ancient Egyptian Art. Des Plaines, IL: Heinemann Interactive Library, 1998. Print.

Hoobler, Dorothy, Thomas Hoobler, and Jerry Hoare. Where Are the Great Pyramids? Grosset & Dunlap, 2015. Print.

Jeffrey, Gary, and Anita Ganeri. Cleopatra: The Life of an Egyptian Queen. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2005. Print.

Manley, Bill. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt. London: Penguin, 1996. Print.

Morley, Jacqueline, Mark Bergin, and John James. An Egyptian Pyramid. New York: P. Bedrick, 1991. Print.

Tagholm, Sally. Ancient Egypt: A Guide to Egypt in the Time of the Pharaohs. London: Kingfisher, 1999. Print.

Thomas, Susanna. Akhenaten and Tutankhamen: The Religious Revolution. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2003. Print.

What Life Was Like on the Banks of the Nile. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life, 1997. Print.

Williams, Marcia. Ancient Egypt: Tales of Gods and Pharaohs. Somerville, MA: Candlewick, 2011. Print.

Woolf, Greg. Ancient Civilizations: The Illustrated Guide to Belief, Mythology and Art. London: D. Baird, 2005. Print.


DC Sports

Washington, DC, is best known for its politics and monuments, but sport has always been an integral part of the city, and Washingtonians are among the country’s most avid sports fans. DC Sports gathers seventeen essays examining the history of sport in the nation’s capital, from turn-of-the-century venues such as the White Lot, Griffith Stadium, and DC Memorial Stadium to Howard-Lincoln Thanksgiving Day football games of the roaring twenties from the surprising season of the 1969 Washington Senators to the success of Georgetown basketball during the 1980s. This collection covers the field, including public recreation, high-school athletics, intercollegiate athletics, professional sports, sports journalism, and sports promotion.

A southern city at heart, Washington drew a strong color line in every facet of people’s lives. Race informed how sport was played, written about, and watched in the city. In 1962, the Redskins became the final National Football League team to integrate. That same year, a race riot marred the city’s high-school championship game in football. A generation later, race as an issue resurfaced after Georgetown’s African American head coach John Thompson Jr. led the Hoyas to national prominence in basketball.

DC Sports takes a hard look at how sports in one city has shaped culture and history, and how culture and history inform sports. This informative and engaging collection will appeal to fans and students of sports and those interested in the rich history of the nation’s capital.

Chris Elzey teaches in the History and Art History Department at George Mason University. He oversees the sport and American culture minor and is codirector of the Center for the Study of Sport and Leisure in Society.

David K. Wiggins is a professor and codirector of the Center for the Study of Sport and Leisure in Society at George Mason University. He is the coeditor of Beyond C. L. R. James: Shifting Boundaries of Race and Ethnicity in Sports and editor of Rivals: Legendary Matchups That Made Sports History and Out of the Shadows: A Biographical History of African American Athletes

DC Sports would be a useful addition to undergraduate courses in sports history, sociology, and African American studies.”
Journal of Sport History, Summer 2016

“The District of Columbia’s rich history of sport and its cultural impact on community is explored in this compelling assortment …. A great read and should be on every sports fan’s bookshelf.”
Washington History

“Scholars Chris Elzey and David K. Wiggins demonstrate a fine eye for stories as well as an instinct for what is important. The book has something for everyone.”
Randy Roberts, author of A Team for America and Rising Tide

Winner of the 2016 NASSH Book Awards for Best Edited Collection.

Sport, Culture, and Society is a series from the University of Arkansas Press that publishes monographs and collections for academics and general readers in the humanities and social sciences. Its focus is the role of sport in the development of community and the forging of individual, local, regional, and national identities.

Sport is an extraordinarily important phenomenon that pervades the lives of many people and has enormous impact on society in an assortment of different ways. At its most fundamental level, sport has the power to bring people great joy and satisfy their competitive urges while at once allowing them to form bonds and a sense of community with others from diverse backgrounds and interests and various walks of life. Sport also makes clear, especially at the highest levels of competition, the lengths that people will go to achieve victory as well as how closely connected it is to business, education, politics, economics, religion, law, family, law, family, and other societal institutions. Sport is, moreover, partly about identity development and how individuals and groups, irrespective of race, gender, ethnicity or socioeconomic class, have sought to elevate their status and realize material success and social mobility.

Sport, Culture, and Society seeks to promote a greater understanding of the aforementioned issues and many others. Recognizing sport’s powerful influence and ability to change people’s lives in significant and important ways, the series focuses on topics ranging from urbanization and community development to biography and intercollegiate athletics. It includes both monographs and anthologies that are characterized by excellent scholarship, accessible to a wide audience, and interesting and thoughtful in design and interpretations. Singular features of the series are authors and editors representing a variety of disciplinary areas and who adopt different methodological approaches. The series also includes works by individuals at various stages of their careers, both sport studies scholars of outstanding talent just beginning to make their mark on the field and more experienced scholars of sport with established reputations.

The series is edited by David K. Wiggins.

1. The Extraordinary History of Cycling and Bike Racing in Washington, DC
John Bloom

2. Less Than Monumental: The Sad History of Sports Venues in Washington, DC
Ryan A. Swanson

3. The Biggest “Classic” of Them All: The Howard and Lincoln Thanksgiving Day Football Games, 1919–29
David K. Wiggins

4. Teeing Off against Jim Crow: Black Golf and Its Early Development in Washington, DC
Marvin P. Dawkins and Jomills Henry Braddock II

5. Shirley Povich and the Tee Shot That Helped Launch DC Sportswriting
Dennis Gildea

6. Between the Lines: Women’s Sports and the Press in Washington, DC
Claire M. Williams and Sarah K. Fields

7. Exercising Civil Rights: Public Recreation and Racial Segregation in Washington, DC, 1900–49
Martha H. Verbrugge

8. “The Greatest High School Basketball Game Ever Played”: DeMatha vs. Power Memorial, 1965
Chad Carlson

9. Whips, Darts, and Dips: The Rollercoaster Ride of Men’s Professional Soccer in Washington, DC
Charles Parrish and John Nauright

10. Uniting a Divided City: The 1969 Washington Senators
Stephen J. Walker

11. George Allen, Richard Nixon, and the Washington Redskins: The Drive to Win in an Era of Stalemate
Stephen H. Norwood

12. A Little Big Man, a Fat Lady, and the Bullets’ Remarkable Season
Chris Elzey

13. Assuming “Its Place among the Ice Hockey Centers of the Nation”: The Capitals and Hockey in Washington, DC
John Soares

14. “The People’s Race”: The Marine Corps Marathon and Distance Running in the Nation’s Capital
Joseph M. Turrini

15. Georgetown Basketball in Reagan’s America
Zack Tupper

16. Washington Baseball Fans: Losers No More
James R. Hartley

17. Washington Sports Memories, Personal and Collective
Daniel A. Nathan


Historical Context: The Global Effect of World War I

A recent list of the hundred most important news stories of the twentieth century ranked the onset of World War I eighth. This is a great error. Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was in one way or another a result of World War I, including the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, World War II, the Holocaust, and the development of the atomic bomb. The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also be traced, at least indirectly, to the First World War.

World War I killed more people--more than 9 million soldiers, sailors, and flyers and another 5 million civilians--involved more countries--28--and cost more money--$186 billion in direct costs and another $151 billion in indirect costs--than any previous war in history. It was the first war to use airplanes, tanks, long range artillery, submarines, and poison gas. It left at least 7 million men permanently disabled.

World War I probably had more far-reaching consequences than any other proceeding war. Politically, it resulted in the downfall of four monarchies--in Russia in 1917, in Austria-Hungary and Germany in 1918, and in Turkey in 1922. It contributed to the Bolshevik rise to power in Russia in 1917 and the triumph of fascism in Italy in 1922. It ignited colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia.

Economically, the war severely disrupted the European economies and allowed the United States to become the world's leading creditor and industrial power. The war also brought vast social consequences, including the mass murder of Armenians in Turkey and an influenza epidemic that killed over 25 million people worldwide.

Few events better reveal the utter unpredictability of the future. At the dawn of the 20th century, most Europeans looked forward to a future of peace and prosperity. Europe had not fought a major war for 100 years. But a belief in human progress was shattered by World War I, a war few wanted or expected. At any point during the five weeks leading up to the outbreak of fighting the conflict might have been averted. World War I was a product of miscalculation, misunderstanding, and miscommunication.

No one expected a war of the magnitude or duration of World War I. At first the armies relied on outdated methods of communication, such as carrier pigeons. The great powers mobilized more than a million horses. But by the time the conflict was over, tanks, submarines, airplane-dropped bombs, machine guns, and poison gas had transformed the nature of modern warfare. In 1918, the Germans fired shells containing both tear gas and lethal chlorine. The tear gas forced the British to remove their gas masks the chlorine then scarred their faces and killed them.


Stevens II DD- 479 - History

In addition to political equality, African Americans actively sought out ways to shed the vestiges of slavery. Many discarded the names their former masters had chosen for them and adopted new names like “Freeman” and “Lincoln” that affirmed their new identities as free citizens. Others resettled far from the plantations they had labored on as slaves, hoping to eventually farm their own land or run their own businesses. By the end of Reconstruction, the desire for self-definition, economic independence, and racial pride coalesced in the founding of dozens of black towns across the South. Perhaps the most well-known of these towns was Mound Bayou, Mississippi, a Delta town established in 1887 by Isaiah Montgomery and Ben Green, former slaves of Joseph and Jefferson Davis. Residents of the town took pride in the fact that African Americans owned all of the property in town, including banks, insurance companies, shops, and the surrounding farms, and they celebrated African American cultural and economic achievements during their annual festival, Mound Bayou Days. These tight-knit communities provided African Americans with spaces where they could live free from the indignities segregation and the exploitation of sharecropping on white-owned plantations.

Land was one of the major desires of the freed people. Frustrated by responsibility for the growing numbers of freed people following his troops, General William T. Sherman issued Special Field Order No. 15 in which land in Georgia and South Carolina was to be set aside as a homestead for the freedpeople. Lacking the authority to confiscate and distribute land—both powers of Congress—the appropriation and distribution of land was not fully realized. One of the main purposes of the Freedmen’s Bureau, however, was to redistribute to former slaves lands that had been abandoned and confiscated by the federal government. But in 1866, land that ex-Confederates had left behind was reinstated to them.

Freedpeople’s hopes of land reform were unceremoniously dashed as Freedmen Bureau agents held meetings with the freedmen throughout the South telling them the promise of land was not going to be honored and that instead they should plan to go back to work for their former owners, but as wage laborers. The policy reversal came as quite a shock. In one instance, Freedmen’s Bureau Commissioner General Oliver O. Howard went to Edisto Island to inform the black population there of the policy change. The black commission’s response was that “we were promised Homesteads by the government . . . You ask us to forgive the land owners of our island . . . The man who tied me to a tree and gave me 39 lashes and who stripped and flogged my mother and my sister . . . that man I cannot well forgive. Does it look as if he has forgiven me, seeing how he tries to keep me in a condition of helplessness?”

In working to ensure that crops would be harvested, agents sometimes coerced former slaves into signing contracts with their former masters. However, the Bureau also instituted courts where African Americans could seek redress if their employers were abusing them or not paying them. The last ember of hope for land redistribution was extinguished when Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner’s proposed land reform bills were tabled in Congress.

Another aspect of the pursuit of freedom was the reconstitution of families. Many freedpeople immediately left plantations in search of family members who had been sold away. Newspaper ads sought information about long lost relatives. People placed these ads until the turn of the 20 th century, demonstrating the enduring pursuit of family reunification. When not reconstituted, families were rebuilt as freedpeople sought to gain control over their own children or other children who had been apprenticed to white masters either during the war or as a result of the Black Codes. Above all, freedpeople wanted freedom to control their families.

Many freedpeople rushed to solemnize unions with formal wedding ceremonies. Black people’s desires to marry fit the government’s goal to make free black men responsible for their own households and to prevent black women and children from becoming dependent on the government.

Freedpeople placed a great emphasis on education for their children and themselves. For many the ability to finally read the Bible for themselves induced work-weary men and women to spend all evening or Sunday attending night school or Sunday school classes. It was not uncommon to find a one-room school with more than 50 students ranging in age from 3 to 80. As Booker T. Washington famously described the situation, “it was a whole race trying to go to school. Few were too young, and none too old, to make the attempt to learn.”

Many churches served as schoolhouses and as a result became central to the freedom struggle as both the site of liberation and the support for liberation efforts. Free and freed blacks carried well-formed political and organizational skills into freedom. They developed anti-racist politics and organizational skills through anti-slavery organizations turned church associations. Liberated from white-controlled churches, black Americans remade their religious worlds according to their own social and spiritual desires.

One of the more marked transformations that took place after emancipation was the proliferation of independent black churches and church associations. In the 1930s, nearly 40% of 663 black churches surveyed had their organizational roots in the post-emancipation era. Many independent black churches emerged in the rural areas and most of them had never been affiliated with white churches.

Many of these independent churches were quickly organized into regional, state, and even national associations, often times by brigades of northern and midwestern free blacks who went to the South to help the freedmen. Through associations like the Virginia Baptist State Convention and the Consolidated American Baptist Missionary Convention, Baptists became the fastest growing post-emancipation denomination, building on their anti-slavery associational roots and carrying on the struggle for black political participation.

Tensions between northerners and southerners over styles of worship and educational requirements strained these associations. Southern, rural black churches preferred worship services with more emphasis on inspired preaching, while northern urban blacks favored more orderly worship and an educated ministry.

Perhaps the most significant internal transformation in churches had to do with the role of women—a situation that eventually would lead to the development of independent women’s conventions in the Baptist Church, Methodist and Pentecostal churches. Women like Nannie Helen Burroughs and Virginia Broughton, leaders of the Baptist Woman’s Convention, worked to protect black women from sexual violence from white men, a concern that black representatives articulated in state constitutional conventions early in the Reconstruction era. In churches, women continued to have to fight for equal treatment and access to the pulpit as preachers, even though they were able to vote in church meetings.

Black churches provided centralized leadership and organization in post-emancipation communities. Many political leaders and officeholders were ministers. Churches were often the largest building in town and served as community centers. Access to pulpits and growing congregations, provided a foundation for ministers’ political leadership. Groups like the Union League, militias and fraternal organizations all used the regalia, ritual and even hymns of churches to inform and shape their practice.

Black churches provided space for conflict over gender roles, cultural values, practices, norms, and political engagement. With the rise of Jim Crow, black churches would enter a new phase of negotiating relationships within the community and the wider world.


Watch the video: Steven (July 2022).


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